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IS 10262 : 2009

6.1 Chemical Composition products are formed. These products are important
because they have cementing or adhesive value. The
The raw materials used for the manufacture of quality, quantity, continuity, stability and the rate
cement consist mainly of lime, silica, alumina and of formation of the hydration products are
iron oxide. These oxides interact with one another in important. Anhydrous cement compounds when
the kiln at high temperature to form more complex mixed with water, react with each other to form
compounds. The relative proportions of these oxide hydrated compounds of very low solubility. The
compositions are responsible for influencing the hydration of cement can be visualized in two ways.
various properties of cement; in addition to rate of The first is through solution mechanism. In this
cooling and fineness of grinding. the cement compounds dissolve to produce a
supersaturated solution from which different
Table 6.2 Approximate Oxide Composition Limits of hydrated products get precipitated. The second
Ordinary Portland cement possibility is that water attacks cement compounds
in the solid state converting the compounds into
Oxide Percent hydrated products starting from the surface and
content proceeding to the interior of the compounds with
CaO 6067 time. It is probable that both through solution and
SiO2 1725 solid state types of mechanism may occur during
Al2O3 3.08.0 the course of reactions between cement and water.
SO3 1.33.0 The former mechanism may predominate in the
Fe2O3 0.56.0 early stages of hydration in view of large quantities
MgO 0.14.0 of water being available, and the latter mechanism
Alkalis (K2O, Na2O) 0.41.3 may operate during the later stages of hydration.

7.1.1 Plasticizers or water reducing Admixtures


The oxides present in the raw materials when
subjected to high clinkering temperature combine Sometimes the use of plasticizers is employed to
with each other to form complex compounds. The reduce the cement content and heat of hydration in
identification of the major compounds is largely mass concrete. The organic substances or
based on R.H. Bogues work and hence it is called combinations of organic and inorganic substances,
Bogues Compounds. The four compounds usually which allow a reduction in water content for the
regarded as major compounds are listed in table 1.5. given workability, or give a higher workability at the
same water content, are termed as plasticizing
6.1.1 Bogues Compounds admixtures. The advantages are considerable in
both cases: in the former, concretes are stronger, and
Name of Compound Formula Abbreviated in the latter they are more workable.
Formula The basic products constituting plasticizers are as
Tricalcium silicate 3CaO.SiO2 C3S (54.1 %) follows:
Dicalcium silicate 2CaO.SiO2 C2S(16.6%) (i) Anionic surfactants such as lignosulphonates and
Tricalcium aluminate3Cao.Al2O3 C3A(10.8 %) their modifications and derivatives, salts of
Tetra calcium aluminoferrite 4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3 sulphonates hydrocarbons.
C4AF (9.1%) (ii) Nonionic surfactants, such as poly glycol esters,
In addition to the four major compounds, there are acid of hydroxylated carboxylic acids and their
many minor compounds formed in the kiln. The modifications and derivatives.
influence of these minor compounds on the (iii ) Other products, such as carbohydrates etc.
properties of cement or hydrated compounds is not
significant. Two of the minor oxides namely K2O and Among these, calcium, sodium and ammonium
Na2O referred to as alkalis in cement are of some lignosulphonates are the most used. Plasticizers are
importance. used in the amount of 0.1% to 0.4% by weight of
cement. At these doses, at constant workability the
6.1.2 Hydration of Cement reduction in mixing water is expected to be of the
order of 5% to 15%. This naturally increases the
Anhydrous cement does not bind fine and coarse strength. The increase in workability that can be
aggregate. It acquires adhesive property only when expected,at the same w/c ratio, may be anything
mixed with water. The chemical reactions that take from 30 mm to 150 mm slump, depending on the
place between cement and water is referred as dosage, initial slump of concrete, cement content and
hydration of cement. The chemistry of concrete is type.
essentially the chemistry of the reaction between
cement and water.On account of hydration certain 7.1.2 Action of Plasticizers

