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IMPACT 3.

0 Sunday, 15 January 2017

Chassis ID Path
/Description, Design and function/FH12, VERSION2, CU-HEAT/A/C system components

Model Identity
FH12 127757796

Publish date Operation No.


Saturday, 20 March 2010

A/C system components


This section covers the following components

Compressor
Compressor clutch
Compressor, mounting and movement
Condenser
Engine fan, applies to vehicles manufactured before CHID -A572083 and CHID -B351629.
Engine fan, applies to vehicles manufactured over the period CHID A572084-A689836, CHID
B351630-B548688 and CHID E700000-E750419.
Engine fan, relates to vehicles manufactured after CHID A689836-, CHID B548688-, CHID D131669-,
E750419-, CHID W100028-, CHID CKD887300-
Refrigerant hoses
Drier refrigerant container
Pressure monitor (pressure sensor), applies to vehicles manufactured before CHID -A572083 and CHID
-B351629
Pressure monitor (pressure contact), applies to vehicles manufactured over the period CHID A572084-A689836,
CHID B351630-B548688 and CHID E700000-E750419
Pressure monitor (pressure sensor), relates to vehicles manufactured after CHID A689836-, CHID B548688-,
CHID D131669-, E750419-, CHID W100028-, CHID CKD887300-
Expansion valve
Evaporator
Temperature sensor..
Temperature sensor on the outside, applies to vehicles manufactured after week 34, 2003.
O-rings.
Air conditioning compressor oil.

Air Conditioning system components:

Compressor

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The compressor is the active part of the cooling system. It works like a pump in the system and sucks in evaporated
refrigerant from the evaporator and forces it to the condenser.

There is a mechanical safety valve on the compressors cylinder head (FH, FM12, NH), which opens when the system
pressure exceeds 38 bar (3.8 MPa). There is a plug on the top of the compressor where compressor oil can be added.

Compressorcranking
To prevent damage to the compressor, the compressor coupling is activated for a maximum of 5 seconds when the
starter motor is running (MCC and ECC); this means that all condensed refrigerant in the compressor will be evacuated
at the lowest possible speed.
The coupling is activated provided that the ignition key has been out of drive position for more than 15 minutes. If the
engine is started within 15 minutes of the ignition key leaving drive position, the compressor coupling is not activated.
When testing this function, therefore, you have to wait 15 minutes once the engine has been switched off in order to
check whether the coupling is activated.

Compressor clutch
The compressor clutch is electromagnetic with permanent magnets. The electromagnet (1) consists of a ring shaped
coil on an iron core, which is screwed to the compressor housing. The rotating part consists of a pulley (2) and a hub
(3), that are flexibly attached to a ring shaped flange (4). The pulley rotates around the compressor on two ball
bearings. When the engine is running without activated air conditioning (A/C), only the pulley rotates (2). When the
compressor receives electric power via the switch, thermostat or control unit, an electromagnetic circuit is completed
and a magnetic field is generated. The magnetic field pulls the flange against the pulley. The friction between the pulley
and flange makes the flange rotate at the same speed as the pulley.

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A. Compressor disengaged

B. Compressor engaged

Compressor, mounting and movement


The compressor is firmly mounted on the engine. The compressor is driven by a ten-groove belt from a pulley on the
crankshaft, together with the alternator. The belt tension is adjusted automatically.

D12

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D9

Condenser
The condenser is a parallel flow type comprising double-sided tanks that are connected to flat pipes. The pipes have
fins for heat transfer. The connections are of block type, sealed with double O-rings.

The condenser is secured to a support in the front part of the engine radiator. It is cooled by the air flow from the
engine cooling fan and the slipstream when the vehicle is moving.

