Sunteți pe pagina 1din 4

TOWER NONLINEAR DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF CABLE-STAYED BRIDGES UNDER GREAT EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION

Shehata Eldabie ABDEL RAHEEM Candidate for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Supervisor: Dr. Toshiro HAYASHIKAWA Division of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering

Introduction

Bridges are critical lifeline facilities and integral part of local and national highway systems, which should remain functional without damage after an earthquake to facilitate the rescue and relief operations. In Japan, the seismic vulnerability of highway bridges was made dramatically evident by these structures failure in the 1995 Kobe earthquake. This earthquake provided a stimulus to investigate highway bridges seismic response, and emphasized the need to develop new procedures and specifications to assess existing bridges and to improve the seismic design of new bridges. Near field ground motions developed in the Hyogoken Nanbu earthquake were included in the 1996 Japanese design codes. The earthquake resisting system should provide a reliable and uninterrupted load path for transmitting seismically induced forces into the ground and sufficient means of energy dissipation and/or restraint to reliably control seismically induced displacements. The peculiarity of the structural behavior of cable- stayed bridges naturally requires the adoption of sophisticated dynamic analysis procedures. As a result, the necessity has arisen to develop more efficient analysis procedures that can lead to a comprehensive understanding and a realistic prediction of the seismic response and dynamic characteristics of bridge structural systems to improve the seismic performance. As consequence, using nonlinear dynamic analysis procedures as part of a performance-based design approach has become increasingly essential. A new challenge to the earthquake engineering community is to develop new technologies that could improve bridges seismic performance. These new technologies consist of new construction materials and protective systems. Theoretical, experimental and field evidences confirm the benefits of these cost-effective technologies and their potential to reduce earthquake losses in highway bridges. These technologies should be further studied experimentally and analytically to enhance their seismic performance. It has been generally recognized that the interaction between soil and structure can indeed affect the response of structures, especially for those structures founded on relatively flexible soil. The necessity of incorporating soil structure interaction in the design of a wide class of bridge structures has been pointed out by several post earthquake investigations, experimental and analytical, especially that have been constructed on relatively soft ground, which results in a great demand to evaluate the effects of soil-structure interaction on the bridges seismic behavior and properly reflect it in a seismic design to accurately capture the response, enhance the safety level and reduce design costs.

Methodology

A nonlinear dynamic finite element technique is

developed to analyze the elastoplastic dynamic response of frame structures under strong earthquake excitation. A fiber flexural element is developed for characterization of the steel tower; the element

incorporates both geometric and material nonlinearities, which are vital to understanding the complex structural mechanical behavior. The fiber flexural element modeling is adopted to capture the spread of plastic zone in individual element, which is physically motivated from actual unaxial test data of structural steel bars and give the instantaneous stiffness, making

the model ideal for iterative nonlinear analysis. A quite

general nonlinear dynamic soil structure interaction formulation capable of accurately representing arbitrary nonlinear nature of the contact between the foundation

and the surrounding soil has been demonstrated and its implementation in a finite element nonlinear seismic analysis is presented. An incremental iterative method based on the Newmark direct integration method and

the

Newton-Raphson method is employed for getting

the

nonlinear dynamic equilibrium equations solution.

Seismic Response

A quite general nonlinear dynamic analysis is developed

for a realistic prediction of cable-stayed bridge tower

seismic performance, Figs. 1 and 2. One of the most

important decisions in carrying out proper analysis is to select a design earthquake that adequately represents the ground motion expected at certain site and in particular

the motion that would drive the bridge structure to its

critical response, resulting in the highest damage potential. So an extensive series of seismic response analyses using a wide range of recorded and simulated ground motions are carried out. The ductility and base shear demands due to near-fault and long duration ground motions are compared. The stipulation of code standard input excitation limitations and the present calculated demands are discussed [1, 2]. A parametric study on dynamic characteristics of steel tower is performed to investigate the influence of different design aspects, such as damping mechanism, input ground motion, initial construction imperfections including geometric imperfection and residual stress, Figs. 3 and 4 and tower modal shapes. The numerical

results show that the horizontal beam position significantly affects the tower structural behavior, while

the initial construction imperfections due to fabrication

process of values within design range have slight effects. The effects of the vertical excitation have highly

dependence on the damping scheme [3 5].

