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1. Soil Classification............................................................................ 2

2. Phase Relationships ....................................................................... 6

3. Effective Stress and Stress Distribution ...................................... 100

4. Consolidation .............................................................................. 133

5. Strength and Bearing Capacity ..................................................... 18

6. Earth Retaining Structures............................................................ 21

7. Piles .............................................................................................. 25

8. Seepage ....................................................................................... 28

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 2

Module 1 - Soil Classification

Situation

Laboratory gradation analyses and Atterberg Limits were performed on two soil samples.

Results are summarized below. No organic odor or materials were noted in either sample.

Soil A:

No. 4 100

No. 10 91

No. 40 83

No. 200 51

plastic limit (wp) = 22%

Soil B:

No. 4 80

No. 10 72

No. 40 35

No. 200 20

plastic limit (wp) = 20%

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 3

Requirements

AASHTO Soil Classification System a

Granular materials (35% or less passing #200 sieve) Silt-clay material (more than

35% passing #200 sieve)

A-1 A-3 A-2 A-4 A-5 A-6 A-7 A-8

A1-a A1-b A2-4 A2-5 A2-6 A2-7 A7-5

Sieve analysis: A7-6

% passing

#10 < 50

#40 < 30 < 50 > 51

#200 < 15 < 25 < 10 < 35 < 35 < 35 < 35 > 36 > 36 > 36 > 36

Characteristics

of fraction

passing #40:

Wl: < 40 > 41 < 40 > 41 < 40 > 41 < 40 > 41

Ip: <6 NP < 10 < 10 > 11 > 11 < 10 < 10 > 11 > 11

1A) What is the classification of Soil A according to the AASHTO System (include the group

index)?

Ip = 35 22 = 13

2. Use the chart to find the soil group

% passing #200 > 35%

wl < 40

Ip > 11

Soil is in group A-6

3. Find the group index: I g = ( F200 35)[0.2 + 0.005( wl 40)] 0.01( F200 15)( I p 10)

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 4

1B) What is the classification of Soil B according to the AASHTO System (include the group

index)?

Ip = 37 20 = 17

2. Use the chart to find the soil group

% passing #200 < 35%

wl < 40

Ip > 11

Soil is in group A-2-6

3. Find the group index. For A-2-6 and A-2-7 soils: I g = 0.01( F200 15)( I p 10)

Soil Classification

Criteria for assigning group symbols and group names using laboratory tests A Group

Symbol

Group NameB

Course-grained Clean gravels: Cu > 4 and 1 < Cc < 3E GW Well-graded gravelF

soils: Gravels: > 50% < 5% fines c Cu > 4 and/or 1 < Cc < 3E GP Poorly graded gravelF

More than 50% of course Fines classify as ML or

fraction retained Gravels w/ fines: MH

GM Silty gravelF, G, H

retained on

#200 sieve on #4 sieve > 12% fines c Fines classify as CL or

CH

GC Clayey gravelF, G, H

Clean sands: Cu > 6 and 1 < Cc < 3E SW Well-graded sandI

< 5% fines D Cu > 4 and/or 1 < Cc < 3 E

SP Poorly graded sandI

Sands: > 50% of

Fines classify as ML or

course fraction

Sands w/ fines: MH

SM Silty sand G, H, I

passes #4 sieve

> 12% fines D Fines classify as CL or

CH

SC Clayey sand G, H, I

Fine-grained Ip > 7 and plots on or

CL Lean clay K, L, M

soils: above A line J

Inorganic

50% or more Ip < 4 or plots below

Silts and Clays: ML Silt K, L, M

pass the #200 A line J

wl < 50

sieve w l oven dried Organic clay K, L, M, N

< 0.75

Organic w l not dried OL Organic silt K, L, M, O

Ip plots on or above A

CH Fat clay K, L, M

Inorganic line

Silts and Clays: Ip plots below A line MH Elastic silt K, L, M

wl > 50 w l oven dried Organic clay K, L, M, P

< 0.75

Organic w l not dried OH Organic silt K, L, M, Q

Highly organic

Primarily organic matter, dark in color, and organic odor PT Peat

soils

A: based on the material passing the 3-in (75-mm) sieve G: If fines classify as CL-ML, use dual symbol GC-GM or SC-

