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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

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Today’s audio will be broadcast through the internet. Alternatively, to hear the audio through the
Today’s audio will be broadcast through the internet.
Alternatively, to hear the audio through the phone, dial
888 223 6764.
to hear the audio through the phone, dial 888 223 6764. Copyright © 2016 American Institute

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

1

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Today’s audio will be broadcast through the internet. Alternatively, to hear the audio through the
Today’s audio will be broadcast through the internet.
Alternatively, to hear the audio through the phone, dial
888 223 6764.
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AISC is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems (AIA/CES).
AISC is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing
Education Systems (AIA/CES). Credit(s) earned on completion of this program will be
reported to AIA/CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members
and non-AIA members are available upon request.
This program is registered with AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such,
it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or
endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of
handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product.
Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the
conclusion of this presentation.
will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation. Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

2

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Copyright Materials This presentation is protected by US and International Copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution,
Copyright Materials
This presentation is protected by US and International Copyright laws. Reproduction,
distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of AISC is prohibited.
© The American Institute of Steel Construction 2016
The information presented herein is based on recognized engineering principles and is for
general information only. While it is believed to be accurate, this information should not be
applied to any specific application without competent professional examination and verification
by a licensed professional engineer. Anyone making use of this information assumes all liability
arising from such use.
Course Description Welding Part 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections November 8, 2016 This session will
Course Description
Welding Part 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections
November 8, 2016
This session will consist of a review of applicable welding codes, the
basics of welded joints and weld types, and required weld metal strength
levels. Details for welded connection details will be discussed, including
the basic criteria to be used to determine weld throat dimensions.
criteria to be used to determine weld throat dimensions. Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Learning Objectives • Identify standards related to welding. • List advantages and disadvantages of different
Learning Objectives
• Identify standards related to welding.
• List advantages and disadvantages of different weld details.
• Define variables essential to specifying a given weld detail.
• Identify preferred and unacceptable weld types and details
for different connection geometries.
Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Session 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections November 8, 2016
Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding
Welding Session 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections
November 8, 2016
Presented by
Duane Miller, Sc.D., P.E.
Manager of Engineering Services and Welding
Design Consultant at The Lincoln Electric Company
Cleveland, OH
8
Consultant at The Lincoln Electric Company Cleveland, OH 8 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Fundamentals of Welded Connections
Fundamentals of Welded Connections
FRACTUREFRACTURE andand FATIGUEFATIGUE CONTROLCONTROL inin STRUCTURESSTRUCTURES “Failures in engineering structures
FRACTUREFRACTURE andand FATIGUEFATIGUE CONTROLCONTROL inin STRUCTURESSTRUCTURES
“Failures in engineering structures occur
predominately at component connections….For
example, fatigue cracking in bridges, ships, offshore
structures, pressure vessels, and buildings occurs,
almost without exception, at the welded or bolted
connections and attachments such as cover plate
fillet weld terminations, stiffeners, backing bars, and
seam and girth weld toes.”
Barsom and Rolfe
10
bars, and seam and girth weld toes.” Barsom and Rolfe 10 Copyright © 2016 American Institute

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Fundamentals of Welded Connections Outline • Applicable Codes • Welding Processes • Joints and Weld
Fundamentals of Welded Connections
Outline
• Applicable Codes
• Welding Processes
• Joints and Weld Types
• CJP Details
• PJP Details
• Fillet Weld Details
11

AWS D1.1

Structural Welding Code- Steel

AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code- Steel
AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code- Steel
Weld Details 11 AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code- Steel Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

AWS D1.3

Structural Welding Code- Sheet Steel

AWS D1.3 Structural Welding Code- Sheet Steel AWS D1.3/D1.3M:2008 An American National Standard Structural Welding
AWS D1.3/D1.3M:2008 An American National Standard Structural Welding Code– Sheet Steel American Welding Society
AWS D1.3/D1.3M:2008
An American National Standard
Structural
Welding Code–
Sheet Steel
American Welding Society
ANSI

