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TRAINING TIPS

AND TACTICS

Transmissions Automatic

General information

Automated vs. Automatic


Epicyclic gearsets

I-Shift - Generation B
Designation
Construction
Gear layout
Synchronisers
Power ow
Gear selection
Shaft speed sensors
Intermediate shaft brake
Clutch
Clutch cylinder
Control housing
TECU
Temperature sensor
Air cylinders
Interlocks

Contents
12
15
25
27
29
29
31
41
43
45
47
49
61
63
65
67
69

I-Shift - Generation B - cont.


Sensors
Solenoid valves
Air supply
Electrical connectors
Selector lever
Gear display
Control system
Data links
Software packages &
features
Conversion kits
Viewing software packages
Testing - VCADSPro
Calibration
VCADS cylinder test
Air supply connection
Air paths in control housing
Control housing remove & ret
Using a rolling road

71
73
75
77
79
89
93
99
102
109
111
113
114
117
121
123
124
127

I-Shift - Generation C
Designation
Identication plate
Gear ratios
Selection positions
Gen. C vs. Gen. B
Clutch
Clutch position sensor
X1 and X2 values
Range change gearset
TECU
Overdrive gearset
Selector lever
Lubrication
Oil cooling
Software packages
Package description
Feature description

133
137
138
139
141
143
149
151
153
155
157
159
161
165
169
172
174

Contents
Powertronic

General information
Designation
Generations
Construction
Torque converter
PTO & uid pump drive
Clutches & brakes
Valve block
Solenoid and relay valve
operation
Power ow
Powershift
Gear shift control
Sensor location
Input & turbine speed sensor

179
179
181
183
185
193
195
197
201
203
219
220
225
229

Powertronic - cont.

Lock-up clutch
Lock-up clutch teach-in
Retarder
Selector lever
Control system - Gen. 3 & 4
Transmission uid
Level check
Fluid pressure test
Gen. 3 & 4
Gen. 2
Lock-up/retarder test
Gear test
Common faults

231
235
243
249
253
254
255
257
259
261
263
264

Introduction
About this
Pocket guide

This guide is intended as a memory jogger for the


knowledge you have gained during your training course.
The guide includes a summary of the material covered in:

Transmissions - Automatic

Danger,
Warning,
Caution &
Note

In this guide, risk of injury or damage is indicated by the


following headings:
DANGER - indicates a risk of serious personal injury or
death.
WARNING - indicates a risk of personal injury, or severe
product damage.
CAUTION - indicates risk of product damage.
Note - draws attention to special methods or particular
features.
Read and implement all DANGER, WARNING and
CAUTION instructions.

Replacement
parts

When replacement parts are required, it is essential that


only Volvo genuine parts are tted. If Volvo genuine parts
are not used:
- safety features embodied in the vehicle or components
may be impaired.
- performance and/or operation of the vehicle or
components may be adversely affected.
- Volvo warranty terms may be invalidated.

Specication

Volvo are constantly seeking ways to improve their


products, and alterations take place accordingly.
Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy
of this guide, it should not be regarded as an infallible guide
to current specications of any product.
Neither Volvo, nor the supplier of this guide shall, in
any circumstances, be held liable for inaccuracy or the
consequences thereof.

Copyright

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be


reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or
copied without written permission from Volvo Truck & Bus
Ltd.
Volvo Truck & Bus Ltd. 2006

10

General Information
11

General Information
Automated vs.
Automatic

Automated transmissions are basically manual


transmissions that are controlled electronically, and
actuated pneumatically or hydraulically.
The gearsets are similar to those used in manual
transmissions, and are carried on input shaft, counter shaft
and output shaft. The gears are in constant mesh, and
ratios are changed by sliding dog clutches to couple one
gear to another.
Coupling between the engine and transmission is via a
conventional plate clutch, but this is also automated, and
disengaged only when the vehicle is stationary.
Because the electronic controls can synchronise shaft
speeds during gear shifts, the clutch does not need to be
disengaged.
I-SHIFT is an automated transmission.

12

General Information
Automatic
transmission

Automatic transmissions use planetary gearsets described later - carried on input and output shafts - there
is no countershaft.
All gears are in constant mesh, and ratios are changed by
using brakes and clutches to lock various components of
the gearsets in combination.
Coupling between the engine and transmission is via a
uid coupling called a torque converter, which transmits
power whenever the engine is running.
Powertronic is an automatic transmission.

13

General Information
R

PC

S
14

General Information
Epicyclic
gearsets

Most automatic transmissions use a number of gear


arrangements called epicyclic or planetary gearsets.
The gearsets have four main components:
R - ring gear, or annulus
P - planet gear (orbits the sun)
S - sun gear
PC - planet carrier
Each of these components can be the input, the output, or
can be held stationery.
The role each component plays determines the gear ratio
for the gearset.
Locking any two components together locks up the gearset,
and gives a 1:1 ratio.

15

General Information
R

PC

S
16

General Information
Epicyclic
gearsets example

Calculations

In the single gearset above, the ring gear has 72 teeth,


and the sun gear has 30 teeth. These combinations can
produce the following ratios:
Input

Output Stationary Gear ratio

Sun

Planet
carrier

Ring

3.4:1A

Planet
carrier

Ring

Sun

0.71:1B

Sun

Ring

Planet
carrier

-2.4:1C

A 1 + R/S Reduction - output speed slower than input speed


B 1/(1 + S/R) Overdrive - output speed faster than input speed
C R/S Reduction - output direction reversed

17

General Information
Other combinations of this single gearset will produce other
ratios.
Multiple gearsets can be used to obtain even more ratios.
Note
With multiple gearsets, not all gears engage all other gears.
For example - planet gears may engage the sun gear, but
not the ring gear.
Planet gears can also be made different lengths so that
they engage one sun gear, but not another which may be a
different diameter.
When required, the components are locked stationary by
applying multiplate clutches, or brake bands.
The clutches and brake bands are normally applied by uid
pressure.

18

19

General Information

PC

S
P

2
20

General Information
Gearing
examples

R - ring gear, or annulus


P - planet gear (orbits the sun)
S - sun gear - input
PC - planet carrier - output
In the upper illustration, the ring gear is locked to the
housing (1) and gives low ratio.
In the lower illustration, the planet carrier is locked to the
ring gear (2) and gives high ratio.
Therefore, the whole gearset rotates as a unit at the same
speed as the input sun gear.
This gives direct drive ratio - 1:1.

21

22

I - Shift - Generation B
23

I - Shift - Gen. B

24

I - Shift - Gen. B
Designation

The I-Shift transmission has the designation - VT2412B:


Volvo
Transmission
2400 Nm - max. input torque
12 forward gears
B generation
Note
Service information refers to this designation - not I-Shift.

25

I - Shift - Gen. B

1b
2

1a

1c

26

I - Shift - Gen. B
Construction

The transmission is made up of two main gearsets:


1a. Input shaft
1b. Mainshaft
1c. Intermediate shaft
This set has constant mesh gears, and is similar to that
found in a conventional manual gearbox.
The splitter gears are incorporated in this gearset.
The reverse idler gear, and uid pump drive gear (3) are
also driven from this gear set.
2. Range change unit and output shaft,
The range change unit is a planetary gearset.
3. Reverse idler gear.

27

I - Shift - Gen. B

LS

HS

RE

RA

28

I - Shift - Gen. B
Gear layout

LS. Low range splitter gears


HS. High range splitter gears
2. 2nd. gear
1. 1st. gear
RE. Reverse gear
RA. Range change gearset
By using various combinations of these gears and
gearsets, 12 forward ratios, and 4 reverse ratios can be
obtained.

Synchronisers

Only the splitter gears and range change have


synchronisers.
The range change synchroniser is used with the sliding dog
clutch which locks/unlocks components of the planetary
gearset.

29

I - Shift - Gen. B

1st.

2nd.

3rd.

4th.

30

I - Shift - Gen. B
Power ow gears 1 to 4

1st. Low range splitter > 1st. gear > range change low ratio
2nd. High range splitter > 1st. gear > range change low
ratio
3rd. Low range splitter > 2nd. gear > range change low
ratio
4th. High range splitter > 2nd. gear > range change low
ratio

31

I - Shift - Gen. B

5th.

6th.

7th.

8th.

32

I - Shift - Gen. B
Power ow gears 5 to 8

5th. Low range splitter > high range splitter > range change
low ratio
6th. Direct: main shaft > range change low ratio
7th. Low range splitter > 1st. gear > range change high
ratio
8th. High range splitter > 1st. gear > range change high
ratio

33

I - Shift - Gen. B

9th.

10th.

11th.

12th.

34

I - Shift - Gen. B
Power ow gears 9 to 12

9th. Low range splitter > 2nd gear > range change high
ratio
10th. High range splitter > 2nd. gear > range change high
ratio
11th. Low range splitter > high range splitter > range
change high ratio
12th. Direct - mainshaft > > range change high ratio

35

I - Shift - Gen. B

R1.

R3.

R2.

R4.