B: if field sample contained cobbles or boulders, add with SM

cobbles, boulders, or both to group name H: If fines are organic, add with organic fines to group name

C: Gravels with 5-12% fines require dual symbols: I: If soil contains > 15% gravel, add with gravel to group

GW-GM: well-graded gravel with silt name

GW-GC: well-graded gravel with clay J: If Atterberg Limits plot in hatched area, soil is a CL-ML, silty

GP-GM: poorly-graded gravel with silt clay

GP-GC: poorly-graded gravel with clay K: If soil contains 15-29% plus #200, add with sand or with

D: sands with 5-12% fines require dual symbols: gravel, whichever is predominant

SW-SM: well-graded sand with silt L: If soil contains > 30% plus #200, predominately sand, add

SW-SC: well-graded sand with clay sandy to group name.

SP-SM: poorly-graded sand with silt M: If soil contains > 30% plus #200, predominately gravel, add

SP-SC: poorly-graded sand with clay gravelly to group name.

D60 D302 N: Ip > 4 and plots on or above A line

E: Cu = Cc = O: Ip < 4 or plots below A line

D10 D10 D60 P: Ip plots on or above A line

F: If soil contains > 15% sand, add with sand to group name Q: Ip plots on or above A line

1C) What is the classification of Soil A according to the Unified Soil Classification System?

% passing #200 > 50 Fine-grained soils

wl < 50 top row

no organic odor or color inorganic

Ip > 4

wl = 35; Ip = 13 plots above A line on plasticity chart c

Soil A is CL

1D) What is the classification of Soil B according to the Unified Soil Classification System?

% retained on #200 > 50 Course-grained soils

% passing #4 > 50 Sands

% passing #200 (i.e., % fines) > 12%

classify fines according to plot location on plasticity chart c

wl =37

Ip = 20

Plots in region labeled CL or OL fines classify as CL or CH

Soil B is SC

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 6

Situation

Soil from a borrow pit will be used to construct a 250,000 cubic yard highway embankment.

Project specifications require that the fill in the embankment be compacted to at least 95% of

the Modified Proctor maximum dry density. The material in the borrow pit has the following

characteristics:

Moisture Content: 8.0%

Specific Gravity of Soil: 2.66

The Modified Proctor maximum dry density and optimum moisture content are 128 pcf and

13.0%, respectively.

Requirements

2A) What is the dry unit weight of the material in the borrow pit?

t

1. Dry unit weight: d =

1+ w

120

2. d = = 111.1 pcf

1 + 0.08

2B) What is the void ratio of the borrow material in the borrow pit?

Vv

1. Void ratio: e =

Vs

Ws

Vs =

Gs w

Ws = d = 111.1 for 1 ft3 soil

111.1

Vs = = 0.669

2.66 62.4

Vv = Vt Vs = 1 0.669 = 0.331

0.331

2. e = = 0.49

0.669

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 7

2C) In order to meet the specified compaction criteria, what is the minimum dry unit weight of

the compacted fill?

2. Minimum dry density is 95% of max

3. Minimum dry density = 0.95 128 = 121.6 pcf

2D) The minimum number of cubic yards of borrow material required to construct the

embankment is approximately:

1. For each cubic foot of compacted fill, you need 121.6 lb of dry soil, but each cubic

foot of excavated borrow weighs only 111.1 lb, so you will need to excavate a larger

volume.

d borrow Vborrow = d fill Vfill

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 8

2E) How many gallons of water must be added per cubic yard of borrow to achieve the

Modified Proctor optimum moisture content? Assume no loss of water by evaporation

during transport from the borrow pit.

1. Find difference between current and optimum weight of water in borrow material

Ww

w opt =

Ws

Ww

0.13 =

111.1

Ww opt = 14.44 pcf

Ww

w cur =

Ws

Ww

0.08 =

111.1

Ww cur = 8.88 pcf

2. Added water = 14.44 8.88 = 5.56 pcf

5.56 lb 27 ft 3 gal

3. 3

3

= 18 gal/yd3

ft yd 8.34 lb

2F) If the compacted fill in the embankment becomes saturated, what is the moisture content?

Assume that the compacted fill does not swell when water is added.