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IS 10262 : 2009

The action of plasticizers is mainly to fluidify the mix The factors helping concrete to have more
and improve the workability of concrete, mortar or lubricating effect to reduce internal friction for
grout. The mechanisms that are involved could be helping easy compaction are given below:
explained in the following way:
(a)Water Content
7.1.3 Dispersion. (b)Mix Proportions
(c)Size of Aggregate
Portland cement, being in fine state of division, will (d)Shape of Aggregates
have a tendency to flocculate in wet concrete. These (e)Surface Texture
flocculation entraps certain amount of water used in (f )Grading of Aggregates
the mix and thereby all the water is not freely (g)Use of Admixtures
available to fluidify the mix.
8.1.3 Slump Test
When plasticizers are used, they get adsorbed on the
cement particles. The adsorption of charged polymer Slump test is not a suitable method for very wet or
on the particles of cement creates particle-to-particle very dry concrete. It does not measure all factors
repulsive forces which overcome the attractive contributing to workability, nor is it always
forces. representative of the placability of the concrete.
However, it is used conveniently as a control test and
The overall result is that the cement particles are gives an indication of the uniformity of concrete from
deflocculated and dispersed. When cement particles batch to batch.
are deflocculated, the water trapped inside the flocs The apparatus for conducting the slump test
gets released and now available to fluidify the mix essentially consists of a metallic mould in the form
and hence the inter-particle friction is reduced. of a frustum of a cone having the internal
dimensions as under:
8.1 Workability Bottom diameter : 20 cm
Top diameter : 10 cm
Hundred per cent compaction of concrete is an Height : 30 cm
important parameter for contributing to the For tamping the concrete, a steel tamping rod 16 mm
maximum strength. Lack of compaction will result dia, 0.6 meter along with bullet end is used. The
in air voids whose demaging effect on strength and internal surface of the mould is thoroughly cleaned
durability is equally or more predominant than the and freed from superfluous moisture and adherence
presence of capillary cavities. of any old set concrete before commencing the test.
The mould is placed on a smooth, horizontal, rigid
To enable the concrete to be fully compacted with and non-absorbent surface. The mould is then filled
given efforts, normally a higher water/cement ratio in four layers, each approximately 1/4 of the height
than that calculated by theoretical considerations of the mould. Each layer is tamped 25 times by the
may be required. That is to say the function of water tamping rod taking care to distribute the strokes
is also to lubricate the concrete so that the concrete evenly over the cross section. After the top layer has
can be compacted with specified effort forthcoming been rodded, the concrete is struck off level with a
at the site of work. The lubrication required for trowel and tamping rod. The mould is removed from
handling concrete without segregation, for placing the concrete immediately by raising it slowly and
without loss of homogeneity, for compacting with the carefully in a vertical direction. This allows the
amount of efforts forth-coming and to finish it concrete to subside. This subsidence is referred as
sufficiently easily, the presence of a certain quantity SLUMP of concrete. The difference in level between
of water is of vital importance. the height of the mould and that of the highest point
of the subsided concrete is measured. This difference
The quality of concrete satisfying the above in height in mm. is taken as Slump of Concrete.
requirements is termed as workable concrete.
8.1.4 Compacting Factor Test
8.1.1 Workability may be defined as the ease with
which concrete can be compacted hundred per cent It is more precise and sensitive than the slump test
having regard to mode of compaction and place of and is particularly useful for concrete mixes of very
deposition. low workability as are normally used when concrete
is to be compacted by vibration. Such dry concrete
8.1.2 Factors Affecting Workability are insensitive to slump test.
The sample of concrete to be tested is placed in the
Workable concrete is the one which exhibits very upper hopper up to the brim. The trap-door is opened
little internal friction between particle and particle so that the concrete falls into the lower hopper. Then

