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AUTHOR DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the work in this proposal is my own unless specified and duly
acknowledged by quotation.

Date: Name: Mohamad Hannan Mohamad Noor


Matric No.:1130697
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APPROVAL FOR SUBMISSION

I certify that this report entitled SMARTBUMP: ELECTRICITY


GENERATION THROUGH PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIAL was prepared
by MOHAMAD HANNAN BIN MOHAMAD NOOR has met the required
standard for submission in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the
award of Bachelor of Science with Honours (Applied Physics).

Approved by,

DR. AFFA ROZANA ABDUL RASHID

Faculty of Science and Technology

Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia

Date:
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First, thanks to Allah I have completed my thesis proposal. Then, I would like to express
my overwhelming gratitude to my supervisor Dr Affa Rozana Abdul Rashid, for the
guidance and encouragement throughout this final year project. This proposal would not
be realized without their continuous support and advice. Sincere thanks are extended to the
Head of Applied Physics Program, Dr Mohd Azman bin Hashim @ Ismail, for his support
on this works and all the advices given throughout my students life in USIM. Not to be
forgotten, a sincere gratitude to the lab instructor, Mr. Masbudi bin Baharuddin for his help
during conducting this experimental and. I would like to extend my greatest appreciation
to both of my parents Mrs Norizan Ali and Mr. Mohamad Noor Dinn, my siblings and
friends for their prayers, encouragement and unconditional love that motivated me to
complete this final project successfully. I praise to Allah for sending you all in my life.
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ABSTRACT

In the present era, for powering devices connection needs to be made to the power supply
through wires else power may be supplied from batteries. Batteries required charging,
replacement and other maintenance efforts. Demand for electrical energy increases day by
day, some alternative methods have been invented and innovated. To resolve such
problems, generation of electricity by energy harvesting technique through piezoelectric
material is proposed as one of alternatives by generating clean and renewable energy. The
objective for this study is to create a prototype of Smartbump that could generate
electricity through piezoelectric material and testing the electricity generation through this
smartbump. Power can be generated as vehicle wheels going through it and the electrical
energy produced can be used to power other devices. The basic working principle for the
prototype of smartbump is based on piezoelectric material that will convert mechanical
energy to electrical energy. Vehicle wheels that going through it depend on the given
pressure and surface area of the piezoelectric disc itself will generate different power.
Through this prototype, electricity generated will be stored in the capacitor for small scale
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energy harvesting. Piezoelectric disc with 0.00096 m surface area could generated

408.95J per day,as within a month 12268.8J of energy could be generated perhaps the
smartbump does not need any fuel, simply making of kinetic energy based upon our
excess weight from a vehicle moving on the bump. . In order to generate 1000 W, the
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pressure that needed is 1.472 x 10 Pa of pressure exerted on the piezoelectric element.

Keywords: Piezoelectric material, Smartbump, Energy Harvesting, Electrical Energy,


Mechanical Energy.
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ABSTRAK

Pada masa kini, untuk menjana kuasa elektrik sambungan perlu dibuat dengan kuasa
daripada wayar dan mungkin daripada kuasa bateri. Bateri perlu dicas, penggantian dan
lain-lain cara penyelenggaraan. Permintaan terhadap tenaga kuasa elektrik meningkat dari
hari ke hari, maka beberapa cara alternatif telah direka dan diinovasikan. Untuk
menyelesaikan masalah ini, penghasilan tenaga elektrik melalui teknik penjanaan kuasa
menggunakan bahan piezoelektrik adalah salah satu cara untuk menghasilkan tenaga yang
bersih dan boleh diperbaharui. Objektif kajian ini untuk menghasilkan prototaip Bonggol
Pintar yang boleh menghasilkan elektrik dengan menggunakan bahan piezoelektrik serta
menguji tenaga elektrik yang mampu dihasilkan menggunakan prototaip bonggol pintar
ini. Tenaga kuasa akan terhasil apabila roda kenderaan melaluinya dan tenaga elektrik
akan terhasil dan boleh digunakan untuk memberi kuasa kepada peranti lain. Prinsip asas
bonggol pintar ini adalah dengan menggunakan bahan piezoelektrik yang akan
menukarkan tenaga mekanikal kepada tenaga elektrik apabila getaran terhasil selepas roda
kenderaan melaluinya bergantung pada tekanan dan luas permukaan piezoelektrik itu
sendiri. Melalui prototaip ini, elektrik yang dihasilkan akan disimpan di dalam kapasitor
untuk penjanaan kuasa berskala kecil. Bahan piezoelektrik pada bonggol pintar akan
mengecas kapasitor dan mengeluarkan cas untuk digunakan pada peralatan yang berskala
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kecil. Ruang permukaan cakra piezoelektrik ialah 0.00096 m boleh menjana tenaga

elektrik 408.95J sehari, dan sebulan adalah 12268.8J tenaga kuasa tanpa menggunakan
minyak petrol dan hanya menggunakan berat kenderaan yang bergerak melaluinya. Intuk
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menjana 1000 W, kadar tekanan yang diperlukan ialah 1.472 x 10 Pa tekanan

diperlukan ke atas bahan piezoelektrik tersebut.

Kata Kunci: Bahan Piezoelektrik, Bonggol Pintar, Penjanaan Tenaga, Tenaga Elektrik,
Tenaga Mekanikal
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENT PAGE

Author Declaration i

Approval for Submission ii

Acknowledgements iii

Abstract iv

Abstrak v

Table of Contents vi

List of Figures ix

List of Table xi

Abbreviations xii

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Background 1

1.2 Problem Statement 2

1.3 Objective 3

1.4 Scope of Study 3

1.5 Significant of Research 4

1.6 Organization of Proposal Report 4

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 6


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2.1 What is Piezoelectric Material? 6

2.1.1 Examples of Piezoelectric Materials 9

2.2 Benefits of Energy Harvesting 10

2.3 Mechanical Vibration 13

2.4 Applications of Piezoelectric Materials 15

2.5 Piezoelectric Effect in Ceramic Materials 18

2.5.1 Basic Behavior of a Piezoelectric Ceramic Body 20

2.6 Application of Piezo Energy Harvesting in the Present Scenario 22

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHADOLOGY 24

3.1 Introduction 24

3.2 Procedure for Piezoelectric Harvesting 27

3.3 Circuit Design 28

3.4 Parameter Being Analyze 31

3.4.1 Type of Connection 31

3.4.2 Frequency of Stepping 32

3.4.3 Number of Piezoelectric Disc used 33

3.4.4 Pressure Exerted from the Load 33

3.5 Flow Chart of the Project 34

3.6 Prototype of Smartbump 35

CHAPTER 4:RESULT AND DISCUSSION 38

4.1 Introduction 38
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4.2 The Practical Use of the Electricity Generation System 41

4.2.1 Analysis of Frequency of Stepping on the Smartbump 41

4.2.2 Analysis Number of Piezoelectric Discs Used on Power Produced 46

4.2.3 Effect Pressure from the Load to the Smartbump Energy Harvester 48

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 53

5.1 Conclusion 53

5.2 Recommendation 54

REFERENCES 56

APPENDIX A 58

APPENDIX B 59

APPENDIX C 60

APPENDIX D 61

APPENDIX E 62
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LIST OF FIGURE

PAGE

Figure 2.1 Piezoelectric enables conversion form 7


mechanical energy into electric energy
and vice versa
Figure 2.2 Schematic of converse and direct 7
piezoelectric effect
Figure 2.3 Structure of a piezoelectric component 9
Figure 2.4 Schematic of energy harvesting system 11
Figure 2.5 Flowchart of working of piezoelectric 12
circuit
Figure 2.6 (a) Cross-sectional schematic. 15
(b) piezoelectric behavior of piezo
electret foam
Figure 2.7 Method to pole a piezoelectric material 18
Figure 2.8 Vibration ceramic & diaphragm 19
Figure 2.9 Polarization of ceramic material to 19
generate piezoelectric effect
Figure 2.10 An example of piezoelectric effect 20
Figure 2.11 Single Layer Longitudinal Motor 22
Getting Thicker
Figure 2.12 Single Layer Transverse Motor 22
With Sides Contracting
Figure 3.1 Piezoelectric Harvesting Procedure 26
Figure 3.2 Schematic for a piezoelectric generator 27
connect to Gamry software
Figure 3.3 Cyclic Voltammetry set-up window 28
Figure 3.4 Connection to the Diode Rectifier Bridge 29
Figure 3.5 Piezoelectric in parallel connection 30
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Figure 3.6 Motorcycle with mass 100.7 kg passing 31


through the smartbump
Figure 3.7 Flow chart diagram of the system 32
Figure 3.8 The surface of the road bump in 33
laboratory
Figure 3.9 Piezoelectric circuit being covered by a 34
soft sponge
Figure 3.10 Prototype of Smartbump 36
Figure 4.1 Car with a pressure of 960 kg across the 41
smartbump
Figure 4.2 Graph of voltage, (V) against different 42
frequency of stepping (without capacitor)
Figure 4.3 Graph of voltage produced against 43
number of stepping (capacitor)
Figure 4.4. Cyclic Voltammetry of 25V 1000F 44
capacitor (before charging)
Figure 4.5 Cyclic Voltammetry of 25V 1000F 44
capacitor (20 steps)
Figure 4.6 Graph of power generated against 46
number of piezoelectric used
Figure 4.7 Graph of power generated against 48
pressure from the load
Figure 4.8 Graph energy versus pressure exerted on 49
smartbump

