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HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore

HowtoTeach

TOEFLTOEICIELTS
andOtherStandardizedExaminations


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HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 2

I.Introductionpage9
Reasonsfortakingthiscourse
Goalsofthecourse

II.StandardizedTestingpage10
**Beforeyoubegin**
Downloadyourcoursenotesat: A.Whatisit?
www.TEFLeBooks.com/TOEFLnotes.doc Whyisitdone?
Whatdothetestspredict?
B.BasicIntroductiontoTestDevelopment
ValidityFace,Contentandmore
Reliabilityhowmeasured
Internalconsistencyoftestsanditems
Howitems(questions)aredeveloped
C.BasicStatisticalConcepts
NormalCurve
"Norming"atestandstatisticalcurvesmoothing
StandardDeviationandStandardErrorofTests

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 3

III.TOEFLPage21
[significantlymoretimeisspentherethanwiththeother
testsasmanybasicswillbecoveredthatwillthentakemuch
lesstimewhenstudyingtheothertests]
A.Overviewofthetestwhatitisusedfor
Differentformsofthetest:paper,cBT,iBT
B.Howtoselectastudybookforyourstudents
Thingstolookfor
Currency
Baselines
Scoring
ProgressTests
C.Howtouseastudybook
Baseline
Strategybuilding
BuildSkills
PracticeSkills
ProgressTesting

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 4

D.Whattakingthetestislike
E.Skillstested
TypesofQuestions:
Reading
Listening
Writing
Speaking
F.PracticeTestingandrecalibratinggoals

IV.IELTSPage30
A.Overviewofthetestandwhatitisusedfor
B.Whattakingthetestislike
C.Skillstesting
TypeofQuestions
Listening
Reading
Writing
Speaking

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 5

V.TOEICPage31
A.Overviewofthetestandwhatitisusedfor
B.Whattakingthetestislike
C.Skillstestingandhow
Typesofquestionsandstrategies
Listening
Reading
Speaking
Writing
D.Progresstestingandrecalibrationofgoals

VI.TeachingGrammarPage37
StructureandAnalysis
FastTrackGrammarReview
Instructionalmethodsfortutorialstudents

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 6

VII.TeachingStudyandExaminationSkillsPage51
PlanningandRealisticGoalSetting
Settingtheenvironment
Gatheringmaterials
Distributedpractice
SQ3R
Homeworkandassignments(forstudents)

VIII.TeachingReadingSkillsPage68
Selectingtextsandmaterials
Survey
Skimming
Scanning
Comprehension
DiscriminationTraining
Buildingreadingspeed
Buildingvocabulary

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 7

IX.TeachingWritingSkillsPage82
Selectingtextsandmaterials
Organizationofwriting

X.TeachingListeningSkillsPage84
Selectingtextsandmaterials
Reductions
Linking
Soundchanges
Contentandfunctionwordsandstress
Contractions
Wordendingsandbeginnings
Grammarchallengesinlistening
Outlining

XI.RelatedResourcesPage97

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 8

WhyTakeThisCourse?
ThiscourseisdesignedtohelpnewlytrainedandexperiencedEFL
teachersfurtherimprovetheirskillsandcareeroptions.Teaching
specializedskillscoursesinwriting,reading,andlistening;andtest
preparationcoursesforTOEFL,TOEIC,IELTS,etc.isnaturalprogression
asyoumoveupinyourteachingcareer.

GoalsoftheCourse
Thegoalsofthiscoursearetoprovideadditionalskillsthatwillallow
you,withconfidence,toseekmorevariedanddemandingcoursework.
Itisalsointendedthatincreasedskillswillleadtoincreasedjob
satisfaction.

BottomLine
ManyEFLteachershavenoideahowtoteachthemoredemanding
coursessuchasTOEFLorIELTSPreparation,orevenadvancedwriting.
Thiscoursewillshowyouhow.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 9

II.StandardizedTesting

A. Whatisstandardizedtesting?
Testsarestandardizedwhentheyaredeveloped,administered,and
scoredusingestablishedproceduresandguidelines.Theseprocedures
andguidelinesensurethatallstudentsaretestedunderthesamecon
Themoreyouknowaboutthetypeoftest ditions,thattheyareallgivenequalopportunitytodeterminethe
beinggiven,howitisdeveloped,administered,
correctanswers,andthatallscoresareestablishedandinterpreted
scored,andinterpreted,themoreinsightyou
willhaveinunderstandingthetestingprocess, usingappropriatecriteria.Twotypesofstandardizedtestsare:
itsoutcomes,and,ultimately,inmaking 1. normreferencedtests,usedtocomparestudentperformanceto
decisionsregardingastudentseducation.
thatofotherstudents;and
(PearsonEducationalMeasurement)
2. criterionreferencedtests,usedtomeasurestudentperformance
againstadefinedsetoflearningrequirementsorexpectations.
Indevelopingstandardizedtests,testdevelopersfollowestablished
procedurestocreatequestionsthatreflectthecurriculaorthelearning
requirements.Theyalsoanalyzethetesttoensurethatitmeasures
studentperformanceaccuratelyandreliably.Whenstandardizedtests
aregiventostudents,thereareprescribeddirectionsforhowthetestis
tobeadministeredandeverytestgivenineverysettingmustbegiven
underthesameconditionstoensurethatnoonehasanadvantage.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 10

Inscoringstandardizedtests,manualandcomputerassistedanalyses
doublecheckthescoringprocesstoensurethateverystudentsscoreis
accurate.Interpretingstandardizedtestscoresisacriticalprocess
becausethedecisionscanhavesignificantimpactonstudentslives.
Manyguidelinesgovernhowtestresultscanbeappliedandwhat
evidence(usuallystatisticalanalysis)isneededtosupportvarioususes.
(adaptedfromPearsonEducationalMeasurement)

Whyarestandardizedtestsused?Whatdotheteststellus?
StandardizedtestssuchatTOEFLandIELTSandothersareusually
administeredtodetermine,orpredict,astudentslikelihoodofsuccess
inanEnglishspeakingacademicsetting.TOEICisusedtomeasureand
predictthesubjectsskillsusingEnglishinanEnglishspeakingwork
environment.

Someinterestingcorrelations

Controversysurroundsstandardizedtestsastheytendtobeone
dimensionalandmeasureonlycertainaspectsofapersonsability/
skill.Theymaynotmeasureotherimportantaspectssuchassocial
skillsordeterminationtosucceed.IQtests,forexample,canwell
predictthegrossincomeofthesubjectsparents,oreventhenumber
ofbooksinherparentshouse.Thusthetestsometimespossibly
bettermeasureswealthorresourcesavailabletothestudentthan
nativeability.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 11

B.IntroductiontoTestDevelopment
Validity
Howdoweknowwhetheratestmeasurestheabilityinwhichweare
interested?Evenifatestisperfectlyreliableandvirtuallyerrorfree,
howdoweknowifitismeasuringtheabilitieswewantittomeasure
andnotsomethingelse?Thisistheideaandcentralconcernofvalidity,
andultimatelyinvolvesthekindsofjudgmentsthatcanbedrawnfrom
testscores.
Let'sconsideramathtestconsistingonlyofwordproblems.Thetest
scorecouldappropriatelybeusedtoindicatethestudent'sabilityto
solvemathproblemsthatrequirereading;thatwouldbeavaliduseof
thetestscore.However,usingthetestscoreasarepresentationofthe
student'smathabilityingeneralmightnotbevalid,especiallyifthe
studentwasnotfluentinthelanguageinwhichthewordproblems
werewritten.
Peoplewhodeveloptestsanalyzetheminseveralwaystodetermine
theappropriate(i.e.,valid)useoftestscores.Let'sreviewsomeofthe
issuesconsideredindeterminingthevaliduseoftestscores:

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 12

Dothequestionsonthetestrepresenttheentiresubjectmatter
aboutwhichconclusionsaretobedrawn?Forinstance,ifatestis
designedtomeasuregeneralarithmeticability,thereshouldbe
questionsaboutaddition,subtraction,multiplication,anddivision.
Iftherearenoquestionsaboutdivision,thetestdoesnotmeasure
theentirecontentofarithmetic,sothetestscorecannotbesaidto
reflectgeneralarithmeticability.

Isthestudentrequiredtodemonstratetheskillthatthetestis
intendedtomeasure?Testsshouldbedirectlytargetedtotheskills
measuredandthatskillshouldaffecttestperformance.For
example,atestdesignedtomeasurewritingproficiencyshouldask
testtakerstowritesomething,andbetterwritersshouldbeshown
toreceivehigherscores.

Arethetestscoresconsistentwithotherindicatorsofthesame
knowledgeandskills?Supposeastudenttakesatestdesignedto
measurewritingability.Ifthestudentdoeswellonwritingassign
mentsinclass,thenheorsheshouldalsodowellonthewriting
test,solongasthetypeofwritingonthetestisconsistentwiththat
doneinclass.Ontheotherhand,studentswhodonotperformwell
onwritingassignmentsinclassshouldnotdoaswellonthetest.
Thevalidityofusingthattestscoreasanindicationoftheperson's
abilityisquestionableifthereisinconsistencybetweenthetest
scoreandclassroomperformance.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 13

Reliability
Theconsistencyofscoresacrossdifferentadministrationsorscorersis
knownasreliability.Itiscrucialthattestscoresbeadequatelyreliable
inrepresentingaperson'sknowledgeandskills.Someleveloferroris
alwaysafactorintesting(moreonthislater)andtestscores.Ifa
persontakesthesametestondifferentdays,wecanexpecttheresults
tobeslightlydifferent,butthemoreerrorthereisinthetest's
makeup,themoredifferentthetwotestscoresarelikelytobe.Ifthe
twotestscoresareverydifferent,itisreasonabletoconcludethatthe
differenceisduetotesterrorandthatthescoresdonotreallyreflect
whatthetesttakerknowsandisabletodo.

Inconsistenciesinscoringtestsmightalsoundercutreliability.Some
testsarecomposedofmultiplechoicequestions,whileothersrequire
thatthetesttakerconstructaresponse,suchasanessay.Scoringa
multiplechoicequestionisstraightforward,becausethereisoneright
answer;theanswerprovidediseithercorrectorincorrect.Therefore,
regardlessofwhoscoresthetest,thescoreonthatquestionwillbethe
same.Essaytypequestions,however,requirehumanjudgmentandare
thereforemoredifficulttoscore.Iftwopeoplereadthesameessay,it's
likelythateachpersonwillgivetheessayaslightlydifferentscore.
However,ifthetwoscoresgivenbythetwoscorers,or"raters,"are
verydifferent,thenthescoreonthatessayisnotveryconsistentand
thusnotveryreliable.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 14

Themeasureofconsistencybetweenscorersiscalledinterrater
reliability.Thecloserthescoresassignedtoanessaybydifferent
raters,thehighertheinterraterreliabilityofthattest.Whileitmight
seemimpossibletogetdifferentraterstoassignexactlythesame
score,itispossibletotrainraterssothattheyallscoreinaverysimilar
way.Ifthisgoalisaccomplished,therecanbemoreconfidencethatthe
scoreassignedtotheessayreflectstheabilityofthestudent.

BasicStatisticalConcepts
TheNormalCurve
StandardizedtestssuchastheTOEFL,IELTS,andTOEICforcescoresinto
anormalorbellshapedcurvesuchastheonetotheleft.
Intelligencetestsalsodothis.
Anormaldistributionofdatameansthatmostoftheexamplesinaset
ofdataareclosetothe"average,"whilerelativelyfewerexamplesare
Exampleofanormalcurveornormal
atoneextremeortheother.
distributionofscoresonatest
Let'ssayyouarewritingastoryaboutnutrition.Youneedtolookat
people'stypicaldailycalorieconsumption.Likemostdata,thenumbers
forpeople'stypicalconsumptionprobablywillturnouttobenormally
distributed.Thatis,formostpeople,theirconsumptionwillbecloseto
themean,whilefewerpeopleeatalotmoreoralotlessthanthe
mean.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 15

TheStandardDeviation

Thestandarddeviationisastatisticthattellsyouhowtightlyallthe
variousexamplesareclusteredaroundthemeaninasetofdata.When
theexamplesareprettytightlybunchedtogetherandthebellshaped
curveissteep,thestandarddeviationissmall.Whentheexamplesare
spreadapartandthebellcurveisrelativelyflat,thattellsyouthatyou
havearelativelylargestandarddeviation.

Computingthevalueofastandarddeviationiscomplicated.Butlets
seegraphicallywhatastandarddeviationrepresents(seecharttothe
left).

Onestandarddeviationawayfromthemeanineitherdirectiononthe
horizontalaxis(thefirstareatotherightandtotheleftofthemeanon
theabovegraph)accountsforsomewherearound68percentofthe
peopleinthisgroup.Twostandarddeviationsawayfromthemean
(thefirstfourareas)accountforroughly95percentofthepeople.And
threestandarddeviations(thesixareas)accountforabout99percent
ofthepeople.