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IS 10262 : 2009

the trap-door of the lower hopper is opened and the 9.1.2 Chemical Action
concrete is allowed to fall into the cylinder.
When we are dealing with the durability of concrete,
The excess concrete remaining above the top level of chemical attack which results in volume change,
the cylinder is then cut off with the help of plane cracking of concrete and the consequent
blades supplied with the apparatus. The outside of deterioration of concrete becomes an important part
the cylinder is wiped clean. The concrete is filled up of discussion. Under chemical attack, we shall
exactly upto the top level of the cylinder. It is discuss about sulphate attack, alkali-aggregate
weighed to the nearest 10 grams. This weight is reaction,carbonation, deicing effect of salt, acid
known as Weight of partially compacted concrete. attack and effect of sea water.
9.1.2.1 Sulphate Attack
The cylinder is emptied and then refilled with the Most soils contain some sulphate in the form of
concrete from the same sample in layers calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium.
approximately 5 cm deep. The layers are heavily Therefore sulphate attack is a common occurrence in
rammed or preferably vibrated so as to obtain full natural or industrial situations.
compaction. The top surface of the fully compacted Solid sulphates do not attack the concrete severely
concrete is then carefully struck off level with the top but when the chemicals are in solution, they find
of the cylinder and weighed to the nearest 10 gm. entry into porous concrete and react with the
This weight is known as Weight of fully compacted hydrated cement products. A characteristic whitish
concrete. appearance is the indication of sulphate attack. The
term sulphate attack denote an increase in the
The Compacting Factor = Weight of partially volume of cement paste in concrete or mortar due to
compacted concrete / Weight of fully compacted the chemical action between the products of
concrete hydration of cement and solution containing
sulphates. In the hardened concrete, calcium
9.1 Definition of Durability aluminate hydrate (C-A-H) can react with sulphate
salt from outside. The product of reaction is calcium
The durability of cement concrete is defined as its sulphoaluminate, forming within the framework of
ability to resist weathering action, chemical attack, hydrated cement paste. Because of the increase in
abrasion, or any other process of deterioration. volume of the solid phase which can go up to 227 per
Durable concrete will retain its original form, cent, a gradual disintegration of concrete takes
quality, and serviceability when exposed to its place.
environment. The reactions of the various sulphates with
hardened cement paste is shown below
For a long time, concrete was considered to be very Let us take the example of Sodium Sulphate
durable material requiring a little or no attacking Ca(OH)2
maintenance. The assumption is largely true, except Ca(OH)2+Na2SO4.10H2OCaSO4.2H2O+2NaOH+8H2O
when it is subjected to highly aggressive The rate of sulphate attack increases with the
environments. We build concrete structures in increase in the strength of solution. A saturated
highly polluted urban and industrial areas, solution of magnesium sulphate can cause serious
aggressive marine environments, harmful sub-soil damage to concrete with higher water cement ratio
water in coastal area and many other hostile in a short time. However, if the concrete is made
conditions where other materials of construction are with low water cement ratio, the concrete can
found to be non-durable. Since the use of concrete in withstand the action of magnesium sulphate for 2 or
recent years, have spread to highly harsh and hostile 3 years. The concentration of sulphates is expressed
conditions, the earlier impression that concrete is a as the number of parts by weight of SO3 per million
very durable material is being threatened, parts. 1000 PPM is considered moderately severe
particularly on account of premature failures of and 2000 PPM is considered very severe, especially
number of structures in the recent past. if MgSO4 is the predominant constituent.
Another factor influencing the rate of attack is the
9.1.1Significance of Durability speed in which the sulphate gone into the reaction is
replenished. For this it can be seen that when the
When designing a concrete mix or designing a concrete is subjected to the pressure of sulphate
concrete structure, the exposure condition at which bearing water on one side the rate of attack is
the concrete is supposed to withstand is to be highest. Similarly, alternate wetting and drying due
assessed in the beginning with good judgement. In to tidal variation or spraying leads to rapid attack.
case of foundations, the soil characteristics are also
required to be investigated.