1. Se = wG s

S = 1.0 for saturated soil

e = 0.49

Gs = 2.66

2. 1.0 0.49 = w 2.66

3. w = 18.4%

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 9

2G) The borrow material is transported from the borrow pit in dump trucks that can hold 10

cubic yards of material. The average total unit weight of the borrow when it is placed in the

truck is 115.0 pcf. The minimum number of truck loads of borrow required to construct the

embankment using 250,000 yd3 is approximately:

1. First find the volume of borrow material that must be transported by truck to fill the

embankment.

d trucks Vtrucks = d fill Vfill

t trucks 115

d trucks = = = 106.5

1 + w 1.08

106.5 Vtrucks = 121.6 250,000

Vtrucks = 285,446

2. Divide by the truck capacity

285,446

Truckloads = = 28,545

10

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 10

Situation 1

A subsurface profile consists of a 6 foot layer of sand overlying 20 feet of clay. The clay is

underlain by a gravel layer that is at least 50 feet thick. The total unit weights of each of the

materials encountered are given below.

Sand 120 pcf

Clay 115 pcf

Gravel 140 pcf

The ground water level is at the top of the sand layer. Assume that the total head is the same

in the sand and the gravel layer.

Requirements

3-1A) The total vertical stress at a depth of 28 feet below ground surface is approximately:

1. Total vertical stress is the sum of stresses for each soil layer: v = t H

Clay: 115 20 = 2300 psf

Gravel: 140 2 = 280 psf

2. v = 3300 psf

3-1B) The pore water pressure at a depth of 28 feet below the ground surface is

approximately:

2. u = 62.4 28 = 1747 1750 psf

3-1C) What is the vertical effective stress at a depth of 28 feet below ground surface?

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 11

3-1D) What is the total vertical stress at a depth of 28 feet below ground surface if the water

level rises to 4 feet above the ground surface?

v = w h = 62.4 4 = 250 psf

v = 3300 + 250 = 3550 psf

3-1E) What is the change in the vertical effective stress at a depth of 28 feet below ground

surface if the water level rises to 4 feet above ground surface?

3. 'v = 0

3-1F) A 20-foot diameter water storage tank is constructed on the ground surface. The weight

of water in the tank exerts a uniform pressure of 1,200 psf on the ground surface. What is

the total vertical stress at a depth of 20 feet below ground surface at the center of the

tank? Assume the sand and the clay have the same elastic modulus.

soil = (120 pcf 6 ft) + (115 pcf 14 ft) = 2330

To find tank use the Boussinesq stress contour chart for uniformly loaded

circular footings d

x z 20

Stress is acting at center of tank, so = 0; = =2

r r 10

I = 0.31 (from chart)

tank = Ipfoundation = 0.31 1200 = 372 psf

Total = 2330 + 372 = 2702 psf

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 12

Situation 2

A two mile long embankment was constructed for a new highway. The embankment is 12 feet

high and 20 feet in width. Due to right-of-way restrictions, retaining walls are used to maintain

the width of the embankment at 20 feet for its full height. The total unit weight of the

embankment fill is 125 pcf. The embankment is constructed on a sand layer that is more than

100 feet thick. The water table is at a depth of 5 feet below the original ground surface. The

total unit weight of the sand is 120 pcf above the ground water table and 130 pcf below the

water table.

Requirements

3-2A) The stress increase at a depth of 15 feet under the center of the embankment is

approximately:

depth = 0.75B (width)

distance from center = 0B

so, I = 0.60

2. v = 1500 0.60 = 900 psf

3-2B) How much would the stress due to the embankment increase/decrease if the water table

was lowered to 10 feet?

1. As long as the embankment is above the water table, raising or lowering water table

wont affect the applied stress due to the embankment. The best answer here is It

would not change.

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 13

Module 4 - Consolidation

Situation 1

A soil profile consists of dense sand, 40 feet in thickness, underlain by a 10-foot layer of

normally consolidated clay. The clay, in turn, is underlain by relatively incompressible and

impermeable bedrock. The present water table is at the existing ground surface. Ten feet

of fill will be placed over the existing ground surface in a 1,000-foot wide by 1,500-foot long

area.

The sand has a void ratio of 0.45 and a specific gravity of 2.67. The sand is saturated

below the water table and has a moisture content of 5 percent above the water table. The

fill has a total unit weight of 125 pounds per cubic foot and a moisture content of 10

percent. The water table will be lowered 20 feet with the addition of the fill material.