LIST OF TABLES

PAGE
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Table 4.1 Power generated with different frequency 39


of stepping
Table 4.2 Power generated with different number 43
of piezoelectric discs
Table 4.3 Power generated for different mass of 45
load exerted on smartbump
Table 4.4 Energy tabulated from different pressure 47
exerted on the smartbump
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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

USIM Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia


DC Direct Current
AC Alternate Current
I Current
Mp3 Moving Picture Expert Group Layer
3 Audio
Hz Hertz
W Watts
J Joule
Ft2 Feet Square
$ Dollar
km Kilometre
PZT Piezoelectric
LED Light Emitting Diode
kW kilo-Watts
PVDF Polyvinylidene Difluoride
JR East East Japan Railway
mm Millimetre
J micro Joules
s Second
W Microwatts
m Micrometer
kg Kilogram
W Watt
V Volts
m Mass
P Power
cm Centimetre
E Energy
t Time
s Second
h Hour
Pa Pascal
F Force
g Gravity
A Area
P Pressure
N Newton
Pf Final power

Po Initial power

I avg Average current

V avg Average voltage


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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Electricity became one of the important sources in the world. It is not a human invention,
and may be observed in several forms in nature. Long time ago, electrical power is usually
generated by electro mechanical generators driven by steam produced from fossil fuel
combustion, or the heat released from nuclear reactions, or from other sources such as
kinetic energy extracted from wind or flowing water. Nowadays, there are many
alternatives method in order to generate electricity by using alternative power generation.

Electricity can be generated by using one of the alternatives ways from the
vibration of the smartbump as vehicle going through it. The waste vibration energy that
produced is being used to form electricity. This would be a great evolution in electricity
generation history. By calculating the total vibration force exerted on the piezoelectric
discs it could generate high power of electricity.

The energy required from the surrounding so that the process of the system can
convert the energy into usable electricity energy in the small scale energy harvesting.
Energy harvesting is the process by which energy is derived from external sources and
utilized to drive the machines directly, or the energy is captured and stored for future use.
Hence, Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting comes under the category of micro scale energy
harvesting scheme (Shrivastava & Gorey, 2010)

Piezoelectric materials are the smart materials which convert mechanical stress,
bending of structures, strain or vibration into electrical potential and vice versa. Thus, the
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project was aiming to generate electricity using piezoelectric disc on smartbump to harvest
power that can be used to recharge the electrical devices that used in small scale energy.
Power harvesting using piezoelectric disc on the smartbump being analyzed using
different mass of vehicle going through it which each having different normal forces
acting on the contact area of smartbump due to the weight acting on it.

Smartbump are innovative energy harvesting devices that reduces the speed of
vehicle and can harvest energy from the concept of road vibration by using vehicle motion
as the subject to obtain clean and sustainable electrical power to supply electrical devices
such as mobile phone. The mechanical stress like vibration will produce electrical energy
being collect and will be stored in the capacitor. The charging process and discharge
process from the capacitor will be useful when being connected to the other electrical
devices. The power does not depend on the fuels or perhaps any sort of energy resources,
simply making use of vehicle motion depend on the excess weight and pressure exerted on
the piezoelectric disc element on the smartbump (Behera, 2015).

Vehicle tires are subjected to normal and shear loads under static and dynamic
conditions. The load can be used as a source of mechanical stress for the piezoelectric
crystals. The piezoelectric crystals can thus be aligned along the inner lining of the tire
where the air pressure does the work. In this paper, different applications of piezoelectric
energy harvesting are being illustrated and an attempt has been made to conceptualize a
new way of application of the same and certain calculations has been made to visualize the
probable energy output from the system (Behera, 2015).

1.2 Problem Statement

Among all the energy related human activities can consider in urban environment, traffic
is one of the energy-expensive ones, and, furthermore, it is characterized by great waste. In
this century, power has been generated by using various ways including biofuels such as
petroleum and solar panels. The focus of the study is to create prototype of smartbump that
generate electric energy through piezoelectric material and make a study to the prototype,
some parameter need to be measured and valued. Nowadays, electrical energy is generated
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as it use many electrical power harvesters such as solar panel however, by using this kind
of alternatives it lose a lot of energy and cost a lot of money. Thus, it want to minimize the
usage of electrical energy and need to expose the new concept of electric generation by
introducing a smartbump that generate electricity through piezoelectric material that was
implemented under the smartbump and placed it in front of main entrance in USIM. This
is because a vehicle passing by frequently at that path compared to other path.
Implemented piezoelectric material under the smartbump is one of the various ways to
harvest small scale energy as it is low cost material, cleaner and more sustainable forms of
electrical power. The conversion of mechanical energy to electrical energy by the
piezoelectric material can be used as a source of energy to power electrical devices.

When applying mechanical stress, the piezoelectric material generates electricity.


Vibration and pressure are waste energy that being used as main source for generation of
electricity through piezoelectric material. Smartbump is one of intelligent technology as
they reduce speed, produce electric energy, and increase road safety at the same time.

1.3 Objective

The objective of this study:

To generate electric energy from the smartbump by using piezoelectric material.


To analysis the efficiency of smartbump prototype at different pressure, number of
stepping and number of piezoelectric disc used.

1.4 Scope of study

This study was focus on the prototype of smartbump. This study will be studied and tested
in the laboratory with different pressure exerted on the surface of piezoelectric disc. Next,
it will be conducted for several parameter such as current and voltage produced during the
charging process as different number of piezoelectric disc and the second parameter by
calculating the current and voltage generated from the system when it manipulated the
different number of stepping that exerted on the smartbump. Then, the power generated
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from each parameter will be compared using formula. Thus, the efficiency of smartbump
system can be analyzed from the power produced in the capacitor. Once the data being
collected, it will be collected and recorded.

1.5 Significant of Research

The early research into power harvesting looked to the capacitor as a method of storing
energy and powering electronics. However, the capacitor has poor power storage
characteristic because of its quick discharge time, causing the electrical output to switch
on and off as the capacitor charges and discharges. Innovation in power storage such as the
use of rechargeable batteries with piezoelectric materials must be discovered before power
harvesting technology will see widespread use (Gyuhae, et. al. 2004).

Significant of this study is to test piezoelectric material and how it could generate
electricity. Prototype of smartbump form a stress on a piezoelectric disc when a vehicle
going through it. Vehicle motion may complete 1 to 2 steps per second when the vehicle
went through and each step introduced a stressed on the smartbump and the frequency of
the stressed that formed was about 1 to vibration per second. By using this wasted
vibrational energy it could harvest the energy and use it to generate electricity. World will
come out with advantages and a lot of benefit from this new technology.

1.6 Organization of Proposal Report

In this research, it was consist by four main chapters. The first chapter will explain about
the introduction which include of background of the problem, problem statement,
objective of the study, scope of the study, significant of the study and organization of
study.

In chapter two, stated about literature review. The literature review gave
information briefly about what is piezoelectric material, advantages of energy harvesting,
and piezoelectric effect in ceramic material with sub chapter about basic behavior of a
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piezoelectric ceramic body. Next sub chapter will described the example of piezoelectric
materials that commonly used in industry and it also included about the benefits of energy
harvesting instead of using the direct current. Then, the other sub chapter will shared about
the how mechanical vibration worked towards piezoelectric discs and the application of
piezoelectric discs in present scenario.

After that, chapter three will conclude about the explanation in research
methodology for this project. The site of this experiment take place was discussed further
in this chapter. This chapter will able to describe briefly about the system, list of materials
being used along in this project, configuration of smartbump energy harvester with sub
topic that will explain further on the circuit design, type of connection, energy conversion
process and storage for the system. The progression of this project from the beginning
until the end of the project was shown by the flow chart in order to fulfill the objective of
this study. Thus, the selected parameter was chosen in this chapter enable us to test current
flow, voltage, and power produced by the prototype of the smartbump.