Ifthiscurvewereflatterandmorespreadout,thestandarddeviation
wouldhavetobelargerinordertoaccountforthose68percentorso
ofthepeople.Sothat'swhythestandarddeviationcantellyouhow
spreadouttheexamplesinasetarefromthemean.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 16

Whenyouthinkaboutit,that'sjustcommonsense.Notthatmany
peoplearegettingbyonasingleservingofkelpandrice.Oroneight
mealsofsteakandmilkshakes.Mostpeopleliesomewherein
between,closertothemiddle.
Ifyoulookedatnormallydistributeddataonagraph,itwouldlook
somethinglikethechartontheleftofthispage.

Thexaxis(thehorizontalone)isthevalueinquestion...calories
consumed,dollarsearnedorcrimescommitted,forexample.Andthe
yaxis(theverticalone)isthenumberofdatapointsforeachvalueon
thexaxis...inotherwords,thenumberofpeoplewhoeatxcalories,
thenumberofhouseholdsthatearnxdollars,orthenumberofcities
withxcrimescommitted.

Now,notallsetsofdatawillhavegraphsthatlookthisperfect.Some
willhaverelativelyflatcurves,otherswillbeprettysteep.Sometimes
themeanwillleanalittlebittoonesideortheother.Butallnormally
distributeddatawillhavesomethinglikethissame"bellcurve"shape.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 17

Whyisthisuseful?Here'sanexample:Ifyouarecomparingtestscores
fordifferentschools,thestandarddeviationwilltellyouhowdiverse
thetestscoresareforeachschool.

Let'ssaySpringfieldElementaryhasahighermeantestscorethan
ShelbyvilleElementary.Yourfirstreactionmightbetosaythatthekids
atSpringfieldaresmarter.

Butabiggerstandarddeviationforoneschooltellsyouthatthereare
relativelymorekidsatthatschoolscoringtowardoneextremeorthe
other.Byaskingafewfollowupquestionsyoumightfindthat,say,
CredittoRobertNilesforhis Springfield'smeanwasskewedupbecausetheschooldistrictsendsall
ofthegiftededucationkidstoSpringfield.OrthatShelbyville'sscores
excellentdescriptionofthese
weredraggeddownbecausestudentswhorecentlyhavebeen
statisticalconcepts.
"mainstreamed"fromspecialeducationclasseshaveallbeensentto
Shelbyville.

Inthisway,lookingatthestandarddeviationcanhelppointyouinthe
rightdirectionwhenaskingwhyinformationisthewayitis.

Thestandarddeviationcanalsohelpyouevaluatetheworthofall
thosesocalled"studies"thatseemtobereleasedtothepress
everyday.Alargestandarddeviationinastudythatclaimstoshowa
relationshipbetweeneatingTwinkiesandkillingpoliticians,for
example,mighttipyouoffthatthestudy'sclaimsaren'tallthat
trustworthy.
HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 18

"Norming"atestandstatisticalcurvesmoothing
Teststhatdontnaturallyfitintoanormalcurvecanbeforcedor
adaptedtoanormalcurveviatheuseofstatisticalmethods.

Errorintestscores
Asweexplainedatthebeginningofthissection,someerrorisalwaysa
factorintestscoreinterpretation.Infact,testssimplycannotprovide
informationthatis100%accurate.Thismightsoundsurprising,butthis
istrueformanyreasons;forexample:

Theextenttowhichastudenthaslearnedthebreadthanddepthof
asubjectwillinfluencehowsheorheperformsonatest.Ona
readingtest,forexample,astudentmightdowellwithquestions
aboutwordmeaningandfindingthemainideaofapassagebut
havehadlesspracticedistinguishingfactfromopinion.The
experience(orlackthereof)thatatesttakerbringstothetest
representsasourceoferrorintermsofusingthetestscoreto
generalizeaboutthestudent'sreadingability.

Sometimesastudenttakingatestisjustplainunlucky.Ifastudent
istired,hungry,nervous,orevenjusttoowarm,heorshemightdo
worseonthetestthanifthecircumstancesweredifferent.

Atestmighthavequestionsthatseemtrickyorconfusing.Ifa
studentisnotclearaboutthemeaningofaquestion,heorshewill
havetroublefindingthecorrectanswer.
HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 19

Standarderrorofmeasurement

Thescoreapersongetsonthetestismeanttoindicatehowwell
thatpersonknowstheinformationbeingtested.Onewayof
lookingatatestscoreistothinkofitasconsistingoftwoparts.
Testingspecialistscancalculatethe Onepartrepresentstherealbutunknowabletrueabilityofa
standarderrorofmeasurement,whichcan
person.Thispartisunknowablebecauseitisneverpossibletoget
bethoughtofastherangeofscores
insidesomeone'sheadandhaveaperfectmeasureoftheirability
obtainedbythesamepersontakingthe
sametestmanytimes. intheareaofinterest.Theotherpartofatestscorerepresentsthe
error,allthethingsthatmakethetestalessthanperfectsnapshot
Thestandarderrorofmeasurementisa
"bestguess"abouthowclosethetestisto ofsomeone'sknowledgeatonemomentintime.Unlikethewaywe
measuringaperson'sknowledgeorskill canmanufactureayardstickthatisexactlythreefeetlongto
with100% measurelength,eventhebesttestscanprovidescoresthatareonly
accuracy.
approximationsofthetrueability.
Thestandarderrorofmeasurementisa
statisticalestimateofhowfaroffthetrue
Unfortunately,itisimpossibletobreakthesetwopiecesofatest
scorethetestscoreislikelytobe. score(thetrueabilityanderror)apart.Butitisimportantto
understandthatanytestscorecontainsacertainamountoferror,
andaswe'veillustratedtheerrormightbeduetothingsthatare
goingonwiththetesttakerorthingsthatinvolvehowthetestis
createdorscored.Errorsintestscorescannotbecompletely
eliminated,butfortunatelytherearetechniquesthatcanbeused
toprovidesomeideaabouthowmuchthescoreisaffectedby
error.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 20

III.TOEFL
A. Overviewofthetest

TOEFLstandsfortheTestofEnglishasaForeignLanguage.Thistestis
Morethan6,000institutionsand designedtomeasuretheEnglishlanguageabilityofpeoplewhodonot
agenciesin110countriesrelyon speakEnglishastheirfirstlanguageandwhoplantostudyatcolleges
TOEFLscorestoselectstudentswith
anduniversities.
theEnglishskillsneededtosucceedin
anacademicsetting. AbouttheTOEFLTest
TosucceedinanacademicenvironmentinwhichEnglishisthe
languageofinstruction,internationalstudentsneedtonotonly
understandEnglish,butalsotocommunicateeffectively.TheTestof
EnglishasaForeignLanguage(TOEFL)isatestthatassessesallfour
basiclanguageskills:listening,reading,writing,andspeaking.The
TOEFLiBT(Internetbasedtest)helpsindividualsdemonstratethe
Englishskillsneededforacademicsuccess,aswellashelpinstitutions
makebetterdecisionsaboutprospectivestudents'readinessfor
academiccourseworkincollegesanduniversities.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 21

WhoShouldTaketheTOEFLTest?

ETS,thecompanythatdevelopedtheTOEFLtestrecommendsthat
nonnativeEnglishspeakersatthe11thgradeleveloraboveshould
taketheTOEFLtesttoprovideevidenceoftheirEnglishproficiency
beforebeginningacademicworkinEnglish.Thetestcontentis
WhyTaketheTOEFLTest? consideredtoodifficultforstudentsbelow11thgrade.
MostpeopletaketheTOEFLtestasa
prerequisiteforadmissioninto SomeinstitutionsdonotrequireTOEFLtestscoresofthefollowing:
collegesanduniversitieswhere
Englishisusedorrequired.In Nonnativespeakerswhoholddegreesordiplomasfrom
addition,manygovernment, postsecondaryinstitutionsinEnglishspeakingcountries(e.g.,the
licensing,andcertificationagencies,
UnitedStates,Canada,England,Ireland,Australia,NewZealand)
andexchangeandscholarship
programsuseTOEFLscoresto nonnativespeakerswhohavesuccessfullycompletedatleasta
evaluatetheEnglishproficiencyof twoyearcourseofstudyinwhichEnglishwasthelanguageof
peopleforwhomEnglishisnottheir
instruction
nativelanguage.Thetestpredicts
successinanacademicsettinginan transferstudentsfrominstitutionsintheUnitedStatesorCanada
Englishspeakingcountry.
whoseacademiccourseworkwasfavorablyevaluatedinrelationto
itsdemandsandduration.

nonnativespeakerswhohavetakentheTOEFLtestwithinthepast
twoyears

nonnativespeakerswhohavesuccessfullypursuedacademicwork
atschoolswhereEnglishwasthelanguageofinstructioninan
Englishspeakingcountryforaspecifiedperiod,generallytwoyears.
HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 22

FormsoftheTest

ThetestcomesinthepBTandiBTformsmeaningthepaperbased
test(beingphasedout)andtheInternetbasedtest(tobecomethe
standard).ThecBTorcomputerbasedtesthasbeenphasedout.
Agoodmanualshouldhaveaclear Wewillfocusonthetestitselfhereandnottheforminwhichitis
explanationofthescoringsystemof administered.
theexaminationtohelpyouknow
justhowfaryourstudentsarefrom
B.Howtoselectastudybookforyourstudents
theirgoal.

Studentsshouldknow,oraskyouto Lookforastudymanualthathasabaselineexaminationandatleast
helpthemdiscover,thescorethey three,preferablyasmanyassixormore,practicetests,aswellasgood,
needforadmissiontotheuniversity clearexplanationsofthetestandtestitems.Thestudymanualshould
orinstitutiontheywishtoattend.
becurrentandpublishedwithinthelasttwoyears.

Abaselineexaminationwillhelpyouandyourstudentstogetagood
senseoftheircurrentstrengthsandweaknessesontheareasofthe
test.Thiswillhelpyouknowwhatthestudentsneedtoworkonmost
toimprovetheirscores.

Progresstestswillhelpyouandyourstudentsmeasuretheir
improvementasyouguidetheirstudies.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 23

C.Howtouseastudybook

Onceyouhavechosenastudymanual,readthedirectionscarefully.
Typically,thefirst1040pagesofamanualwillgiveverydetailed
instructionsonhowtobeststudyforthetest,testtakingtips,and
basicinformationaboutthetest.Asmartinstructor[you]willtakethe
testatleastoncesotheyknowexactlywhatisentailed.

Buildingagoodstudyplanisanessentialfirststepinhelpingyour
students.But,first,youmustknowtheskilllevelofyourstudentsand
wheretheirskillsarestrongandweak.Thiswillrequiregivingyour
Baseline,practiceand
studentsabaselinetesttodeterminetheircurrentskilllevels.
progresstestsshouldbe
takenunderconditions
ascloseaspossibleas
Onceanestimatedbaselinescorehasbeenestablished,carefully
thoseatatestingcenter. reviewyourstudentsskilllevelsanddevelopastudyplanthatwill
helpraiselowerscoresandstrengthenthehigherscores.

Irregularityofskilllevels(strongverbalskillsandveryweakwriting
scores,forexample)arenotuncommonandworkingonraisingthe
lowerlevelskillswill,mostlikely,yieldthequickestresults(ETS
researchsuggeststhisistrue).

Studentswilloftenwanttostudyintensivelyforshortperiodsoftime,
buttheywillgenerallybemoresuccessfulwithdistributedpractice
overlongerperiodsoftime.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 24

Itisnotuncommonforstudentstowanttotakeamajorexamination
infourweeksorevenlessandexpectthattheycansignificantlyraise
theirscoresinthatperiodoftime.Suchanapproachisusually
selfdefeatingandshouldbediscouraged.

Manymajortestsrequireaminimumofthreemonthstopassbetween
examinationsastheyhavegoodresearchthatindicatesthatstudent
scorestypicallydonotchangesignificantlyiflesstimeisinvolved,

Oncethestudyplanisimplementedandthestudentsareworking
regularly,administerperiodicpracticeteststomeasureimprovements.
Thepurposeofthisistogivethestudentfeedbackontheir
improvementandtogivethempracticeintheactualtakingofthetest.
Thereisalsoapracticeeffectwithsuchtestsandstudentscanimprove
theirscoresslightlywithonlypractice.

Familiaritywiththetestwillhelpstudentsbetterjudgehowmuchtime
isallowedforeachquestion,forreading,fordraftingandcorrecting
theirwriting,fortakingnotesforconversationalcomponents,for
doublecheckingthateachquestionhasbeenanswered,etc.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 25

D.WhattakingtheTOEFLtestislike

Photocopyandtakethefirstbaselinetestinthemanualthatyou
purchased[seeaccompanyingnotes].Takethetestunderstandardized
conditions,takingonlytheallottedamountoftimeforeachsection.
Aftertakingthetest,computeyourscoreandthinkabouttheoverall
testingexperienceandsuggeststrategiesforimprovingyouroverall
andsectionalscores.Theexercisewillhelpyouknowwhattodowith
yourstudentsatthatpoint.