The clay is saturated, has a specific gravity of solids of 2.70 and a moisture content of 35

percent. The compression index of the clay has been determined to be 0.22. The

coefficient of consolidation 0.1 square feet per day.

Requirements

4-1A) What is the total unit weight of the saturated sand?

(G s + e) w

1. Saturated unit weight: sat =

1+ e

(2.67 + 0.45)62.4

2. sat = = 134.3 pcf

1 + 0.45

4-1B) What is the total unit weight of the moist sand above the ground water level?

(G s + S e) w

1. Total unit weight: t =

1+ e

wG s 0.05 2.67

S= = = 0.297

e 0.45

(2.67 + 0.297 0.45) 62.4

2. t = = 120.7 pcf

1 + 0.45

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 14

(1 + w ) w

1. Saturated unit weight: sat =

w+ 1

Gs

(1 + 0.35) 62.4

2. sat = = 116.9 pcf

0.35 + 1

2.7

1. Se = wG s

wG s 0.35 2.7

2. e = = = 0.95

S 1

4-1E) What is the total settlement in inches of the clay layer due to the combined effect of the

imposed fill and lowered water table?

Cc ' v

1. Settlement for normally consolidated clay ( 'vm = 'vf ): = H log f

1 + e0 ' v

0

Initial stresses at mid-depth in clay

v0 = sand h sand + clay 1 h clay = 134.3 40 + 116.9 5 = 5957 psf

2

u 0 = w h = 62.4 45 = 2808 psf

'v0 = v0 u 0 = 3149 psf

vf = fill h fill + moistsand h moistsand + satsand h satsand + clay h clay

'vf = vf u f = 5373 psf

0.22 5373

2. = 10 log = 0.26 ft = 3.1 in

1 + 0.94 3149

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 15

4-1F) What is the estimated time required for 50% consolidation of the clay layer?

TH d2

1. Consolidation time: t =

cv

Single drainage, so Hd = thickness of soil layer = 10 ft

Read T from Time factor vs. Degree of Consolidation chart e. U = 50%, so

T = 0.20

0.20 10 2

2. t = = 200 days

0.1

4-1G) How long will it take for 50% consolidation of the clay layer to occur if the clay layer is

underlain by sand instead of bedrock?

TH d2

1. Consolidation time: t =

cv

Single drainage, so Hd = thickness of soil layer = 5 ft

Read T from Time factor vs. Degree of Consolidation chart e. U = 50%, so

T = 0.20

0.20 52

2. t = = 50 days

0.1

Situation 2

A soil profile consists of a10-foot layer of dense sand overlying an 8-foot layer of normally

consolidated clay. The clay is also underlain by dense sand. The groundwater level is at

the ground surface. Also, the total head measured in a piezometer installed in the middle

of the clay layer is equal to the existing ground surface elevation. A proposed development

requires that 13 feet of fill be placed above the existing ground surface. The fill material

has a total unit weight of 130 pcf and a moisture content of 12 percent.

The saturated unit weight of the sand and clay is 138 pcf and 113 pcf, respectively. The

clay has a specific gravity of 2.68 and a moisture content of 40 percent. The clay has a

compression index of 0.20 and a coefficient of consolidation of 0.05 square feet per day.

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 16

Requirements

4-2A) What is the pore pressure in the center of the clay immediately after placement of the fill

layer? Assume that fill placement occurs instantaneously.

2. u = 874 + 1690 = 2564 psf

4-2B) Assuming that the total consolidation settlement due to the weight of the added fill is 4.1

inches, how long after the fill is placed can the building be constructed? Assume that the

building has no weight

1. Total settlement = 4.1 in; allowable settlement = 1 in. So, fill must settle 3.1 in before

building can be constructed.

TH d2

2. Consolidation time: t =

cv

Use the Time factor vs. Degree of Consolidation chart e to find T.

t 3.1

U= = = 0.76

4.1

For U = 76%, T = 0.50

There is double drainage, so Hd = hclay = 4 ft

cv = 0.05

0.50 4 2

3. t = = 160 days

0.05

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 17

4-2C) What is the pore pressure in the middle of the clay layer 100 days after placement of the

fill? Assume fill placement is instantaneous.