Next, in chapter four it discussed about the result and discussion from this project.
The analysis of current and voltage collected in capacitor was recorded. The impact of
mass on current collected in the capacitor and total power harvested from the system were
analyzed for further discussion. Then, efficiency of the system for smartbump was
calculated using formulation. The conclusion of discussion was made based on the
expected result obtained from the experiment. The comparison of energy produced was
done in this chapter with further discussion about the reasons for each result collected.

Finally, the last chapter was project planning included the progression of the
research from time to time. It starts with proposal preparation and circuit preparation.
Next, the prototype preparation follows by test the circuit and the prototype. Then,
analysis of the results and lastly, write the report. Thus, the system could be used in the
future to harvest energy from mechanical stress into electrical power in large scale
production.
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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 What is Piezoelectric Material?

Piezoelectric devices (pronounced "pee-ay-zo-electricity") are implements that use


materials exhibiting piezoelectric effects. "Piezo," in Greek, means "pressure," which
explains that when you apply pressure to piezoelectric materials, you get a charge
separation within a crystal and a voltage across the crystal that is sometimes extremely
high (Yadav, et. al., 2012).

Piezoelectric materials are the smart materials that can create an electric current
when they are in condition that under mechanical stress and vice versa i.e. application of
electrical potential to the material yield to mechanical displacement while the former is
known as direct piezoelectric effect.

It made up from crystals that generate electricity when compressed or vibrated.


Having unique opposite property of generating a stress as voltage is applied to the surface
of piezoelectric materials (Davion, et. al, 2014). Piezoelectric materials generate electricity
energy when mechanical strain was applied on it. The mechanical stressed exerted onto the
piezoelectric element distort internal dipole movement and generates voltage which is
electrical potentials in direct proportion to the applied forces (Anil & Sreekanth 2014).
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Figure 2.1: Piezoelectric enables conversion form mechanical energy into electric energy and vice
versa (Holterman & Groen, 2013).

Figure 2.2: Schematic of converse and direct piezoelectric effect (Dineva, 2014).

Effect of piezoelectric exist in two domains, the first is the direct piezoelectric
effect that explain about the materials ability to transform mechanical strain into electrical
charge. The second term describe about the converse effect, which is the ability to convert
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an applied electrical potential into mechanical strain energy. Materials ability to function
as a sensor depends on the direct piezoelectric effect and the converse piezoelectric effect
allow it acts as an actuator. A material was deemed as piezoelectric if it has the ability to
transform electrical energy into mechanical strain energy or transform mechanical strain
energy into electrical charge (Gyuhae, et. al. 2004).

Direct piezoelectric effect occurs when a piezoelectric material becomes


electrically charged when subjected to a mechanical stress. These devices can be used to
detect strain, movement, force, pressure or vibration by developing appropriate electrical
responses, as in the case of force and acoustic, ultrasonic transducers or sensors.

The direct piezoelectric effect allows piezoelectric materials for acoustic sensing.
In these devices, the external sound pressure acts like a mechanical load on the
piezoelectric material, thereby changing its electrical response, which can be measured
and correlated with the acoustic signal. The converse of the direct piezoelectric effect is
known as the indirect or inverse piezoelectric effect. That is, when an electric field acts on
a piezoelectric material or structure it becomes distorted. The inverse effect deals with the
conversion of an electrical potential in mechanical motion. In practice this effect is used in
static as well as dynamic operation.

The development of piezoelectric method to harvest energy is a great area because


this vibrations energy is otherwise untapped as the source is from human walking,
machinery vibrating or cars moving on a roadway. Thus, its ability to capture energy from
vibration would be a significant advancement towards greater efficiency and cleaner
energy production (Davion, et. al, 2014).

Before this, piezoelectric materials have been used as a sensor and actuator. One of
the early practical applications of piezoelectric material was developed by sonar Sound
Navigation and Ranging in 1971. These materials are capable of converting mechanical
energy of compression into electrical energy. Having these properties make it useful as a
sensor that can be utilized to generate electricity (Anil & Sreekanth 2014).

Through the mechanical stress applied on the piezoelectric discs the subtances is
squeezed or stretched. The mechanical deformation such as the substance shrinks or
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stretched is produced when an electric field is applied as a result of effect formed in


crystals that have no center of symmetry (Dhingra, et. al. 2013).

By using piezoelectric materials to harvest vibration energy from humans walking,


machinery vibrating, or cars moving on a roadway is an area of great interest as there is
wasted energy, because this vibration energy that formed is otherwise untapped. Since
movement and motion are everywhere, the ability to capture this energy cheaply would be
a significant advancement toward greater efficiency and cleaner energy production. Thus,
it is prove that green technology is the new concept of electric generation.

2.1.1 Examples of Piezoelectric Materials

The most commonly known piezoelectric material is quartz. But piezoelectric materials

SiO 2 AlPO 4
are numerous and the most used are Quartz ( ), Berlinite ( ), Gallium

GaPO4 BaTiO 3
orthophosphate ( ), Tourmaline: Barium Titanate ( ), Lead Zirconate

Titanate (PZT), Zinc oxide ( ZnO ), Aluminum Nitride ( AiN ), and Polyvinylidene

Fluoride ( PVDF ) (Ledoux, 2011).


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Figure 2.3: Structure of a piezoelectric component (Shrivastava & Gorey, 2010).

2.2 Benefits of Energy Harvesting

Energy harvesting or known as energy scavenging is one of new eco technology that can
generate electrical power and supply the current to the other devices by using mechanical
stress and vibration. At the other end of the scale there are small amounts of wasted
energy that useful if captured. Discovered that this waste energy is useful, this is where
energy harvesting comes in.

The process of harvesting the energy captures small amounts of energy that would
otherwise be lost as heat, light, sound, vibration, stress, motion or movement. All of this
energy is being captured to improve efficiency. For instance, computing cost will be cut
significantly if waste heat were harvested and used to help power the computer. The
captured energy also can be used to enable new technology like wireless sensor networks.
Energy harvesting may or may not capture renewable energy. Team renewable is
equivalent to inexhaustible for energy.

Thus, the classification of harvested energy related to this definition. There is


theoretically, an inexhaustible supply of waste energy and fractions of it could be
harvested in the sense that all processes are inherently inefficient as stated in the second
law of thermodynamics (Davion, et. al, 2014). Recently, energy harvesting from the
surrounding become one of the popular method to generate energy. A schematic diagram
of energy harvesting system is shown in Figure 2.2 (Baburao, 2013).
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Figure 2.4: Schematic of energy harvesting system (Baburao, 2013).


Energy harvesting also has the potential to replace batteries for small, low power
electronic devices. There are many benefits that can gain from this technology. There is no
need for maintenance. This means, it is maintenance free and no need to replace batteries
as the power will continuously supplied by physical contact like mechanical stress or
vibration and total power will be stored in their capacitor. Consumers would not have to
worry about changing or recharging batteries for devices such as laptop or cell phones or
other electronic devices (Baburao, 2013).

Next, energy harvesting has been labelled as green energy and green power. This is
because it generated electricity from renewable energy sources. Furthermore, it in includes
natural energetic processes that can be harnessed with little pollution and does not have
disposal like batteries that tightly regulated because they contain chemicals and metals that
are harmfulness to the environment and hazardous to human health.

It also can be use as backup energy sources and serve as backups to primary power
sources. This will increase their reliability because as a backup energy harvesting source
would prevent power interruptions. This is important to operations such as hospitals that
need energy even in emergencies such as blackouts or power cut.

The term of energy harvesting is used when electricity is generated from the
sources. Energy harvesting using piezoelectric disc is a solution where electricity cannot
be supplied from the cables or batteries which required maintenance. Energy harvesting
could be based on the number of physical effects for example, photovoltaic cell which is
thermoelectric generators that could generate electricity from temperature gradients. It is
also possible to receive and energetically use energy from radio waves. Piezoelectric
crystals are ideal for energy harvesting as it could generate electric voltage as force is
applied in the form of pressure or vibrations which uses the kinetic energy and converting
it to electrical energy (Anil & Sreekanth, 2014).

Power generating devices that used piezoelectric material have surfaced in recent
years with element of vibration-energy harvesting, but developed a piezoelectric generator
is challenging as it has poor source characters with high voltage, low current and high
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impedance. The output is sufficient to power sensors and other small, low energy
consumptions gadgets (Anil & Sreekanth, 2014).

Figure 2.5: Flowchart of working of piezoelectric circuit (Behera, 2015).

The flowchart of the working of piezoelectric energy harvester model in Figure 2.5
show that the piezoelectric energy harvesting will converts the mechanical stress or
vibration that being applied to the piezoelectric from surrounding of the system into other
kind of energy which is electrical energy. The electrical voltage produced in the system is
filled up the capacitor bank for storage. Thus, the energy that stored in the capacitor was
ready to be use for powering other devices.