36

I - Shift - Gen. B
Power ow gears R1 to R4

R1. Low range splitter > reverse gears > range change low
ratio
R2. High range splitter > reverse gears > range change low
ratio
R3. Low range splitter > reverse gears > range change
high ratio
R4. High range splitter > reverse gears > range change
high ratio

37

I - Shift - Gen. B
Gear selection
- main gearbox

Gears are selected by moving sliding dog clutches forward


or backward.
The clutches are moved by selector forks, similar to those
found in a manual gearbox.
For gears 1 to 6, and R1 and R2, the range change gearset
is in low ratio.
For gears 7 to 12, and R3 and R4, the range change
gearset is in high ratio.

38

39

I - Shift - Gen. B

PC

S
P

40

I - Shift - Gen. B

Gear selection
- range change

R - ring gear, or annulus


P - planet gear (orbits the sun)
S - sun gear - input
PC - planet carrier - output

In the upper illustration, the ring gear is locked to the


housing (1) and gives low ratio of 4.35:1.
In the lower illustration, the planet carrier is locked to the
ring gear (2) and gives high ratio.
Therefore, the whole gearset rotates as a unit at the same
speed as the input sun gear.
This gives direct drive ratio - 1:1.
Synchronising

To synchronise speeds for low range engagement, the


synchroniser cone slows down the speed of the ring gear.
To synchronise speeds for high range engagement, the
synchroniser cone accelerates the speed of
41
the ring gear.

I - Shift - Gen. B

SR

1
LS

HS

RE

42

I - Shift - Gen. B
Shaft speed
sensors

To enable the control system to provide smooth


fully automatic gear changes, shaft speeds must be
synchronised at the point of gear change.
A sensor ring (SR), attached to 1st.gear, provides a
mainshaft speed signal, which is measured by sensor (1).
A similar ring, attached to 2nd. gear on the intermediate
shaft, provides an intermediate shaft speed signal, which is
measured by sensor (2).
The sensors are attached to the underside of the control
housing.

43

I - Shift - Gen. B

44

I - Shift - Gen. B
Intermediate
shaft brake

Located at the front of the transmission case is an


intermediate shaft brake (1).
The cylinder contains a multi-plate disc bake with 2 friction
discs, and 3 steel discs.
To ensure smooth engagement of a starting gear, the
brake is automatically applied before a starting gear is
selected. When applied the brake stops rotation of the
shafts and gears.
When the highest level software is installed, the brake is
also used during performance up-shifting.
The brake is applied by air pressure supplied to an integral
air cylinder (2).
Air supply is controlled by a solenoid valve located in the
control housing cover.

45

I - Shift - Gen. B

46

I - Shift - Gen. B
Clutch

The clutch is similar to a conventional clutch used with a


manual gearbox.
Unlike the installation for a manual gearbox, there is no
clutch pedal, because the clutch is released and engaged
automatically.
The clutch is a single disc type, with the designation
CS43B-O:
C = Clutch
S = single disc
43 = 430 mm diameter
B = version
O = Organic material
Note: Version (B) has involute splines, which
means that the spline is cut with a slight curvature
from tip to root.
The splines must not be greased.

47

I - Shift - Gen. B

2
3

48

I - Shift - Gen. B

Clutch cylinder

The clutch cylinder (1) is attached to the RH side of the


transmission housing.
Adjustment, to compensate for wear of the clutch disc
linings, is automatic - no manual adjustment is needed.
Adjustment is controlled by the TECU.
Air is supplied to the cylinder via a one-way valve (2), and
lter (3).
CAUTION
To ensure that all air pressure is released, plug (4) should
be removed before removing the cylinder assembly.
A multi-pin plug, connected to connector (5), carries signals
to and from the solenoids and sensor.

49

I - Shift - Gen. B

2
50

I - Shift - Gen. B

Clutch cylinder

In addition to the main air cylinder and piston, the main


components of the clutch cylinder are:
1. Control solenoid valves.
The valves control air ow in and out of the cylinder:
VASE - Valve Air, Slow Engage - air exhaust
VAFE - Valve Air, Fast Engage - air exhaust
VASD - Valve Air, Slow Disengage - air supply
VAFD - Valve Air, Fast Disengage- air supply
The solenoids are controlled by Pulse Width Modulated
(PWM) signals from the TECU.
PWM signals are variable, which means that the valves can
be opened and closed progressively by varying amounts.
This allows close and precise control of clutch
disengagement and engagement.

51

I - Shift - Gen. B

52

I - Shift - Gen. B
Clutch cylinder

2. Inductive sensor.
The sensor provides a signal representing the position of
the actuating piston, and lining wear.
The sensor is supplied with 5 V from the Transmission
Electronic Control Unit (TECU).
The output signal is between 1.1V - clutch engaged, and
1.8V - clutch disengaged.

53

I - Shift - Gen. B

54

I - Shift - Gen. B

Clutch cylinder
operation - clutch
engaged

In the illustration above, the clutch is engaged.


This is the normal situation - e.g. after:
- When starting
- After PTO engagement of a gearbox mounted PTO
(if gearbox is in neutral, and vehicle is stationary).
Engagement normally takes place in three stages:
1. Rapid initial engagement with both VAFE and VASE
energised.
2. Synchronisation of clutch and engine speed, with VASE
energised.
3. Rapid nal engagement, with VAFE and VASE energised.
Note: Factors such as engine speed/load, input shaft/output
shaft speeds, are constantly monitored, and the PWM signals
adjusted accordingly, to ensure the most rapid engagement,
consistent with optimum comfort and wear.

55

I - Shift - Gen. B

56

I - Shift - Gen. B

Clutch cylinder
- operation

In the illustration above, the clutch is disengaged.


The clutch will normally be disengaged when:
- The vehicle is stationary
- Engine speed falls below normal low idle speed.
- Engine speed drops too quickly.
- Driving wheels lock-up.
VASD and /or VAFD are energised.
VASE and VAFE are not energised.
Air enters the cylinder, and the piston and actuation rod are
pushed forward to disengage the clutch.
Note: During a gear shift, the clutch is not disengaged, but
the splitter gear is put into neutral.
This allows the control system to synchronise shaft speeds
for a smooth gear shift to occur.

57

I - Shift - Gen. B

3
VASE

VASD
2

Air supply
No air present
Air exhaust

VAFE

VAFD

58

I - Shift - Gen. B
Clutch cylinder
- air circuit

1. One-way inlet valve.


2. Inlet air lter
3. Exhaust air lter - cylinder breathing
4. Piston.
VASE - Valve Air, Slow Engage - air exhaust
VAFE - Valve Air, Fast Engage - air exhaust
VASD - Valve Air, Slow Disengage - air supply
VAFD - Valve Air, Fast Disengage- air supply
The diagram above shows an example of solenoid valve
operation and air ow - in this example, the clutch is
disengaged.
Solenoids (VASD) and (VAFD) are energised, allowing
supply air to pass to the cylinder and push out the piston.

59

I - Shift - Gen. B

60

I - Shift - Gen. B
Control housing

The control housing includes the following parts:


Transmission Electronic Control Unit (TECU)
Inclination sensor.
Air pressure sensor.
Gearbox temperature sensor.
Fluid temperature sensor.
Four parallel air cylinders.
Four inductive position sensors.
Nine solenoid valves.
Two shaft speed sensors - one for each shaft.
Shift forks for main and splitter gearsets.
Air connections.
Electrical connections.

61

I - Shift - Gen. B
1

62

I - Shift - Gen. B
TECU

The TECU (1) contains most of the electronic components


and circuits to control gearbox operation.
The TECU communicates with the Gear Selector ECU
(GSECU), and with other vehicle ECUs.
Inclination sensor (2) is lled with silicon, and senses the
inclination of the vehicle.
This information is used to determine which gear should be
selected for start off.
Note: There is a test for this sensor in VCADSPro.
Sensor operation is checked by raising and lowering the
suspension to tilt the vehicle fore and aft.
Air pressure sensor (3) measures supply air pressure.

63

I - Shift - Gen. B

64

I - Shift - Gen. B
Temperature
sensor transmission

Temperature sensor (4) measures the temperature of the


transmission assembly.

65

I - Shift - Gen. B
1

7
6

5
66

I - Shift - Gen. B
Air cylinders

Air pressure admitted to the cylinders moves the shift forks


to change gear.
1. Splitter gearset cylinder
2. 1st. and reverse cylinder
3. 2nd. and 3rd. cylinder
4. Range change cylinder
5. Interlock - 1st. and reverse
6. Interlock - splitter cylinder
7. Position sensor - splitter gearset
The range change cylinder is a two-position cylinder.
All other cylinders are three-position - e.g:
- cylinder (2) has positions - 1st. gear, neutral and reverse
gear.

67

I - Shift - Gen. B

3
2

68

I - Shift - Gen. B
Interlocks

1. 2nd. and 3rd. cylinder


2. One gear only interlock*
3. Splitter cylinder stroke limiting plate
Note* On later transmissions, this plate is replaced by a
plunger.

