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Chapter 4 Vocab/Notes

Michael Shof
4.1 Notes:

Early thinkers thought matter was Earth, Air, Water and Fire
Democritus= Greek Philosopher proposed matter wasnt infnitely divisible
Coined the word atom
Aristotle= Greek Philosopher rejected atoms
Dalton made Daltons Atomic Theory
When atoms of two or more elements are combined to form a compound, the
mass is conserved
4.1 Vocab:

Daltons Atomic Theory- Results of John Daltons research proposed in 1803

4.2 Notes:

Atoms are extremely small


You can see them through a STM (scanning tunnel microscope)
Cathode-ray tube studies relationship between mass and charge
Sir William Crookes noticed light in tubes
Negatively charged particles (electrons)
J.J. Thomson noticed charge-to-mass
Hard to accept
Robert Millikan determined charge of electron
Mass of electron
Plum pudding model
Ernest Rutherford determines nucleus characteristics
Alpha beams dont always go through gold foil
Chadwick had proton and neutron

4.2 Vocab:

Atom- the smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of the
element
Cathode Ray- a ray originating from the cathode and traveling to the anode
Nucleus- the region in the center of the atom that contains almost all of the
atoms positive charge and mass
Proton- subatomic particle carrying a charge equal to, but opposite that of an
electron
Neutron- subatomic particle that has a mass nearly equal to that of the
proton, but carries no electric charge
4.3 Notes:

Henry Mosely fgured more about atoms


Atomic Number= # protons= #electrons
Isotopes
Natural abundance of isotopes
AMU= Atomic Mass Unit

4.3 Vocab:

Atomic Number- the number of protons in an atom


Isotopes- atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of
neutrons
Mass Number- the sum of the atomic number (# of protons) and neutrons in
the nucleus
Atomic Mass Unit (AMU)- One is 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom
Atomic Mass- the weighted average mass of the isotopes of that element

4.4 Notes:

Unstable Nuclei and Radioactive Decay


Atom can lose energy
Began researching in the late 1800s
Electric felds on radiation
Beta Radiation
Gamma Radiation
Nuclear Stability

4.4 Vocab:

Radioactivity- a process where substances spontaneously emit radiation


Radiation- rays and particles emitted by a radioactive material
Nuclear Reaction- a reaction that involves a change in an atoms nucleus
Radioactive Decay- a process where unstable nuclei lose energy by emitting
radiation spontaneously
Alpha Radiation- radiation that was deflected toward the negatively charged
plate
Alpha Particle- contains 2 protons and 2 neutrons; thus has a 2+ charge.
Nuclear Equation- an equation that shows atomic numbers and mass
numbers of the particles involved