Engine fan, applies to vehicles manufactured before CHID -A572083 and CHID
-B351629.
To keep the pressure down in the air conditioning system and maintain good performance, the engine fan will be
activated if certain conditions are met. ECC and MCC will inform the engine control unit (via PID 50) when the
compressor magnetic clutch is activated. The engine control unit will then activate the fan in the following cases:

1. The engine control unit will activate the fan when the AC-compressor's magnetic clutch is activated and the
following conditions are fulfilled:
Vehicle speed is <45 km/h
Outdoor temperature is >40 C
Engine speed is >1500 rpm
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The

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5. The engine control unit will activate the fan when the AC-compressor's magnetic clutch is activated and the
following conditions are fulfilled:
Vehicle speed is <45 km/h
Outdoor temperature is >30 C
Engine speed is >1200 rpm
9. The engine control unit will activate the fan when the AC-compressor's magnetic clutch is activated and the
following conditions are fulfilled:
Vehicle speed is <20 km/h
Outdoor temperature is >30 C
12. The engine control unit will activate the fan when the AC-compressor's magnetic clutch is activated and the
following conditions are fulfilled:
Vehicle speed is <10 km/h
Outdoor temperature is >20 C
15. The engine control unit will activate the fan when the AC-compressor's magnetic clutch is activated and the
following conditions are fulfilled:

Engine fan, applies to vehicles manufactured over the period CHID


A572084-A689836, CHID B351630-B548688 and CHID E700000-E750419.
To keep the pressure down in the air conditioning system and maintain good performance, the engine fan will be
activated if certain conditions are met. ACMAN, ECC and MCC will inform the engine control unit (via PID 50) when the
compressor magnetic clutch is activated. The engine control unit will then activate the fan in the following cases:

1. The engines control unit activates the fan when the AC-compressor's magnetic clutch is activated and the
following conditions are fulfilled.
Vehicle speed is <45 km/h
Outer temperature is >40 C
Engine speed is >1500 rpm
5. The engines control unit activates the fan when the AC-compressor's magnetic clutch is activated and the
following conditions are fulfilled.
Vehicle speed is <45 km/h
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Outer temperature is >30 C


Engine speed is >1200 rpm
9. The engines control unit activates the fan when the AC-compressor's magnetic clutch is activated and the
following conditions are fulfilled.
Vehicle speed is <20 km/h
Outer temperature is >30 C
12. The engines control unit activates the fan when the AC-compressor's magnetic clutch is activated and the
following conditions are fulfilled.
Vehicle speed is <10 km/h
Outer temperature is >20 C
15. The engines control unit activates the fan when the AC-compressor's magnetic clutch is activated and the
following conditions are fulfilled.
ECC's and MCC's control units send a request to the engine control unit to activate the engine cooling fan (via
hard-wired signal) if the pressure in the air conditioning system exceeds 20 bar. The vehicle control unit
forwards the request to the engine control unit (via link SAE J1939) which activates the engines cooling fan.
If the air conditioning pressure drops below 17 bar, the control units send a request to turn off the engine cooling
fan.

Engine fan, relates to vehicles manufactured after CHID A689836-, CHID B548688-,
CHID D131669-, E750419-, CHID W100028-, CHID CKD887300-
To keep the pressure down in the air conditioning system and maintain good performance, the engine fan will be
activated if certain conditions are met. ECC/MCC will report the AC pressure to the engine control unit (via PPID 300),
the engine control unit will then activate the fan if the vehicle speed is less than 60 km/h. The fan speed is fastest
under high AC pressure and no vehicle speed; the speed falls as the vehicle speed increases and/or as the AC
pressure falls.

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Refrigerant hoses
The refrigerant hoses between the compressor and the condenser consist of a polyamid inner surface with a rubber
outer sleeve. The other refrigerant hoses consist of an inner hose of butyl rubber and an outer sleeve of chlorophrene.

The hoses have block-type connections sealed with double O-rings.

Drier refrigerant container


The drier absorbs any moisture in the system and also filters and stores the refrigerant before it is fed to the expansion
valve. The moisture absorbing material that the refrigerant must pass through before it reaches the outlet, is built into a
filter body (3) in the container.
The refrigerant enters the drier in liquid form. The outlet passes through a pipe (2) at the bottom of the container to
prevent refrigerant in gaseous form from leaking out of the drier into the expansion valve. No gas can reach the
expansion valve as long as there is sufficient refrigerant in the system.
There is a drain valve (1) on the connector, that is used for filling and draining refrigerant.