69

I - Shift - Gen. B
1

4
5

2
70

I - Shift - Gen. B
Sensors

1. Fluid temperature sensor


2. Position sensor - 1st. and reverse
3. Position sensor - 2nd. and 3rd.
4. Speed sensor - main shaft
5. Speed sensor - intermediate shaft
6. Position sensor - range change

71

I - Shift - Gen. B

LR

HR
1

B
LS

HS

C1

HS R
2

C2

LR

C3

LS
HR

C4

C5

72

I - Shift - Gen. B
Solenoid valves

The nine solenoid valves are located in the control housing


cover.
1. 1st. gear
2. 2nd. gear
3. 3rd. gear
R. Reverse gear
B. Intermediate shaft brake
LR. Low range
HR. High range
LS. Splitter - low
HS. Splitter - high
System pressure - 8.5 bar
Working pressure - 2 to 10 bar
Voltage range - 18 to 32 V

C1. Cylinder H/N/L Split


C2. Cylinder 1st. /N/Rev
shift
C3. Cylinder 3rd. /N/2nd.
shift
C4. Cylinder H-L range
C5. Cylinder counter shaft
brake

73

I - Shift - Gen. B

2
1

24
P24

3
74

I - Shift - Gen. B
Air supply

A common air supply is fed to inlet channel (1) from port


(24) of multi-circuit protection valve (24).
The air pressure sensor - located under the inlet channel
- senses the pressure at this point.
The air lter is located at the entry to the channel.
From the inlet channel, air is fed to the clutch from port (2),
and to the intermediate shaft brake cylinder from port (3).

75

I - Shift - Gen. B

76

I - Shift - Gen. B
Electrical
connectors

Two or three connectors are located on the control housing


cover:

Without retarder
-A

1. Communication TECU/VECU via chassis cable harness.


Note: When the gearbox is removed from the vehicle,
VCADSPro is linked to this connector.
2. To clutch valves.

With retarder - B

1. Communication TECU/VECU via chassis cable harness.


2. To retarder.
3. To clutch valves.

77

I - Shift - Gen. B
1
2
6
1

R
N
4
A
M
L

78

I - Shift - Gen. B
Selector lever

The selector lever housing is attached to the side of the


drivers seat.
The lever can be folded down for access by pressing
button (1).
2. Selects Economy or Performance mode.
3. Selects Limp Home mode.
4. Selector lever positions.
5. Inhibitor - prevents accidental selection of gears.
6. This button can be pressed when either manual or
automatic mode is selected. Each press causes an up or
down shift.
Information from the gear lever is fed to the Gear Selector
ECU (GSECU).

79

I - Shift - Gen. B
1
2
6
5

R
N4
A
M
L

80

I - Shift - Gen. B
Economy/
Performance
mode

Economy mode is suitable for most road conditions.


When Performance mode is selected, more acceleration is
available because upshifts are delayed until higher engine
and road speeds are reached.
The system will automatically switch to Economy mode
when performance is no longer needed.

Limp Home
mode

If certain transmission or control faults occur, Limp Home


mode can be selected.
In this mode, all sensor inputs are ignored.
To be able to select Limp Home mode, the following
components must be working as normal:
- all solenoid valves
- selector lever
- air supply
- clutch

81

I - Shift - Gen. B
Selecting Limp
Home mode

1. Turn the ignition key to ON.


2. Press and hold button L - (3).
3. Select A.
4. Then either: select M for a forward gear, or R for a
reverse gear (only R1 available).
5. With M selected, and the vehicle stationary, +/- 1, 3, 5
can be used.
The vehicle can then be driven, but there will be no gear
shift.
Note: When the ignition is turned OFF for approx. 10 sec,
Limp Home mode is cancelled.

82

83

I - Shift - Gen. B
1
2
6
5
4

84

I - Shift - Gen. B
Selector lever
positions

R = Reverse. When selected, the system engages the


lowest of the four reverse ratios (R1). Higher reverse ratios
can be selected using the +/- button.
N = Neutral
A = Automatic. The correct starting gear is engaged, and
up and down shifts occur automatically, according to
driving conditions.

Manual up/down
shifts

M = Manual. Up and down shifts are controlled by the +/button.


L = Low. When low is selected:
- D12, 4th. gear is selected.
- D9, 2nd. gear is selected.

85

I - Shift - Gen. B

MITNB

86

I - Shift - Gen. B
Selector lever
- bus

The selector lever for buses is similar to that for trucks.


The main difference is - there is no L position for the
lever.
The label (1), for recording clutch calibration details, is
located inside the housing cover.
Note: For trucks, the label is located on the B pillar.

87

I - Shift - Gen. B

E
E+
P
B
L

R
N
A
M
F

11
R1
R2
R3
R4
N1
N2

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

88

I - Shift - Gen. B
Gear display

1. Driving program:
E = Economy
E+ = Economy with freewheel - Eco-Roll
P = Performance
B = Brake
L = Limp Home
2. Available gears down:
The number of gears available for manual down-shift is
indicated by the number of arrows displayed.
3. Gear lever position:
R = Reverse
N = Neutral
A = Automatic
M =Manual
F = Folded gear lever

89

I - Shift - Gen. B
1

E
E+
P
B
L

R
N
A
M
F

11
R1
R2
R3
R4
N1
N2

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

90

I - Shift - Gen. B
Gear display

4. Available gears up:


The number of gears available for manual up-shift is
indicated by the number of arrows displayed.
5. Selected gear:
Indicates the gear engaged.
1-12 = Forward gears
N1 - N2 = Neutral gears (High and low split)
R1 - R4 = reverse gears

91

I - Shift - Gen. B
J1939
J1708
MID130
MID222

J1939-5

MID223

MID144

MID140

10

11

92

I - Shift - Gen. B
Control system

The illustration above shows a part of the control system


- the continuation part is shown on the next page.
MID 130. Transmission Electronic Control Unit - TECU
MID 222. Retarder Electronic Control Unit - RECU
MID 223. Gear Selector Electronic Control Unit - GECU
MID 144. Vehicle Electronic Control Unit - VECU
MID 140. Central Instrument Control Unit
1. Gearbox
2. Retarder
3. Speed sensor - Tachograph/speedometer
4. Position switch - brake pedal
5. Sensor accelerator pedal
7. Gear selector
8. Cruise control
9. PTO switch
10. Engine brake switch
11. Aux. brake lever - retarder

93

J1939
J1708

MID136

MID128

MID150

MID216

12
13

15
6

16

14
94

I - Shift - Gen. B
Control system

The illustration above shows the continuation part of the


control system.
MID 128. Engine Electronic Control Unit - EECU (EMS)
MID 136. EBS/ABS/ASR Electronic Control Unit
MID 150. ECS Electronic Control Unit
MID 216. Light Control Module (LCM) Electronic Control
Unit.
6. Speed sensor - road wheel
12. Speed sensor - engine
13. Solenoid valve block - engine brake/EPG
14. Solenoid valve block - VEB
15. Pressure sensor - air suspension

95

I - Shift - Gen. B
Control system
- communication
MID 144 - VECU

To enable the gearbox to operate correctly, the TECU


receives and sends signals to several other ECUs:
Via MID144, the TECU receives position signals for:
- cruise control switch (8)
- PTO switch (9)
- engine brake switch (10)
- auxiliary brake lever (11)
- brake pedal (4)
- accelerator pedal (5)

In addition to receiving shaft speed signals from the internal


sensors, the TECU also receives an output shaft speed
signal from sensor (3).
MID 140 - INST

Via MID140, the TECU receives signals representing - gear


selector position - gear selected - possible gears - driving
program - time/date of faults (for diagnosis)

96

I - Shift - Gen. B
MID 128 - EECU
(EMS)

Via MID128, the TECU receives a signal representing


engine crankshaft speed.
If engine speed needs to be reduced for a gearchange, the
TECU can send signals to VCB solenoid valve (13), and/or
to VEB solenoid valve (14).

MID 136 - EBS/


ABS/ASR

Via MID136, the TECU receives a road wheel speed signal.


If a wheel starts to spin, and ABS/ESP are active, gear
changes will be inhibited.

MID 150 - ECS

Via MID150, the TECU receives a signal representing air


bellows pressure. From this signal, total vehicle weight is
calculated.

MID 216 - LCM

Via MID216, the VECU receives a signal which indicates if


a trailer is coupled.

97

I - Shift - Gen. B
J1587
J1939-1
EECU
(EMS)

VECU

TECU
J1939-5

J1939-2
Tachograph
= 120 Ohm terminating resistors

GECU

98

I - Shift - Gen. B
Data links

The GECU is connected to the TECU via a dedicated link


- J1939-5.
It is also connected to link J1587.
The TECU is connected to the TECU to links - J1587,
J1939-1 and J1939-5.

99

I - Shift - Gen. B
Basic

Fuel
economy
FE

Comfort
C

Comfort &
fuel
FEC

Automatic mode professional

Eco-roll

Brake mode

Automatic engine
brake control

B
Automatic mode standard

Power
Power professional

Economy &
power
EP

100

Basic

Comfort &
fuel
FEC

Kick down

Oil temperature
gauge

Service indicator

Yes

Yes

Yes

VEB required
NEW FEATURES
Smart cruise
control
Performance shift
Smooth range shift
High torque
direct gear
Engine availability

No

Fuel
economy
FE

Yes

Comfort

Economy &
power
EP

D12D420/460

101

I - Shift - Gen. B
Software
packages &
features
Automatic mode
- Pro

The chart on the previous pages shows the various


software packages available.