E.Skillstested
Thetestisnowaboutfourhourslong.
Allsectionswillbecompletedin TheTOEFLiBTtestsallfourlanguageskillsthatareimportantfor
oneday.
effectivecommunication:speaking,listening,reading,andwriting.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 26

Somequestionsrequiretesttakerstocombinemorethanoneskill:To
succeedacademicallyinEnglishspeakingcollegesanduniversities,
studentsneedtobeabletocombinetheirlanguageskillsinthe
classroom.
Integratedquestions,ortasks,inthetesthelplearnersbuildtheskills
andconfidenceneededtocommunicateeffectivelyintheacademic
environmentstheyplantoenter.Theintegratedtasksasktesttakersto
(1)read,listen,andthenspeakinresponsetoaquestion(2)listenand
thenspeakinresponsetoaquestion,and(3)read,listen,andthen
writeinresponsetoaquestion.
TheTOEFLiBTincludesaSpeakingsection.Thissectionincludessix
tasks,andtesttakerswearheadphonesandspeakintoamicrophone
whentheyrespond.
TheresponsesaredigitallyrecordedandtransmittedtoETSsOnline
ScoringNetworkwherehumanscorersratethem.Thescorersare
carefullymonitoredforaccuracy,sotesttakersandscorerecipientscan
beassuredofthereliabilityofthespeakingscores.
TheWritingsectionhasbeenexpanded.Thetestrequirestesttakersto
writearesponsetomaterialtheyhaveheardandread,andtocompose
anessayinsupportofanopinion.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 27

F.PracticeTestingandrecalibratinggoals
Afterareasonableperiodofstudy,haveyourstudentstakeaprogress
testandreevaluatetheirgoalsbasedontheirperformance.Notwo
studentswillbeexactlythesameandgoalsshouldbeindividualized.

G.Resources
Downloadthe76pagePDFfileTOEFLiBTTipsbyETSat:
http://www.ets.org/Media/Tests/TOEFL/pdf/TOEFL_Tips.pdf
ETSwillupdatethepublicationfromtimetotime,sothenumberof
pagesmayvary.

ETSoffersavarietyofpaidandfreepreparationmaterialstohelp
studentsgetreadyfortheTOEFLtest.Itisworthseeingwhich
materialsmyhelpyourspecificstudents.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 28

IV.IELTS

A. Overviewofthetest

TheIELTS(InternationalEnglishLanguageTestingSystem)testprovides
anevaluationofEnglishforthosewhowishtostudyortrainatthe
tertiarylevelinEnglish.ItisverysimilartotheTOEFL(TestofEnglishas
aForeignLanguage).IELTSisajointlymanagedtestbytheUniversityof
CambridgeESOLExaminations,BritishCouncilandIDPEducation
Australia.Thetestisacceptedbymanyprofessionalorganizationsin
TheUK,Canada,AustraliaandNewZealand.

B.WhattakingtheIELTStestislike

Photocopyandtakethefirstbaselinetestinthemanualthatyou
purchased(seeHowtoSelectaStudyBookintheprevioussection).
Takethetestunderstandardizedconditions,takingonlytheallotted
amountoftimeforeachsection.Aftertakingthetest,computeyour
scoreandthinkabouttheoveralltestingexperienceandsuggest
strategiesforimprovingyouroverallandsectionalscores.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 29

C.Skillstesting

StudentstakeeithertheAcademicorGeneralTrainingsectionsin
readingandwritingthelisteningandspeakingsectionsarethesame
forbothformsofthetest.Thetotaltesttimeisabout2hoursand45
minutesandconsistsofthefollowing:

Listening(30minutes)
FreeResourcesfromIELTS
Reading(60minutes),
DownloadavarietyofPDFfiles
thatprovideassistanceand
instructionforallthesections Writing(60minutes)and
oftheIELTSexaminationaswellastheIELTS
GuideforTeachersat: Speaking(1114minutes).
http://www.ielts.org/teachers.aspx
TheListening,ReadingandWritingtestsaredoneinonesitting.The
Speakingtestmaybeonthesamedayoruptosevendaysbeforeor
aftertheothertests.

D.PracticeTestingandrecalibratinggoals

Afterareasonableperiodofstudy,haveyourstudentstakeaprogress
testandreevaluatetheirgoalsbasedontheirperformance.Notwo
studentswillbeexactlythesameandgoalsshouldbeindividualized.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 30

V.TOEIC

A. OverviewoftheTest

B. TheTestofEnglishforInternationalCommunication(TOEIC)isa
benchmarkofEnglishlanguageskillsinlisteningandreadingand
measurestheeverydayEnglishskillsofpeopleworkinginan
internationalenvironment.Thetestiswidelyacceptedby
corporations,Englishlanguageprograms,andgovernmentagencies
aroundtheworld.

CorporationsuseittodocumentprogressinEnglishtrainingprograms,
recruitandpromoteemployees,andputstandardmeasurementsin
placeacrosslocations.

EnglishProgramsuseittoplacestudentsatthecorrectlearninglevels,
andshowstudentprogressandprogrameffectiveness.

GovernmentagenciesuseittodocumentprogressinEnglishtraining
programsandtorecruit,promote,andhireemployees.

B.WhattakingtheTOEICtestislike

Takeapracticetest(seeHowtoSelectaStudyBookintheTOEFL
section),computeyourscoresandconsiderstrategiesfor
improvement,aswiththepreviousexaminations.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 31

C.Skillstesting
TheTOEICtestcomesintwoforms,theoriginallisteningandreading
componentsandthemorerecentlydevelopedwritingandspeaking
section.Listeningandreadingisstillapaperandpencil,
multiplechoiceassessmentwithtwoseparatelytimedsectionsof100
questionseach.Thespeakingandwritingformoftheexamistaken
onlyovertheInternet.Besuretoaskyourstudentifsheintendsto
takebothformsofthetest,ormorecommon,totakeonlythe
ListeningandReadingform,asthewritingandspeakingformisnotyet
availableworldwide.Becarefulwhenyousearchforastudymanual,
thatyoufindonethathasBOTHtestsinit(ifavailableinyourarea,
again,checktheETS
website).

TheListeningandReadingTest
SectionI:Listening
Testtakerslistentoavarietyofquestionsandshortconversations
recordedinEnglish,thenanswerquestionsbasedonwhattheyhave
heard(100itemstotal).

Part1:Photographs
Part2:QuestionResponse
Part3:Conversations
Part4:ShortTalks

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 32

SectionII:Reading
Testtakersreadavarietyofmaterialsandrespondattheirownpace
(100itemstotal).

Part5:IncompleteSentences
Part6:ErrorRecognitionorTextCompletion
Part7:ReadingComprehension

TheSpeakingandWritingTests

TheTOEICtestsassesslanguageskillsthatareusedindailylifeand
theworkplace.TesttakersspeakandwriteinEnglishtheirresponsesto
TheListeningandReadingtesttakes realworldquestionsandscenarios.Thetestsusecommoneveryday
approximately2hours,with: vocabulary,phrasesandkeyexpressionsusedinbusiness.Testtakers
donotneedspecificbusinessknowledgetodowellonthetest.
45minutesforListening
75minutesforReadingand TheTOEICSpeakingTestFormat
approximately30minutestoan
swerbiographicalquestions Content:11questions
Time:approximately20minutes
Scorescale:0200

OnthefollowingpageisanoverviewoftheTOEICSpeakingTest,which
includes11questionsthatmeasurevariousaspectsofspeakingability.
Foreachquestion,specificdirectionswillbegiven,includingthetime
allowedforpreparingandspeakingtheresponse.Itistothe
testtakersadvantagetosayasmuchastheycaninthetimeallowed.
Itisalsoimportantthatyouspeakclearlyandanswereachquestion
accordingtodirections.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 33

FreeResourcesfromTOEIC:

TOEICListeningandReading
SampleTest(PDF)

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 34

TheTOEICWritingTestFormat
Content:eightquestions
Time:approximately60minutes
Scorescale:0200

OnthenextpageisanoverviewoftheTOEICWritingtest,which
includeseightquestionsthatmeasuredifferentaspectsofwriting
abilityandtakesaboutonehour.Foreachtypeofquestion,the
testtakerwillbegivenspecificdirections,includingthetimeallowed
forwriting.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 35

FREEResources:
ReviewtheSampleTests(PDF)and
takealookatthe
TOEICSpeakingandWriting
ExamineeHandbook(PDF).

D.PracticeTestingandrecalibratinggoals
Afterareasonableperiodofstudy,haveyourstudentstakeaprogress
testandreevaluatetheirgoalsbasedontheirperformance.Notwo
studentswillbeexactlythesameandgoalsshouldbeindividualized.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 36

VI.Grammar

GoalsandTechniquesforTeachingGrammarfromthe
GeorgetownUniversityLanguageResourceCenter

Thegoalofgrammarinstructionistoenablestudentstocarryouttheir
communicationpurposes.Thisgoalhasthreeimplications:

Studentsneedovertinstructionthatconnectsgrammarpointswith
largercommunicationcontexts.
Downloadthegrammarebookfor
thiscourseat: Studentsdonotneedtomastereveryaspectofeachgrammar
www.TEFLeBooks.com/grammar.pdf point,onlythosethatarerelevanttotheimmediate
andworkallthewaythroughit. communicationtask.

Errorcorrectionisnotalwaystheinstructor'sfirstresponsibility.

OvertGrammarInstruction

Adultstudentsappreciateandbenefitfromdirectinstructionthat
allowsthemtoapplycriticalthinkingskillstolanguagelearning.
Instructorscantakeadvantageofthisbyprovidingexplanationsthat
givestudentsadescriptiveunderstanding(declarativeknowledge)of
eachpointofgrammar.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 37

Teachthegrammarpointinthetargetlanguageorthestudents'
firstlanguageorboth.Thegoalistofacilitateunderstanding.

Limitthetimeyoudevotetogrammarexplanationsto10minutes,
especiallyforlowerlevelstudentswhoseabilitytosustainattention
canbelimited.

Presentgrammarpointsinwrittenandoralwaystoaddressthe
needsofstudentswithdifferentlearningstyles.

Animportantpartofgrammarinstructionisprovidingexamples.
Teachersneedtoplantheirexamplescarefullyaroundtwobasic
principles:

Besuretheexamplesareaccurateandappropriate.Theymust
presentthelanguageappropriately,beculturallyappropriatefor
thesettinginwhichtheyareused,andbetothepointofthe
lesson.

Usetheexamplesasteachingtools.Focusexamplesonaparticular
themeortopicsothatstudentshavemorecontactwithspecific
informationandvocabulary.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 38

RelevanceofGrammarInstruction

Inthecommunicativecompetencemodel,thepurposeoflearning
grammaristolearnthelanguageofwhichthegrammarisapart.
Instructorsthereforeteachgrammarformsandstructuresinrelationto
meaninganduseforthespecificcommunicationtasksthatstudents
needtocomplete[thesetasksaresometimescalledfunctions].

Comparethetraditionalmodelandthecommunicativecompetence
modelforteachingtheEnglishpasttense:

Traditional:grammarforgrammar'ssake

Teachtheregularedformwithitstwopronunciationvariants
(seeFastTrackGrammarReview)

Teachthedoublingruleforverbsthatendind(forexample,
wedwedded)

Handoutalistofirregularverbsthatstudentsmustmemorize

Dopatternpracticedrillsfored

Dosubstitutiondrillsforirregularverbs

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 39

Communicativecompetence:grammarforcommunication'ssake

Distributetwoshortnarrativesaboutrecentexperiencesorevents,
eachonetohalfoftheclass

Teachtheregularedform,usingverbsthatoccurinthetextsas
examples.Teachthepronunciationanddoublingrulesifthose
formsoccurinthetexts.

Teachtheirregularverbsthatoccurinthetexts.

Studentsreadthenarratives,askquestionsaboutpointstheydon't
understand.

StudentsworkinpairsinwhichonememberhasreadStoryAand
theotherStoryB.Studentsinterviewoneanother;usingthe
informationfromtheinterview,theythenwriteupororallyrepeat
thestorytheyhavenotread.

ErrorCorrection

Atallproficiencylevels,learnersproducelanguagethatisnotexactly
thelanguageusedbynativespeakers.Someofthedifferencesare
grammatical,whileothersinvolvevocabularyselectionandmistakesin
theselectionoflanguageappropriatefordifferentcontexts.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 40

Inrespondingtostudentcommunication,teachersneedtobecarefulnotto
focusonerrorcorrectiontothedetrimentofcommunicationandconfidence
building.Teachersneedtoletstudentsknowwhentheyaremakingerrorsso
thattheycanworkonimproving.Teachersalsoneedtobuildstudents'
confidenceintheirabilitytousethelanguagebyfocusingonthecontentof
theircommunicationratherthanthegrammaticalform.

Teacherscanuseerrorcorrectiontosupportlanguageacquisition,andavoid
usingitinwaysthatunderminestudents'desiretocommunicateinthe
language,bytakingcuesfromcontext.