Parul Dhingra from department of E.C.E of M.I.T Manipal introduced theoretical


model for piezoelectric materials by harvested energy had been presented. This is an
evident that harnessing energy from piezoelectric materials provides cleaner way of
powering lighting systems and equipment. This new approach leads our world to
implement green technology that could protect the environment. Energy harvesting system
using piezoelectric required less maintenance and cost efficient. But, it has limitation that
the implementation is not feasible in sparsely populated areas as the usages of vehicles are
very low in those areas (Dhingra, et. al. 2013).
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Furthermore, the overall efficiency of the system is increased if waste energy in a


system is harvested (Davion, et. al, 2014). In this case, waste vibration energy from human
motion on the smart carpet is the desired energy to be harvested. The source of energy in a
piezoelectric smart carpet energy harvesting event is the impact of people stepping onto it
and the weight it bears as it transitions over a piezoelectric device as this energy is kinetic
energy that goes otherwise unused. Thus, to increase the overall efficiency of the system
we harvest the fraction of this energy as a source to generate electricity
(Davion, et. al, 2014).

2.3 Mechanical Vibration

Powering the system can be significant engineering problem, as traditional


solutions such as batteries are not always appropriate. An internal generator is developed
that uses thick-film piezoelectric technologies to produce electrical power from vibrations
in the environment of the devices. Vibration is one of effective method to implementing a
power harvesting system to apply strain energy to the piezoelectric material. Ambient
vibration around the power harvesting devices could be used as power generation from
mechanical vibrations which is an energy source then it could be converted into useful
electrical energy to power other devices (Gyuhae, et. al. 2004).

Power generation from mechanical vibration usually uses ambient vibration around
the power harvesting device as an energy source, and then converts it into useful electrical
energy, in order to power other devices. The research in the following three sections has
made use of mechanical vibration in order to quantify the efficiency and amount of power
capable of being generated, as well as to power various electronic systems, ranging from
digital electronics to wireless transmitters (Gyuhae, et. al. 2004).

Williams and Yates (Nobel Prize in Literature) proposed a device, which generated
electricity when embedded in a vibrating environment. For their evaluation, an
electromagnetic transducer was chosen. A harmonic analysis of the generator was
performed in order to evaluate the viability of the device and to optimize the design. It was
determined from the analysis that the amount of power generated was proportional to the
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cube of the vibration frequency. This illustrated that the generator was likely to perform
poorly at low frequencies. It was also determined that a low damping factor was required
to maximize power generation, therefore the design must allow for large deflections of the
mass (Gyuhae, et. al. 2004).

Two basic that being used in piezoelectric materials vibration sensors today are
synthetic piezoelectric ceramics and quartz. Both of them are adequate for successful
vibration sensor design, differences in their properties allow for design flexibility. For
instance, modern tailored piezo ceramic materials have good charge sensitivity than
natural piezoelectric quartz materials. As today, the most vibration sensor manufacturers
now use piezo ceramic materials developed specifically for vibrations sensor application.
Special formulation yield optimized characteristics to provide accurate data in extreme
operating environments. The exceptionally high output sensitivity of piezo ceramic
material allows the design of sensors with increased frequency response when compared
to quartz (Gyuhae, et. al. 2004).

Figure 2.6(a) Cross-sectional schematic. Figure 2.6(b) piezoelectric behavior of piezo electret foam
(Anton & Farinholt, 2014).

Formation of piezo electret foam includes a process in which biaxial stretching of


polypropylene (other polymers can be used as well) forms lens-like voids in the material.
15

Before the stretching and pressing, the material may be foamed using a chemical process
or can contain mineral particles, which act as initiation sites for the voids during
stretching. A cross-sectional schematic of piezo electret foam is shown in Figure 2.6(a), in
which the voids are clearly illustrated. Once pressed, the foam will charged using a corona
discharge process in which a large potential is applied across the material causing Paschen
breakdown of the gas that fills the voids. The charges generated during breakdown are
permanently deposited on the faces of the voids and are opposite in polarity compared to
the overall polarity of the outer layer of the material (Anton & Farinholt, 2014).

Besides that, unlike conventional piezoelectric materials in which piezoelectricity


is derived from the rotation of dipole moments with applied force, which exist due to the
crystalline structure of the material, piezoelectricity in piezo electret materials occurs due
to dimensional changes in the macroscopic dipoles, or charged voids. When a positive
strain is applied in the thickness direction of a piezo electret, the thickness grows up
occurs mainly in the air voids. Increases in the gaps between the charged surfaces of the
voids increase the overall macroscopic dipole moment and surface charge, thus producing
piezoelectric response and a positive d33 coefficient. This characteristic is shown in Figure
2.6(b). Due to the nature of the transduction method in piezo electrets, they have an
inherently large d33 coefficient but an extremely small d31 coefficient, unlike PVDF, which
has similar (but opposite) d33 and d31 coefficients (Anton & Farinholt, 2014).

2.4 Applications of Piezoelectric Materials

The new concept of harvesting renewable energy in human environment is being exposed
to the world wide global. This kind of concept focused on one such advance method of
energy harvesting using piezoelectric material.

In order to transfer mechanical energy, the mechanisms that can be used is by using
piezoelectric materials that usually ambient vibration, into electrical energy that can be
stored and used to power other devices. A substance of piezoelectric is one that produces
an electric charge when a mechanical stress is applied. In vice versa, a mechanical
deformation is formed when an electric field is applied. Piezo-film can generate enough
16

electrical density that can be stored in a rechargeable battery for later use. Piezoelectric
materials have a vast application in real fields. Some of the latest applications are
mentioned below (Dhingra, et. al. 2013).

Through these years, the founding father and the scientist came to one
phenomenon to be used intentionally, goes back to the beginning of the 18 th century. At
that time the Dutch brought a tourmaline precious stone called tourmaline from the East
Indies to Europe. Tourmaline had a peculiar feature: while being heated, the material
attracted other materials such as ashes. Almost half a century later the Swedish botanist
and physician Carl Linneaus also famous as developer of biological nomenclature had
a hunch that this phenomenon might have something to do with electricity. And indeed,
within a decade, the German physicist Franz Aepinus confirmed that this peculiar feature
was electric. This phenomenon was later known as pyro electricity. Pyro electricity has the
ability of a material to generate a temporary voltage when it is being cooled or heated
(Holterman & Groen, 2013).

Piezoelectric materials nature is closely linked to the significant quantity of electric


dipoles within these materials. These dipoles can either be induced by ions on crystal
lattice sites with asymmetric charge surroundings or by certain molecular groups with

electrical properties. A dipole is a vector, often name d P , so it has a direction and a

value in accordance with the electrical charges around. These dipoles tend to have same
direction when next to each other, and they altogether form regions called Weiss domains.
The domains are generally randomly oriented but they can be aligned using the process of
poling, which is a process by which a strong electric field is applied across the material
(Ledoux, 2011).

S i O2
The most well-known crystal piezoelectric material is quartz ( ), and the

ceramic piezoelectric material is Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT). PZT is the best
piezoceramics, but the pure PZT usually is not perfect by doping the piezoelectric
material, its piezoelectric characteristics can be modified: especially the hardness or
17

Sb 2 O3 Nb2 O5 BaCO 3
softness of the material, for example, doping the , , and so

on (Baburao, 2013).

However not every piezoelectric materials can be poled. The reason why
piezoelectric material creates a voltage is because when a mechanical stress is applied, the

P
crystalline structure is disturbed and it changes the direction of the polarization of

the electric dipoles. Depending on the nature of the dipole this change in the polarization
might either be caused by a re-configuration of the ions within the crystalline structure or
by a re-orientation of molecular groups. As a consequence, the bigger the mechanical
stress, the bigger the change in polarization and the more electricity is produced (Ledoux,
2011).

As explained earlier, adjoining dipoles form regions called Weiss domains and
exhibit a larger dipole moment as every dipole in the domain has roughly the same
direction, thus a net polarization. The change of direction of polarization between two
neighboring domains is random, making the whole material neutral with no overall
polarization (Ledoux, 2011).

Figure 2.7 below show the crystal that will have tetragonal or rhombihedral
symmetry hence dipole moment in piezoelectric material.

Figure 2.7: Method to pole a piezoelectric material (Ledoux, 2011).


18

The element used is the piezoelectric ceramic mounted on a metal diaphragm.


When AC voltage is applied across the electrodes of the piezoelectric ceramic it expands
and contracts at the frequency applied. So the metal diaphragm will bend and could
produce sound waves (figure 2.8). The metal diaphragm is usually brass, stainless steel or
nickel alloy (Baburao, 2013).

Figure 2.8: Vibration ceramic & diaphragm (Baburao, 2013).