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1. Drain valve
2. Outlet pipe
3. Filter body

Pressure monitor (pressure sensor), applies to vehicles manufactured before CHID


-A572083 and CHID -B351629
The pressure sensor is located in the high pressure pipe (contains refrigerant in liquid form under high pressure) before
the expansion valve. The pressure sensor switches off the power to the compressor if abnormal pressure occurs.
The pressure sensor stops the pressure increase before maximum pressure is reached.

Pressure monitor (pressure contact), applies to vehicles manufactured over the


period CHID A572084-A689836, CHID B351630-B548688 and CHID
E700000-E750419
The pressure contact is located in the high pressure pipe (contains refrigerant in liquid form under high pressure)
before the expansion valve. The pressure contact switches off the power to the compressor if abnormal pressure
occurs.
The pressure contact stops the pressure increase before maximum pressure is reached.

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Working cycles, pressure contact


The pressure monitor has magnetic friction, i.e. the value depends on the way in which result has been reached.

1. The pressure monitor closes at 2.1 bar.


2. As soon as the pressure reaches 28 bar, the pressure monitor opens and the compressor stops working.
3. When the pressure falls to 22 bar, the pressure monitor closes and the compressor starts working.
4. If neither of the limits is reached, i.e. 2.0 bar or 28 bar, the pressure monitor will remain closed.

Pressure monitor (pressure sensor), relates to vehicles manufactured after CHID


A689836-, CHID B548688-, CHID D131669-, E750419-, CHID W100028-, CHID
CKD887300-
The pressure sensor is located in the high pressure pipe (contains refrigerant in liquid form under high pressure) before
the expansion valve. The pressure sensor switches off the power to the compressor if abnormal pressure occurs.
The pressure sensor stops the pressure increase before maximum pressure has been reached, this is equivalent to
approx. 28 bar. The pressure sensor also notifies the engine control unit of the AC pressure for activation of the engine
fan.
The pressure monitor is changed to a pressure sensor as of the above chassis numbers.

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Expansion valve
The thermal expansion valve regulates the volume of the refrigerant fed to the evaporator. Adjustment is performed
with a ball valve controlled by a pushrod under the influence of a diaphragm. The diaphragm in turn is effected by a
gas-filled chamber that is connected via a capillary tube. The expansion valve is located so that the capillary tube
functions as a temperature sensor in the evaporator cycle. There is a pressure equalisation connection between the
evaporator outlet and the rear of the diaphragm.

When the temperature at the evaporators outlet is high, an over-pressure is generated within the capillary pipe. The
diaphragm is then pushed upwards and the refrigerant is allowed to flow through (see illustration A). When the
evaporator cools, the gas in the capillary tube also cools and the gas volume in it reduces. When the volume is
reduced, the pressure against the diaphragm drops, so that the ball valve can return (see illustration B). When the
refrigerant flow reduces, the temperature in the evaporator rises. Since the capillary tube detects this rise in
temperature, the valve again increases the amount of refrigerant reaching the evaporator. The expansion valve
increases and decreases the amount of refrigerant reaching the evaporator, so that the temperature swings around the
ideal value. To prevent the refrigerant in liquid form from leaking out into the evaporator (which would cause a fault in
the compressor), the refrigerant must be slightly overheated. However, if the overheating is excessive, the cooling
effect will be reduced. Overheating is controlled by means of a spring (5) in front of the ball valve.

1. Ball valve
2. Diaphragm
3. Capillary tube
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3.
4. Pressure equalisation passage
5. Compression spring

Evaporator
The purpose of the evaporator is to absorb heat from the air in the cab or the air entering into the cab. The evaporator
consist of a coil with aluminium pipes and fins. The inlet and outlet pipes are provided with O-ring unions for the
expansion valve. Water condenses on the outside of the evaporator when it is in operation, as it is colder than the
surrounding air. The condensation is collected in the lower part of the climate unit and is drained via a pipe at the front
of the air conditioning unit.