AASHTO/AWS D1.5

Bridge Welding Code

AASHTO/AWS D1.5 Bridge Welding Code AASHTO/AWS D1.5/D1.5M:2002 An American National Standard Bridge Welding Code
AASHTO/AWS D1.5/D1.5M:2002 An American National Standard Bridge Welding Code American Welding Society ANSI
AASHTO/AWS D1.5/D1.5M:2002
An American National Standard
Bridge
Welding Code
American Welding Society
ANSI
Bridge Welding Code American Welding Society ANSI Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction 7

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

AWS D1.8/D1.8M:2009 An American National Standard Seismic AWS D1.8 Welding Supplement Seismic Welding Supplement
AWS D1.8/D1.8M:2009
An American National Standard
Seismic
AWS D1.8
Welding
Supplement
Seismic Welding
Supplement
American Welding Society
ANSI
AISC 360-10
SPECIFICATION
for
Structural
Steel
Buildings
16
360-10 SPECIFICATION for Structural Steel Buildings 16 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction 8

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

17

17

Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections 17 Fundamentals of Welded Connections Outline • Applicable

Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Outline

• Applicable Codes

• Welding Processes

• Joints and Weld Types

• CJP Details

• PJP Details

• Fillet Weld Details

• CJP Details • PJP Details • Fillet Weld Details 18 Copyright © 2016 American Institute

18

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Arc Welding Processes

Major arc welding processes:

• Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)

• Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW)

• Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

• Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)

• Electroslag Welding (ESW)

• Stud Welding (SW)

• Thermal Cutting

Welding (ESW) • Stud Welding (SW) • Thermal Cutting 19 AWS A3.0 Standard Welding Terms and

19

AWS A3.0 Standard Welding Terms and Definitions shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) An arc welding
AWS A3.0 Standard Welding Terms and Definitions
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)
An arc welding process with an arc between a
covered electrode and the weld pool. The process is
used with shielding from the decomposition of the
electrode covering, without the application of
pressure, and with filler metal from the electrode.
20
of pressure, and with filler metal from the electrode. 20 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Arc Welding Processes: SMAW 21 Arc Welding Processes: SMAW 22
Arc Welding Processes: SMAW
21
Arc Welding Processes: SMAW
22
Welding Processes: SMAW 21 Arc Welding Processes: SMAW 22 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Arc Welding Processes: SMAW 23
Arc Welding Processes: SMAW
23

ANSI Z49.1

Safety in Welding, Cutting and Allied Processes

Available by free download from AWS

aws.org

www.aws.org/technical/facts

in Welding, Cutting and Allied Processes Available by free download from AWS aws.org www.aws.org/technical/facts 24
in Welding, Cutting and Allied Processes Available by free download from AWS aws.org www.aws.org/technical/facts 24

24

from AWS aws.org www.aws.org/technical/facts 24 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction 12

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

AWS A5.1

Specification for Carbon

Steel Electrodes for

Shielded Metal Arc Welding

for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding AWS A5.1/5.1M:2004 An American National Standard
AWS A5.1/5.1M:2004 An American National Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc
AWS A5.1/5.1M:2004
An American National Standard
Specification
for
Carbon Steel
Electrodes for
Shielded Metal
Arc Welding
American Welding Society
ANSI
AWS A5 Filler Metal Specifications E7018 Electrode 70 ksi minimum specified tensile strength 1 =
AWS A5 Filler Metal Specifications
E7018
Electrode
70 ksi minimum specified tensile strength
1
= Position of welding
8
= Coating type, mechanical properties
26
of welding 8 = Coating type, mechanical properties 26 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