1. Pore pressure: u = u e + u 0

u0 = 874 psf

ue v '

=1

ui ui

ui = 1690 psf

v '

Use the chart that relates to depth for various T values f

ui

z 4

depth = = = 1 (for double drainage)

H 4

TH d2

Use this equation to find T: t =

cv

T 42

100 =

0.05

T = 0.31

v '

= 0.41

ui

ue

= 1 0.41

ui

ue = 0.59 ui = 0.59 1690 = 997 psf

2. u = 997 + 874 = 1871 psf

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 18

Situation

A continuous footing is constructed at a depth of 5 feet in a uniform sand deposit. The width of

the footing is 10 feet. The sand has total unit weight of 130 pcf and a friction angle () of 37.

The depth to groundwater is greater than 100 feet. Assume concentric vertical loading. Use

Vesics bearing capacity factors for all calculations.

Requirements

5A) What is the approximate ultimate bearing capacity of the footing?

1. For sand with c = 0, bearing capacity: q ult = 0.5B' eff N SsSi + D N qSqsSqi

B = B 2e = B 2 0 = 10 ft

gwt > B below footing, so eff = t = 130 pcf

From table of Bearing Capacity Factors g, for = 37:

N 66

Nq 43

Strip footing with concentric vertical load, so: Ss = Sqs = Si = Sqi = 1.0

70,850 lb 1 ton

3. = 35.4 tsf

ft 2 2000 lb

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 19

5B) What is the approximate ultimate bearing capacity if the bottom of the footing is 10 feet

deep?

1. For sand with c = 0, bearing capacity: q ult = 0.5B' eff N SsSi + D N qSqsSqi

B = B 2e = B 2 0 = 10 ft

gwt > B below footing, so eff = t = 130 pcf

From table of Bearing Capacity Factors g, for = 37:

N 66

Nq 43

Strip footing with concentric vertical load, so: Ss = Sqs = Si = Sqi = 1.0

u = 0, so v ' = t = t D = 130 10 = 1300 psf

98,800 lb 1 ton

3. = 49.4 tsf

ft 2 2000 lb

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 20

5C) What is the bearing capacity if the water table is at ground surface? Assume that the

saturated unit weight of sand is equal to 138 pcf.

1. For sand with c = 0, bearing capacity: q ult = 0.5B' eff N SsSi + D N qSqsSqi

B = B 2e = B 2 0 = 10 ft

eff = sat - w = 138 62.4 = 75.6

From table of Bearing Capacity Factors g, for = 37:

N 66

Nq 43

Strip footing with concentric vertical load, so: Ss = Sqs = Si = Sqi = 1.0

D = t u

2. q ult = 0.5 10 75.6 66 1 1 + 378 43 1 1 = 41,202 psf

41,202 lb 1 ton

3. = 20.6 tsf

ft 2 2000 lb

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 21

Situation

A reinforced concrete retaining wall is proposed to support 14 feet of cohesionless sand

backfill as shown on the figure below. The sand has a total unit weight of 120 pcf and an angle

of internal friction of 300. The unit weight of the concrete is 150 pcf. Assume that the friction

angle for shear along the bottom of the wall is 300. Use Rankines theory to complete the

following requirements.

Requirements

6A) What is the active earth pressure coefficient?

1 sin

1. Active lateral earth pressure coefficient: K a =

1 + sin

= 30

1 sin 30

2. K a = = 0.33

1 + sin 30

1

1. Active force: Pa = t H 2K a

2

1

2. Pa = 120 182 0.33 = 6415 lb = 6.4 k

2

6C) What is the overturning moment per foot of wall about point A?

H

1. Overturning moment: M o = Pa

3

18

2. M o = 6.4 = 38.4 k/ft

3

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 22

6D) What is the resisting moment per foot of wall about point A, neglecting passive pressure at

the toe of the wall?

2 1

18

2 4

2 3

A

3 2 5

1. Divide the wall into 4 rectangular areas, as shown in the figure above.

2. Sum the moments for each of the four areas:

Mr = (Fi armi)

F = A

Arm = d

F Arm M

Section H W A

(kips) (ft) (ft-k)

1 16 5 80 120 9.60 7.5 72.0

2 16 2 32 150 4.80 4.0 19.2

3 2 10 20 150 3.00 5.0 15.0

4 2 3 6 120 0.72 1.5 1.1

Total 107.3

6E) What is the approximate factor of safety against overturning, neglecting passive pressure

at the toe of the wall?