Selects the correct starting gear according to road slope


and load.

Eco-roll

Puts the splitter gearset into neutral to disengage the drive


to allow free-wheel on a downhill run.
Engine speed will drop to low idle for improved fuel
economy.

Eco-roll
activation
conditions

Correct software installed. Selector lever in A. Auxiliary


brake stalk in A. Selected gear between 7 and 12. No
foot braking. No demand for auxiliary brake (VEB or
retarder). Accelerator, foot OFF.

102

I - Shift - Gen. B
Eco-roll
engagement
conditions

If cruise control is activated, the road speed must be


greater than the setting for cruise control overspeed
margin.
The overspeed margin is the road speed at which the
brakes begin to apply automatically.
Note:
- Factory overspeed setting is 7km/h. this can be adjusted
between 3km/h and 15km/h.
- If overspeed margin is set at less than 6km/h, Eco Roll
will not be activated.

Brake mode

In conjunction with engine braking, automatic down shifts


occur to keep engine speed in black band for maximum
retardation.

Power
Power Pro.

Holds gears until higher engine and road speeds are


reached.
As Power, but disengages when power mode is
no longer required.

103

I - Shift - Gen. B
Software
packages &
features

Kick-down - pressing accelerator pedal right down causes


down-shift for - e.g. overtaking.
Oil temperature gauge - temperature shown on display.
Service indicator - display indicates when clutch needs
renewing.
VEB - required on all versions except Basic.
Smart cruise control - controls engine torque downhill and
uphill. Prevents engagement of auxiliary brake during uphill
over-run.
Performance shift - actuates countershaft brake and
engine brake to provide smoother and quieter shifts.

104

I - Shift - Gen. B
Software
packages &
features

Smooth range shift - using both range change solenoid


valves to provide an air cushion ensures a smooth quiet
range shift.

105

I - Shift - Gen. B

Nm

8 10 12 14

16 18 20 rev/min x 100

= with High torque


= without High torque

106

I - Shift - Gen. B
Software
packages &
features

High torque direct gear - gives approx. 200 Nm torque


increase in top - direct - gear:
- D12D420, normal 2000 Nm. With high torque
2200 Nm at 1050 - 1300 rev/min. = normal 460 version.
- D12D460, normal 2200 Nm. With high torque
2400 Nm at 1050 - 1300 rev/min. = normal 500 version.
This allows top gear to be held for longer, resulting in less
gear shifts and improved fuel economy.
Higher torque means that a higher rear axle ratio can be
used. This means that engine speed will be lower for a
given road speed. It also means that - e.g. at around
56 mile/hr in top gear - direct drive - engine speed will be in
the max. torque zone.

107

I - Shift - Gen. B
Producing the
high torque

The torque increase is produced by altering the fuelling


characteristics.
When the transmission is in top gear, and engine speed
reaches a certain level, the TECU sends a signal to the
EMS, and fuelling is adjusted to produce the higher torque.

108

I - Shift - Gen. B
Conversion kits
- all chargeable

Kit No.
85103233

Basic

Fuel
economy

Basic

Comfort

Basic

Fuel
economy

Comfort

85103235

Comfort

Comfort

Fuel
economy

85103235

Fuel
economy

Fuel
economy

Comfort

85103235

Comfort

85103236

Basic

Fuel
economy

85103234

All conversion kits are software upgrades, which


can be downloaded and programmed into the TECU
using VCADSPro.

109

I - Shift - Gen. B
Gauge

B
230C

1/7

Gauge

F N

11:45
AM
34587.6 km

1/7

11:45
AM
34587.6 km

EP

230C

230C

1/7

F N

230C

Gauge

FEC F N
11:45
AM
34587.6 km

Gauge

FE

F N

230C

Gauge

1/7

11:45
AM
34587.6 km

1/7

F N
11:45
AM
34587.6 km

110

I - Shift - Gen. B
Viewing software
package

To view the software package on the display:


1. Turn the ignition key to radio or drive position.
2. Select Gauges option to show gears on the display.
3. Ensure that the selector lever is in position N.
4. Press the fold button.
5. With early version software only - press the fold button,
and fold the lever down.
The software package will now be displayed as in the
examples above:
B - Basic
C - Comfort
FE - Fuel Economy
FEC - Fuel Economy and Comfort
EP - Economy Power

111

I - Shift - Gen. B
4 - Power transmission
> 40 - General
> 41 - Clutch
> 43 - Gearbox

112

I - Shift - Gen. B
Testing VCADSPro

Using VCADSPro, every part of the I-shift system can be


tested.
Most tests are carried out with the gearbox installed, and
VCADS connected to the on-vehicle connector.
Two tests can be done with the gearbox removed from
the vehicle, and VCADS connected to the gearbox VECU
connector:
- Gear Test
- Gearbox Calibration

113

I - Shift - Gen. B
Calibration

There are three calibrations which must be done when


clutch repairs have been carried out:
40084-2 Clutch stroke length and wear.
40104-2 Gearbox calibration
40053-2 Clutch engagement point

Calibration mode
(A)

- Calibration mode (A) is for repairs when the original clutch


plate is retted.
Clutch wear data is entered manually - label on B pillar.

114

I - Shift - Gen. B
Calibration mode
(B)

- Calibration mode (B) to be used ONLY when a new clutch


plate is tted.
CAUTION
If calibration (B) is used when the clutch is part worn,
the system will assume a new clutch has been tted and
assign a new value for X1.
This will mean that system now has the wrong information,
so clutch wear warnings may not be displayed, which could
result in clutch slip and component damage.
For calibration modes (A) and (B) all three calibrations
must be done - and done in the order listed.

115

I - Shift - Gen. B
Actual stroke length

I
N

LS
15

10

HS
9

mm
15

11

OK
Not OK

= Acceptable tolerance band


= Not acceptable band

116

I - Shift - Gen. B
VCADS cylinder
tests

There are gear cylinder tests for:


- Splitter gear cylinder
- Range change cylinder
- 1st. / reverse gear cylinder
- 2nd. / 3rd. gear cylinder
The illustration above shows an example of the VCADS
screen display - in this case for the splitter gear.

117

I - Shift - Gen. B

9990099
9808563

9998555

9808584
118

I - Shift - Gen. B
VCADS
connections gearbox removed

9998555 - Interface
9998554 - Programming unit
9998563 - Power supply cable
9990099 - Test, programming cable

119

I - Shift - Gen. B
P/N 1592924

9992976

P/N 969327

P/N 969263

P/N 1592924

120

I - Shift - Gen. B
Air supply
connection

The illustration above shows the components needed to


connect an external air supply to the gearbox, when it is
removed from the vehicle.
Note: Adaptor P/N 969327 screws into the air inlet channel.

121

I - Shift - Gen. B

HS
B
LS
1

2
LR
3
HR

122

I - Shift - Gen. B
Air paths in
control housing

If there is an electronic fault - e.g. TECU fault, or a


mechanical fault - e.g. broken shaft, the appropriate gear
can be engaged by applying an external air supply to the
relevant holes:
HS. Splitter, high range
LS. Splitter, low range
HR. Range change , high
LR. Range change, low
1. 1st. gear
2. 2nd. gear
3. 3rd. gear

123

I - Shift - Gen. B
Control housing
- remove and ret

CAUTION
When removing or retting the control housing, the gear
selected in the gearset must be the same as that selected
in the control housing - e.g. if high ratio range change is
selected in the range change gearset, then high ratio must
also be selected in the control housing.
If you do not ensure matched selection, component
damage may occur.
Note: It should be possible to t the housing without using
any force. If force is needed, there is something wrong
- recheck gear selection.
Before removing the control housing, select high ratio
splitter gear.

124

125

I - Shift - Gen. B

STOP

CHECK

Gauges

1/7
TCS

<

CC

11:45
AM
4234567.8

126

I - Shift - Gen. B
Using a rolling
road

CAUTION
If a vehicle tted with I-shift gearbox needs to be run on a
rolling road, certain procedures must be followed:
1. The coolant temperature must be over 700.
2. Auxiliary brake lever must be in OFF position.
3. Traction control (TCS) must be disabled - go to vehicle
settings on the display, and disable TCS.
4. Start the engine.
5. Select A mode. Press the accelerator pedal lightly and
hold the road speed at min. 3km/h for 10 sec.
This will enable tacho mode, which is conrmed by display
of an upside-down V.
6. The engine can now be accelerated to cause the
gearbox to change up through the gears, until 12th. gear is
engaged.

127

I - Shift - Gen. B

STOP

CHECK

Gauges

1/7
TCS

<

CC

11:45
AM
4234567.8

128

I - Shift - Gen. B
Using a rolling
road

Note: If roller resistance prevents up-shift to 12th. gear 7. Select M mode and 6th. gear.
Increase the road speed until all three shift upward arrows
are visible.
You will then be able to select 7th. - 12th. gear.

129

130

I-Shift - Generation C
131

I-Shift - Gen. C

132

I - Shift - Gen. C
Designation

Generation C I-Shift transmissions are available in FM/FH


trucks, with D9 and D13 engines.
There are three versions:
AT2412C, AT2512C, ATO2512C
Automatic
Transmission
Overdrive
2x Nm - max. input torque
12 forward gears
C generation
Note
Service information refers to these designations - not
I-Shift.
All versions are available with different types of PTO, oil
cooler and retarder.

