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MARKSCHEME M01/430/H(2)M

B2. Part 1. Pole vault

(a) Any four of the following five energy aspects, provided the narrative makes sense.
! KE in runup; [1]
! Is converted to Elastic PE and Gravitational PE while swinging up on bending pole; [1]
! Also muscular energy used doing work while going up; [1]
! Energy is nearly all Gravitational PE at top of vault; [1]
! PE converted to KE on way down; [1]
[4 max]

1 2
(b) mv = mgh ; [1]
2

v2
h = ; [1]
2g
92
= = 4 m (increase in height of centre of gravity) ; [1]
2 10

But centre of gravity starts off 1 m above the ground,


so max height vaulted should be 4 + 1 = 5 m approximately; [2]
[5 max]

(c) Going up, pulling self up by say m (from experience of pulling self upward?);
Near the top, pushing down, to raise self another m say;
Gives extra height of 1 m in all;
[2 max]

(d) World record: 5 + 1 = 6 m approximately; [1 max]


M03/430/H(2)M+

MARKSCHEME

[3]

B2. (a) force % distance (moved);


in the direction of the force; [2]

(b) (i) force = weight = mg;


work done = mgh; [2]
Award [0] for quote of answer.

mgh
(ii) power = ;
t
h
but = v, so power = mgv; [2]
t
Award [1] for power = Fv = mgv.

(c) kinetic energy is constant;


gravitational potential energy t thermal energy;
as a result of air resistance; [3]
M07/4/PHYSI/HP2/ENG/TZ1/XX/M+

MARKSCHEME

A2. (a) (i) initial momentum 500 6 3000 Ns ;


final momentum 500 ( 1) 700 5 3000 Ns ; [2]
(working must be shown to award marks)
Allow approach that shows equal and opposite momentum changes.

(ii) initial kinetic energy 12 500 36 9000 J ;


final kinetic energy 12 500 1 12 700 25 9000 J ; [2]
(working must be shown to award marks)

(b) impulse change of momentum 700 5 3500 Ns ;


duration of collision 2.0s ;
3500
to give F 1800 N ; [3]
2.0
Accept force in the range 1700 N to 1800 N even with three significant figures.
MARKSCHEME

B4. Part 1 Power and an ideal gas

work
(a) the rate of working / ; [1]
time
Ratio or rate must be clear.

s
(b) let s = distance moved in time t such that v = ;
t
work Fs
P= = ;
time t
= Fv [2]

All symbols must be defined for full marks.


16 M08/4/PHYSI/HP2/ENG/TZ1/XX/M+

(c) (i) friction; [1]

(ii) recognize that F= rate of change of momentum;


m
= v = ( 60 2.0 ) = 120 N; [2]
t
(iii) ( P = 120 2.0 ) = 240 W; [1]

1 m 2
(iv) K= v ;
2 t
1
= 60 4.0 = 120 W; [2]
2
Award full marks for bald correct answer.

(v) the sand on the conveyor belt must slip to be accelerated;


in slipping kinetic energy is dissipated / lost as internal energy / heat in the
sand and conveyor belt;

or

there is friction between the sand and conveyor belt;


therefore kinetic energy is dissipated / lost as internal energy / heat in the sand
and conveyor belt; [2]
Award zero for bald statement energy is lost as heat.

(d) temperature:
the molecules gain energy by collision with the moving piston;
therefore average KE of the molecules increases;
temperature is a measure of average KE of the molecules (so temperature increases);

pressure:
pressure is caused by the force that the molecules exert on collision with the walls of
the cylinder;
the volume is decreased so there are more molecules per unit volume / more
collisions per unit time;
increased temperature means greater speed;
rate of change of momentum per unit area is greater; [7]
N04/4/PHYSI/HP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/M+

MARKSCHEME

A3. (a) Note: for part (i) and (ii) the answers in brackets are those arrived at if 19.3 is
used as the value for the height.

(i) height raised = 30sin 40 = 19 m ;


gain in PE = mgh = 700 19 = 1.3 10 4 J (1.4 104 J) ; [2]

(ii) 48 1.3 104 J = 6.2 105 J (6.7 105 J) ; [1]

(iii) the people stand still / dont walk up the escalator / their average weight is
700 N / ignore any gain in KE of the people; [1 max]

6.2 105
(b) (i) power required = = 10 kW (11kW) ;
60
P P
Eff = out , Pin = out ;
Pin Eff
Pin = 14 kW (16 kW) ; [3]

(ii) the escalator can in theory return to the ground under the action of gravity /
OWTTE; [1]

(c) power will be lost due to friction in the escalator / OWTTE; [1]
The location of the friction must be given to obtain the mark.
MARKSCHEME N07/4/PHYSI/HP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/M+

SECTION B

B1. Part 1 Linear motion

(a) (i) EK 12 72 232 ;


1.9 104 J ; [2]

(ii) uses area between the t-axis and the line;


correctly converts area distance (one 1cm 1cm square 5.0m );
distance between 90 m and 105 m;
improved accuracy, distance between 95 m and 100 m; [4]
Do not accept kinematic formulas. Distance can only be found from area.

(b) (i) EP 72 9.8 41 ;


2.9 10 4 J ; [2]
2
Accept 3.0 10 J for responses using g 10 m s .
4

(ii) energy loss 1.0 104 J ;


(1.0 104 )
average force ;
98
100 N ; [3]
N.B. follow through workinganswer is {(b)(i)(a)(i)} / (a)(ii).

(iii) e.g. air resistance;


friction between skis and slope;
force to push snow away from skis; [2 max]
To award marks responses must specify where friction is acting.

(c) 1.8 12 9.8 t 2 ;


time of flight 0.61s ;
horizontal distance travelled ( 23 0.61) 14m ;
distance CD( 14 12) 2.0m ; [4]
Accept a time of 0.60 s and CD 1.8 m for responses using g 10 m s 2 .

(d) (i) D is further from the edge C; [1]

(ii) sensible reason e.g. velocity not normal to ground;


hence impact is less; (any other sensible comment) [2]