Whenstudentsaredoingstructuredoutputactivitiesthatfocuson
developmentofnewlanguageskills,useerrorcorrectiontoguidethem.

Example:
Student(inclass):Ibuyanewcaryesterday.
Teacher:Youboughtanewcaryesterday.
Remember,thepasttenseofbuyisbought.

Whenstudentsareengagedincommunicativeactivities,
correcterrorsonlyiftheyinterferewithcomprehensibility.
Respondusingcorrectforms,butwithoutstressingthem.

Example:
Student(greetingteacher):Ibuyanewcaryesterday!
Teacher:Youboughtanewcar?That'sexciting!Whatkind?

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 41

StrategiesforLearningGrammar
Languageteachersandlanguagelearnersareoftenfrustratedbythe
disconnectbetweenknowingtherulesofgrammarandbeingableto
applythoserulesautomaticallyinlistening,speaking,reading,and
writing.Thisdisconnectreflectsaseparationbetweendeclarative
knowledgeandproceduralknowledge.

Declarativeknowledgeisknowledgeaboutsomething.
Declarativeknowledgeenablesastudenttodescribearuleof
grammarandapplyitinpatternpracticedrills.
Proceduralknowledgeisknowledgeofhowtodosomething.
Proceduralknowledgeenablesastudenttoapplyaruleof
grammarincommunication.
Forexample,declarativeknowledgeiswhatyouhavewhenyouread
andunderstandtheinstructionsforprogrammingtheDVDplayer.
Proceduralknowledgeiswhatyoudemonstratewhenyouprogramthe
DVDplayer.

Proceduralknowledgedoesnottranslateautomaticallyintodeclarative
knowledge;manynativespeakerscanusetheirlanguageclearlyand
correctlywithoutbeingabletostatetherulesofitsgrammar.Likewise,
declarativeknowledgedoesnottranslateautomaticallyintoprocedural
knowledge;studentsmaybeabletostateagrammarrule,but
consistentlyfailtoapplytherulewhenspeakingorwriting.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 42

Toaddressthedeclarativeknowledge/proceduralknowledgedichotomy,
teachersandstudentscanapplyseveralstrategies.

1. Relateknowledgeneedstolearninggoals.
Identifytherelationshipofdeclarativeknowledgeandproceduralknowledge
tostudentgoalsforlearningthelanguage.Studentswhoplantousethe
languageexclusivelyforreadingjournalarticlesneedtofocusmoreonthe
declarativeknowledgeofgrammaranddiscoursestructuresthatwillhelp
themunderstandthosetexts.Studentswhoplantoliveincountryneedto
focusmoreontheproceduralknowledgethatwillhelpthemmanagedayto
dayoralandwritteninteractions.

2.Applyhigherorderthinkingskills.
Recognizethatdevelopmentofdeclarativeknowledgecanaccelerate
developmentofproceduralknowledge.Teachingstudentshowthelanguage
worksandgivingthemopportunitiestocompareitwithotherlanguagesthey
knowallowsthemtodrawoncriticalthinkingandanalyticalskills.These
processescansupportthedevelopmentoftheinnateunderstandingthat
characterizesproceduralknowledge.

3.Provideplentifulandappropriatelanguageinput.
Understandthatstudentsdevelopbothproceduralanddeclarativeknowl
edgeonthebasisoftheinputtheyreceive.Thisinputincludesbothfinely
tunedinputthatrequiresstudentstopayattentiontotherelationships
amongform,meaning,anduseforaspecificgrammarrule,androughlytuned
inputthatallowsstudentstoencounterthegrammarruleinavarietyof
contexts.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 43

4.Usepredictingskills.
DiscourseanalystDouglasBiberhasdemonstratedthatdifferent
communicationtypescanbecharacterizedbytheclustersoflinguistic
featuresthatarecommontothosetypes.Verbtenseandaspect,sen
tencelengthandstructure,andlargerdiscoursepatternsallmaycon
tributetothedistinctiveprofileofagivencommunicationtype.For
example,ahistorytextbookandanewspaperarticleinEnglishbothuse
pasttenseverbsalmostexclusively.However,thenewspaperarticle
willuseshortsentencesandadiscoursepatternthatalternatesbe
tweensubjectsorperspectives.Thehistorytextbookwillusecomplex
sentencesandwillfollowatimelineinitsdiscoursestructure.
Awarenessofthesefeaturesallowsstudentstoanticipatetheforms
andstructurestheywillencounterinagivencommunicationtask.

5.Limitexpectationsfordrills.
Mechanicaldrillsinwhichstudentssubstitutepronounsfornounsor
alternatetheperson,number,ortenseofverbscanhelpstudents
memorizeirregularformsandchallengingstructures.However,
studentsdonotdeveloptheabilitytousegrammarcorrectlyinoral
andwritteninteractionsbydoingmechanicaldrills,becausethesedrills
separateformfrommeaninganduse.Thecontentofthepromptand
theresponseissetinadvance;thestudentonlyhastosupplythe
correctgrammaticalform,andcandothatwithoutreallyneedingto
understandorcommunicateanything.Themainlessonthatstudents
learnfromdoingthesedrillsis:Grammarisboring.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 44

Communicativedrillsencouragestudentstoconnectform,
meaning,andusebecausemultiplecorrectresponsesare
possible.Incommunicativedrills,studentsrespondtoaprompt
usingthegrammarpointunderconsideration,butproviding
theirowncontent.Forexample,topracticequestionsandan
swersinthepasttenseinEnglish,teacherandstudentscanask
andanswerquestionsaboutactivitiesthepreviousevening.
Thedrilliscommunicativebecausenoneofthecontentissetin
advance:
Teacher:Didyougotothelibrarylastnight?
Student1:No,Ididnt.Iwenttothemovies.(toStudent2):
Didyoureadchapter3?
Student2:Yes,Ireadchapter3,butIdidntunderstandit.
(toStudent3):Didyouunderstandchapter3?
Student3:Ididntreadchapter3.Iwenttothemovieswith
Student1.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 45

DevelopingGrammarActivities

Manycoursesandtextbooks,especiallythosedesignedforlower
proficiencylevels,useaspecifiedsequenceofgrammaticaltopicsas
theirorganizingprinciple.Whenthisisthecase,classroomactivities
needtoreflectthegrammarpointthatisbeingintroducedorreviewed.
Bycontrast,whenacoursecurriculumfollowsatopicsequence,
grammarpointscanbeaddressedastheycomeup.

Inbothcases,instructorscanusetheLarsenFreemanpiechartasa
guidefordevelopingactivities.

Forcurriculathatintroducegrammaticalformsinaspecifiedsequence,
instructorsneedtodevelopactivitiesthatrelateformtomeaningand
use.

Describethegrammarpoint,includingform,meaning,anduse,
andgiveexamples(structuredinput)
Askstudentstopracticethegrammarpointincommunicative
drills(structuredoutput)
Havestudentsdoacommunicativetaskthatprovides
opportunitiestousethegrammarpoint(communicativeoutput)

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 46

Forcurriculathatfollowasequenceoftopics,instructorsneedto
developactivitiesthatrelatethetopicaldiscourse(use)tomeaningand
form.

Provideoralorwritteninput(audiotape,readingselection)that
addressesthe topic(structuredinput)

Reviewthepointofgrammar,usingexamplesfromthematerial
(structuredinput)
Askstudentstopracticethegrammarpointincommunicative
drillsthatfocusonthetopic(structuredoutput)

Havestudentsdoacommunicativetaskonthetopic
(communicativeoutput)
Wheninstructorshavetheopportunitytodeveloppartorallofthe
coursecurriculum,theycandevelopaseriesofcontextsbasedonthe
realworldtasksthatstudentswillneedtoperformusingthelanguage,
andthenteachgrammarandvocabularyinrelationtothosecontexts.

Forexample,studentswhoplantotravelwillneedtounderstand
publicaddressannouncementsinairportsandtrainstations.
Instructorscanuseaudiotapedsimulationstoprovideinput;teach
thegrammaticalformsthattypicallyoccurinsuchannouncements;
andthenhavestudentspracticebyaskingandansweringquestions
aboutwhatwasannounced.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 47

UsingTextbookGrammarActivities
Textbooksusuallyprovideoneormoreofthefollowingthreetypesof
grammarexercises.

Mechanicaldrills:Eachprompthasonlyonecorrectresponse,
andstudentscancompletetheexercisewithoutattendingto
meaning.Forexample:Georgewaitedforthebusthismorning.
Hewillwaitforthebustomorrowmorning,too.
Meaningfuldrills:Eachprompthasonlyonecorrectresponse,
andstudentsmustattendtomeaningtocompletetheexercise.
Forexample:WhereareGeorgespapers?Theyareinhis
notebook.(Studentsmustunderstandthemeaningofthe
questioninordertoanswer,butonlyonecorrectansweris
possiblebecausetheyallknowwhereGeorgespapersare.)
Tousetextbookgrammarexerciseseffectively,instructorsneedto
recognizewhichtypetheyare,devotetheappropriateamountoftime
tothem,andsupplementthemasneeded.

RecognizingTypes

Beforetheteachingtermbegins,inventorythetextbooktoseewhich
type(s)ofdrillsitprovides.Decidewhichyouwilluseinclass,which
youwillassignashomework,andwhichyouwillskip.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 48

AssigningTime

Whendecidingwhichtextbookdrillstouseandhowmuchtimetoallot
tothem,keeptheirrelativevalueinmind.

Mechanicaldrillsaretheleastusefulbecausetheybearlittle
resemblancetorealcommunication.Theydonotrequire
studentstolearnanything;theyonlyrequireparrotingofa
patternorrule.
Meaningfuldrillscanhelpstudentsdevelopunderstandingof
theworkingsofrulesofgrammarbecausetheyrequirestudents
tomakeformmeaningcorrelations.Theirresemblancetoreal
communicationislimitedbythefactthattheyhaveonlyone
correctanswer.
Communicativedrillsrequirestudentstobeawareofthe
relationshipsamongform,meaning,anduse.Incommunicative
drills,studentstestanddeveloptheirabilitytouselanguageto
conveyideasandinformation.
Supplementing

Ifthetextbookprovidesfewornomeaningfulandcommunicative
drills,instructorsmaywanttocreatesometosubstituteformechanical
drills.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 49

AssessingGrammarProficiency

AuthenticAssessment

Justasmechanicaldrillsdonotteachstudentsthelanguage,
mechanicaltestquestionsdonotassesstheirabilitytouseitin
Mechanicaltestsdoserveone authenticways.Inordertoprovideauthenticassessmentofstudents
purpose:Theymotivatestudentsto grammarproficiency,anevaluationmustreflectreallifeusesof
memorize.Theycanthereforeserveas grammarincontext.Thismeansthattheactivitymusthaveapurpose
promptstoencouragememorization
otherthanassessmentandrequirestudentstodemonstratetheirlevel
ofirregularformsandvocabulary
items.Becausetheytestonlymemory ofgrammarproficiencybycompletingsometask.
capacity,notlanguageability,theyare
bestusedasquizzesandgiven Todevelopauthenticassessmentactivities,beginwiththetypesof
relativelylittleweightinevaluating tasksthatstudentswillactuallyneedtodousingthelanguage.
studentperformanceandprogress. Assessmentcanthentaketheformofcommunicativedrillsand
communicativeactivitieslikethoseusedintheteachingprocess.

Forexample,theactivitybasedonaudiotapesofpublicaddress
announcementscanbeconvertedintoanassessmentbyhaving
studentsrespondorallyorinwritingtoquestionsaboutasimilartape.
Inthistypeofassessment,theinstructorusesachecklistorrubricto
evaluatethestudentsunderstandingand/oruseofgrammarin
context.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 50

VII.TeachingStudyandExaminationSkills

EffectiveStudySkillsDr.BobKizlik

HowtoStudyandMaketheMostofYourTime

Notwopeoplestudythesameway,andthereislittledoubtthatwhat
worksforonepersonmaynotworkforanother.However,thereare
somegeneraltechniquesthatseemtoproducegoodresults.Noone
wouldarguethateverysubjectthatyouhavetotakeisgoingtobeso
interestingthatstudyingitisnotworkbutpleasure.Wecanonlywish.

EffectiveStudyskillsareaboutmorethanunderstanding

Effectivestudyskillsmustbepracticedinorderforyoutoimprove.Itis
notenoughtosimply"thinkabout"studying;youhavetoactuallydoit,
andintheprocessuseinformationfromwhatyoudotogetbetter.This
isthecentralideaofthispage.Allthatfollowsdependsonthissingle
concept.Thereisasayingthatgoeslikethis:"Practicedoesn'tmake
perfect;perfectpracticemakesperfect."Ifyouwanttobeanachiever,
takethissayingtoheart.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 51

Thevalueofaschedule

Beforeyouevenbegintothinkabouttheprocessofstudying,youmust
developaschedule.Ifyoudon'thaveascheduleorplanforstudying,then
youwillnothaveanywayofallocatingyourvaluabletimewhenthe
unexpectedcomesup.Agood,wellthoughtoutschedulecanbea
lifesaver.It'suptoyoutolearnhowdevelopaschedulethatmeetsyour
needs,reviseitifnecessary,andmostimportant,followit.