133

I - Shift - Gen. C

134

I - Shift - Gen. C
Designation

AT2412C
Max. torque: 2400 Nm
Forward gears: 12
GCW: 44t (Specic markets with mainly at road operation
can be allowed up to 50t).
AT2512C
Max. torque: 2500 Nm
Forward gears: 12
GCW: 60t (Specic markets with mainly at road operation
can be allowed up to 130t, with limited warranty).
ATO2512C
Max. torque: 2400 Nm
Forward gears: 12
GCW: 60t (Specic markets with mainly at road operation
can be allowed up to 130t, with limited warranty).

135

I - Shift - Gen. C
SWEDEN

COMPONENT

AT2412C
(SP3190245)
SERVICE CATEGORY
A
COMP. ID
2423455
SERIAL NO.
2005402123

136

I - Shift - Gen. C
Identication
plate

COMPONENT: Component designation


(DSP3190245): Spare part number
SERVICE CATEGORY: Oil quality and change intervals
- see IMPACT
COMP. ID: Factory part number
SERIAL NO. Year of manufacture/week/day/consecutive
number

137

I - Shift - Gen. C

AT2512C
AT2412C

ATO2512C

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

14.94
11.73
9.04
7.09
5,54
4.35
3.44
2.70
2.08
1.63
1.27
1.00

11.73
9.21
7.09
5.57
4.35
3.41
2.70
2.12
1.63
1.28
1.00
0.78

R1
R2
R3
R4

-17.48
- 13.73
- 4.02
- 3.16

-13.73
- 10.78
- 3.16
- 2.48

Gear ratios

138

I - Shift - Gen. C
Selection
positions splitter, main and
range change

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Gear

Splitter Main

LS
HS
LS
HS
LS
HS
LS
HS
LS
HS
LS
HS

1
1
2
2
3
3
1
1
2
2
3
3

Range

R1
R2
R3
R4

LS
HS
LS
HS

R
R
R
R

LR
LR
HR
HR

N1
N2

LS
HS

N
N

LR
LR
LR
LR
LR
LR
HR
HR
HR
HR
HR
HR

139

I - Shift - Gen. C

3
1

140

I - Shift - Gen. C
Gen. C vs. Gen. B

The main differences between Generation C and


Generation B transmissions are:
1. Clutch actuation cylinder and valve/solenoid block.
2. Range change gear assembly
3. Lubrication oil pump
These changes have resulted in a shorter and lighter
weight transmission, which has lower internal losses and
quieter operation.

141

I - Shift - Gen. C

142

I - Shift - Gen. C
Clutch

The clutch is a single plate type, which is disengaged by


pressure pushing against spring plate (1).
The actuation cylinder (2) is concentric with the input shaft

143

I - Shift - Gen. C
VASE

VASD

VAFE

VAFD

144

I - Shift - Gen. C
Clutch cylinder
operation

Clutch actuation valve block (1) is attached to the side of


the clutch housing.
The valve block houses four solenoid valves which control
air ow in and out of the cylinder:
VASE - Valve Air, Slow Engage - air exhaust
VAFE - Valve Air, Fast Engage - air exhaust
VASD - Valve Air, Slow Disengage - air supply
VAFD - Valve Air, Fast Disengage- air supply

145

I - Shift - Gen. C
VASE

VASD

VAFE

VAFD

146

I - Shift - Gen. C
The solenoids are controlled by Pulse Width Modulated
(PWM) signals from the TECU.
PWM signals are variable, which means that the valves can
be opened and closed progressively by varying amounts.
This allows close and precise control of clutch
disengagement and engagement.
Note that, in certain circumstances, the fast and slow
valves may be energised together - e.g. for rapid
disengagement, VASD and VAFD can both be energised.

147

I - Shift - Gen. C
3
1
2

148

I - Shift - Gen. C
Clutch position
sensor

A sensor (1) is used to detect the position of the actuation


piston and, also, clutch plate wear.
The sensor is a type referred to as Permanent magnet
Linear Contactless Displacement (PLCD).
As the name suggests, this type of sensor detects the
linear displacement of one component in relation to
another, without contact.
The sensor works on the principle of electro- magnetic
induction, where a permanent magnet (2) - attached to the
actuator piston - moves in relation to a coil (3) - attached to
the clutch housing.
The position of the magnet in relation to the coil determines
the amount of induced voltage.
The sensor has two analogue output signals: one
representing piston position, and an inverted signal used
during diagnostics.

149

I - Shift - Gen. C

X1

X2
150

I - Shift - Gen. C
X1 and X2 values

The illustration above shows the position of the actuating


piston with a new plate (A), and a worn plate (B).
X1 is the stroke start position with a new clutch plate.
X2 is the stroke start position with a worn clutch plate.
Note: The stroke of the actuating piston - i.e. the distance
it moves from engaged position to disengaged position - is
always the same: it is the stroke start position which alters
with wear.
CAUTION
When a new clutch plate is tted, the X1 value must be
measured and stored using VCADS.
If this is not done, the system will have the wrong
information, so clutch wear warnings may not be displayed,
which could result in clutch slip and
151
component damage.

I - Shift - Gen. C

152

I - Shift - Gen. C
Range change
gearset

In common with I-Shift Gen. B, the Gen. C range change


gearset is a planetary gearset, with two ratios - low and
high.
Gen. C differences are:
- gear teeth are helical cut. - gears are stronger and run
more quietly.
- a new, more efcient, type of synchroniser is tted.

153

I - Shift - Gen. C
1

154

I - Shift - Gen. C
TECU

The Transmission Electronic Control Unit (TECU) has been


upgraded:
- memory increase x 3
- computing power increase x 5
CAUTION
If the TECU circuit board must be handled;
- handle with extreme care.
- take precautions to ensure that static electricity cannot be
discharged into board components.

155

I - Shift - Gen. C

AT2512C

ATO2512C

156

I - Shift - Gen. C
Overdrive gearset

To provide the overdrive ratio a larger diameter input shaft


gear is used with a smaller diameter countershaft gear.
When tted with an overdrive gearset, top gear ratio is
0.78:1.
Without overdrive, top gear ratio is 1:1.

157

I - Shift - Gen. C

R
N
A
M
158

I - Shift - Gen. C
Selector lever

The selector lever is similar to that used with I-Shift Gen. B.


A signicant difference is that there is no L (Low) lever
position.

159

I - Shift - Gen. C

160

I - Shift - Gen. C
Lubrication

The transmission components are lubricated by a


combination of oil splash and pressure feed.

161

I - Shift - Gen. C

162

I - Shift - Gen. C
Oil pump

I-Shift Gen. C has a new type of oil pump located in front of


the reverse idler gear.

163

I - Shift - Gen. C

UTCOOL

TC-MWO

TC-MWOH2

TC-MAOH2

164

I - Shift - Gen. C
Oil cooling - no
retarder
URETARD

UTCOOL - no oil cooling.


TC-MWO - Small oil cooler mounted on the oil lter.
TC-MWOH2 - Separate larger oil cooler mounted on LH
side of gearbox.
TC-MAOH2 - Separate larger oil cooler mounted on LH
side of gearbox, plus extra cooler mounted at the front of
the cab.

165

I - Shift - Gen. C
UTCOOL

TC-MWOH2

TC-MWO

TC-MAOH2

166

I - Shift - Gen. C
Oil cooling - with
retarder
RET-TH

UTCOOL - no oil cooling.


TC-MWO - Small oil cooler mounted on the oil lter.
TC-MWOH2 - Separate larger oil cooler mounted on LH
side of gearbox.
TC-MAOH2 - Separate larger oil cooler mounted on LH
side of gearbox, plus extra cooler mounted at the front of
the cab.

167

I - Shift - Gen. C
Time/Distance

N1

DC

Time/Distance

FE

Time/Distance

N1

N1
168

I - Shift - Gen. C
Software
packages

Four main software packages are available:


B - Basic
DC - Distribution and Construction
FE - Fuel and Economy
Heavy haulage
Other options can be added to these main packages.
The package installed is displayed when the gear selector
lever is folded forward.

169

I - Shift - Gen. C
Basic

Distribution
Long haul
& construction Fuel &
Economy
TP-BAS TP-DICON
TP-FUEC
Transmission types All
All
All
Features
Basic shift strategy
Enhanced shift
strategy (GCW up to 60t)
Heavy GCW control
(GCW 61-130t)
EcoRoll
Launch control
Basic gearshift
adjustments
Kick-down
Gearbox oil temp.
monitor

Heavy
Haulage
TP-HEAVY
V2512AT only

x
x

x
x
x

x
x

x
x

x
x

x
x

170

I - Shift - Gen. C

Transmission types
Features
Smart cruise
control
Performance shift

Basic

Distribution
& construction

TP-BAS

All

Heavy
Haulage

TP-DICON

Long haul
Fuel &
Economy
TP-FUEC

x
x

x
x

All

All

TP-HEAVY

V2512AT only

Options (Extra cost)


Gear selection
adjustment
in automatic
+ kick-down

Enhanced PTO
functions

171

I - Shift - Gen. C
Package
description

TP-BAS - The standard supplied package providing the


basic I-Shift functions.
TP-DICON - Incorporates features to suit distribution
and construction work. Includes e.g. - features to aid
manoeuvrability in conned spaces, and when starting off
from standstill.
TP-FUEC - Incorporates features to minimise fuel
consumption - particularly suitable for long haul work.
TP-HD - Includes features to optimise performance with
heavy GCW - >60 tonne.