Mr

1. Factor of safety: F.S. =

M0

107.3

2. F.S. = = 2.8

38.4

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 23

6F) What is the approximate eccentricity of the resultant of the vertical and horizontal forces?

Wbase

1. Eccentricity: e = x

2

Mr Mo

x=

Fv

Fv = 9.60 + 4.80 + 3.00 + 0.72 = 18.12 k

107.3 38.4

x= = 3.8 ft from point A

18.12

10

2. e = 3.8 = 1.2 ft

2

6G) What is the factor of safety against sliding without passive earth pressure considered?

s

1. Factor of safety: F.S. =

Pa

s = Fv tan s

Fv = 18.12 k

s = 30

s = 18.12 tan 30 = 10.46 k

10.46

2. F.S. = = 1 .6

6 .4

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 24

6H) What is the Approximate factor of safety against bearing capacity failure? Use Meyerhofs

bearing capacity and correction factors.

Qult

1. Factor of safety: F.S. =

Fv

Qult = qult B

For sand with c = 0, bearing capacity:

q ult = 0.5B' eff N SsSi + D N qSqsSqi

B = B 2e = 10 2 1.2 = 7.6 ft

eff = 120 pcf

From graph of Bearing Capacity Factors g, for = 30:

N = 15.7

Nq = 18.4

For strip footing: Ss = Sqs = 1.0

2

For inclined load: Si = 1

Pa

= arctan = 19.5o

Fv

2

19.5

Si = 1 = 0.1225

30

2

For inclined loading: Sqi = 1 = 0.6136

90

Sand deposit, so D = v ' at bottom of footing

q ult = 0.5 7.6 120 15.7 1 0.1225 + 480 18.4 1 0.6136 = 6,296 psf

47.85

2. F.S. = = 2 .6

18.12

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 25

Module 7 - Piles

Situation

A bridge is proposed to span a river. The bridge piers will be supported on 12 diameter, steel,

closed-end pipe piles (concrete-filled) driven into the medium-dense sand river bottom. The

water in the river is 15 feet deep. Laboratory tests indicate that the sand has the following

properties: specific gravity Gs = 2.67; void ratio, e = 0.60

The results of a pile load test on a 12 steel pipe pile driven 15 feet into the sand indicated that

the unit skin friction on the test pile at a depth of 10 feet into the sand was 350 psf at failure.

Also, the ultimate end bearing capacity of the test pile was estimated to be 32.0 kips.

Neglect the structural capacity of the pile and settlement in answering the following questions.

Requirements

7A) What is the saturated unit weight of the sand?

w (G s + e)

1. Saturated unit weight: sat =

1+ e

Gs = 2.67

e = 0.60

62.4(2.67 + 0.60)

2. sat = = 127.5 pcf

1 + 0.60

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 26

7B) The ultimate skin friction capacity of a pile embedded 25 ft into the sand river bottom is

approximately:

1. You need the unit skin friction to find the ultimate friction capacity. You know the skin

friction for the pile test at 10 feet is 350 psf.

350

f s = K v ' tan , so K tan =

v '

effective stress at 10 ft: v ' = v u

v = w h w + sat h sat

350

K tan = = 0.538

651

f s = 0.538 v '

v = w h w + sat h sat

3. So, unit skin friction at 15 ft:

f s = 0.538 v ' = 0.538 977 = 526 psf

15 526 1

4. Ultimate friction capacity: Q s = + 10 526 1 = 29 k

2

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 27

7C) What is the ultimate end bearing capacity of a pile embedded 25 feet into the sand river

bottom?

Nq is the same at 15 and 25 feet

25 feet is deeper than the critical depth of 15 feet, v ' 25' = v ' 15'

2. So, Qt at 25 feet = 32 k

7D) Using a factor of safety of 3.0, what is the allowable capacity of a pile embedded 25 feet

into the sand if the water level rises 10 feet?

Q ult

1. Allowable capacity: Q all =

FS

FS = 3

Qult = Qs + Qt

Change in water level does not change Qs and Qt from previous

requirements.