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IS 10262 : 2009

9.1.2.2 Chloride Attack water because diffusion of oxygen does not take place
into the concrete. Probably the optimum relative
Chloride attack is one of the most important aspects humidity for corrosion is 70 to 80 per cent.
for consideration when we deal with the durability The products of corrosion occupy a volume as many
of concrete. Chloride attack is particularly important as six times the original volume of steel depending
because it primarily causes corrosion of upon the oxidation state.
reinforcement. Statistics have indicated that over 40 The increased volume of rust exerts thrust on cover
per cent of failure of structures is due to corrosion of concrete resulting in cracks, spalling or
reinforcement. delamination of concrete. With this kind of
situations concrete loses its integrity. The cross
We have already discussed that due to the high section of reinforcement progressively reduces and
alkality of concrete a protective oxide film is present the structure is sure to collapse.
on the surface of steel reinforcement. The protective
passivity layer can be lost due to carbonation. This 9.2 Concrete Subjected to High Temperature
protective layer also can be lost due to the presence
of chloride in the presence of water and oxygen. In Concrete, though not a refractory material, is
reality the action of chloride in inducing corrosion of incombustible and has good fire-resistant properties.
reinforcement is more serious than any other The effect of increase in temperature on the strength
reasons. One may recall that sulphates attack the of concrete is not much upto a temperature of about
concrete whereas the chloride attacks steel 250C but above 300C, definite loss of strength
reinforcements. takes place.

Chloride enters the concrete from cement, water, 9.3 Freezing and Thawing
aggregate and sometimes from admixtures. The
present day admixtures are generally contain Water expands about 9% in volume during freezing.
negligible quantity of chloride or what they call The formation of ice lenses formed in the body of
chloride free. Chloride can enter the concrete by fresh concrete disrupt the fresh concrete causing
diffusion from environment. nearly permanent damage to concrete.

9.1.2.2.1 Corrosion of Steel (Chloride induced) 9.4 Deicing Effect of Salts

Corrosion of steel in concrete is an electrochemical Deicing chemicals used for snow and ice clearance
process. When there is a difference in electrical can cause and aggravate surface scaling.
potential along the steel reinforcement in concrete,
an electrochemical cell is set up. In the steel, one 9.5 Moisture Movement
part becomes anode and other part becomes cathode
connected by electrolyte in the form of pore water in The exposure of concrete to repetitive expansion and
the hardened cement paste. The positively charged shrinkage or repetitive compressive stress and
ferrous ions Fe++ at the anode pass into solution tensile stress due to alternate wetting and dying
while the negatively charged free electrons e pass may cause fatigue in concrete and affect the
through the steel into cathode where they are durability of concrete.
absorbed by the constituents of the electrolyte and
combine with water and oxygen to form hydroxyl 9.6 Transition Zone
ions (OH). These travel through the electrolyte and
combine with the ferrous ions to form ferric Concrete is a brittle material which develops micro
hydroxide which is converted by further oxidation to cracks even before any load is applied.Transition
rust. zone is the zone between aggregate and hydrated
The reactions are described below cement paste.
Anodic reactions
Fe Fe++ + 2e 9.7 Biological Process
Fe + 2(OH) Fe(OH)2(Ferrous hydroxide)
++ -

4Fe (OH)2 + 2H2O + O2 4Fe(OH)3 (Ferric oxide) It is a common site that in many buildings plants
Cathodic reaction grow and the roots slowly penetrate into concrete or
4e + O2 + H2O 4(OH) small cracks in concrete and converts it into bigger
It can be noted that no corrosion takes place if the cracks with further growth.Even small plants such
concrete is dry or probably below relative humidity as lichen, algae and mass growing on concrete
of 60 percent because enough water is not there to surface attract moisture and encourage physical and
promote corrosion. It can also be noted that corrosion chemical process to deteriorate the concrete.
does not take place if concrete is fully immersed in