172

I - Shift - Gen. C
Feature
descriptions

Basic Shift Strategy - Automatic selection of the correct


starting gear (1st. - 6th. gear) to take account of gross
vehicle weight and road gradient.

* EBS-MED/
EBS-HIG required

Enhanced Shift Strategy* - I-Shift interacts with ECS and


EBS to aid manoeuvrability in conned spaces, and when
starting off from standstill.
Shifts during engine braking are made smoother by
applying the wheel brakes, to increase braking power.

** Available
only with
certain engine/
transmission
combinations

Heavy GCW Control** - Optimises gear shifts for GCW 60


- 180 tonne operation.
EcoRoll - Reduced fuel consumption by automatic
activation and deactivation of free-wheel function when
neither engine power nor braking is needed
- e.g. on level roads.

173

I - Shift - Gen. C
Feature
descriptions

Launch Control*** - I-Shift interacts with EBS to optimise


gear selection when manoeuvring at low speed.
Also includes enhanced hill start control.
Basic Gear Selection Adjustment - allows gear selection
using the +/- buttons on the gear selector lever, during
engine braking in automatic mode.
Gearbox Oil Temperature Monitor - temperature shown
on display.

*** EBS and ECS


required

Smart Cruise Control - I-Shift interacts with EBS to


ensure that auxiliary brakes are not applied unnecessarily,
allowing more frequent activation of Eco-Roll.

174

I - Shift - Gen. C
Feature
descriptions

Performance Shift - by intelligent control of the engine


compression brake - VCB/VEB - countershaft brake, and
clutch, gear shifts can be made faster and smoother.

Option
descriptions

Enhanced PTO functions - includes features to make


PTO operation easier - e.g. limitation of engine speed.
Enhanced Gear Selection Adjustment - allows gear
selection using the +/- buttons on the gear selector lever,
when starting off and driving in automatic mode.
Also includes a kick-down function. Pressing accelerator
pedal right down causes down-shift for - e.g. overtaking.

175

176

Powertronic
177

Powertronic

178

Powertronic
General
information

Designations

The Powertronic transmission was originally tted to


dumper trucks manufactured by the construction equipment
division of Volvo Corporation.
The transmission was rst introduced by Volvo Truck in
1996, and tted to FL10 trucks for use as refuse collection
vehicles. These were mainly 8x4 vehicles.
Volvo
Transmission
16 (17) (19) (22) Nm - max. input torque
05 (06) forward gears
PT Powertronic

179

Powertronic

180

Powertronic
Generations

Since rst being introduced, the Powertronic transmission


has evolved through four generations. The signicant
features are:
Gen.1 - One uid lter. Two connectors on ECU (FL10,
FL12)
Gen. 2 - Two uid lters. Turbine speed sensor. S13
solenoid, Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal for brake
pressure. Three connectors on ECU (FL10, FL12)
Gen. 3 - Truck Electronic Architecture (TEA). Transmission
Electronic Control Unit (TECU). Transmission Electronic
Control Unit (TECU). Gear Selector Electronic Control Unit
(GECU). S14 PWM signal for lock-up pressure (FM)
Gen.4 - I-Shift type selector lever. PWM valve and pressure
sensor for retarder control
181

Powertronic
K1 K2

B1 B2

B3 B4

B5

182

Powertronic
Construction

Powertronic is a fully automatic transmission, using


planetary gearsets and a torque convertor.
The main sections of the transmission are:
A. Torque convertor
B. Fluid pump
C. Retarder (Optional)
D. Forward and reverse clutch
E. Planetary gearsets
K1 and K2 are multi-plate clutches.
B1 - B5 are multi-plate brakes.
These are used to lock components of the gearsets in
various combinations to obtain the available gear ratios.

183

Powertronic

184

Powertronic

Torque
convertor - main
components

A torque convertor is a special type of uid coupling, which


has the ability to multiply torque from the engine.
It takes the place of the clutch used with a manual gearbox.
The main components are:

Impeller
Turbine
Stator

1. Impeller - or pump - wheel, which is attached to the


engine ywheel and is, therefore, the input member.
2. Turbine wheel, which is attached to the turbine shaft (3)
and is, therefore, the output member.
4. Stator, which is attached to the transmission casing via a
one-way clutch.
The clutch prevents the stator spinning with the uid - it
can spin only in the opposite direction.
On the inner faces of impeller (1) and turbine (2) are
formed several radial vanes.
The stator (4) also has a series of vanes.

185

Powertronic

1
186

Powertronic
Torque convertor
- operation
Fluid circulation
and force

Residual force

When the engine is running, the space between these


three components is lled with uid.
When the impeller (1) is rotating and, because of the
special shape of the impeller and turbine vanes, a
circulation of uid is created. The impeller imparts a force
to the uid, which is thrown from the impeller vanes onto
the turbine vanes. The force is applied to the turbine vanes,
and the turbine (2) also starts to rotate.
As the impeller speeds up, so does the turbine.
However, uid leaving the turbine still has some residual
force. Again, due to the relative rotation and shape of
the vanes, uid is directed against the stator vanes (4).
Because the one-way clutch locks the stator against the
direction of uid impact, the uid is forced to change
direction.

187

Powertronic

188

Powertronic

Torque convertor
- operation

Efciency loss

The stator vanes throw the uid back onto the impeller vanes,
in a direction which aids rotation.
The residual force of the circulating uid is added to the torque
provided by the engine - hence the term torque convertor.
Torque multiplication is highest - typically 2:1 - when the
impeller speed is high, and the turbine speed is low.
Eventually, the turbine speed approaches that of the impeller.
However, because of circulation losses, the speeds can
never actually match 100%. There will always be some slip
meaning that the turbine rotates slightly slower than the
impeller.
This slip is a loss of efciency, which has a bearing on
performance and fuel economy.
To eliminate slip, once the relative speeds of the impeller and
turbine reach a certain point, lock-up clutch (5) is engaged.
For more information, see Lock-up clutch.

189

Powertronic
Smooth torque
transmission

No wear

Torque drag

The pure hydraulic coupling of engine to transmission,


before the lock-up clutch is engaged, gives a uid coupling
a valuable characteristic - the ability to transfer torque from
the engine to the transmission very smoothly.
Unlike a conventional clutch, a uid coupling suffers
virtually no wear. This is the reason that, in conjunction
with an automatic transmission, these couplings are ideal
for use in stop/start conditions - e.g. buses and refuse
collection vehicles.
However, hydraulic coupling does have a slight drawback.
Because torque is being transferred all the time the engine
is running - even when it is idling - there is always a slight
tendency for the vehicle to creep slowly forwards.
Unless there is an automatic feature in the brake system
to counteract this tendency, the vehicle must be held
stationary by applying the foot brake or park brake. 190

Powertronic

191

Powertronic

3
192

Powertronic
PTO and uid
pump drive

The PTO drive gear (1) is driven from intermediate gear


(2).
The transmission uid pump (3) is driven from drive sleeve
(4).

193

Powertronic
K1

K2

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

194

Powertronic
Clutches and
brakes

The available gear ratios are obtained using multi-plate


clutches (K1 and K2) and brakes
(B1 - B5). The number of brakes depends on the number of
gear ratios available in the transmission.
The clutch and brake packs consist of interleaved metal
plates and friction plates.
The clutch or brake is applied by hydraulic pressure acting
on a piston.
When applied, clutch (K1) connects turbine shaft (1) to
mainshaft (2). Clutch (K2) connects turbine shaft (1) to
tubular shaft (3).
Brakes (B1 - B5) lock either the planetary gears, the gear
carrier, or the sun gear to the transmission housing in
various combinations to provide the available gear ratios.

195

Powertronic
RV2
LRV

RV4
RV

RV5
RV1
RV3

S13
TV1
S11 S4
S3

S5
S1
S2

RV9
RV7

CHV

MPV S7 S8
S14 CRV

196

Powertronic
Valve block

* Not tted to
Gen. 2

The valve block, attached to the underside of the


transmission, contains all the solenoids and valves which
control gear changes.
CHV. Safety valve
CRV. Control valve - torque converter pressure
LRV. Control valve - lubrication pressure
MPV. Control valve - main pressure
RV. Relay valve - reserve
RV1- RV5. Relay valves - brakes
RV7. Relay valve - forward clutch
RV8. Relay valve - reverse clutch
RV9. Relay valve - lock-up clutch
S1-S5. Solenoid valves - brakes
S7. Solenoid valve - forward clutch
S8. Solenoid valve - reverse clutch
S11. PWM valve - main pressure
S13. PWM valve - brake pressure
*S14. PWM valve - lock-up
TV1. Control valve - brake pressure

197

Powertronic
LRV
NRV2

RV2
RV
RV4
RV3

NRV3

RV5
RV1
TV1

198

Powertronic
Valve block

LRV. Control valve - lubrication pressure


NRV2. Non-return valve - RV2 and RV4
NRV3. Non-return valve - RV1, RV3 and RV5
RV. Relay valve - reserve
RV1- RV5. Relay valves - brakes
TV1. Control valve - brake pressure

199

Powertronic
RV2

RV2

BR

BR

S2

S2

200

Powertronic
Solenoid and
relay valve
operation
A - S2 not
energised

B - S2 energised

The illustration above shows an example of solenoid


and relay valve operation for solenoid valve (S2) and
corresponding relay valve (R2).