2.5 Piezoelectric Effect in Ceramic Materials

A well-known scientist that discover the piezoelectric effect was Pierre Curie and Jacques
when a certain crystal were applied some mechanical strain and became electrically
polarized. The applied strain is proportional to the degree of polarization. Currie in year
1880 stated that these materials deformed when they were exposed to an electric field
which known as inverse piezoelectric effect. The piezoelectric effect can now be observed
in the crystal. Figure 2.9 below illustrates the piezoelectric effect.
19

Figure 2.9: Polarization of ceramic material to generate piezoelectric effect (Dhingra, et. al. 2013).

Figure 2.10: An example of piezoelectric effect (Dhingra, et. al. 2013).

Numbers of naturally-occurring crystals such as quartz, tourmaline and sodium


potassium tartrate exhibit the piezoelectric effect which had been used for many years as
electromechanical transducers. The structure of the crystal to exhibit piezoelectric effect
has no center of symmetry. Tensile or compressive applied to the crystal will alter the
separation between positive and negative charge sites in each elementary cell. Thus, will
lead to a net polarization at the crystal surface and the effect is linear which causes the
polarization varies directly with the applied stress. But, the direction of polarization is
dependent so that compressive and tensile stresses will generate electric fields and
voltages of opposite polarity. If the crystal is exposed to an electric field, it will experience
an elastic strain due to the increase or decrease in length according to the field polarity
(Tonarelli, 2015).
20

Figure 2.10 (a) above shows the piezoelectric material without a stress or charge. If
the material is compressed, then a voltage of the same polarity as the poling voltage will
appear between the electrodes (b). If stretched, a voltage of opposite polarity will appear
(c). Conversely, if a voltage is applied the material will deform. A voltage with the
opposite polarity as the poling voltage will cause the material to expand, (d), and a voltage
with the same polarity will cause the material to compress (e). If an AC signal is applied
then the material will vibrate at the same frequency as the signal (f) (Dhingra, et. al. 2013).

2.5.1 Basic Behavior of a Piezoelectric Ceramic Body

Piezoelectric materials have properties that are defined as direct and converse effect. The
property of some materials to developed electric charge on their surface is known as direct
effect while converse effect is the property of materials to induced electric current when
mechanical stress applied on it (Nayan, 2015).

There are always pros and cons in the material. Among the advantage of
piezoelectric materials is it gives very high frequency response to the stress that applied on
it. It can generate the power by itself without any supply support. Piezoelectric material is
simple use with small dimension and large measuring range. Barium titanate and quartz
can be made in desired shape and size. It also has large dielectric constant with crystal axis
selectable by orienting the direction of orientation (Nayan, 2015).

Next, disadvantages of piezoelectric materials are not suitable for measurement in


static condition. It needs high impendence cable for electrical interface as the devices
operates with small electric charge. The output varied according to the temperature
variation of the crystal itself. Thus, if relative humidity rises above 85% or falls below
25%, so that it will give affect the output thus, to enhance it coated with wax or polymer
material (Nayan, 2015).

There is two ways to generate voltage at the output of we can apply the mechanical
stress to single sheet of piezo ceramic. First, generate by longitudinal direction which is
parallel to polarization. Then, by transverse direction which is perpendicular to
21

polarization. When a mechanical stress is applied to a single sheet of piezo ceramic in the
longitudinal direction (parallel to polarization), a voltage is generated which tries to return
the piece to its original thickness (Baburao, 2013).

Figure 2.11: Single Layer Longitudinal Motor


Getting Thicker (Baburao, 2013).

Figure 2.12: Single Layer Transverse Motor


With Sides Contracting (Baburao, 2013).
22

At the output of combined piezoelectric transducer we can get AC voltage. It is


obviously more than single piezoelectric transducer .the multilayer piezoelectric
transducer will be worked as shown in figure 2.13 (Baburao, 2013).

Figure 2.13: Co-fired Multi-Layer Stack Motor (Baburao, 2013).

There are many properties of piezoelectric material. One of the properties is high
value of the dielectric constant. Then, presence of spontaneous polarization in some
domains and presence of hysteresis loop in polarization-electric field and strain-electric
field curves. Next, the dielectric constant increase of temperature. After that, the properties
of ferroelectric will disappear above a special point in dielectric constant temperature
curve which is Curie point. Lastly, residual polarization appearance and a double
electric layer on the surface of sintered samples after exposure to a strong electric field,
which causes the display of the piezoelectric effect in the material and will convert
mechanical strain into an electrical energy.

2.6 Application of Piezo Energy Harvesting in the Present Scenario

There are lots of thing that can be create when it comes to the idea of carrying electronic
devices such as radio and there is no worry about when the batteries will need to be
replace. It could be far closer than one would think. This thought has caused the desire for
self-powered electronics to grow quickly, leaving only one limitation before these devices
can become a reality. The one issue that still needs to be resolved is a method to generate
23

sufficient energy to power the necessary electronics. However, with the advances in power
harvesting that have been outlined in this paper the ability to obtain and accumulate the
necessary amount of energy to power such devices is clearly possible.
24

CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

In order to design smartbump energy harvesting using piezoelectric materials project first
by making a prototype of it. The prototype was completed according to the circuit design
that had been proposed. Then, the prototype was tested using different parameter to test
the production of current and voltage that was collected through the experiment thus, the
efficiency of the system could be calculated using formula. It was tested using different
parameter to observe the difference in each design. Next, each of the data will be recorded
by using Software UT803 Interface Program. It used to take reading of current and voltage
simultaneously to have an accurate and sharp result. Then, each of the data will be
analyzed using Software Gamry Instruments Framework to analyze the charging current
through polar capacitor. The reading for the capacitor was analyzed based on the graph
display after being synthesis using this software. Each parameter will produce different
output according to the graph. This smartbump had been tested in the laboratory for two
month.

The results obtain from the calculation of energy produced. The smartbump using
formula of Power, P which is the product of Current, C and Voltage, V produced as the
capacitor is charging during the stepping process:

P = IV, (4.1)

P - Power (W)
I Current (A)
25

V- Voltage (V)

Energy accumulated in the capacitor is calculate using formula Energy, E which is


product of Power, P and Time, t in second (s):

E = Pt, (4.2)

E - Energy (J)
P - Power (W)
t - Times (s)

Pressure that exerted on the smartbump is used in Pascal (Pa) which is product of

m
mass (kg) and surface area, a in meter squared, ( 2) :

P = ma, (4.3)

P Pressure (Pa)
m Mass (kg)
2
a Area of surface ( m )

Capacitance can be defined as the amount of electric charge stored for a given
electrical potential by using a formula Capacitance, C which is Charge, Q divided by
Voltage, V:

C = Q/V, (4.4)

C Capacitance (F)
26

Q Amount of charge stored


V Electric potential or Voltage

The voltage in capacitor was measured in piezoelectric generators to make sure it


is working and use the voltage to calculate the amount of energy in the capacitor using
formula:

E = CV2 (4.5)

E Energy (J)
C Capacitance (F)
V - Electric potential or Voltage

The energy produced for each step on the smartbump was measured using voltage

Vo V1
before ( ) and voltage after ( ) using formula:

Etap E1 Eo
= -

(4.6)

E Energy different (J)


E1 Energy after charging (J)
Eo Energy initial (J)

Energy represent energy stored in the capacitor, C is the capacitance and V for the
measured voltage across the capacitor. The unit for each measurement should be correct.
The unit for capacitance is Farad and from the capacitor it is given in F. Then, convert it
to 1 F equal to 1000000F meanwhile the unit for energy is Joules (J).
27

The current and voltage produced was analyzed from the graph of capacitor before
charging process and after being charged. For each parameter, this graph will be analyzed
and the maximum current and voltage produced will be recorded to be used in the
calculation.

Analysis of the graph was done using Software UT803 Interface Program and
Software Gamry Instrument Framework. The reading of the current was scanned to check
the current, I and voltage, V produced. Using this graph, each reading was analyzed to
compare the most efficient method to produce power in the smartbump using piezoelectric
material

3.2 Procedure for Piezoelectric Harvesting

Make a diode rectifier bridge on the breadboard to allow the current to flow in one
direction.

Test the circuit using LED. The LED leads were inserted into the sockets which is
the longer lead is positive and the shorter one is negative. The piezo element was tapped
for several time to confirm the circuit is working if only the LED light up. LED was
removed from the breadboard as the circuit had been tested and then replace by capacitor.
As electrolytic capacitor has positive and negative leads which means it is a polar
capacitor. The steps of procedure of piezoelectric harvesting can be refers in figure 3.1
below:
28

Make a diode
rectifier bridge on
the breadboard

Test the circuit using


LED

The piezo element


was tapped for
several time

LED was removed


from the breadboard

Replace by
capacitor.