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IS 10262 : 2009

point loading and third point loading. In the central


9.8 Structural Design Deficiencies point loading, maximum fiber stress will come below
the point of loading where the bending moment is
Sometimes inadequate provision of main steel maximum. In case of symmetrical two point loading,
reinforcement, or inadequate provision for the critical crack may appear at any section, not
temperature reinforcement, or wrong spacing of strong enough to resist the stress within the middle
bars, or absence of corner reinforcement may cause third, where the bending moment is maximum. It
unacceptable cracks in concrete. can be expected that the two point loading will yield
10.1 Water/Cement Ratio a lower value of the modulus of rupture than the
Strength of concrete primarily depends upon the centre point loading.
strength of cement paste. We know that the strength The standard size of the specimens are 15 x 15 x 70
of cement paste depends upon the dilution of paste cm. Alternatively, if the largest nominal size of the
or in other words, the strength of paste increases aggregate does not exceed 20 mm, specimens 10 x 10
with cement content and decreases with air and x 50 cm may be used.
water content. In 1918 Abrams presented his classic The mould should be of metal, preferably steel or
law in the form: cast iron and the metal should be of sufficient
thickness to prevent spreading or warping. The
S=/ mould should be constructed with the longer
dimension horizontal and in such a manner as to
where x =water/cement ratio by volume and for 28 facilitate the removal of the moulded specimens
days results the constants A and B are 14,000 lbs./sq. without damage.
in. and 7 respectively. The tamping bar should be a steel bar weighing 2 kg,
Abrams water/cement ratio law states that the 40 cm long and should have a ramming face 25 mm
strength of concrete is only dependent upon square.
water/cement ratio provided the mix is workable. In The testing machine may be of any reliable type of
the past many theories have been propounded by sufficient capacity for the tests and capable of
many research workers. Some of them held valid for applying the load at the rate specified. The
some time and then underwent some changes while permissible errors should not be greater that 0.5
others did not stand the test of time and hence slowly per cent of the applied load where a high degree of
disappeared. But Abrams water/cement ratio law accuracy is required and not greater than 1.5 per
stood the test of time and is held valid even today as cent of the applied load for commercial type of use.
a fundamental truth in concrete-making practices. The bed of the testing machine should be provided
No doubt some modifications have been suggested with two steel rollers, 38 mm in diameter, on which
but the truth of the statement could not be the specimen is to be supported, and these rollers
challenged. should be so mounted that the distance from centre
The graph showing the relationship between the to centre is 60 mm for 15 cm specimen or 40 cm for
strength and water/cement ratio is approximately 10.0 cm specimens. The load is applied through two
hyperbolic in shape. Sometimes it is difficult to similar rollers mounted at the third points of the
interpolate the intermediate value. From geometry supporting span, that is, spaced at 20 or 13.3 cm
it can be deduced that if the graphs is drawn centre to centre. The load is divided equally between
between the strength and the cement/water ratio an the two loading rollers, and all rollers are mounted
approximately linear relationship will be obtained. in such a manner that the load is applied axially and
This linear relationship is more convenient to use without subjecting specimen to any torsional
than water/cement ratio curve for interpolation. stresses or restrains.

11.1 Determination of Tensile Strength 11.1.1 Procedure

Direct measurement of tensile strength of concrete Test specimens are stored in water at a temperature
is difficult. Neither specimens nor testing apparatus of 24 to 30C for 48 hours before testing. They are
have been designed which assure uniform tested immediately on removal from the water
distribution of the pull applied to the concrete. whilst they are still in a wet condition. The
While a number of investigations involving the dimensions of each specimen should be noted before
direct measurement of tensile strength have been testing. No preparation of the surfaces is required.
made, beam tests are found to be dependable to The bearing surfaces of the supporting and loading
measure flexural strength property of concrete. rollers are wiped clean, and any loose sand or other
The value of the modulus of rupture (extreme fiber material removed from the surfaces of the specimen
stress in bending) depends on the dimension of the where they are to make contact with the rollers. The
beam and manner of loading. The systems of loading specimen is then placed in the machine in such a
used in finding out the flexural tension are central manner that the load is applied to the uppermost