Qult = 29 + 32 = 61 k

61

2. Q all = = 20.3 k

3

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 28

Module 8 - Seepage

Situation 1

A 10-foot thick layer of Soil A overlies Soil B, as shown in the figure below. The ground surface

is at elevation 100 feet. Soil A has a coefficient of permeability of 20 ft/day and a total unit

weight of 125 pcf. Soil B has a coefficient of permeability of 10 ft/day and a total unit weight of

120 pcf.

Groundwater is observed at the ground surface, elevation 100. A piezometer is installed in Soil

B at elevation 75. The total head measured in the piezometer is elevation 85.

Elevation (ft)

Piezometer

100

Soil A

k =20 ft/day

t =125 pcf

90

Soil B 85

k =10 ft/day

t =120 pcf

75

Requirements

8-1A) What is the total vertical stress at elevation 90?

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 29

u = hpw

h p = h t h e = 85 75 = 10

2. v ' = 3050 624 = 2426 psf

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 30

v = 1250 psf

u = hpw

hp = ht he

he = 90 ft

h t 90 = 100 h A

2. To find head loss through layer A, start with Darcys equation: Q = kiA

For A = 1 ft2, QA = QB

kAiA = kBiB

h A

iA =

HA

h B

iB =

HB

kA = 20; HA = 10

kB = 10; HB = 15

h A h B

kA = kB

HA HB

h B

h A =

3

h B

We know that h A + h B = 15 , so + h B = 15

3

h A = 3.7 ft

h B = 11.3 ft

3. Returning to the equations for head: h t 90 = 100 h A

h p = 96.3 90 = 6.3 ft

5. And v ' = 1250 393 = 857 psf

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 31

8-1E) What is the rate of vertical seepage for a 1 square foot area?

1. With one-dimensional flow, use Darcys equation to find seepage rate: Q = kiA

kA = 20 ft/day

3.7

iA = = 0.37

10

A = 1 ft2

2. Q = 20 0.37 1 = 7.4 ft3/day

Situation 2

A concrete dam is constructed on a fine sand layer, as shown on the figure below. The sand is

underlain by impervious bedrock. The sand is 40 feet thick and has a coefficient of

permeability of 10-4 ft/minute and a saturated unit weight of 122 pounds per cubic foot. The

bottom of the dam is 5 feet below the top of the sand layer.

The tail water is at the ground surface, elevation 100, and the level of the head water is

elevation 120.

Use the flow net shown below to respond to the various requirements.

60 ft

E L 120

H = 20 ft

E L 100

DAM

A 5 ft

35 ft

Impervious B

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 32

Requirements

8-2A) What is the rate of seepage (per foot of length) below the dam?

N

1. Seepage: Q = k f h

Nd

k = 10 4 ft/min

Nf = 4 (number of flow channels, from flow net)

Nd = 12 (equipotential drops, from flow net)

h = 20 ft

4

2. Q = 10 4 20 = 6.7 10 4 ft 3 / min

12

1. h TA = h T h

each equipotential drop represents an equal amount of head loss. There are

6 drops from the headwater side of the dam to point A, so:

6

h = 20 = 10 ft

12

2. h TA = 120 10 = 110 ft

8-2C) What is the uplift pressure at the bottom of the dam at point A?

1. Uplift pressure: u = h p w

hp = hT he

hT = 110 ft

he = 95 ft

h p = 110 95 = 15 ft

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 33

1. Pore pressure at B: u = h p w

hp = hT he

Points A and B are on the same equipotential line, so they have the

same total head, so hT = 110 ft

he = 60 ft

h p = 110 60 = 50 ft

Demonstration Problem Solutions Geotechnical Engineering 34

References:

a.

Adapted from: Standard Specifications for Transportation Materials and Methods of

Sampling and Testing, Part I, Specifications, 13th ed., AASHTO, 1982.

b.

Adapted from: 1989 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM, Philadelphia, 1989.

c.

See: 1989 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM, Philadelphia, 1989.

d.

See, for example: Michael R. Lindeburg, Civil Engineering Reference Manual, 7th ed.,

Professional Publications, Inc., Belmont, CA, 1999.

e.

See, for example: Wayne C. Teng, Foundation Design, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs,

NJ, 1962.

f.

See Module 4 Visual Aids

g.

From: Karl Terzaghi, Ralph B. Peck, and Gholamreza Mesri, Soil Mechanics in Engineering

Practice, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1996.

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