74.30 115.00 284.00 115.00 81.10 8 x 11.5 = 92.00 34.50 34.50 8 x 11.50
74.30
115.00
284.00
115.00
81.10
8 x 11.5 = 92.00
34.50
34.50
8 x 11.50 = 92.00
31.00
8 x 11.50 = 92.00
34.50
34.50
8x 11.5 = 92.00
34.00
34.00
. 0 6 83 . 06 00
63
86
. 00 0.
0

Fig. 1. General view of cable-stayed bridge (m)

.8 006
.8 006

.8 006

.8 006
.8 006
13.00 3.50 2.40 IV 14. 504 Z Y 18.00 X . 5 063 . 1
13.00
3.50
2.40
IV
14. 504
Z
Y
18.00
X
. 5 063
. 1 7 .4 01
05
0
I
II
III
07.2
5
0.0
. 5 01
73
. 02.50 04
00 24
008
0
.8 006

Fig. 2. Steel tower of cable-stayed bridge

Imperfection Imperfection amplitude amplitude Displacement Shear (a) out-plane mode (b) in-plane mode (c) measured
Imperfection
Imperfection
amplitude
amplitude
Displacement
Shear
(a) out-plane mode
(b) in-plane mode
(c) measured aspects position
Moment & C ru v
ut era

Fig. 3 Initial geometric imperfection pattern of tower

σ y σ cr σ y σ cr σ y σ cr : Tension :
σ
y
σ
cr
σ y
σ cr
σ y
σ cr
: Tension
: Compression
(a) Outer section
(b) Inner stiffner
/ (σc 2r
-σy/σcr)

Fig. 4 Residual stress distribution through tower cross section

Energy Dissipation Control System

Seismic forces reduction of steel tower using passive energy dissipation system is investigated. The design of passive energy dissipation system should be able to provide supplemental damping to significantly reduce tower structural response to ground motion and dissipation a large portion of earthquake input energy through inelastic deformations in certain positions, which could be easily retrofitted after damage. Two effective energy dissipation concepts are suggested by providing effective energy dissipation device of new

(a) Location and direction of isolation devices

Case II Case III Case IV e r oZ e n gl ht Z r
Case II
Case III
Case IV
e r oZ
e n gl
ht
Z
r l eo ne
tg h
e r oZ
le g t hn
Z
e n go te
r
hl
Z
re o en tgl
h

(b) Rotation isolation device design (Case IV).

o en tgl h (b) Rotation isolation device design (Case IV). Elastomeric pad Viscoelastic materials Horizontal
Elastomeric pad Viscoelastic materials Horizontal beam Horizontal beam Viscoelastic materials Elastomeric pad
Elastomeric pad
Viscoelastic materials
Horizontal beam
Horizontal
beam
Viscoelastic materials
Elastomeric pad
Elastomeric pad
Viscoelastic material
T wo
er el g
aS
r ph
nie
Tow re
gel

Fig. 5 Passive energy dissipation control system

viscoelastic type connection at certain locations, Fig. 5. The connection isolators are designed to dissipate a large portion of the earthquake input energy in connection details that deform and yield during an earthquake. Since the deformation and yielding are concentrated in the device at selected connections of tower structure, damage to other element may be reduced; or a typically concentration of inelastic behavior at tower horizontal beam using low relative strength and stiffness through insertion of low yield material, since the horizontal beam is easy to inspect and repair if necessary, the primary structure will remain elastic, thus eliminating permanent damage and minimizing the extent of retrofit. A nonlinear dynamic analysis investigation of the steel tower model with the proposed energy dissipation systems is carried out and compared to the response obtained for the tower with its original configuration [6, 7]. The calculated results clarify the effectiveness of the

proposed energy dissipation system in reducing

structural elements forces and control tower primary structure ductility demand for economical earthquake resistant design. The implementation of proposed energy dissipation systems in tower structures enables a predominant elastic behavior of the main structure under severe earthquakes that depends upon the connection stiffness or yield level. A substantial reduction of the seismic response of the isolated tower is attained in comparison to that of the original tower. The low yield material energy dissipation system demonstrates its effectiveness for earthquake hazards through its capability achieving the concentration of inelastic behavior at tower horizontal beam and reducing and possibly eliminating plastic behavior of primary tower structures as yield level decreases. The low yield material technique could add supplemental damping primarily by material hysteresis and increase structure flexibility as the horizontal beam yield early attains, in terms tower structural system ability to reflect a portion of earthquake input ground motion increases.