When a gear change takes place, solenoid valve (S2) is


energised by a signal from the TECU.
The valve opens and allows uid at a low control pressure
to ow to relay valve (R2).
The relay valve opens and allows uid at full pressure to
act on the appropriate brake control piston.

201

Powertronic
B5
K1

P5
202

Powertronic
Power ow - 1st.
gear

Clutch (K1) is closed, and connects turbine shaft (1) to


mainshaft (2).
Brake (B5) is closed, and locks the planet carrier of gearset
(P5) to the transmission housing.

203

Powertronic
B4
K1

2
P4
204

Powertronic
Power ow - 2nd.
gear

Clutch (K1) is closed, and connects turbine shaft (1) to


mainshaft (2).
Brake (B4) is closed, and locks the ring gear of gearset
(P4) to the transmission housing.

205

Powertronic
B3
K1

2
P2
206

Powertronic
Power ow - 3rd.
gear

Clutch (K1) is closed, and connects turbine shaft (1) to


mainshaft (2).
Brake (B3) is closed, and locks the planet gear carrier of
gearset (2) to the transmission housing.

207

Powertronic

B1

K1

2
P1
208

Powertronic
Power ow - 4th.
gear

Clutch (K1) is closed, and connects turbine shaft (1) to


mainshaft (2).
Brake (B1) is closed, and locks the planet gear carrier of
gearset (P1) to the transmission housing.

209

Powertronic

B1

K1

2
P1

210

Powertronic
Power ow - 5th.
gear

Clutch (K1) is closed, and connects turbine shaft (1) to


mainshaft (2).
Brake (B2) is closed, and locks the sun gear of gearset
(P1) to the transmission housing.

211

Powertronic
K1

K2

3
212

Powertronic
Power ow - 6th.
gear

Clutch (K1) is closed, and connects turbine shaft (1) to


mainshaft (2).
Clutch (K2) is closed, and connects turbine shaft (1) to
tubular shaft (3).
Closure of the two clutches effectively locks the planetary
gears together, so that they rotate as one unit, providing a
direct 1:1 gear ratio.

213

Powertronic
B5
K2

2
P1

P2

P3

P5
214

Powertronic
Power ow
- reverse gear R1
- low

Clutch (K2) is closed, and connects turbine shaft (1) to


tubular shaft (3), which carries the sun gear of gearset
(P2), and the planetary gear carrier of gearset (P1).
The carrier of gearset (P2) transmits torque to the ring gear
of gearset (P3).
The planet gears of gearset (P3) act as intermediate gears,
and reverse the direction of rotation of mainshaft (2).
Brake (B5) is closed, and locks the carrier of gearset (P5)
to the transmission housing.

215

Powertronic
B4
K2

2
P1

P2

P3

P5
216

Powertronic
Power ow
- reverse gear R2
- high

Clutch (K2) is closed, and connects turbine shaft (1) to


tubular shaft (3), which carries the sun gear of gearset
(P2), and the planetary gear carrier of gearset (P1).
The planet gears of gearset (P3) act as intermediate gears,
and reverse the direction of rotation of mainshaft (2).
Brake (B4) is closed, and locks the carrier of gearset (P3)
to the transmission housing.

217

Powertronic
1

B5

rev/min

bar
1

B4

B5

B4
1

sec.
218

Powertronic
Powershift

The illustration above shows that the release and


application of brakes and clutches is overlapped.
Overlapping ensures that there is no loss of power during
the shift.
The upper curve shows engine speed during the shift from 1st. to 2nd. gear.

Modulated
pressures

The lower curve shows the hydraulic pressure acting on


brake (B4) and (B5).
Notice the overlap of pressure decrease in (B5) and
pressure increase in (B4).
Notice also, that pressures are not changed abruptly.
To ensure a smooth shift - and to apply clamping pressures
which are proportional to engine torque - the pressures are
modulated - varied - by the PWM controlled valves.

219

Powertronic
Gear shift control

With a manual transmission, the drivers decision on when


to make a gear shift is primarily dependent the combination
of road speed and engine speed - which is determined by
the vehicle load.
The tachometer helps with the decision by indicating when
the engine speed is in the best working range.
With an automatic transmission, the same factors apply.
The TECU is supplied with signals representing:
- road speed, from the output shaft speed sensor.
- engine speed, from the EMS, via VECU.

Acceleration
demand

The TECU is also supplied with a signal representing


accelerator pedal position from the pedal potentiometer, via
EMS and VECU.
This signal is an indication of acceleration demand.

220

Powertronic
When the accelerator pedal is pressed well down indicating greater acceleration demand - gear shifts are
delayed until higher road speeds are reached.

Comparison with
pre-programmed
data

When D is selected, rst gear is engaged. When the


accelerator pedal is pressed, the vehicle moves off and
road speed increases.
By comparing incoming signals with pre-programmed data,
the TECU can calculate when a shift to the next higher is
suitable for the combination of road speed, engine speed
and accelerator pedal position.
At this point, signals are sent to the appropriate solenoid
valves.
A brake on one planetary gearset is released, and another
is applied - and so on.

221

Powertronic
5 speed

6 speed

R2
R1

Solenoid energised
S2

S4

S1

S5
S2

Clutch

Brake

S8

K2

B4

S8

K2

B5

S4

B4

N(/1)

S1

S5

F1

S1

S5 S7

K1

B5

S7

K1

B4

S7

K1

B3

S7

K1

B1

S7

K1

B2

F1

F2

F2

F3

F3

F4

F4

F5

F5

F6

S2
S1

S3
S2

S1

S4

B5

S7 S8

K1+K2

222

Powertronic
Gear shift control

The chart above shows which solenoid valves, brakes and


clutches are in use for each gear.

223

Powertronic
7076

767
7052

758
7070
761 762/763

224

Powertronic
Sensor location

758. Output shaft speed


761. Gearbox uid pressure
762. Gearbox uid temperature
763. Gearbox uid level
767. Retarder uid temperature
7052. Tachograph speed signal
7070. Input shaft (engine) speed
7076. Turbine speed

225

Powertronic

7076

767
7052

758
7070
761

763/763

226

Powertronic
Sensor location

758. Output shaft speed - to TECU


761. Gearbox uid pressure
762. Gearbox uid temperature
763. Gearbox uid level
767. Retarder uid temperature
7052. Output shaft speed - to tachograph
7070. Input shaft (engine) speed
7076. Turbine speed

227

Powertronic
7070

7076

228

Powertronic
Input and turbine
speed sensors

7070. Input shaft (engine) speed


- located behind the torque converter
7076. Turbine speed
- located behind the cannon connector housing

229

Powertronic
7052

758

7070

7076

230

Powertronic
Lock-up clutch

Once the speeds of the impeller and turbine are similar,


the uid coupling function, and the torque multiplication
function, of the torque converter are no longer required.
To eliminate the slip in the coupling, the lock-up clutch (1)
is engaged.
The turbine is now locked to the impeller, and the whole
assembly becomes a solid mechanical drive, rotating as
one unit.
Note: To allow engagement of the clutch, the speed
difference between the impeller and turbine - detected by
sensors (7070) and (7076) - must be less than 30%.
Provided that relative speeds are within range, the clutch
can be engaged in all gears.

231

Powertronic
RV2
LRV

RV4
RV

RV5
RV1
RV3

S13
TV1
S11 S4
S3

S5
S1
S2

RV9
RV7

CHV

MPV S7 S8
S14 CRV

232

Powertronic
Lock-up clutch
- control

When the sensors signal to the TECU that the relative


speeds of the impeller and turbine are within 30%, the
TECU sends a PWM signal from pin (43) to solenoid valve
(S14).
Solenoid (S14) activates relay valve (RV9), which allows
uid to ll the cavity behind the lock-up clutch piston, and
engage the clutch.
Because solenoid (S14) is controlled by a PWM modulated - signal, clutch engagement is progressive,
and automatically adapts to compensate for wear and
production tolerances.

233

Powertronic

M
!

INFO

C3
! STOP

- +

234

Powertronic
Lock-up clutch ll time teach-in
(Gen. 3 and 4)

If any new software is downloaded, the lock-up parameters


are in Novis mode.
This mode is indicated in the display by C - converter
mode - and 0 which is displayed instead of the drive
program. The 0 indicates the number of test lls that have
occurred.
In this situation, the lock-up lling time must be
recalculated, and parameters reset.
1. Drive the vehicle until the transmission temperature is at
least 700.
Teach-in can only take place between 700 and 950C.
2. Find a stretch of road where it is possible to safely drive
for at least 500 metres at a steady speed of approx. 30
km/h.