Figure 3.1: Piezoelectric Harvesting Procedure.

3.3 Circuit Design

Smartbump was created by using road bump that embedded with piezoelectric discs and
then it is connect to the circuit to collect current during the changing process from the
contraction and deflection that occur in the piezoelectric discs.

The piezoelectric discs is attached at the bottom of the road bump surface and put
on the road to test, to charge the capacitor as vehicle pass through it. The piezoelectric disc
is being connects and attach below the surface of road bump to protect it from damage.

From this experiment, it could investigate the possible way to harvest power from
the vibration of piezoelectric structure for the prototype of smartbump with piezoelectric
discs.
29

Figure 3.2: Schematic for a piezoelectric generator connect to Gamry software.

The current and the voltage can be observed by using application UT803 Interface
Program that installed in a computer. This application is used to record the reading of
current or voltage that applied to the smartbump. We can see the result of voltage and
current at the same time and automatically recorded by application UT803 Interface
Program.

After that, Gamry Instruments is a wide range of electrochemical software that


controls Gamry Potentiostats to perform specific electrochemical experiments. The step in
using this software is to analyse the voltage and current cycle in the capacitor that was
charged during each step. The Gamry Framework provides a common user-interface for
acquisition and analysis, respectively. This software smooths your transition to a new
electrochemical application.

Before used the Gamry Software, two electrode connections required to test
packaged with two electrode connections all potentiostats can operate. The reference
electrodes were connected and the counter electrode leads to one side of the capacitor
then, the working electrode lead was connected to other side.
30

Figure 3.3: Cyclic Voltammetry set-up window.

Figure 3.3 above show the cyclic voltammetry set up window. Four voltage
parameters define Gamrys CV sweep range. At initial E, the scanned started. Ramps to
Scan Limit 1, reverses and goes to Scan Limit 2 with additional cycles start and end at
Scan Limit 2. The scan ends at the Final E.

Figure 3.3 show that piezo element connect to a diode rectifier bridge in a circuit.
A diode bridge is an arrangement of four diodes in a bridge circuit to provide same
polarity of output. It is used to convert from an alternating current (AC) input into a direct
current (DC) output. The arrangement of four diodes was shown in figure 3.4.
31

Figure 3.4: Connection to the Diode Rectifier Bridge.

3.4 Parameter Being Analyze

There were two type of connection circuit that can be used in this project. It was series
connection and the other one was in parallel connection.

3.4.1 Type of Connection

The best connection that could give an appreciable current reading and voltage amount
necessary for the piezoelectric is in series connection. Meanwhile, parallel connection
provides more voltage rather than series connection. By follow the condition, for the
connection of piezoelectric that implemented under the smartbump was connected as
parallel to generated greater voltage. In addition, it was a step of precaution for the circuit
as the circuit will be placed under the smartbump which is used to get the heavy vehicle
move across it and this will break the connection accidentally. But, if there was a broken
connection between the wires, the circuit still can function as the parallel connection
circuit was used.
32

Figure 3.5: Piezoelectric in parallel connection.

3.4.2 Frequency of Stepping

Next, data were analyzed by using the difference of frequency of stepping. The maximum

I max V max
current, and maximum voltage, collected for each different steps were

recorded and compared. Power for each step will be calculated using the formula as power
is the product of voltage, and current collected in the capacitor. Graph of capacitor
analyses using Software Gamry Framework will be analyzed. In this experiment, 60 pieces
2
of piezoelectric discs were connected in parallel with a surface area of 0.00096 m and

constant mass which is 100.7kg.


33

Figure 3.6: Motorcycle with mass 100.7 kg passing through the smartbump

3.4.3 Number of Piezoelectric Disc used

In this parameter, different number of piezoelectric discs being used to analyze different

I max
power produced evaluated from the product of maximum current, and maximum

V max
voltage, obtained from the graph of capacitor. The number of piezoelectric used

was manipulated from 10, 30, and 60 pieces that connected in parallel and the surface area
also fixed. The pressure that exerted on the smartbump also fixed to 411 Pa.

3.4.4 Pressure Exerted from the load

Lastly, the pressure from the load was set up into different amount of pressure using
different kind of vehicles to step across the smartbump. It also included different mass and
34

pressure. The data recorded with mass 14.6 kg, 100.7 kg and 960 kg. The number of
piezoelectric used was fixed which is 60 discs connected in parallel with surface area of 85
2
m .

3.5 Flow Chart of the Project

As the start, a vehicle passing through the smartbump for 1 to 2 steps per second. An
alternating stress on the piezoelectric elements is applied for each step. Next, the
generation of power using piezoelectric material is being observed. This was the starting
point for this study. Then, AC voltage will be generated using rectification process as
power generated by piezoelectric material is alternate current. Thus, it needed to be
rectified. Then, the current produced needed to be analyzed by using Gamry Instruments.
And lastly, it involves the storage of rectified voltage into the capacitor during the
charging process. This step of flow chart can be refers to figure 3.7 below:
35

Start

Vehicle going through


the smartbump

Generation of Power
using Piezoelectric
Effect

Rectification of
generated AC Voltage

Storing of rectified
DC Voltage in
Capacitor

Analyse using
software Gamry
Instruments

End

Figure 3.7: Flow chart diagram of the system.

3.6 Prototype of Smartbump

Once the circuit has completed, the progression of prototype also need to be completed.
The smartbump will be placed at the road. This smartbump used road bump black and
yellow color as a main material to transfer the vibration to the piezoelectric circuit. This
road bump is made up from rubber that can stretch and perfectly absorbed vibration from
the vehicles tire that came across the bump.
36

Figure 3.8: The surface of the road bump in laboratory.

The vibration that produced is transferred to the piezoelectric circuit that embedded
under the road bump. So, the vibration from the road bump can be transferred to the
piezoelectric discs and then electricity will be generated. The piezoelectric discs were
connected by using parallel connection. It was set up to 60 pieces of piezoelectric discs
and embedded on a playwood as show in figure 3.10 below;
37

Figure 3.9: Piezoelectric circuit being covered by a soft sponge.


Figure 3.10 show that the circuit was being covered with a sponge. It is because
when the vehicles stepped up on the bump, they were very heavy and have a lot of load
exerted. By looking to the problem, the circuit needed to be covered by a soft thing such as
sponge. So that the sponge can give 100% covered to the circuit and get no damage.

Once the sponge has been set up to cover the circuit, the road bump needed to be
placed on the sponge and covered the piezoelectric circuit. Later on, the connection
between the circuit and the road bump will be tested by a vehicle that crossed on it and
certain amount of current and voltage will be appeared at the multimeter. Then the data

I max
was collected and recorded. Then, from the graph of capacitor maximum current,

V max
and maximum voltage, analyzed and recorded using Software Gamry Instrument

to calculate the power generated in this experiment.

Figur 3.11 below show the prototype of smartbump that made from black and
yellow rubber bump and ready to be tested.
38

Figure 3.10: Prototype of Smartbump.

CHAPTER 4
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Introduction

The results obtain from the calculation of energy produced. The smartbump using formula
of Power, P which is the product of Current, C and Voltage, V produced as the capacitor is
charging during the stepping process:

P = IV, (4.1)
39

P - Power (W)
I Current (A)
V- Voltage (V)

Energy accumulated in the capacitor is calculate using formula Energy, E which is


product of Power, P and Time, t in second (s):

E = Pt, (4.2)

E - Energy (J)
P - Power (W)
t - Times (s)

Pressure that exerted on the smartbump is used in Pascal (Pa) which is product of

m
mass (kg) and surface area, a in meter squared, ( 2) :

P = ma, (4.3)

P Pressure (Pa)
m Mass (kg)
2
a Area of surface ( m )

Capacitance can be defined as the amount of electric charge stored for a given
electrical potential by using a formula Capacitance, C which is Charge, Q divided by
Voltage, V:
40

C = Q/V, (4.4)

C Capacitance (F)
Q Amount of charge stored
V Electric potential or Voltage

The voltage in capacitor was measured in piezoelectric generators to make sure it


is working and use the voltage to calculate the amount of energy in the capacitor using
formula:

E = CV2 (4.5)

E Energy (J)
C Capacitance (F)
V - Electric potential or Voltage

The energy produced for each step on the smartbump was measured using voltage

Vo V1
before ( ) and voltage after ( ) using formula:

Etap E1 Eo
= -

(4.6)

E Energy different (J)


E1 Energy after charging (J)
Eo Energy initial (J)
41

Energy represent energy stored in the capacitor, C is the capacitance and V for the
measured voltage across the capacitor. The unit for each measurement should be correct.
The unit for capacitance is Farad and from the capacitor it is given in F. Then, convert it
to 1 F equal to 1000000F meanwhile the unit for energy is Joules (J).