Temperature sensor.
The temperature sensor contains a temperature-dependant resistor. The higher the temperature, the lower the
resistance. When the resistance value of the temperature sensor changes, a signal is sent to the control unit. The
temperature sensor is found in vehicles with air conditioning.
As of week 37, 2008, the cab temperature sensor is optical and located in the control panel.
The sensors are mounted as follows:

1. Cab temperature sensor (ECC), before 37, 2008, the sensor is located in the centre of the instrument panel,
the sensor is fitted with an intake fan.
2. Cab temperature sensor (ECC), after week 37, 2008, the sensor is located in the control panel.

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3. Air temperature after heat exchanger (ECC), above heat exchanger inside the climate unit.
4. Evaporator temperature, behind evaporator (MCC, ECC).

5. Air temperature outdoor, on the climate unit front (ECC). Before week 34, 2003

Temperature sensor on the outside, applies to vehicles manufactured after week 34,
2003
The sensor measures the air temperature outside the cab. The climate system control unit collects information about
the outdoor temperature via instrument A03 from information link J1708.

The sensor B22 is located on the bumper, before week 37, 2007

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The sensor B22 is located behind the direction indicator, after week 37, 2007

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O-rings
The O-rings in the air conditioning system seal pipe joints and connections. Lubricate new O-rings with compressor oil
before fitting.

Note: O-rings can only be used once and may therefore not be refitted or used again.

Air conditioning compressor oil

Caution
The air conditioning compressor oil can be dangerous to health. Use protective gloves and protective goggles
when handling the open vessel. Make sure there is good ventilation.

Note: The air conditioning compressor oil is hydroscopic (absorbs moisture from the air) and must be stored in well
sealed vessels.

Caution
The air conditioning compressor oil plug must never be removed if there is refrigerant in the system. Oil and
refrigerant will spray out.

Note: Open connections shall be plugged when working on the air conditioning system for more than 15 minutes.

The compressor is filled with 175 cm oil when it is fitted at the factory. Too much oil gives poor cooling. Insufficient oil
damages the compressor. The compressor is supplied from the vessel, which is filled with 175 cm compressor oil for
air conditioning. When the air conditioning system has been running for a while, one can find evidence of compressor
oil in all of the components, since the oil follows along when the refrigerant circulates.
Therefore do the following when performing repair or replacement in the system: If a hose has been damaged on the
high pressure side, most of the oil has most probably been lost. There is no point in filling up the oil if a new
compressor is to be fitted. If the old compressor is to be used, first drain all oil and then fill with new oil (175 cm).
Lubricate the O-ring plugs with compressor oil and tighten them. Torque-tighten to 102Nm.

Control system components:

Control panel, control unit,


The control unit is built into the control panel, which controls the temperature within the set values. The input signal
comes from thermostats (MCC, ECC) or the manual setting (ACMAN). The output signal controls the solenoid valve
(ECC), the compressor, the cables (HEAT, ACMAN) and the stepping motors (BAS, MCC, ECC).
The desired temperature, fan speed, ventilation settings and circulation are made using the control panel controls. The
control unit then regulates the stepping motor, fan speed, etc.

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Stepping motor
There are three stepping motors that can be set in the climate unit:

1. Adjustable mixture of fresh and circulated air.


2. Air distribution.
Depending on type ECC, MCC or BAS:
4. ECC: Adjust the heating via air mixing.
MCC, BAS: Adjust the heating via air mixing and valves that control the coolant volume flow through the heat
exchanger.

Stepping motor operation


The stepping motor converts the electrical signals to a rotary movement comprising small angular steps.

The stepping motor consists of:

A rotor with permanent magnets.


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Two stators directly fed with central power.

Stepping motor

Right turn, schematic diagram

Left turn, schematic diagram

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The direct fed stators are supplied with 24 V DC at A and B. Each direct supply has three cables, six cables totally, of
which four are grounded. The control unit performs regular checks of the grounding of the direct fed stators, in various
combinations. In this way, a rotating magnetic field is created, which rotates the rotor step by step. The control unit
stores the settings of the stepping motors when the start switch is in position 0.

Malfunctions

The following is a summary of malfunctions of the ECC, sorted by symptom. Many of them are however only
experienced as faults while the system is working as it should.

Cab air too cold or hot


Cause Action

The circulating cab sensor is blocked with dust, which restricts the air flow. Clean the passage and
the sensor.