Makingeveryhourcount

Allschedulesshouldbemadewiththe Ascheduleshouldtakeintoaccounteveryclass,laboratory,lecture,
ideathattheycanberevised.Agood
socialevent,andotherworkinwhichyouengage.Therearegivenssuchas
schedulekeepsyoufromwanderingoff
classesandsoonthathavetobeincorporated.Youmustfocusonthe
course.Agoodschedule,ifproperly
managed,assignstimewheretimeis other"freetime"availableandhowyouwilluseit.Makeaweekly
needed,butyou'vegottowanttodo scheduleandblockoffthe24hourdayinonehourincrements.Indicate
it! timesforclasses,labs,lectures,social,andworktime.Alsoblockoffa
periodforsleepingeachday.Withwhatisleftover,plantimeforstudy.
Thisgivesyouaroughroadmapofthetimeavailable.Ofcourse,youcan
reviseyourscheduleascircumstanceswarrant.

Whentostudy

Theproblemofwhentostudyiscritical.Agoodruleofthumbisthat
studyingshouldbecarriedoutonlywhenyouarerested,alert,andhave
plannedforit.Lastminutestudyingjustbeforeaclassisusuallyawasteof
time.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 52

Studyingforlecturecourses

Ifyourstudyperiodisbeforethelectureclass,besureyouhaveread
alltheassignmentsandmadenotesonwhatyoudon'tunderstand.If
thestudyperiodisafterthelectureclass,reviewthenotesyoutook
duringclasswhiletheinformationisstillfresh.

Studyingforrecitationcourses

Forclassesthatrequirerecitation,suchasforeignlanguage,besureto
Don'tbeafraidtoreviseyourschedule.
Schedulesarereallyplansforhowyou scheduleastudyperiodjustbeforetheclass.Usethetimetopractice.
intendtouseyourtime.Ifyoursched Sometimes,practicewithotherscanhelpsharpenyourskillsinabe
uledoesn'twork,reviseit.Youmust foreclassstudyperiod.
understandthatyourscheduleisto
helpyoudevelopgoodstudyhabits.
TheProcessofStudy
Onceyouhavedevelopedthem,sched
ulebuildingbecomeseasier.
Howtouseyourtime

Timeisthemostvaluableresourceastudenthas.Itisalsooneofthe
mostwastedofresources.Thescheduleyoudevelopshouldguideyou
inhowtoallocatetheavailabletimeinthemostproductivemanner.
Stickingtoyourschedulecanbetough.Don'tdribbleawayvaluable
time.Avoidingstudyistheeasiestthingintheworld.It'suptoyouto
followthescheduleyouprepared.Agooddealofyoursuccessinhigh
schoolorcollegedependsonthissimpletruth.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 53

Wheretostudy

Youcanstudyanywhere.Obviously,someplacesarebetterthan
others.Libraries,studyloungesorprivateroomsarebest.Aboveall,
theplaceyouchoosetostudyshouldnotbedistracting.Distractions
canbuildup,andthefirstthingyouknow,you'reoutoftimeandout
ofluck.Makechoosingagoodphysicalenvironmentapartofyour
studyhabits.

Strategies

Thinkingskills
Everybodyhasthinkingskills,butfew
usethemeffectively.Effectivethinking
Goodthinkersseepossibilitieswhereothersseeonlydeadends.If
skillscannotbestudied,butmustbe you'renotagoodthinker,startnowbydevelopinghabitsthatmake
builtupoveraperiodoftime. youaskyourselfquestionsasyouread.Talktootherstudentswhoyou
feelaregoodthinkers.Askthemwhatitistheydowhentheythink
criticallyorcreatively.Oftentimes,youcanpickupvaluableinsightsto
helpyoubecomeabetterthinker.

TheSQ3Rmethod

TheSQ3Rmethodhasbeenaprovenwaytosharpenstudyskills.SQ3R
standsforSurvey,Question,Read,Recite,Review.Takeamomentnow
andwriteSQ3Rdown.Itisagoodslogantocommittomemorytocarry
outaneffectivestudystrategy.
HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 54

Surveygetthebestoverallpictureofwhatyou'regoingtostudy
BEFOREyoustudyitananydetail.It'slikelookingataroadmapbefore
goingonatrip.Ifyoudon'tknowtheterritory,studyingamapisthe
bestwaytobegin.

Questionaskquestionsforlearning.Theimportantthingstolearnare
usuallyanswerstoquestions.Questionsshouldleadtoemphasison
thewhat,why,how,when,whoandwhereofstudycontent.Ask
yourselfquestionsasyoureadorstudy.Asyouanswerthem,youwill
helptomakesenseofthematerialandrememberitmoreeasilybe
causetheprocesswillmakeanimpressiononyou.Thosethingsthat
makeimpressionsaremoremeaningful,andthereforemoreeasily
remembered.Don'tbeafraidtowriteyourquestionsinthemarginsof
textbooks,onlecturenotes,orwhereveritmakessense.

ReadReadingisNOTrunningyoureyesoveratextbook.Whenyou
read,readactively.Readtoanswerquestionsyouhaveaskedyourself
orquestionstheinstructororauthorhasasked.Alwaysbealerttobold
oritalicizedprint.Theauthorsintendthatthismaterialreceivespecial
emphasis.Also,whenyouread,besuretoreadeverything,including
tables,graphsandillustrations.Oftentimestables,graphsand
illustrationscanconveyanideamorepowerfullythanwrittentext.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 55

ReciteWhenyourecite,youstopreadingperiodicallytorecallwhat
youhaveread.Trytorecallmainheadings,importantideasorconcepts
presentedinboldoritalicizedtype,andwhatgraphschartsor
illustrationsindicate.Trytodevelopanoverallconceptofwhatyou
havereadinyourownwordsandthoughts.Trytoconnectthingsyou
havejustreadtothingsyoualreadyknow.Whenyoudothis
periodically,thechancesareyouwillremembermuchmoreandbe
abletorecallmaterialforpapers,essaysandobjectivetests.

ReviewAreviewisasurveyofwhatyouhavecovered.Itisareview
ofwhatyouaresupposedtoaccomplish,notwhatyouaregoingtodo.
Rereadingisanimportantpartofthereviewprocess.Rereadwiththe
ideathatyouaremeasuringwhatyouhavegainedfromtheprocess.
Duringreview,it'sagoodtimetogoovernotesyouhavetakentohelp
clarifypointsyoumayhavemissedordon'tunderstand.Thebesttime
toreviewiswhenyouhavejustfinishedstudyingsomething.Don't
waituntiljustbeforeanexaminationtobeginthereviewprocess.
Beforeanexamination,doafinalreview.Ifyoumanageyourtime,the
finalreviewcanbethoughtofasa"finetuning"ofyourknowledgeof
thematerial.Thousandsofhighschoolandcollegestudentshave
followedtheSQ3Rstepstoachievehighergradeswithlessstress.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 56

Reading

Aprimarymeansbywhichyouacquireinformationisthroughreading.
Incollegeyou'reexpectedtodomuchmorereadingthaninhigh
school.Don'tassumejustbecauseyou've"read"theassignmentsthat
istheendofit.Youmustlearntoreadwithapurpose.Instudying,you
Thereisusuallyoneimportantdetail mayreadthesameassignmentthreeorfourtimes,eachtimewitha
associatedwitheverymainidea.The differentpurpose.Youmustknowbeforeyoubeginreadingwhatyour
moreimportantdetailsyoucan purposeis,andreadaccordingly.
identify,theeasieritwillbetoreview
forexaminationsbecauseyouhave
GettingtheMainIdea
madealinkbetweenanideaand
informationthatsupportsit.Themore
Gettingthemainideainreadingiscentraltoeffectivestudying.You
linksyoucanmakebetweendetails
andideas,aswellasideasthemselves, mustlearnwhattheauthor'scentralideais,andunderstanditinyour
themorepowerfulwillbetheefforts ownway.
ofyourstudy.
Everyparagraphcontainsamainidea.Mainideasareperfectfor
outliningtextbooks.Makeitahabittofindthemainideaineach
paragraphyouread.

ExtractingImportantDetails

Extractingimportantdetailsmeansthatyoulocateinyourreadingthe
basisformainideas.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 57

TakingNotes

Likereading,notetakingisaskillwhichmustbelearnedandrefined.
Almostinvariably,notetaking,orthelackofit,isa
Don'tReadAloudtoYourself constantdeficiencyinthestudymethodsofmanyhighschooland
collegestudents.Learningtheingredientsofgoodnotetakingisrather
Generally,readingaloudtoyourself
doesnothelpyoustudymore
easy;applyingthemtoyourownsituation
effectively.Ifyoumoveyourlipswhile dependsonhowseriousyouareinbecomingasuccessful
youread,you'renotreading student.
efficiently.Ifyoureadaloudormove
yourlipswhileyou'rereading,youare WheretoKeepNotes
readingslowly,sostopmovingyour
lips.Tryputtingafingeroveryourlips. Youmustlearntokeepnoteslogicallyandlegibly.Remember,ifyou
Yourfingerwillremindyounotto
can'treadyourownwritingafewdaysaftertakingnotes,theyareof
moveyourlips.Makeanefforttoread
fasterandretainmoreafterawhile, littleuse.Byallaccounts,thebestplacetokeepnotesisinalooseleaf
you'llbesurprisedhowlittleeffortit notebook.Usedividerstoseparatethedifferentclassesyoutake.
willtake. MakeitahabitofusingyournotebooktorecordALLyournotes.If
you'recaughtwithoutyournotebookandneedtotakenotes,always
haveasupplyoflooseleafpaperwithyou.Insertyournotepapersinto
thenotebookassoonasyoucan.Besuretobuyagoodnotebook,asit
willgetalotofwearandtear.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 58

TakingLectureNotes

Surveying,Questioning,Listening
OutliningTextbooks

Takingaccurateandconciselecturenotesisessential.Developthe
Firstofall,don'tunderline.Usea
highlighter.Experiencehasshownthat habitoftakingnotesusingappropriatemethodsdescribedearlierin
textpassageshighlightedaremore theSQ3Rtechnique.Forexample,whenyoulistentoalecture,
easilyrememberedthanthesame formulatequestionsasyoulisten.Yourmainjobintakinglecturenotes
passagesunderlined.Inoutlininga istobeagoodlistener.Tobeagoodlistener,youmustlearntofocus
text,don'tjustreadalongand
andconcentrateonthemainpointsofthelecture.Getthemdown,and
highlightwhatseemtoimportant
words.Thattechniquerarelyworks. thenlaterreorganizetheminyourownwords.Onceyouhavedone
Theactofoutliningworksmuch this,youhavesetthestageforsuccessfulreviewingandrevising.
better.
ReviewingandRevising

Asyouprepareforexaminations,tests,orotherassessments,you
shouldspendtimereviewingandrevisingyourlecturenotes.Beginthe
processbyreviewingyournotesrightafteralecture.Ifyouwaittoo
long,youmaydiscoverthatthenotesjustdon'tmakesense.Don't
hesitatetoreviseyournotesbasedonthereviewprocess.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 59

ResearchNotes

Anyformofnotetakingthatrequirescompilationofinformationby
categories,ratherthaninnarrativeformisbestdoneusingindexcards.
Youcansort,editandarrangeindexcardstosuityourparticularstudy
needs.Themostimportantpointinusingcardsistoindicatethecorrect
referenceortopicatthetopofthecard.Usethecardsforstudy,review,
KnowingtheGroundRules tohelporganizeinformationforpapers,reports,orprojects.Aneven
betteridea,ifyouhaveapersonalcomputer,istoorganizeyour
Alwaysreaddirections!Indicateyour categoricalinformationinadatabase.Onceyousetitup,finding,updating
answersexactlythewaythedirections andaddingnewinformationisquiteeasy.Ifyouhaveaprinter,youcan
state.Makesureyouranswersare
printoutyournotesinavarietyofways.
clear.Determinewhatthescoring
rulesforthetestareandfollowthem
toyouradvantage.Forexample,if TakingExaminations
wronganswersarepenalized,don't
guessunlessyoucanreducethe ObjectiveExaminations
choicestotwo.
Surveying

Surveyanyobjectiveexaminationtofindoutwhattypesofquestionsare
beingasked.Surveyinghelpsyoutoknowwhattoexpect.

AnsweringEasyQuestionsFirst

Answeringeasy(toyou)questionsfirstisthebeststrategy.Ifyoustumble
overdifficultquestionsfortoolongatime,youmaynotbeableto
completetheexam.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 60

PickingoutKeyWords

Objectiveexaminationquestionsusuallycontainoneormorekeywords.
Akeywordorgroupofwordsarethoseonwhichthetruthorfalsityofa
statementhinges.Learntospotthekeywordsinthestatementthat
definethemeaning.Ifastatementcontainstwoclauses,oneofwhichis
false,thewholestatementisfalse.Usually,twostatementtruefalse
questionsareeitherbothtrueorbothfalse.