The current and voltage produced was analyzed from the graph of capacitor before
charging process and after being charged. For each parameter, this graph will be analyzed
and the maximum current and voltage produced will be recorded to be used in the
calculation.

Analysis of the graph was done using Software UT803 Interface Program and
Software Gamry Instrument Framework. The reading of the current was scanned to check
the current, I and voltage, V produced. Using this graph, each reading was analyzed to
compare the most efficient method to produce power in the smartbump using piezoelectric
material.

The energy produced by the piezoelectric material depends on the frequency of


stepping, number of piezoelectric disc used and pressure from the load. The power
generated by the piezoelectric disc depend on the vibration produced by each of the
parameter after being tested and the voltage produced was stored in the capacitor and can
be used for another application. At the end of this study, comparison was done based on
the most efficient design for the piezoelectric disc to be implemented on the smartbump to
increase its efficiency.

4.2 The Practical Use of the Electricity Generation System

The piezoelectric plates that used need discontinuous pressure to create electricity.
According to the research, nowadays road bump is installed separately, the black and
bright yellow rubber pieces are not disjoint.

Thus, when the vehicle passes through the smartbump, the rubber piece which
directly pressed by the vehicle can delivered the pressure and deformation to the electricity
42

generation module under it and the press cannot be delivered to other pieces, which will
lead to the decrease of proficiency.

So, the design of the normal road bump is changed and make sure that whatever
which price gets, the force can be delivered to other pieces.

4.2.1 Analysis of Frequency of Stepping on the Smartbump

This parameter analyze the frequency of stepping that applied on the smartbump affect the
production of power collected in the capacitor during the charging process. The power
harvested that generate electric energy directly proportional to the vehicle wheels traffic
on the smartbump. If there are many vehicles stepping on the smartbump, the higher the
power that could be collected from the system thus, it could be used as free energy as well
as green energy.

When a vehicle stepped up on the smartbump, it is known as low frequency event


that can be captured in the form of the stress on a piezoelectric disc. A vehicle with mass
960 kg with pressure exerted on the smartbump is 747 Pa. Number of piezoelectric discs
2
used was 60 with a surface of 85 m .

A vehicle stepped up across the smartbump may complete 1-2 steps per 3 second.
Each step introduces a pressure on the smartbump and the frequency of that alternating
stress would 1-2 vibration per second and this can be converted to energy and can be
stored. The voltage and current were recorded using UT803 Interface Program and transfer
it to the computer to analyze.

Table 4.1: Power generated with different frequency of stepping

Frequency of Average Current, Average Voltage, Power, P (mW)


stepping
43

I avg V avg
(mA) (V)
10 0.74 4.502 3.331
40 0.89 5.024 4.471
60 0.52 3.728 1.938
100 0.61 2.660 1.623

Table 4.1 show that the power that generated according to the frequency of
stepping 10, 40, 60, and 100. Data tabulated show that for 40 steps could collect power
3
about 4.471 x 10 W thus for a step power generated was 1.117 x 104 W from the

2
piezoelectric discs with surface area 0.00096 m .

Figure 4.1: Car with a pressure of 960 kg across the smartbump.


44

Graph Voltage, (V) produced againts Number of Stepping


4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
Voltage , (V) 2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Number of Stepping

Figure 4.2: Graph of voltage, (V) against different frequency of stepping (without capacitor)

Figure 4.2 show the graph of voltage that produced against number of stepping of
vehicles. Data show that the highest voltage that could be produced was 4.5 V by using
747 Pa as a load that exerted on a smartbump. The data on the graph show the voltage was
unstable and not perpendicular to number of stepping due to the inequality of pressure
exerted on smartbump. It is because when the vehicle started to step on the smartbump,
piezoelectric discs that embedded under the bump was not totally touched and vibrate. The
surface area of the vehicles tire also gave effect to the voltage as only certain piezoelectric
discs that touched and give a reading to the graph.

Besides that, the speed of the vehicle need to be concerned as the higher the speed,
the less the power generated. It is due to the surface area of smartbump that contact to the
tire was very small. As the result, the slower the speed of the vehicle, the more voltage
could produce as the tire touched the smartbump and give fully pressure that exerted to the
piezoelectric discs under the smartbump. Theoretically, the voltage need to be increased as
the stepping also increased but in the experiment that had been done the voltage that did
not restored in capacitor will lose. Instead of wasting the voltage produced, it needed to be
45

stored. Thus, capacitor was chosen as power storage because it is fast charging and
discharging suitable for this case study.

The power generated should be increased without fluctuate but during this project,
the power generated drop drastically after 40 steps due to distortion that occur in the
piezoelectric element itself. As a result, the power that generated could not increase
directly as a few piezoelectric discs were broken and the connection wire between them
was loosen.

However, the experiment continued by replacing a 25V 1000F capacitor on the


circuit. The amount of power generated that was collected in capacitor will be scanned
using Software Gamry Instrument Framework during the step was shown in Appendix A,
B, C, D and E.

Graph of Voltage , (V) versus Number of Stepping


0.1

0.08

0.06
Voltage, (V) 0.04

0.02

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Number of Stepping

Figure 4.3: Graph of voltage produced against number of stepping (with capacitor)

Capacitor that being used in the circuit was a capacitor with 25V 1000F that act
as power storage and collector. Figure 4.2 show that amount of voltage that produced was
directly perpendicular to the number of stepping. As the number of stepping increased the
amount of voltage produced also increased. It clearly show that the power that being
generated was stored in the capacitor.
46

Cyclic Valtammetry 25V 1000F capacitor (before charging)


3.00E-05

2.00E-05

1.00E-05

Im (A) 0.00E+00
-5.00E-01 0.00E+00 5.00E-01 1.00E+00 1.50E+00
-1.00E-05

-2.00E-05

-3.00E-05
Vf (V vs Ref.)

Figure 4.4: Cyclic Voltammetry of 25V 1000F capacitor (before charging).

Cyclic Voltammetry 25V 1000F Capacitor (10 steps)


3.00E-05

2.00E-05

1.00E-05

Im (A) 0.00E+00
-5.00E-01 0.00E+00 5.00E-01 1.00E+00 1.50E+00
-1.00E-05

-2.00E-05

-3.00E-05

Vf (V vs Ref.)

Figure 4.5: Cyclic Voltammetry of 25V 1000F capacitor (10 steps).

Figure 4.5 above show the reading of charge produced after 10 steps meanwhile
figure 4.4 shows the charge that collected in capacitor before it being scanned. The reading
47

of the capacitance after 10 steps on smartbump was 90.09C and got a different
capacitance before the capacitor started charging was 89.54C. It show that the power that
generated by piezoelectric discs was collected and stored in capacitor. According to the
theory, the more the number of stepping, the more power that restored in capacitor.

This project assumed that when the number of stepping was increased, then the
amount of charged produced also will be increased. Thus, if the charged increased 0.55C
in 10 steps, the amount of charged collected should be increased to 5.5 x 10 -4 C in 10000
steps a day.

4.2.2 Analysis of Number of Piezoelectric Discs Used on Power Produced

Next parameter to measure the energy harvested using this system is the number of
piezoelectric discs embedded onto the smartbump. If the number of piezoelectric discs
used was increased thus, it could generate more current to be stored in the capacitor during
the charging process. In this parameter, the surface area for piezoelectric discs was
0.00096m2 and the number of piezoelectric discs was manipulated from 10, 30, and 60.

In addition, the pressure exerted on the smartbump was fixed to 411 Pa and 20
steps. Table below show the tabulated on different number of piezoelectric discs connected
in parallel on the production power in the system;

Table 4.2: Power generated with different number of piezoelectric discs

No. of piezoelectric Average Current, Average Voltage, Power, P


discs used I avg V avg (mW)
(mA) (V)
10 0.28 1.969 0.55
30 0.47 3.017 1.42
60 0.66 3.661 2.41
48

2
As mention before, surface area of 0.00096 m a piezoelectric disc could

5
generate electrical energy of 4.7333 x 10 W. Thus, if the piezoelectric discs

connected in parallel, the energy generated was 4.7333 x 103 W of power and within

24 hours, 408.95J of energy could be generate using 100 piezoelectric discs. Electrical
energy generated suitable charge the small scale devices. It could cut the cost of electrical
consumption in our daily life.

Power generated versus number of piezoelectric used


70
3
60 2.41 60

50

40
No of piezoelctric used 30 Power generated 1.42 2No of Piezoelectric used
30

20
0.55
10 110

0
1 2 3
Power generated (mW)

Figure 4.6: Graph of power generated against number of piezoelectric used

4.2.3 Effect of Pressure from the Load to the Smartbump Energy Harvester

Different load exert different pressure on the smartbump. The loads used were vehicle
with different mass, step on the smartbump with 10 steps for each vehicle. The higher the
pressure exerted on the piezoelectric discs, the higher the power generated from the
49

system. The relationship between the pressures exerted in the piezoelectric disc element
2
with power is linearly proportional. The area surface of smartbump was 85 m .