AWS A5 Filler Metal Specifications E4818 Electrode 480 MPa min. specified tensile strength 1 =
AWS A5 Filler Metal Specifications
E4818
Electrode
480 MPa min. specified tensile strength
1
= Position of welding
8
= Coating type, mechanical properties
27
AWS A3.0 Standard Welding Terms and Definitions flux cored arc welding (FCAW). An arc welding
AWS A3.0 Standard Welding Terms and Definitions
flux cored arc welding (FCAW).
An arc welding process using an arc between a
continuous filler metal electrode and the weld pool.
The process is used with shielding from a flux
contained within the tubular electrode, with or without
additional shielding gas, and without the application of
pressure.
28
shielding gas, and without the application of pressure. 28 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Arc Welding Processes: FCAW

of Welded Connections Arc Welding Processes: FCAW 29 Arc Welding Processes: FCAW 30 Copyright © 2016

29

of Welded Connections Arc Welding Processes: FCAW 29 Arc Welding Processes: FCAW 30 Copyright © 2016

Arc Welding Processes: FCAW

Arc Welding Processes: FCAW 29 Arc Welding Processes: FCAW 30 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of

30

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Arc Welding Processes: FCAW-G 31
Arc Welding Processes: FCAW-G
31
Arc Welding Processes: FCAW-S FCAW-SFCAW-S 32
Arc Welding Processes: FCAW-S
FCAW-SFCAW-S
32
FCAW-G 31 Arc Welding Processes: FCAW-S FCAW-SFCAW-S 32 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

AWS A3.0 Standard Welding Terms and Definitions gas metal arc welding (GMAW). An arc welding
AWS A3.0 Standard Welding Terms and Definitions
gas metal arc welding (GMAW).
An arc welding process using an arc between a
continuous filler metal electrode and the weld pool.
The process is used with shielding from an
externally supplied gas and without the application
of pressure.
Note: may use solid electrode, or metal cored
electrode.
33
Arc Welding Processes: GMAW 34
Arc Welding Processes: GMAW
34
metal cored electrode. 33 Arc Welding Processes: GMAW 34 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Arc Welding Processes: GMAW 35
Arc Welding Processes: GMAW
35
Arc Welding Processes: GMAW 36
Arc Welding Processes: GMAW
36
Welding Processes: GMAW 35 Arc Welding Processes: GMAW 36 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

AWS A3.0 Standard Welding Terms and Definitions submerged arc welding (SAW). An arc welding process
AWS A3.0 Standard Welding Terms and Definitions
submerged arc welding (SAW).
An arc welding process using an arc or arcs between
a bare metal electrode and the weld pool. The arc
and molten metal are shielded by a blanket of
granular flux on the workpieces. The process is used
without pressure and with filler metal from the
electrodes and sometimes from a supplemental
source (welding rod, flux, or metal granules).
37
Arc Welding Processes: SAW 38
Arc Welding Processes: SAW
38
flux, or metal granules). 37 Arc Welding Processes: SAW 38 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Arc Welding Processes: SAW
Arc Welding Processes: SAW
Arc Welding Processes: 40
Arc Welding Processes:
40
Arc Welding Processes: SAW Arc Welding Processes: 40 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Arc Welding Processes: SAW
Arc Welding Processes: SAW
Arc Welding Processes: SAW MechanizedMechanized SAWSAW
Arc Welding Processes: SAW
MechanizedMechanized SAWSAW
SAW Arc Welding Processes: SAW MechanizedMechanized SAWSAW Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction 21

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Arc Welding Processes: ESW

Electroslag Welding (ESW)
Electroslag Welding (ESW)

43

Arc Welding Processes: ESW Electroslag Welding (ESW) 43 Arc Welding Processes: Stud Welding 44 Copyright ©

Arc Welding Processes: Stud Welding

Welding (ESW) 43 Arc Welding Processes: Stud Welding 44 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

44

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Thermal Cutting Processes: Oxyfuel Cutting

Connections Thermal Cutting Processes: Oxyfuel Cutting 45 Thermal Cutting Processes: Air Arc Gouging 46 Copyright

45

Connections Thermal Cutting Processes: Oxyfuel Cutting 45 Thermal Cutting Processes: Air Arc Gouging 46 Copyright ©

Thermal Cutting Processes: Air Arc Gouging

Cutting 45 Thermal Cutting Processes: Air Arc Gouging 46 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

46

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

 

Arc Welding Processes

 

The selection of which process to use is typically

best left up to those doing the welding.