Circulating fan running too slowly (and high noise level) due to wear. Causing poor Check the fan speed and
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air flow over cab sensor. noise level. If the fan


noise level is abnormally
high when the ignition is
switched on, it indicates
wear in the fan bearings.

Something is restricting the air flow to the cab sensor or air evacuation, e.g. a Remove the restriction.
jacket, bag or refrigerator.

Something is heating up or cooling the air around the cab sensor, e.g. coffee Move the object that is
maker, refrigerator or cooler bag output air. heating up or cooling.

The ventilation flap on the air mixer opens too little, too much or has fastened. The Check and adjust the
air mixer is taking in cold air via the AC without passing the heat exchanger. ventilation flap.

The sun is shining on the driver. The cab sensor is not aware of the re-radiated Select a lower
heat from the driver. temperature or redistribute
the air so that more cold
air from the upper nozzles
reaches the driver.

The sun is heating up the cab sensor. Shade the cab sensor
(without blocking the air
intake).

The value for outdoor temperature is locked when the speed is less than 25 km/h. Check the speed signal.
This is to prevent the heat from the vehicle effecting the temperature sensor. A
fault on the speed signal from J1587 is interpreted by the ECC as 60 km/h, which
means that the ECC does not lock the temperature at low speed. This can give
temperature divergence when running at idle, when using the PTO and when
driving in town with stops and starts.

The value for outdoor temperature is locked when the speed is less than 25 km/h. No action, ECC
This is to prevent the heat from the vehicle effecting the temperature sensor. functioning normally.
When the speed exceeds 25 km/h, a gradual transfer to the real value occurs. This
transfer is a compromise that can occasionally cause temperature divergence in
the cab. This often occurs when running at idle, when using the PTO and when
driving in town with stops and starts

The ECC does not store the temperature when the engine is turned off. With short No action, ECC
stops with the engine turned off, the heat around the vehicle can disturb the functioning normally.
temperature sensor. The panel air will then be colder than desired until the correct
outdoor temperature is registered.

If it feels warmer or colder for a short time while driving, this can be due to the No action, ECC
hysterises in the temperature sensor. This can occasionally cause divergent functioning normally.
temperatures in the cab. It occurs normally at outdoor temperatures around 0-10
degrees C and with town driving.

The air is normally somewhat warmer at the feet and colder at the head. This is to No action, ECC
create a good working environment for the driver. functioning normally.

Maximum cooling (or heating) produced if the temperature selector is at end No action, ECC
position, i.e. either blue or red point. functioning normally.

Extra cooling (or heating) is produced during a few minutes after the temperature No action, ECC
selector has been moved, to quickly reach the selected temperature. functioning normally.

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AC is active despite cold weather outdoors


Cause Action

If the defroster has been selected, the AC operates at maximum to dry the air, No action, ECC functioning
irrespective of temperature. normally.

In Auto position, the AC starts when the outdoor temperature is below 11C to No action, ECC functioning
dry the air. normally.

Misty windows despite Auto position


Cause Action

Certain situations demand that the Check that the AC is running and that recirculation is turned off. The
driver makes manual adjustments to air is dehumidified by the AC and fresh air. Turn the fan to max. To
the settings despite Auto being remove mist from the windscreen, select defroster. To remove mist
selected Situations that can give mist from side windows, select the lower ventilation nozzles (floor
are e.g. high humidity, snow, rain and position). It is suitable to combine floor position with defroster to
damp people or clothes in the cab. prevent the windscreen from misting up.

Fan speed too high


Cause Action

The fan runs at maximum if the temperature selector is at an end position, i.e. either No action, ECC
blue or red dot. functioning normally.

The fan increases it's speed for a few minutes after the temperature selector has been No action, ECC
moved, to reach the set temperature more rapidly. functioning normally.

Dripping water
Cause Action

When the weather is warm, condensation water can drip from the air No action, ECC functioning
conditioning unit. normally.

Mechanical noise from ECC


Cause Action

The control valve on the heat exchanger makes a noise when it turns on No action, ECC functioning
or off. normally.

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