ReadingMultipleChoiceQuestions

Multiplechoicequestionsareessentiallytruefalsequestionsarrangedin
groups.Usually,onlyonealternativeiscorrect.Yourjobistopickthe
alternativethatismorenearlytruethantheothers.Readmultiplechoice
questionsthesamewayasfortruefalse.Eliminateobviousfalsechoices.

ReadingOtherTypesofQuestions

Themethodsusedtoanswertruefalseandmultiplechoicequestions
applytomatchingquestionsaswell.Alwaysscantheentirelistof
alternativesbeforematchingany.Asintheothertypesofquestions,try
toidentifykeywordsineachlistandtestthem.Completionquestions
requireyoutoprovideawordorphrase.Whenyouencounter
completionquestions,chooseyourwordscarefully.Ifyoudon'tknowthe
answer,giveityourbestguess,asoftentimessuchresponsesgetatleast
partialcredit.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 61

EssayExaminations

Planningyourtimeinansweringessayquestionsismoreimportant
thaninobjectivetypetests.Thegeneralruleisnottogetcarriedaway
ononeortwoquestionstotheextentthatyoucannotanswerthat
otherquestionsinthetimeallowed.Readthroughtheentire
Goodhandwriting
examinationfirst.Getafeelforthequestionsyouareexpectedtoan
Goodhandwritingisanabsolute swer.Iftheexamallowsyoutochoosefromanumberofquestions,be
essentialforessayquestions.Ifyour suretonumberyouranswersexactlytomatchthequestions.
cursivewritingisveryhardtoread,try
printinginstead.Mostinstructors Whenyoufollowdirectionsforanessayexam,payattentiontothekey
valueclearhandwriting.Grammar, wordstheinstructorhasincluded.Suchwordsas"list,""describe,"
punctuation,andspellingalsocount.
"compareandcontrast,"and"outline"havespecialmeaning.Don't
Wellwrittengrammaticallycorrect
answersalmostalwaysreceivehigher "writearound"thequestionbutansweritdirectly.Ifaquestionasks
gradesthanpoorlywrittengrammati youtolistsomething,don'twriteanarrativeaboutit.Answeringessay
callyincorrectanswers,eventhough questionsdirectlyisalwaysthebestpolicy.
theanswersthemselvesarethesame.
Afterscanningthelistofquestionstobeanswered,choosetheones
youknowmostabout.Agoodideaistoprepareanoutlineofyouran
swers.Theoutlinewillhelpyourememberimportantideasandfactsto
beincludedinyourresponse.Anothertechniqueistodoa
"memorydump."Thistechniqueisdiscussedinthelastsectionofthis
guide,"PowerStudyTips."

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 62

WritingThemesandReports

ReviewingtheTopic

Studentsusuallyhavesomefreedomtochoosethesubjectofthemes
orreports.Whenyoumakethischoice,besurethatthetopicis
GatheringMaterialsBeforeYouWrite
acceptabletotheteacher,andisasinterestingtoyouaspossible.
Beforeyoubeginwriting,assemblethe Anotherconsiderationisthatofavailabilityofresourcematerial.Your
materialsyouwillneed.Useindex taskismademucheasierwhenthereisagoodamountofreference
cards,notes,bibliographies,summa andresourcematerialavailable.
ries,reportsandreviewsaspartof
yourpreparationprocess.Usingindex UsingCorrectPunctuationandGrammar
cardsforreferencesisanexcellentway
toorganizeyourmaterials.Computer
Asinwritingessaysquestions,goodgrammarandpunctuationarea
databaseprogramscanalsohelpyou
classifyandorganizereference
must.Moststudentsusewordprocessorstowritepapers.Besureto
materials. usethespellcheckerthatalmostallwordprocessorshavebuiltin.
Manywordprocessorsalsohavesomesortofgrammarchecker.Learn
touseagrammarchecker,asitcanpointoutseriousflawsinyour
writingandhelpyoubecomeabetterwriter.Mostgrammarcheckers
explainthegrammarrulesthatapplytothesuggestedcorrectionsto
yourwriting.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 63

PreparinganOutlineandWritingthePaper

Onceyouhaveyourtopic,havegatheredandorganizedyourmaterials,
itistimetooutlineyourpaper.Putyouroutlineonpaper!Don'tmake
themistakeoftryingtokeepeverythinginyourhead.Makeyour
outlineintheformofmainheadingsorideaswithsubheadings
fleshingouttheflowofthepaper.

Usingtheoutlineasaguide,beginwritingbyaskingyourselfwhatthe
paperisgoingtosayandwhatconclusionsyouwanttoreach.Doing
thisaheadoftimewillhelpkeepyoufocusedandpreventyoufrom
strayingfromthepurposeofthepaper.Makinguptheoutlineasyou
goalongalmostalwaysresultsinalessthansatisfactoryproduct.
Writingisimportantinhighschoolandisakeytosuccessincollegeand
inmanyprofessions.

Becomeagoodwriterbywriting,revising,andreviewingyourwork.
Don'tbeafraidtoaskotherstudentstocritiqueyourwork.Trytowrite
inyourownnaturalstyle,beawarethatmostgoodwritersgothrough
manyrevisions,andbepreparedtodothesame.Writingandtest
takingaretheendresultsofdevelopinggoodstudyskills.Thereisno
magicformulaforsuccess.Ifyoufollowthesuggestionsinthisguide,
applythemandthinkaboutthem,you'llhavetakenagiantstep
towardbecomingasuccessfulstudent.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 64

PowerStudyingTipsforCollegeStudents

Thefollowingtipshaveproventobeextremelypowerfulguidesfor
organizing,thinking,studying,andlearningincollege.Theyrepresent
thebestadviceofsuccessfulcollegestudents.Thecanalsoworkfor
highschoolstudents.

StudySpace

Tip:Yourstudyspaceshouldbeasquietandcomfortableaspossible.
Avoidstudyinginnoisyplacessuchascafeterias,recreationrooms,or
Takeabreak! lounges.

Tip:Ifpossible,studynomorethan Tip:Whenstudying,keepawastebaskethandy.
3040minutesatastretch.Many
studentsretainmorebystudyingfor Tip:Haveaconsistentplaceforeverything,andaboveall,keepitthere!
shortperiodswithbreaksinbetween.

Tip:Haveeverythingneededforstudyhandybeforehand.Don'twaste
Italldependsonwhatyou'retryingto
study,butgenerally,afteraperiodof valuabletimelookingforbooks,notes,ofotherinformation.Afteryou
study,takeabreak. haveassembledtheitemsyouneed,putthemwhereyoucanreach
themeasily.

StudyHabits

Tip:Beginstudynolessthan3090minutesafterameal.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 65

Tip:Neverstudywithin30minutesofgoingtosleep.

Tip:Prioritize!Makealistofwhatyouintendtostudy,prioritizethe
list,andsticktoit!

Tip:Takestudybreaksawayfromyourdeskorwhereveryouare
studying.Letthebreakbeatimetothinkaboutotherthings.Usesome
breaktimetoreflect,notconstantlyreviewwhatyouhavejuststudied.

ACluefromtheCourseInstructor
TheClassroom

Tip:Payattentiontothecourseoutline Tip:Distractionsintheclassroomaredeadly.Tohelpavoiddistractions,
orsyllabus.Generally,important sitnearthefrontoftheclass.You'relesslikelytomisssomethingim
pointsandmaterialsarereferenced portant,andtherearefarlessdistractionsatthefrontthananyother
hereandrepeated.Don'tbeafraidto
location.
asktheteacherifthereissomething
youdon'tunderstand.Mostteachers
Tip:Think!Thinkingisoneofthemostimportantthingsyoucandoin
willbegladtoclarifyforyou.
class.Ifyoujustsittherepassively,andnotthink,classcanbedeadly.
ThinkaboutwhattheteacherissayingBEFOREwritingdownanything.
WritingdowneachwordisaWASTEOFTIME.Reorganizeinyourmind
whattheteachersays,andthenwriteitdown.Thiswayyouwillbe
connectingtheteacher'swordswithHOWyouthink.Ifyoudothis,
yournoteswillmakealotmoresenselateron.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 66

PreparingforClass

Tip:Readthetableofcontentsofyourtextscarefully.Ifthetextbooks
havechaptersummaries,readthemfirst!Ifyoudon'tunderstandthe
materialfromthesummaries,gobackandhighlight.Takenotesonwhat
youhavehighlightedandreviewyournotes.Tip:Breakstudymaterialinto
shortsegmentsoflengthdependentonitsdifficulty.Remember,concise
notesaremorepowerfulthancopiousnotes.Thinkaboutthematerial!
Thentakenotesonwhatyoudon'tknoworarenotsureof.

TestTaking

DontUnderline Tip:Foressayexaminations,trythe"memorydump"technique.If
permitted,writedowneverythingyou'vememorizedfacts,names,dates,
Tip:Efficientstudentsdonot ideas,events,andsoonBEFOREyoudoanythingelse.Sometimesreading
underline!Underliningisnota
throughtheessayquestionscandistractyoufromwhatyou'vestudied.
productivewaytoemphasize
The"memorydump"techniquerequiresthatyouwritedowneverything
textbookmaterial.It'sbestto
useahighlighter.
possibleBEFOREyoubeginwritingessayanswers.Thisway,youareless
likelytoforgetsomethingimportant.

AFinalWord

Thestudyskillspresentedheredependononething,andthatiswilling
nesstoWANTtoimproveanddowell.Withouttheeffortandsacrifice,no
amountofsuggestions,ideas,oroutlinescanhelpmuch.TheStudentis
theonewhoisresponsiblefortheireducation,andeffectivestudyskills
canhelp.Worksmart,nothard.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 67

VIII.TeachingReadingSkills

GeorgetownUniversityLanguageResourceCenter
StrategiesforDevelopingReadingSkills
Effectivelanguageinstructorsshow UsingReadingStrategies
studentshowtheycanadjusttheir
readingbehaviortodealwithavariety Languageinstructorsareoftenfrustratedbythefactthatstudentsdo
ofsituations,typesofinput,and
notautomaticallytransferthestrategiestheyusewhenreadingintheir
readingpurposes.Theyhelpstudents
developasetofreadingstrategiesand
nativelanguagetoreadinginalanguagetheyarelearning.
matchappropriatestrategiestoeach
readingsituation. Instead,theyseemtothinkreadingmeansstartingatthebeginning
andgoingwordbyword,stoppingtolookupeveryunknownvocabu
laryitem,untiltheyreachtheend.Whentheydothis,studentsare
relyingexclusivelyontheirlinguisticknowledge,abottomupstrategy.

Oneofthemostimportantfunctionsofthelanguageinstructor,then,is
tohelpstudentsmovepastthisideaandusetopdownstrategiesas
theydointheirnativelanguage.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 68

Strategiesthatcanhelpstudentsreadmorequicklyandeffectively
include:

Previewing:reviewingtitles,sectionheadings,andphotocaptions
togetasenseofthestructureandcontentofareadingselection

Predicting:usingknowledgeofthesubjectmattertomake
predictionsaboutcontentandvocabularyandcheckcomprehen
sion;usingknowledgeofthetexttypeandpurposetomake
predictionsaboutdiscoursestructure;usingknowledgeaboutthe
authortomakepredictionsaboutwritingstyle,vocabulary,and
content

Skimmingandscanning:usingaquicksurveyofthetexttogetthe
mainidea,identifytextstructure,confirmorquestionpredictions

Guessingfromcontext:usingpriorknowledgeofthesubjectand
theideasinthetextascluestothemeaningsofunknownwords,
insteadofstoppingtolookthemup

Paraphrasing:stoppingattheendofasectiontocheck
comprehensionbyrestatingtheinformationandideasinthetext

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 69

Instructorscanhelpstudentslearnwhenandhowtousereading
strategiesinseveralways.

Bymodelingthestrategiesaloud,talkingthroughtheprocessesof
previewing,predicting,skimmingandscanning,andparaphrasing.
Thisshowsstudentshowthestrategiesworkandhowmuchthey
canknowaboutatextbeforetheybegintoreadwordbyword.

Byallowingtimeinclassforgroupandindividualpreviewingand
predictingactivitiesaspreparationforinclassoroutofclass
reading.Allocatingclasstimetotheseactivitiesindicatestheir
importanceandvalue.

Byusingcloze(fillintheblank)exercisestoreviewvocabulary
items.Thishelpsstudentslearntoguessmeaningfromcontext.

Byencouragingstudentstotalkaboutwhatstrategiestheythink
willhelpthemapproachareadingassignment,andthentalking
afterreadingaboutwhatstrategiestheyactuallyused.Thishelps
studentsdevelopflexibilityintheirchoiceofstrategies.
Whenlanguagelearnersusereadingstrategies,theyfindthattheycan
controlthereadingexperience,andtheygainconfidenceintheirability
toreadthelanguage.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 70

ReadingtoLearn

Readingisanessentialpartoflanguageinstructionateverylevel
becauseitsupportslearninginmultipleways.