Soil Structure Interaction

A finite element model to study the soil-foundation- superstructure interaction effects on the seismic response of a cable-stayed bridge tower supported on spread footing foundation is presented, where an incremental iterative technique is adopted for a more realistic analysis of the nonlinear soil-foundation superstructure interaction. Two different modeling approaches of simplified soil lumped parameter and Winkler soil foundation models for soil foundation interaction are considered. These models take into account tower geometry, pier flexibility and the presence of a massive foundation. The interaction between the soil and the structure is simulated with translational, rotational and their coupling springs system through simplified lumped parameter model, as shown in Fig. 6, while the soil nonlinearity including material nonlinearity of strain dependant (rigidity and damping), as illustrated in Fig. 7, and geometrical nonlinearity by base mat uplift is considered through Winkler model, Figs. 8 and 9. Soil yielding under the foundation and along the embedded depth is modeled through Hardin-Drnevich model to express nonlinear soil characteristics, Fig. 10. The contact nonlinearity induced by the uplift of the foundation is integrated in gap model. Radiation damping associated with wave propagation is accounted for implicitly through viscous damping, while the energy dissipation through soil material nonlinearity is explicitly modeled. The interaction effects generated by the normal and tangential resistance of the soil against all active sides of the footing are taken into account [8 11]. The results show that a massive rigid foundation could activate high frequency translational motion of input ground motion and generates foundation-rocking responses. The simplified lumped parameter model analysis provides a good prediction for peak responses, but overestimates the acceleration response, and the uplift force at the anchor between superstructure and pier is underestimated. The predominant contribution to the vertical response at footing base comes from massive foundation rocking rather than from the vertical excitation. The permanent settlement is found to be the less significant; he rocking vibration dominates lateral soil bearing stresses along the pier embedded depth. The underlying soil bearing stress is significantly increases due to footing base uplift.

is significantly increases due to footing base uplift. Soil profile +17.27 Depth (m) N Value 10
Soil profile +17.27 Depth (m) N Value 10 30 50 +11.03 -2.400 B N =
Soil profile
+17.27
Depth (m)
N Value
10
30
50
+11.03
-2.400
B N = 4
C = 2.2
AC2
N = 4
C = 2.4
-10.90
-15.60
AC2
N = 5
C = 4.8
-17.70
AS3
N = 8
φ = 26
AC3
N = 7
C = 4.3
-27.70
KL
-29.40
Dc1
N = 19
C = 11.4
KR
-35.50
KC
Dg1
N = 40
φ = 36
KV
Fig. 6 Soil profile and soil lumped parameter model
Sand 1 Clay Gravel G/G 0 0.5 h 0 10 -6 10 -5 10 -4
Sand
1
Clay
Gravel
G/G
0
0.5
h
0
10 -6
10 -5
10 -4
10 -3
10 -2
10 -1
Shear modulus ration & Damping

Strain

Fig. 7 Strain-dependent soil material nonlinearity + 17.27 + 5.40 - 11.23 - 18.73
Fig. 7 Strain-dependent soil material nonlinearity
+ 17.27
+ 5.40
- 11.23
- 18.73

Fig. 8 Mathematical model of Winkler soil foundation

Gap element Soil nonlinearity element
Gap element
Soil nonlinearity element
Fig. 9 General concept of uplift and sliding modeling τ 1 1 G 0 G
Fig. 9 General concept of uplift and sliding modeling
τ
1
1
G 0
G
τ max
Hysteresis curve
γ
γ r
Skeleton curve

Fig. 10 Hardin-Drnevich model and Masing’s Rule

Summary and Conclusions

The trend for cable-stayed bridges recently is to use high strength materials and therefore more slender stiffening girders combined with the rapid increase in span length. This structural synthesis provides a valuable environment for the nonlinear behavior due to material nonlinearities and geometrical nonlinearities of the structure relatively large deflection on the stresses and forces. The loss of life and extensive property damage suffered during the 1994 Northridge and 1995 Hyogoken Nanbu earthquakes led to an increased

awareness concerning the response of highway bridges subjected to earthquake ground motions and emphasized the need for research to provide new procedures and specifications. An analytical model of cable-stayed bridges tower is developed to understand accurately the precise three- dimensional nonlinear dynamic response of the bridge structural systems and to improve their seismic performance precisely. An earthquake modeling is examined and dynamic characteristics, such as natural frequencies, mode shapes and seismic response under near-fault strong excitation is determined. To simulate the tower earthquake response, a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model is established based on design drawings. A fiber flexural element is developed for tower characterization incorporates both geometric and material nonlinearities sources. A suite of recorded and simulated standard ground motion records are used for the time history analysis. Analytical parametric study on dynamic characteristics of steel tower is performed to investigate the individual influence of different design aspects, such as damping mechanism, vertical ground motion, allowable initial construction imperfections including geometric imperfections and longitudinal residual stresses; and tower modal shapes. The vertical ground motion effect has highly dependence on damping scheme. Structural control systems provide an additional mechanism to meet multiple performance objectives, particularly in the presence of severe ground motions. The design of a structure/controller system should involve a through understanding of how various types of controllers enhance structural performance. Effective energy dissipation concepts, to improve the bridges seismic performance and to provide damage control and post-earthquake functionality, are suggested by:

providing effective energy dissipation device of new viscoelastic type connection at certain locations; or a typically concentration of inelastic behavior at tower horizontal beam using low relative strength and stiffness through insertion of low yield material. For the model of the hypothetically installed with proposed energy dissipation systems, the efficiency of new viscoelastic connection and low yield material dissipative mechanism to protect seismically isolated tower structure from the near-source ground motions is examined. The calculated results prove the effectiveness of proposed energy dissipation systems in reducing structural elements forces and control tower displacement for seismic design. Furthermore, A quite general nonlinear dynamic soil structure interaction analysis methodology is developed to estimate seismic response characteristics of cable- stayed bridges tower with spread foundation. This methodology includes the effect of the soil flexibility underlying the foundation and its associated geometric and hysteretic damping. Due to rocking response of a spread foundation under a strong near-field ground motion that may result in the foundation uplift and the underlying soils yield, both of strain-dependent material nonlinearity and geometrical nonlinearity by base mat uplift are considered. Soil parameters values that are

considered in the design process are used to observe the effect of soil nonlinearities upon the tower-pier seismic response. Numerical results indicate that considering soil foundation interaction and soil nonlinearities can reduce force response quantities of the physical tower model. The soil yielding below the foundation and uplift at the interface have significantly contribution to foundation rocking response. The footing soil bearing stress dramatically increases due to footing base uplift.

References

[1]

analysis of cable-stayed bridge tower under level II earthquake ground motion, Steel Construction Engineering, (submitted).

[2]

behavior of cable-stayed bridges tower under level II earthquake ground motion, International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring of Bridges/Colloquium on

Bridge Vibration, Kitami, 1-2 September 2003 (in press).

[3]

study on steel tower seismic response of cable-stayed bridges under great earthquake ground motion, Journal of Structural Mechanics and Earthquake Engineering, JSCE, Vol. I-63, No.

731, pp. 1-17, 2003.

[4]

imperfections effects on steel tower dynamic response of cable-stayed bridge under great earthquake, Journal of

Construction Steel, JSSC, Vol. 10, pp. 355-362, 2002.

[5]

Effect of frameworks on dynamic behavior of steel towers of cable-stayed bridge under great earthquake ground motions, Journal of Structural Engineering, JSCE, Vol.48A, pp.359- 368, 2002.

[6]

dynamic behavior of steel tower of cable-stayed bridges with

passive energy dissipation system, Journal of Structural Engineering, JSCE, Vol.48A, pp.863-874, 2002.

Hayashikawa, T. and Abdel Raheem, S. E.: Steel tower

seismic response of cable-stayed bridges with passive energy

dissipation system, Proceeding of the 7th International Conference on STEEL & SPACE STRUCTURES, Singapore, pp.191-198, 2-4 October 2002.

Abdel Raheem, S. E., Hayashikawa, T. and Hashimoto,

I.: Effects of soil-foundation-superstructure interaction on seismic response of cable-stayed bridges tower with spread

footing foundation, Journal of Structural Engineering, JSCE, Vol.49A, pp. 475-486, 2003.

Abdel Raheem, S. E., Hayashikawa, T. and Hashimoto,

I.: Study on foundation flexibility effects on steel tower

seismic response of cable-stayed bridges under great earthquake ground motion, Journal of Construction Steel, JSSC, Vol. 10, pp. 349-354, 2002.

[10]

Nonlinear seismic response of soil-foundation-structure interaction model of cable-stayed bridges tower, Proceedings of 13th. World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Canada, 1-6 August 2004 (abstract submitted). [11] Abdel Raheem, S. E. and Hayashikawa, T.: Soil structure interaction effect on seismic response of cable-stayed bridges tower, Proceeding of the 1st International Conference of Civil Engineering Science (ICCES1), Assiut, Egypt, 7-8 October 2003 (in press).

Hayashikawa, T., Abdel Raheem, S. E. and Hashimoto, I.:

[9]

[8]

[7]

Hayashikawa, T. and Abdel Raheem, S. E.: Nonlinear

Abdel Raheem, S. E. and Hayashikawa, T.: Nonlinear

Abdel Raheem, S. E. and Hayashikawa, T.: Dynamic

Abdel Raheem, S. E. and Hayashikawa, T.: Parametric

Abdel Raheem, S. E. and Hayashikawa, T.: Construction

Abdel Raheem, S. E., Hayashikawa, T. and Sato, K.: