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POWER

SYSTEM
ANALYSIS

S. Ramar
S. Kuruseelan
Power System Analysis
Power System Analysis

S. Ramar
Professor and Head
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
SACS M.A.V.M.M. Engineering College
Madurai
Former Director
Central Electricity Authority

S. Kuruseelan
Assistant Professor
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Bannari Amman Institute of Technology
Sathyamangalam

Delhi-110092
2013
Power System Analysis
S. Ramar and S. Kuruseelan

2013 by PHI Learning Private Limited, Delhi. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be
reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the
publisher.

ISBN-978-81-203-4733-5

The export rights of this book are vested solely with the publisher.

Published by Asoke K. Ghosh, PHI Learning Private Limited, Rimjhim House, 111, Patparganj Industrial
Estate, Delhi-110092 and Printed by Raj Press, New Delhi-110012.
To
Our Beloved Parents
Contents

Forewordxi
Prefacexiii
Acknowledgementsxv

1. Introduction 117
1.1 Power System Structure 1
1.2 Growth of Power System 2
1.3 Power SystemPlanning and Operation 5
1.4 Per Phase Analysis 7
1.5 One-line Diagram 8
1.6 Per-unit (pu) Quantities 9
1.7 Changing Base of Per-unit Quantities 11
Short Answer Questions14
Exercises16

2. Modelling of Power System Components 1839


2.1 Modelling of Power System Components (Rotating Machines) 18
2.1.1 Modelling of Generator 18
2.1.2 Modelling of Synchronous Motor 20
2.1.3 Modelling of Induction Motor 21
2.1.4 Modelling of Static Loads 21
2.1.5 Modelling of Transmission Line 23
2.1.6 Modelling of Two-winding Transformer 23
2.1.7 Modelling of Three-winding Transformer 23
2.1.8 Modelling of Shunt Capacitor 24
2.1.9 Modelling of Shunt Reactor 25
2.2 Impedance Diagram 25
2.3 Reactance Diagram 26
Short Answer Questions34
Exercises36
vii
viii Contents

3. Power Flow Analysis 4057


3.1 Power Flow Problem 40
3.2 Types of Buses 40
3.3 Need and Selection of Slack Bus 41
3.4 Bus Admittance Matrix 41
3.4.1 Formation of Bus Admittance Matrix by Inspection Method 41
3.4.2 Formation of Ybus by Singular Transformation 43
3.5 Power Flow Solution 48
3.5.1 Assumptions in Power Flow Studies 48
3.5.2 Steps Involved in Power Flow Solution 48
3.6 Power Flow Equation 48
3.7 Computation of Slack Bus Power, Line Flows and Losses 49
3.7.1 Computation of Slack Bus Power 49
3.7.2 Computation of Line Flows 49
3.7.3 Computation of Transmission Line Loss 50
3.7.4 Computation of Total Loss 50
3.8 Representation of Transformer with Off-nominal Turns Ratio 50
Short Answer Questions53
Exercises55

4. Power Flow Solution Methods 5890


4.1 Power Flow Solution Methods 58
4.1.1 Gauss and GaussSeidal Methods 58
4.2 Power Flow Solution using GaussSeidal Method 60
4.2.1 Algorithm/Steps for GaussSeidal Method 60
4.3 Power Flow Solution using NewtonRaphson Method 67
4.3.1 Power Flow Model 68
4.3.2 Power Flow Equations 68
4.3.3 Algorithm for NewtonRaphson Method 71
4.4 Fast Decoupled Power Flow 78
Short Answer Questions86
Exercises87

5. Balanced Fault Analysis 91113


5.1 Need for Fault Analysis 91
5.2 Classification of Faults 91
5.2.1 Symmetrical Faults 92
5.2.2 Unsymmetrical Faults 92
5.3 Modelling 92
5.4 Thevenins Theorem and Application 93
5.5 Short Circuit Capacity or Fault Level 94
5.6 Internal Voltage of Loaded Machine under Transient Conditions 94
5.7 Procedure for Calculating Fault or Short-Circuit Current 95
5.8 Calculation of Fault Current using Circuit Analysis 96
Contents ix
5.9 Calculation of Fault Current using Thevenins Theorem
and Superposition Theorem 100
5.10 Selection of Circuit Breaker 103
5.11 Series Reactors 107
Short Answer Questions108
Exercises110
6. Balanced Fault Analysis using Bus Impedance Matrix 114130
6.1 Impedance Matrix Building Algorithm 114
6.1.1 Modification of Existing Bus Impedance Matrix 114
6.1.2 Direct Determination of Bus Impedance Matrix 117
6.2 Algorithm for Short-circuit/Fault Studies 121
Short Answer Questions124
Exercises125
Appendix A128
7. Symmetrical Components and Sequence Networks 131149
7.1 Symmetrical Components 131
7.1.1 Fortescues Theorem 131
7.1.2 Phase Sequence 131
7.1.3 Operator a132
7.1.4 Voltage and Current in Terms of Symmetrical Components 132
7.1.5 Power in Terms of Symmetrical Components 135
7.2 Sequence Impedance 136
7.3 Sequence Network 138
7.3.1 Sequence Network of Unloaded Generator 138
7.3.2 Sequence Network of Transformers 141
Short Answer Questions148
Exercises149
8. Unbalanced Fault Analysis 150178
8.1 Single Line-to-Ground Fault 150
8.2 Line-to-Line Fault 154
8.3 Double Line-to-Ground Fault 157
8.4 Unbalanced Faults on Power Systems 161
8.5 Fault through Impedance 166
8.6 Unbalanced Fault Analysis using Bus Impedance Matrix 169
Short Answer Questions174
Exercises 175
9. Power System Stability 179214
9.1 Classification of Stability 179
9.1.1 Rotor Angle Stability 179
9.1.2 Voltage Stability 181
9.1.3 Mid-term Stability 182
9.1.4 Long-term Stability 182
Power System Analysis

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