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surface as cast in the mould, along two lines spaced D is its diameter
20.0 or 13.3 cm apart. The axis of the specimen is and r and (D r) are the distances of the elements
carefully aligned with the axis of the loading device. from the two loads respectively.The loading
No packing is used between the bearing surfaces of condition produces a high compressive stress
the specimen and the rollers. The load is applied immediately below the two generators to which the
without shock and increasing continuously at a rate load is applied. But the larger portion corresponding
such that the extreme fibre stress increases at to depth is subjected to a uniform tensile stress
approximately 0.7 kg/sq cm/min that is, at a rate of acting horizontally. It is estimated that the
loading of 400 kg/min compressive stress is acting for about 1/6 depth and
for the 15.0 cm specimens and at a rate of 180 kg/min the remaining 5/6 depth is subjected to tension.In
for the 10.0 cm specimens. The load is increased order to reduce the magnitude of the high
until the specimen fails, and the maximum load compression stresses near the points of application
applied to the specimen during the test is recorded. of the load, narrow packing strips of suitable
The appearance of the fractured faces of concrete material such as plywood are placed between the
and any unusual features in the type of failure is specimen and loading platens of the testing machine.
noted. The packing strips should be soft enough to allow
The flexural strength of the specimen is expressed as distribution of load over a reasonable area, yet
the modulus of rupture fb which if a equals the narrow and thin enough to prevent large contact
distance between the line of fracture and the nearer area. Normally, a plywood strip of 25 mm wide, 3
support, measured on the centre line of the tensile mm thick and 30 cm long is used.
side of the specimen, in cm, is calculated to the The main advantage of this method is that the same
nearest 0.05 MPa as follows: type of specimen and the same testing machine as
Pxl are used for the compression test can be employed
fb =
bd2 for this test. That is why this test is gaining
When a is greater than 20.0 cm for 15.0 cm popularity. The splitting test is simple to perform
specimen or greater than 13.3 cm for a 10.0 cm and gives more uniform results than other tension
specimen, or tests. Strength determined in the splitting test is
3P x a
fb = believed to be closer to the true tensile strength of
bd2
concrete, than the modulus of rupture. Splitting
when a is less than 20.0 cm but greater than 17.0
strength gives about 5 to 12% higher value than the
cm for 15.0 specimen, or less than 13.3 cm but
direct tensile strength.
greater than 11.0 cm for a 10.0 cm specimen where
b = measured width in cm of the specimen,
12.1 Maturity Concept of Concrete
d = measured depth in cm of the specimen at the
While dealing with curing and strength
point of failure,
development, we have so far considered only the
l = length in cm of the span on which the specimen
time aspect. It has been pointed out earlier that it is
was supported, and
not only the time but also the temperature during
p = maximum load in kg applied to the specimen.
the early period of hydration that influence the rate
If a is less than 17.0 cm for a 15.0 cm specimen, or
of gain of strength of concrete. Since the strength
less than 11.0 cm for a 10.0 cm
development of concrete depends on both time and
specimen, the results of the test be discarded.
temperature it can be said that strength is a function
of summation of product of time and temperature.
11.2 Indirect Tension Test Methods
This summation is called maturity of concrete.
11.2.1 Cylinder Splitting Tension Test: The test is
Maturity = (time x temperature)
carried out by placing a cylindrical specimen
horizontally between the loading surfaces of a
Maturity concept is useful for estimating the
compression testing machine and the load is applied
strength of concrete at any other maturity as a
until failure of the cylinder, along the vertical
percentage of strength of concrete of known
diameter.
maturity. In other words, if we know the strength of
When the load is applied along the generatrix, an
concrete at full maturity (19,800Ch), we can
element on the vertical diameter of the cylinder is
calculate the percentage strength of identical
subjected to a vertical compressive stress of
2P D2
concrete at any other maturity by using the following
x[ -1] equation given by Plowman.
xLxD r x (Dr)
Strength at any maturity as a percentage of strength
and a horizontal stress of
2P at maturity of
()
xLxD 19,800Ch. = A + B log10 3
10
where, P is the compressive load on the cylinder
L is the length of cylinder