Readingtolearnthelanguage:Readingmaterialislanguageinput.
Bygivingstudentsavarietyofmaterialstoread,instructorsprovide
multipleopportunitiesforstudentstoabsorbvocabulary,grammar,
sentencestructure,anddiscoursestructureastheyoccurin
authenticcontexts.Studentsthusgainamorecompletepictureof
thewaysinwhichtheelementsofthelanguageworktogetherto
conveymeaning.

Readingforcontentinformation:Students'purposeforreadingin
theirnativelanguageisoftentoobtaininformationaboutasubject
theyarestudying,andthispurposecanbeusefulinthelanguage
learningclassroomaswell.Readingforcontentinformationinthe
languageclassroomgivesstudentsbothauthenticreadingmaterial
andanauthenticpurposeforreading.

Readingforculturalknowledgeandawareness:Readingeveryday
materialsthataredesignedfornativespeakerscangivestudents
insightintothelifestylesandworldviewsofthepeoplewhose
languagetheyarestudying.Whenstudentshaveaccessto
newspapers,magazines,andwebsites,theyareexposedtoculture
inallitsvariety,andmonolithicculturalstereotypesbegintobreak
down.
HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 71

Whenreadingtolearn,studentsneedtofollowfourbasicsteps:

1.Figureoutthepurposeforreading.Activatebackground
knowledgeofthetopicinordertopredictoranticipatecontentand
identifyappropriatereadingstrategies.

2.Attendtothepartsofthetextthatarerelevanttotheidentified
purposeandignoretherest.Thisselectivityenablesstudentsto
focusonspecificitemsintheinputandreducestheamountof
informationtheyhavetoholdinshorttermmemory.

3.Selectstrategiesthatareappropriatetothereadingtaskanduse
themflexiblyandinteractively.Students'comprehensionimproves
andtheirconfidenceincreaseswhentheyusetopdownand
bottomupskillssimultaneouslytoconstructmeaning.

4.Checkcomprehensionwhilereadingandwhenthereadingtask
iscompleted.Monitoringcomprehensionhelpsstudentsdetect
inconsistenciesandcomprehensionfailures,helpingthemlearnto
usealternatestrategies.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 72

DevelopingReadingActivities

Developingreadingactivitiesinvolvesmorethanidentifyingatextthat
is"attherightlevel,"writingasetofcomprehensionquestionsfor
studentstoanswerafterreading,handingouttheassignmentand
sendingstudentsawaytodoit.Afullydevelopedreadingactivity
supportsstudentsasreadersthroughprereading,whilereading,
andpostreadingactivities.

Asyoudesignreadingtasks,keepinmindthatcompleterecallofallthe
informationinatextisanunrealisticexpectationevenfornative
speakers.Readingactivitiesthataremeanttoincreasecommunicative
competenceshouldbesuccessorientedandbuildupstudents'
confidenceintheirreadingability.

Constructthereadingactivityaroundapurposethathassignificance
forthestudents

Makesurestudentsunderstandwhatthepurposeforreadingis:toget
themainidea,obtainspecificinformation,understandmostorallof
themessage,enjoyastory,ordecidewhetherornottoreadmore.
Recognizingthepurposeforreadingwillhelpstudentsselect
appropriatereadingstrategies.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 73

Definetheactivity'sinstructionalgoalandtheappropriatetype
ofresponse

Inadditiontothemainpurposeforreading,anactivitycanalsohave
oneormoreinstructionalpurposes,suchaspracticingorreviewing
specificgrammaticalconstructions,introducingnewvocabulary,or
familiarizingstudentswiththetypicalstructureofacertaintype
oftext.

Checkthelevelofdifficultyofthetext

Thefactorslistedbelowcanhelpyoujudgetherelativeeaseor
difficultyofareadingtextforaparticularpurposeandaparticular
groupofstudents.

Howistheinformationorganized?Doesthestoryline,narrative,or
instructionconformtofamiliarexpectations?Textsinwhichthe
eventsarepresentedinnaturalchronologicalorder,whichhavean
informativetitle,andwhichpresenttheinformationfollowingan
obviousorganization(mainideasfirst,detailsandexamplessecond)
areeasiertofollow.

Howfamiliararethestudentswiththetopic?Rememberthat
misapplicationofbackgroundknowledgeduetoculturaldifferences
cancreatemajorcomprehensiondifficulties.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 74

Doesthetextcontainredundancy?Atthelowerlevelsof
proficiency,listenersmayfindshort,simplemessageseasierto
process,butstudentswithhigherproficiencybenefitfromthe
naturalredundancyofauthenticlanguage.

Doesthetextoffervisualsupporttoaidinreadingcomprehension?
Visualaidssuchasphotographs,maps,anddiagramshelpstudents
previewthecontentofthetext,guessthemeaningsofunknown
words,andcheckcomprehensionwhilereading.

Rememberthatthelevelofdifficultyofatextisnotthesameasthe
levelofdifficultyofareadingtask.Studentswholackthevocabulary
toidentifyalloftheitemsonamenucanstilldeterminewhetherthe
restaurantservessteakandwhethertheycanaffordtoorderone.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 75

Useprereadingactivitiestopreparestudentsforreading
Theactivitiesyouuseduringprereadingmayserveaspreparationin
severalways.
Duringprereadingyoumay:

Assessstudents'backgroundknowledgeofthetopicandlinguistic
contentofthetext

Givestudentsthebackgroundknowledgenecessaryfor
comprehensionofthetext,oractivatetheexistingknowledge
thatthestudentspossess

Clarifyanyculturalinformationwhichmaybenecessaryto
comprehendthepassage

Makestudentsawareofthetypeoftexttheywillbereadingand
thepurpose(s)forreading

Provideopportunitiesforgrouporcollaborativeworkandforclass
discussionactivities
Sampleprereadingactivities:

Usingthetitle,subtitles,anddivisionswithinthetexttopredict
contentandorganizationorsequenceofinformation

Lookingatpictures,maps,diagrams,orgraphsandtheircaptions

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 76

Talkingabouttheauthor'sbackground,writingstyle,andusual
topics

Skimmingtofindthethemeormainideaandelicitingrelatedprior
knowledge

Reviewingvocabularyorgrammaticalstructures

Readingoverthecomprehensionquestionstofocusattentionon
findingthatinformationwhilereading

Constructingsemanticwebs(agraphicarrangementofconceptsor
wordsshowinghowtheyarerelated)

Doingguidedpracticewithguessingmeaningfromcontextorchecking
comprehensionwhilereadingprereadingactivitiesaremostimportant
atlowerlevelsoflanguageproficiencyandatearlierstagesofreading
instruction.
Asstudentsbecomemoreproficientatusingreadingstrategies,you
willbeabletoreducetheamountofguidedprereadingandallow
studentstodotheseactivitiesthemselves.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 77

Matchwhilereadingactivitiestothepurposeforreading

Inwhilereadingactivities,studentschecktheircomprehensionasthey
read.Thepurposeforreadingdeterminestheappropriatetypeand
levelofcomprehension.

Whenreadingforspecificinformation,studentsneedtoask
themselves,haveIobtainedtheinformationIwaslookingfor?

Whenreadingforpleasure,studentsneedtoaskthemselves,DoI
understandthestoryline/sequenceofideaswellenoughtoenjoy
readingthis?

Whenreadingforthoroughunderstanding(intensivereading),
studentsneedtoaskthemselves:DoIunderstandeachmainidea
andhowtheauthorsupportsit?DoeswhatI'mreadingagreewith
mypredictions,and,ifnot,howdoesitdiffer?Tocheck
comprehensioninthissituation,studentsmay:

Stopattheendofeachsectiontoreviewandchecktheirpredictions,
restatethemainideaandsummarizethesection.
Usethecomprehensionquestionsasguidestothetext,stoppingto
answerthemastheyread.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 78

AssessingReadingProficiency

Readingabilityisverydifficulttoassessaccurately.Inthe
communicativecompetencemodel,astudent'sreadinglevelisthe
levelatwhichthatstudentisabletousereadingtoaccomplish
communicationgoals.Thismeansthatassessmentofreadingability
needstobecorrelatedwithpurposesforreading.

ReadingAloud

AboutReadingAloud Astudent'sperformancewhenreadingaloudisnotareliableindicator
ofthatstudent'sreadingability.Astudentwhoisperfectlycapableof
Readingaloudisataskthatstudents
understandingagiventextwhenreadingitsilentlymaystumblewhen
willrarely,ifever,needtodooutside
oftheclassroom.Asamethodof
askedtocombinecomprehensionwithwordrecognitionandspeaking
assessment,therefore,itisnot abilityinthewaythatreadingaloudrequires.
authentic:Itdoesnottestastudent's
abilitytousereadingtoaccomplisha However,readingaloudcanhelpateacherassesswhetherastudentis
purposeorgoal. "seeing"wordendingsandothergrammaticalfeatureswhenreading.
Tousereadingaloudforthispurpose,adoptthe"readandlookup"
approach:Askthestudenttoreadasentencesilentlyoneormore
times,untilcomfortablewiththecontent,thenlookupandtellyou
whatitsays.Thisprocedureallowsthestudenttoprocessthetext,and
letsyouseetheresultsofthatprocessingandknowwhatelements,if
any,thestudentismissing.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 79

ComprehensionQuestions

Instructorsoftenusecomprehensionquestionstotestwhether
studentshaveunderstoodwhattheyhaveread.Inordertotest
comprehensionappropriately,thesequestionsneedtobecoordinated
withthepurposeforreading.Ifthepurposeistofindspecific
information,comprehensionquestionsshouldfocusonthat
information.Ifthepurposeistounderstandanopinionandthe
argumentsthatsupportit,comprehensionquestionsshouldaskabout
thosepoints.

Ineverydayreadingsituations,readershaveapurposeforreading
beforetheystart.Thatis,theyknowwhatcomprehensionquestions
theyaregoingtoneedtoanswerbeforetheybeginreading.Tomake
readingassessmentinthelanguageclassroommorelikereading
outsideoftheclassroom,therefore,allowstudentstoreviewthe
comprehensionquestionsbeforetheybegintoreadthetestpassage.

Finally,whenthepurposeforreadingisenjoyment,comprehension
questionsarebesidethepoint.Asamoreauthenticformof
assessment,havestudentstalkorwriteaboutwhytheyfoundthetext
enjoyableandinteresting(ornot).

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 80

AuthenticAssessment

Inordertoprovideauthenticassessmentofstudents'reading
proficiency,apostlisteningactivitymustreflectthereallifeuses
towhichstudentsmightputinformationtheyhavegainedthrough
reading.

Itmusthaveapurposeotherthanassessment

Itmustrequirestudentstodemonstratetheirlevelofreading
comprehensionbycompletingsometask

Todevelopauthenticassessmentactivities,considerthetypeof
responsethatreadingaparticularselectionwouldelicitina
nonclassroomsituation.Forexample,afterreadingaweatherreport,
onemightdecidewhattowearthenextday;afterreadingasetof
instructions,onemightrepeatthemtosomeoneelse;afterreading
ashortstory,onemightdiscussthestorylinewithfriends.

Usethisresponsetypeasabaseforselectingappropriatepostreading
tasks.Youcanthendevelopachecklistorrubricthatwillallowyouto
evaluateeachstudent'scomprehensionofspecificpartsofthetext.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 81

IX.TeachingWritingSkills

Teachingwritingisoftenaboutteachinggrammar.Ifgrammarcomes
upanywhereinEFL,itisinthewritingclassroom.MostEFLstudents
willhavesomewritingskillswhenyougetthem.Buttheywilloften
haveanideathattheirwritingisquitegoodandgenerallyitwillbe
quitepoor.
ManyEFLstudentswillhavehadsomeexperiencewithparagraphand
essaywriting,but,infact,willhavequitepoorwritingskillsatthe
sentencelevel.Therefore,youwillneedtotakethembacktosentence
levelandbegintoteachthemverybasicstructureandhowtowrite
simply.Runonandfragmentedsentenceswillbeverycommonuntil
youcorrectthoseerrors.

Themorebasicyougetwithyourwritingstudents,thebetter.Once
agoodfoundationisbuilt,youcanmoveontobasicparagraph
writingandontoessays.Theseskillstaketimetodevelopthough
andyouwillfindthatmosttextbookswillmoveyourstudentsforward
tooquickly.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 82

TwomanuscriptsdevelopedspecificallyforEFLstudentscanbe
downloadedforthiscourseat:

http://teflebooks.com/SentenceWriting.pdfand

Learnhow... http://teflebooks.com/AdvancedWriting.pdf

ManyEFLTeacherseitherdontlikeor
Examinebothofthesemanuscriptsandnoticetheprogressionfrom
dontknowhowtoteachwritingskills
teachingsentencewritingskillstobuildingparagraphs,andeventually
effectively.Withjustabitofthought
towritingessays.Usetheformatofthesetwobookstohelpyouteach
andplanningyoucanhaveaprofound writingtoanygroupofstudents.Thetwobooksdemonstratethe
impactonyourstudentswritingskills correctmethodforimprovingyourstudentswritingskills.
andthustheirexaminationscores.
Ifyouhavenopreviousexperienceteachingwriting,workthroughboth
ofthebookstodeepenyourunderstandingofthetechniquesinvolved.