235

Powertronic

M
!

INFO

C3
! STOP

- +

236

Powertronic
Lock-up clutch ll time teach-in
(Gen. 3 and 4)

3. Drive the vehicle with the gear selector in M position


- gear 2 for 5-speed transmission, and gear 3 for 6-speed
transmission.
4. When a plus or minus character is displayed beside the
zero - 0, the teach-in phase can start.
Plus means that the road speed is too high for teach-in.
Minus means that the road speed is too low for teach-in.
5. Press the accelerator and brake simultaneously so that
the converter slips.
Keep the engine speed at a constant 1500+/- 50 rev/min.
6. Watch the plus and minus characters.
If plus is displayed, press the brake harder.
If minus is displayed, release the brake a little.

237

Powertronic

M
!

INFO

C3
! STOP

- +

238

Powertronic

Lock-up clutch ll time teach-in


(Gen. 3 and 4)

7. A test ll will occur when the road speed and engine


speed are in the correct ratio - i.e. when neither a plus or
minus character is displayed.
After the rst test ll, 0 - at top left of the display - will
change to 1.
8. If the number does not change, the test ll has not been
successful. This may be because the engine speed was
incorrect or not stable, or acceleration was too high.
Repeat the test run keeping the engine speed more stable.
CAUTION
If the uid temperature exceeds 950C, test runs must be
stopped. Drive the vehicle normally until the temperature is
down to 700C.
Allow a short time between test runs to allow the brakes to
cool.

239

Powertronic

M
!

INFO

C3
! STOP

- +

240

Powertronic
Lock-up clutch ll time teach-in
(Gen. 3 and 4)

9. Repeat the test run until the test ll number has been
increased to 4.
Note that two seconds must pass between each test ll.
10. When the third test ll is complete, the program has
calculated a new lock-up lling time.
11. More test lls may be needed to calculate the lock-up
disconnection time.
Continue until the test ll number at top left disappears.
Teach-in is now complete.
This will be conrmed by the lock-up clutch engaging, and
C disappearing from the display.
Note: If it has not been possible to calculate the ll and
disconnect times after 6 test llings, the test ll number
returns to 0. The procedure must then be repeated.

241

Powertronic

242

Powertronic
Retarder

The retarder is an option and, when tted, is located


between the torque converter and the planetary gearsets.
A. shows a cross-section of the transmission with retarder
tted.
B. is without retarder.

243

Powertronic

244

Powertronic
Retarder

The main components of the retarder are:


1. Stator - which is attached to the transmission housing,
and cannot rotate.
2. Piston
3. Rotor - which is attached to, and rotates with, clutch
(K1).
4. Backing plate - acts as a support for the rotor.
When the piston is activated, the space between the rotor
and stator is lled with uid.
The vanes, formed in the rotor, throw the uid against the
vanes of the stator.
Because the stator cannot rotate, the impeded ow of
uid causes retardation of the rotor, the geartrain, and the
drivetrain.
245

Powertronic

VECU

TECU
246

Powertronic
Retarder - control

Retarder operation is controlled by a multi-position control


stalk (1).
Moving the stalk sends signals to electro magnetic valve
(2) S-RET. On pre. Gen. 4 systems, valve (2) is a simple
solenoid valve.
On Gen. 4 systems valve (2) is a PWM valve.
Valve (2) controls air ow to and from retarder valve
(3) - RRV.
Air pressure acting on valve (3) controls the uid pressure
which operates the retarder actuation piston.
Increasing uid pressure between the rotor and stator
results in greater retardation.
Heat generated when the retarder is working is dissipated
through a heat exchanger linked into the
engine cooling system.

247

Powertronic
5

3
2

248

Powertronic
Selector lever
- Gen. 1 - 3

1. Selector lever positions.


2. Selects Economy or Performance mode.
3. Selects 1st. gear or 2nd. gear start - 6-speed
transmission only.
4. Inhibitor - prevents accidental selection of gears.
5. Press for up/down gear shifts.

Selector lever
- Gen. 4

With Gen. 4 systems, an I-SHIFT type selector is used,


but there is no L position, or Limp Home button.

249

Powertronic
3
5

1
250

Powertronic
Gear selector
positions- Gen.
1-3

R = reverse.
N = Neutral
A = Automatic mode. The correct starting gear is engaged,
and up and down shifts occur automatically, according to
driving conditions.
M = Manual mode. up and down shifts are activated using
buttons (5).

Economy/
Performance
mode

Economy mode is suitable for most road conditions.


When Performance mode is selected, more acceleration is
available because upshifts are delayed until higher engine
and road speeds are reached.

1st./2nd. start
gear - 6 speed
only

Pressing this button selects either 1st. gear or 2nd. gear for
the start gear.

251

Powertronic
MID 140 / 171
MID 144
MID 128
MID 150
MID 136
MID 223
MID 130
MID 232
MID 163
MID XXX

SAE J1939

SAE J1939

252

Powertronic
Control system
- Gen. 3 and 4

For Gen. 3 and Gen. 4 systems, the GECU and TECU are
connected to data links J1939 and J1587.
Note: with Gen. 1 and Gen. 2 systems, Truck Electronic
Architecture (TEA) was not in use.

253

Powertronic
Transmission
uid

Fluid change

Specication : Dexron III, Alison C4.


Quantity: 35 litres
Warranty check 10,000 km or 4 weeks.
Then every 90,000 km or 12 months.
Renew breather every 24 months

254

Powertronic
Level check

CAUTION

The uid level must be neither too high nor too low.
Too high a level may cause churning and overheating.
Too low a level may cause incorrect operation of hydraulic
components and brake or clutch slip, and may cause burning
of the uid.
Emergency check - transmission cold
1. Apply the parking brake, and start the engine.
2. Select Neutral.
3. Press the accelerator pedal and hold the engine speed at
1000 rev./min.
4. Remove the dipstick, and wipe with lint free paper.
5. Ret and withdraw the dipstick - check the uid level.
6. The level should be between the marks on the dipstick.
7. Add or drain uid to bring the level between the marks.
Normal check - transmission hot - 700-900C
8. Follow the above sequence.

255

Powertronic
PR1

PC2

PR2
B5

PS

B4
B3

B2

B1

K2

256

Powertronic

Fluid pressure
test
Gen. 3 & 4

Measured
when uid is at
normal operating
temperature

REF.

FUNCTION

BAR approx.

B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
K2
PS

Brake 4th. gear


Brake 5th. gear
Brake 3rd. gear
Brake 2nd. gear
Brake 1st. gear
Clutch - forward
Lub. uid pressure

10-12 (LU)* 15-18 (NLU)**


10-12 (LU) 15-18 (NLU)
10-12 (LU) 15-18 (NLU)
10-12 (LU) 15-18 (NLU)
10-12 (LU) 15-18 (NLU)
10-12 (LU) 15-18 (NLU)
3 - in Neutral

* = with lock-up
** = without lock-up

257

Powertronic
P1
K1
PC2
PLU

258

Powertronic
Fluid pressure
test
Gen. 3 & 4
Measured
when uid is at
normal operating
temperature

REF.

FUNCTION

BAR approx.

P1
K1
PC1

Main pressure
20
Clutch - forward
10-12 (LU)* 15-18 (NLU)**
Converter pressure - in 5 - in Neutral

Fluid pressure
test
Gen. 2
Measured
when uid is at
normal operating
temperature
Engine speed
1500 rev/min.

GEAR.
N
U*
R

* = with lock-up
** = without lock-up
P1 bar
15
14
20

PC1 bar
5

PS bar
3

* Torque converter operating

259

260

Powertronic
Lock-up and
retarder test

The efciency of the lock-up clutch - lack of slip - and


efciency of the retarder - drag - is determined by
measuring the engine torque during each of the test levels.
The test is done in stages, with the engine speed at 1800
rev/min:
1. Activate lock-up (PWM valve S14) and retarder (PWM
valve SRET) together at each of the % levels.
Check efciency. If efciency is below specication further
checks can be done to narrow down the fault area.
2. Activate lock-up separately.
3. Activate retarder separately.

261

262

Powertronic
Gear test

The prop. shaft must be removed to perform this test.


The engine speed for the test is 1000 rev/min.
During the test, each clutch is engaged one at time.
The efciency of the clutches - lack of slip and free
disengagement - is determined by measuring the engine
torque during each clutch application.
All clutches should produce approx. the same result.
If one produces a torque change considerably less than
others - typically < 100 Nm, it can be assumed that clutch
is slipping.
A torque typically > 100 Nm, may indicate that a multiplate clutch is sticking. This may be due to oil leakage or a
mechanical fault.

263

Powertronic
Common faults

The most common causes of faults are:


- Incorrect uid level
CAUTION
The level must be neither too high nor too low.
Too high a level may cause churning and overheating.
Too low a level may cause incorrect operation of hydraulic
components and brake or clutch slip, and may cause
burning of the uid.
- Incorrect uid type or grade
- Corroded connectors - e.g. cannon connector.

Faulty gear shifts

For faulty gear shifts - refer to Inspection List, faulty gear


shifting . (Diagnostics 437).

264

265