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The values of coefficients, A and B depend on the for ordinary, rapid hardening and low heat Portland
strength level of concrete. The values are given in cements.
Table If in case the expansion is more than 10 mm as
Table 13 Plowmans Coefficients for Maturity tested above, the cement is said to be unsound.
The Le Chatelier test detects unsoundness due to
Strength after 28 days at 18C free lime only. This method of testing does not
(Maturity Coefficient of 19,800Ch): indicate the presence and after effect of the excess of
MPa A B magnesia.
Less than 17.5 10 68
17.5 35.0 21 61 14.1 Curing of Concrete
35.0 52.5 32 54
52.5 70.0 42 46.5 Curing is being given a place of increasing
The values of A and B are plotted against the cube importance as the demand for high quality concrete
strength at the maturity of 19,800 Ch. A straight is increasing. It has been recognized that the quality
line relationship will be obtained indicating that of concrete shows all round improvement with
they are directly proportional to the strength. efficient uninterrupted curing. If curing is neglected
in the early period of hydration, the quality of
concrete will experience a sort of irreparable loss.
Theoretically, for a concrete made and contained in
13.1 Soundness Test a sealed container a water cement ratio of 0.38 would
satisfy the requirement of water for hydration and
It is very important that the cement after setting at the same time no capillary cavities would be left.
shall not undergo any appreciable change of volume. However, it is seen that practically a water/cement
The testing of soundness of cement, to ensure that ratio of 0.5 will be required for complete hydration in
the cement does not show any appreciable a sealed container for keeping up the desirable
subsequent expansion is of prime importance. relative humidity level.
The unsoundness in cement is due to the presence of In the field and in actual work, it is a different story.
excess of lime than that could be combined with Even though a higher water/cement ratio is used,
acidic oxide at the kiln. since the concrete is open to atmosphere, the water
Unsoundness in cement is due to excess of lime, used in the concrete evaporates and the water
excess of magnesia or excessive proportion of available in the concrete will not be sufficient for
sulphates. effective hydration to take place particularly in the
Unsoundness in cement does not come to surface for top layer.
a considerable period of time. Therefore, accelerated If the hydration is to continue unabated, extra water
tests are required to detect it. There are number of must be added to replenish the loss of water on
such tests in common use. account of absorption and evaporation.
Alternatively, some measures must be taken by way
13.1.1 Le Chatelier test of provision of impervious covering or application of
curing compounds to prevent the loss of water from
The apparatus consists of a small split cylinder of the surface of the concrete. Therefore, the curing can
spring brass or other suitable metal. It is 30 mm in be considered as creation of a favorable environment
diameter and 30 mm high. during the early period for uninterrupted hydration.
On either side of the split are attached two indicator The desirable conditions are, a suitable temperature
arms 165 mm long with pointed ends. Cement is and ample moisture.
gauged with 0.78 times the water required for The quick surface drying of concrete results in the
standard consistency (0.78 P), in a standard manner movement of moisture from the interior to the
and filled into the mould kept on a glass plate. The surface. This steep moisture gradient cause high
mould is covered on the top with another glass plate. internal stresses which are also responsible for
The whole assembly is immersed in water at a internal micro cracks in the semi-plastic concrete.
temperature of 27C- 32C and kept there for 24
hours. 14.2 Curing Methods
Measure the distance between the indicator points.
Submerge the mould again in water. Heat the water Curing methods may be divided broadly into four
and bring to boiling point in about 25-30 minutes categories:
and keep it boiling for 3 hours. Remove the mould (a) Water curing (b) Membrane curing (c)
from the water, allow it to cool and measure the Application of heat (d) Miscellaneous like
distance between the indicator points. The difference Application of heat, Steam curing at ordinary
between these two measurements represents the pressure, High Pressure Steam Curing, Curing by
expansion of cement. This must not exceed 10 mm Infra-red Radiation ,Electrical Curing