In this section, the area of the tires for each vehicle was different but the average
that all the area exerted by the tires was the same for each of the vehicle. There were three
kind of vehicle that being used to test the smartbump. Vehicle that used were bicycle,
motorcycle and a car. All of the three vehicles got a different mass. Thus, the mass for
bicycle was 14.6 kg. Mass of motorcycle was 100.7 kg and mass of a car used was 960 kg.

Then, the surface area of the tire of the car that touched the smartbump was 6.30
2 2
m . The surface area of the tire of motorcycle used was 1.20 m and lastly the

2
surface area of tire of the bicycle was 0.455 m . As the car step on the smartbump using

both of the tires, it assumed that the surface area of the car that exerted on the smartbump
2
was 12.6 m . The power generated on different pressure as shown rom the data

tabulated below;

Table 4.3: Power generated for different mass of load exerted on smartbump

Mass, m Pressure , P Average Voltage Average Current Power


(kg) (Pa) V avg I avg Generated,
(V) (mA)
P (mW)
14.6 157 2.386 0.18 0.429
100.7 411 3.661 0.66 2.416
960 747 5.558 0.91 5.057

For the first experiment, it cannot get a linear graph due to the error for example,
the characteristics of piezoelectric disc itself that easily breakdown when high force exert
on it caused non-linear graph and another factor due to the solder that was used to connect
the piezoelectric discs disconnect due to the high force during stepping process. But, after
a several times in taking the data, it shows a linear graph from the result,
50

For 50.57 x 104 W of power generated from the piezoelectric element it need

7.47 x 102 Pa of pressure. Thus, result can be observed for one Pascal of pressure

exerted by a vehicle with mass 960 kg could generate 6.769 x 106 W of power. Even

though, the power generated by one Pascal of pressure is quite small but for high impact
pressure it could generate more power.

Graph of power generated versus pressure exerted on smartbump


6

5 5.06

3 2.42
Power Generated, P (mW)
2

1 0.43

0
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

Pressure, P (Pa)

Figure 4.7: Graph of power generated against pressure from the load

The data shows that the higher the pressure exerted to the surface of smartbump,
the higher power can be generated. Thus, the more the mass of vehicle, the more pressure
exerted and the more surface area of smartbump that touched and transferred.

Energy accumulated in the capacitor was calculated using formula Energy which is
the product of Power, P and Time in second, Energy, E (J) = Power, P (W) x Time, t (s).
The energy that the smartbump could produce in a day, month and year was estimated
51

after analyzed from the graph in Appendix. The graph of capacitor being analyzed from
the software, the data tabulated as in the Table 4.4 below;

Table 4.4: Energy tabulated from different pressure exerted on the smartbump

Pressure, P (Pa) Power Generated, Energy, E (J)


P (mW)
157 0.429 37.0656
411 2.416 208.7424
747 5.057 436.9248

Graph Energy generated againts pressure


500
450 436.93
400
350
300
250
Energy, E (J)
200 208.74
150
100
50 37.07
0
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

Pressure, P (Pa)
52

Figure 4.8: Graph energy versus pressure exerted on smartbump

It could be concluded that pressure exerted during each step on the smartbump
could produce different energy. Data above show that energy collected in 24 hours when
pressures exert on the smartbump. .

Thus, the higher the pressure exerted on the smartbump, the higher the energy
harvested from the system. But, another factor should be considered such as excessive
mass exerted on the surface of piezoelectric element will causes the material to damage.
As piezoelectric disc is made up from polymeric films it is flexible and cheap rather than
the piezoelectric made up from ceramics.

However, this smartbump prototype was tested on the road by heavy vehicles step
through to see the limit of pressure that can exerted on the smartbump. Vehicle used was a
truck with 3000 kg that exerted a pressure of 2335.71 Pa on a smartbump. Once, the
vehicle step on it, the piezoelectric discs and the connection wire under the smartbump
started to crack. Then, the experiment assumed that smartbump can afford the heavy load
until it reached to pressure of 2300 Pa before the circuit that embedded under the
smartbump got damage

Thus, high force will damage the structure of the piezo itself. Enhancement on the
material used to make piezoelectric material is important to increase the efficiency of the
system.
53

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

5.1 Conclusion

This project had successfully simulated using the prototype that had been made and test
with different parameter to measure the power and energy harvested using the smartbump.
From the experiment that was done the power generated using the smartbump increases as
the frequency of stepping increase. Energy density is linearly proportional to the vehicles
wheels traffic and power increases in the polar capacitor as pressure exerted on the
piezoelectric discs increases.

The best design for the prototype of smartbump could be achieved when the
piezoelectric discs connected in parallel circuit. Data show that 35mm piezoelectric disc
2
with 0.00096 m surface area could generated 408.95J per day,as within a month

12268.8J of energy could be generated perhaps the smartbump does not need any fuel,
simply making of kinetic energy based upon our excess weight from a vehicle moving on
the bump.
54

The data recorded show whenever a vehicles with pressure 747 Pa exerted on the

smartbump, it could collect power of 1.117 x 104 W per step. If the step were

increased to 1000000 steps, it possibly could generate 111.775 W of power from the
smartbump that was embedded with piezoelectric discs with 35 mm each.

The efficient design for the smartbump is using more number of piezoelectric discs
that embedded under the road bump, more vehicles on traffic and high pressure exerted on
the smartbump could produce the most power in the system of smartbump energy
harvester. The energy and total power collected due to the mechanical stress on the
piezoelectric material then converted to electrical energy that could be used in daily life.

Lastly, different type of vehicle used to measure the different of power generated
by different pressure that exerted on the smartbump. The vehicles that used have different
value of tires surface area that touched on smartbump. So the bigger the tire, it could
generate more power due to the large surface area and the amount of pressure exerted.
6
Thus, for 960 kg it assumed that 1 Pa of pressure could generate 6.769 x 10 W of

8
power. In order to generate 1000 W, the pressure that needed is 1.472 x 10 Pa of

pressure exerted on the piezoelectric element.

5.2 Recommendation

The efficiency of power generated could be improved by implementing new material for
the piezoelectric element and introducing the material that have high heat resistance and
stronger material that can be use in a long term period and also could not break easily
when being applied with high force.

Surface area of the piezoelectric disc should be larger. It is because when a vehicle
passing through the smartbump, the tires did not touch the whole surfaces and cannot
transfer the mechanical stress to the piezoelectric disc. Introducing a piezoelectric disc
55

with a bigger surface area, then it could increase the possibility that a vehicle going
through onto it all the surface of the piezoelectric disc will be touch completely and then
the energy produced could be increase. It is same principal applied when the number of
piezoelectric disc connected increase, the surface area would also increase.

Next, the location of the smartbump to be installed also give influence to the
efficiency for power generated. This smartbump need to be placed where large traffic
movements are expected like main entrance of building such as main gate of USIM or in
front of school and a vehicle passing through it then piezoelectric start to generate power.
The more the traffic, the more the power can be collected in a day.

Besides this, the efficiency of the smartbump energy harvester could be improved
by using rechargeable battery to store current for each time the piezoelectric disc is
compress or vibrate. Advantage of using rechargeable battery such Li- Po or Li- ion
battery that high performance in energy density and power density. It also has bigger
capacity for power storage. If we use the battery, more current possibily could be collected
when vehicles passing through onto the smartbump as it have long live cycle which is
more than 500 discharge/charge cycles.

Finally, the study on electricity generation using piezoelectric material should be


continued to improve the performance of the system. So, our beloved country Malaysia
and other developing countries could gain benefits from that technology. Since movement
is everywhere and the piezoelectric material itself is more cheap rather than other power
generating system. The ability to capture energy in low cost would be significant
advancement toward greater efficiency and cleaner energy production to create better
energy efficient cities that have solar panels on the rooftops of building and also have
piezoelectric material on the road just to harvest green energy and do not need for any
combustion of fuel for generating power system.
56

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KambleSushamaBaburao. 2013. Development of Energy Harvesting Source From


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58

APPENDIX A

Graph of capacitor 25V 1000F (before charge)


59
60

APPENDIX B

Graph of capacitor 25V 1000F (10 steps with 100 scan rate)
61

APPENDIX C

Graph of capacitor 25V 1000F (10 steps with 10 scan rate)


62

APPENDIX D

Graph of capacitor 25V 1000F (40 steps with 100 scan rate)
63

APPENDIX E

Graph of capacitor 25V 1000F (40 steps with 10 scan rate)


64