Takeparticularnoteofwhatskillscomeinwhatorderandhowthe
manuscriptsusethepreviouslytaughtskillsrepeatedlyinthefollowing
lessonstoreinforcethestudentsmemoryandskill.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 83

StrategiesforDevelopingListeningSkills
GeorgetownUniversityLanguageResourceCenter

Languagelearningdependsonlistening.Listeningprovidestheaural
inputthatservesasthebasisforlanguageacquisitionandenables
learnerstointeractinspokencommunication.

ListeningStrategies

Listeningstrategiesaretechniquesoractivitiesthatcontributedirectly
Effectivelanguageinstructorsshow tothecomprehensionandrecalloflisteninginput.Listeningstrategies
studentshowtheycanadjusttheir canbeclassifiedbyhowthelistenerprocessestheinput.
listeningbehaviortodealwitha
varietyofsituations,typesofinput,
Topdownstrategiesarelistenerbased;thelistenertapsinto
andlisteningpurposes.Theyhelp
studentsdevelopasetoflistening
backgroundknowledgeofthetopic,thesituationorcontext,thetype
strategiesandmatchappropriate oftext,andthelanguage.Thisbackgroundknowledgeactivatesaset
strategiestoeachlisteningsituation. ofexpectationsthathelpthelistenertointerpretwhatisheardand
anticipatewhatwillcomenext.Topdownstrategiesinclude:

listeningforthemainidea

predicting

drawinginferences

Summarizing

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 84

Bottomupstrategiesaretextbased;thelistenerreliesonthelanguage
inthemessage,thatis,thecombinationofsounds,words,and
grammarthatcreatesmeaning.Bottomupstrategiesinclude

listeningforspecificdetails

recognizingcognates

recognizingwordorderpatterns

Strategiclistenersalsousemetacognitivestrategiestoplan,monitor,
andevaluatetheirlistening.

Theyplanbydecidingwhichlisteningstrategieswillservebestina
particularsituation.

Theymonitortheircomprehensionandtheeffectivenessofthe
selectedstrategies.

Theyevaluatebydeterminingwhethertheyhaveachievedtheir
listeningcomprehensiongoalsandwhetherthecombinationof
listeningstrategiesselectedwasaneffectiveone.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 85

ListeningforMeaning

Toextractmeaningfromalisteningtext,studentsneedtofollowfour
basicsteps:

Figureoutthepurposeforlistening.Activatebackground
knowledgeofthetopicinordertopredictoranticipatecontent
andidentifyappropriatelisteningstrategies.

Attendtothepartsofthelisteninginputthatarerelevanttothe
identifiedpurposeandignoretherest.Thisselectivityenables
studentstofocusonspecificitemsintheinputandreducesthe
amountofinformationtheyhavetoholdinshorttermmemory
inordertorecognizeit.

Selecttopdownandbottomupstrategiesthatareappropriateto
thelisteningtaskandusethemflexiblyandinteractively.Students'
comprehensionimprovesandtheirconfidenceincreaseswhenthey
usetopdownandbottomupstrategiessimultaneouslyto
constructmeaning.

Checkcomprehensionwhilelisteningandwhenthelisteningtask
isover.Monitoringcomprehensionhelpsstudentsdetect
inconsistenciesandcomprehensionfailures,directingthemto
usealternatestrategies.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 86

DevelopingListeningActivities

Asyoudesignlisteningtasks,keepinmindthatcompleterecallofall
theinformationinanauraltextisanunrealisticexpectationtowhich
evennativespeakersarenotusuallyheld.Listeningexercisesthatare
meanttotrainshouldbesuccessorientedandbuildupstudents'
confidenceintheirlisteningability.

Constructthelisteningactivityaroundacontextualizedtask.

Contextualizedlisteningactivitiesapproximatereallifetasksandgive
thelisteneranideaofthetypeofinformationtoexpectandwhattodo
withitinadvanceoftheactuallistening.Abeginningleveltaskwould
belocatingplacesonamap(oneway)orexchangingnameandaddress
information(twoway).Atanintermediatelevelstudentscouldfollow
directionsforassemblingsomething(oneway)orworkinpairsto
createastorytotelltotherestoftheclass(twoway).

Definetheactivity'sinstructionalgoalandtypeofresponse.

Eachactivityshouldhaveasitsgoaltheimprovementofoneormore
specificlisteningskills.Alisteningactivitymayhavemorethanonegoal
oroutcome,butbecarefulnottooverburdentheattentionofbeginning
orintermediatelisteners.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 87

Recognizingthegoal(s)oflisteningcomprehensionineachlistening
situationwillhelpstudentsselectappropriatelisteningstrategies.

Identification:Recognizingordiscriminatingspecificaspectsofthe
message,suchassounds,categoriesofwords,morphological
distinctions

Orientation:Determiningthemajorfactsaboutamessage,suchas
topic,texttype,setting

Mainideacomprehension:Identifyingthehigherorderideas
Detailcomprehension:Identifyingsupportingdetails
Replication:Reproducingthemessageorallyorinwriting

Checkthelevelofdifficultyofthelisteningtext.

Thefactorslistedbelowcanhelpyoujudgetherelativeeaseordifficulty
ofalisteningtextforaparticularpurposeandaparticulargroupof
students.

Howistheinformationorganized?Doesthestoryline,narrative,or
instructionconformtofamiliarexpectations?
Textsinwhichtheeventsarepresentedinnaturalchronologicalorder,
whichhaveaninformativetitle,andwhichpresenttheinformation
followinganobviousorganization(mainideasfirst,detailsand
examplessecond)areeasiertofollow.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 88

Howfamiliararethestudentswiththetopic?
Rememberthatmisapplicationofbackgroundknowledgedueto
culturaldifferencescancreatemajorcomprehensiondifficulties.

Doesthetextcontainredundancy?
Atthelowerlevelsofproficiency,listenersmayfindshort,simple
messageseasiertoprocess,butstudentswithhigherproficiency
benefitfromthenaturalredundancyofthelanguage.

Doesthetextinvolvemultipleindividualsandobjects?Aretheyclearly
differentiated?
Itiseasiertounderstandatextwithadoctorandapatientthanone
withtwodoctors,anditiseveneasieriftheyareoftheoppositesex.
Inotherwords,themoremarkedthedifferences,theeasierthe
comprehension.

Doesthetextoffervisualsupporttoaidintheinterpretationofwhat
thelistenershear?
Visualaidssuchasmaps,diagrams,pictures,ortheimagesinavideo
helpcontextualizethelisteninginputandprovidecluestomeaning.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 89

Useprelisteningactivitiestopreparestudentsforwhatthey
aregoingtohearorview.

Theactivitieschosenduringprelisteningmayserveaspreparationfor
listeninginseveralways.Duringprelisteningtheteachermay

assessstudents'backgroundknowledgeofthetopicandlinguistic
contentofthetext

providestudentswiththebackgroundknowledgenecessaryfor
theircomprehensionofthelisteningpassageoractivatethe
existingknowledgethatthestudentspossess

clarifyanyculturalinformationwhichmaybenecessaryto
comprehendthepassage

makestudentsawareofthetypeoftexttheywillbelisteningto,
theroletheywillplay,andthepurpose(s)forwhichtheywillbe
listening

provideopportunitiesforgrouporcollaborativeworkandfor
backgroundreadingorclassdiscussionactivities

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 90

Sampleprelisteningactivities:

lookingatpictures,maps,diagrams,orgraphs
reviewingvocabularyorgrammaticalstructures
readingsomethingrelevant
constructingsemanticwebs(agraphicarrangementofconceptsor
wordsshowinghowtheyarerelated)

predictingthecontentofthelisteningtext
goingoverthedirectionsorinstructionsfortheactivity
doingguidedpractice

Matchwhilelisteningactivitiestotheinstructionalgoal,thelistening
purpose,andstudents'proficiencylevel.

Whilelisteningactivitiesrelatedirectlytothetext,andstudentsdothem
duringorimmediatelyafterthetimetheyarelistening.Keepthesepoints
inmindwhenplanningwhilelisteningactivities:

Ifstudentsaretocompleteawrittentaskduringorimmediatelyafterlis
tening,allowthemtoreadthroughitbeforelistening.
Studentsneedtodevotealltheirattentiontothelisteningtask.Besure
theyunderstandtheinstructionsforthewrittentaskbeforelisteningbe
ginssothattheyarenotdistractedbytheneedtofigureoutwhattodo.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 91

Keepwritingtoaminimumduringlistening.
Rememberthattheprimarygoaliscomprehension,notproduction.
Havingtowritewhilelisteningmaydistractstudentsfromthisprimary
goal.Ifawrittenresponseistobegivenafterlistening,thetaskcanbe
moredemanding.

Organizeactivitiessothattheyguidelistenersthroughthetext.
Combineglobalactivitiessuchasgettingthemainidea,topic,and
settingwithselectivelisteningactivitiesthatfocusondetailsof
contentandform.

Usequestionstofocusstudents'attentionontheelementsofthetext
crucialtocomprehensionofthewhole.
Beforethelisteningactivitybegins,havestudentsreviewquestions
theywillanswerorallyorinwritingafterlistening.Listeningforthe
answerswillhelpstudentsrecognizethecrucialpartsofthemessage.

Usepredictingtoencouragestudentstomonitortheircomprehension
astheylisten.
Doapredictingactivitybeforelistening,andremindstudentstoreview
whattheyarehearingtoseeifitmakessenseinthecontextoftheir
priorknowledgeandwhattheyalreadyknowofthetopicoreventsof
thepassage.

Giveimmediatefeedbackwheneverpossible.Encouragestudentsto
examinehoworwhytheirresponseswereincorrect.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 92

Samplewhilelisteningactivities

listeningwithvisuals

fillingingraphsandcharts

followingarouteonamap

checkingoffitemsinalist

listeningforthegist

searchingforspecificcluestomeaning

completingcloze(fillin)exercises

distinguishingbetweenformalandinformalregisters


UsingTextbookListeningActivities

Thegreatestchallengeswithtextbooktapeprogramsareintegrating
thelisteningexperiencesintoclassroominstructionandkeepingup
studentinterestandmotivation.Thesechallengesarisefromthefact
thatmosttextbooklisteningprogramsemphasizeproduct(rightor
wronganswer)overprocess(howtogetmeaningfromtheselection)
andfromthefactthatthelisteningactivitiesareusuallycarriedoutas
anaddon,awayfromtheclassroom.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 93

Youcanusetheguidelinesfordevelopinglisteningactivitiesgivenhere
asstartingpointsforevaluatingandadaptingtextbooklisteningpro
grams.Atthebeginningoftheteachingterm,orientstudentstothe
tapeprogrambycompletingtheexercisesinclassanddiscussingthe
differentstrategiestheyusetoanswerthequestions.

Itisagoodideatoperiodicallycompletesomeofthelabexercisesin
classtomaintainthelinktotheregularinstructionalprogramandto
checkontheeffectivenessoftheexercisesthemselves.

IntegratingListeningStrategiesWithTextbookAudioand
Video

Studentscanusethisoutlineforbothinclassandoutofclasslisten
ing/viewingactivities.Modelandpracticetheuseoftheoutlineatleast
onceinclassbeforeyouaskstudentstouseitindependently.

1.Planforlistening/viewing

Reviewthevocabularylist,ifyouhaveone

Reviewtheworksheet,ifyouhaveone

Reviewanyinformationyouhaveaboutthecontentofthetape/
video

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 94

2.Previewthetape/video

(tape)Usefastforwardtoplaysegmentsofthetape;(video)viewthe
videowithoutsound

Identifythekindofprogram(news,documentary,interview,drama)
Makealistofpredictionsaboutthecontent
Decidehowtodividethetape/videointosectionsforintensivelistening/
viewing


3.Listen/viewintensivelysectionbysection.Foreachsection:

Jotdownkeywordsyouunderstand
Answertheworksheetquestionspertainingtothesection
Ifyoudon'thaveaworksheet,writeashortsummaryofthesection

4.Monitoryourcomprehension

Doesitfitwiththepredictionsyoumade?
Doesyoursummaryforeachsectionmakesenseinrelationtotheother
sections?

5.Evaluateyourlisteningcomprehensionprogress

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 95

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HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 96

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CheckouttheFREETEFLtrainingprogramatTEFLBootCamp.

TEFLInternshipshasagreatinternprograminChinaand
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Nothingisimpossible,theword
itselfsays'I'mpossible'! TeachingResourcescanbefoundatTEFLeBooks.com.
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TEFLJobsNowhasagoodsamplingofTEFLjobsaroundtheworld.

TEFLdaddy.comhasa100+pageFAQaboutteachingEnglishabroadIs
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MoreJobsinKoreathanlistedanywhereelse.

HowtoTeachTOEFLTOEICIELTSandMore 97

Evaluare