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IS 10262 : 2009

15.1 Such buildings shall be adequately


14.2.1 Water Curing strengthened against lateral forces by shear
walls and/or other bracing systems in plan,
This is by far the best method of curing .Water elevation and sections such that earthquake
curing can be done in the following ways: forces shall be resisted by them in any
(a) Immersion (b) Ponding (c) Spraying or Fogging direction.
(d) Wet covering 15.1.1 Moment Resistant Frames with Shear
The precast concrete items are normally immersed Walls
in curing tanks for a certain duration. Pavement The frames may be of reinforced concrete or
slabs, roof slab etc. are covered under water by steel with semi-rigid or rigid joints. The walls
making small ponds. Vertical retaining wall or are rigid capable of acting as shear walls and
plastered surfaces or concrete columns etc. are cured may be of reinforced concrete or of brickwork
by spraying water. In some cases, wet coverings such reinforced or unreinforced bounded by framing
as wet gunny bags, hessian cloth, jute matting, members through shear connectors.
straw etc.,are wrapped to vertical surface for The frame and wall combination shall
keeping the concrete wet. For horizontal surfaces be designed to carry the total lateral force due
saw dust, earth or sand are used as wet covering to to earthquake acting on the building. The
keep the concrete in wet condition for a longer time frame acting alone shall be designed to resist at
so that the concrete is not unduly dried to prevent least 25 percent of the total lateral force.
hydration. 15.2 The shear walls shall preferably be
distributed evenly over the whole building.
14.2.2 Membrane Curing When concentrated at one point, forming what
is called a rigid core in the building, the design
Sometimes, concrete works are carried out in places shall be checked for torsional effects and the
where there is acute shortage of water. The lavish shear connection between the core and the
application of water for water curing is not possible floors conservatively designed for the total
for reasons of economy.It has been pointed out shear transfer.
earlier that curing does not mean only application of 15.3 The shear walls should extend from the
water, it means also creation of conditions for foundation either to the top of the building or to
promotion of uninterrupted and progressive a lesser height as required from design
hydration. It is also pointed out that the quantity of consideration. In design, the interaction
water, normally mixed for making concrete is more between frame and the shear walls should be
than sufficient to hydrate the cement, provided this considered properly to satisfy compatibility and
water is not allowed to go out from the body of equilibrium conditions.
concrete. For this reason, concrete could be covered NOTE Studies show that shear walls of height about
85 percent of total height of building are advantageous.
with membrane which will effectively seal off the
evaporation of water from concrete. It is found that
the application of membrane or a sealing compound, 16. Box Type Construction
after a short spell of water curing for one or two days This type of construction consists of
is sometimes beneficial. prefabricated or in situ masonry, concrete or
Sometimes, concrete is placed in some inaccessible, reinforced concrete wall along both the axes of
difficult or far off places. The curing of such concrete the building. The walls support vertical loads
cannot be properly supervised. The curing is entirely and also act as shear walls for horizontal loads
left to the workmen, who do not quite understand the acting in any direction. All traditional masonry
importance of regular uninterrupted curing. In such construction falls under this category. In
cases, it is much safer to adopt membrane curing prefabricated construction attention shall be
rather than to leave the responsibility of curing to paid to the connections between wall panels so
workers. that transfer of shear between them is ensured.
Some of the materials, that can be used for
membrane curing are bituminous compounds, 17. CATEGORIES OF BUILDINGS
polyethylene or polyester film, waterproof paper,
rubber compounds etc. 17.1 For the purpose of specifying the
earthquake resistant features in masonry and
15 Vertical Load Carrying Frame Construction wooden buildings, the buildings have been
This type of construction consists of frames categorized in five categories A to E based on
with flexible (hinged) joints and bracing the seismic zone and the importance of building
members. Steel multistoreyed building or I, where
industrial frames and timber construction I = importance factor applicable to the
usually are of this type. building [see 17.2.1 and Table 17.]

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