• Properly applied, all processes are capable of

delivering quality welds

• Improperly applied, all processes may not deliver

quality welds

• Mode of welding (manual, semiautomatic,

automatic, robotic) will impact process selection

47

47

 

Arc Welding Processes

 

Typical welding process applications:

GMAW: for shop welding on clean parts; often the

choice for robotic applications

FCAW-G: for shop welding on dirtier parts

FCAW-S: for field welding

SAW: for big, long welds that lend themselves to

automation

ESW: flange splicing, stiffeners on box columns

SMAW: maintenance welding, field welding, tack

welding, repair welding, miscellaneous fabrication

48

48

welding, repair welding, miscellaneous fabrication 48 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction 24

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Outline

• Applicable Codes

• Welding Processes

• Joints and Weld Types

• CJP Details

• PJP Details

• Fillet Weld Details

• CJP Details • PJP Details • Fillet Weld Details 49 JOINTS Butt Tee (T) Corner

49

JOINTS Butt Tee (T) Corner Lap Edge 50
JOINTS
Butt
Tee (T)
Corner
Lap
Edge
50
Weld Details 49 JOINTS Butt Tee (T) Corner Lap Edge 50 Copyright © 2016 American Institute

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

WELD TYPES

Complete Joint Penetration Groove Welds (CJP) “complete penetration welds” “full pen welds” “butt welds”

Partial Joint Penetration Groove Welds (PJP) “partial penetration” “partial pen”

Fillet Welds

Slot Welds

Plug Welds

51

WELD TYPES CJP Groove Weld in Butt Joint 52
WELD TYPES
CJP Groove Weld in Butt Joint
52
Welds 51 WELD TYPES CJP Groove Weld in Butt Joint 52 Copyright © 2016 American Institute

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

WELD TYPES PJP Groove Weld in Butt Joint 53
WELD TYPES
PJP Groove Weld in Butt Joint
53
WELD TYPES Fillet Welds in a Tee Joint 54
WELD TYPES
Fillet Welds in a Tee Joint
54
Butt Joint 53 WELD TYPES Fillet Welds in a Tee Joint 54 Copyright © 2016 American

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

WELD TYPES Slot Weld in Lap Joint 55
WELD TYPES
Slot Weld in Lap Joint
55
WELD TYPES Plug Weld in Lap Joint 56
WELD TYPES
Plug Weld in Lap Joint
56
Weld in Lap Joint 55 WELD TYPES Plug Weld in Lap Joint 56 Copyright © 2016

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

WELD TYPES 57
WELD TYPES
57

GROOVE WELDS

• Applied to butt, tee, corner joints

• CJP = full strength (for statically loaded connections)

• PJP = partial strength

• Tension vs. compression vs. shear

58

strength • Tension vs. compression vs. shear 58 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

59
59
CJP GROOVE WELDS 60
CJP GROOVE WELDS
60
Fundamentals of Welded Connections 59 CJP GROOVE WELDS 60 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

CJP GROOVE WELDS

• Throat = plate thickness

61

CJP GROOVE WELD Weld Throat Dimension (t ω ) Reinforcement Thickness (t) Weld Throat (t
CJP GROOVE WELD
Weld Throat Dimension (t ω )
Reinforcement
Thickness (t)
Weld Throat (t ω )
62
ω ) Reinforcement Thickness (t) Weld Throat (t ω ) 62 Copyright © 2016 American Institute

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

CJP GROOVE WELDS

• Throat = plate thickness

• No design calculations are required for statically loaded connections, when “matching” filler metal is used.

63

CJP GROOVE WELDS Complete Joint Penetration Groove Weld (CJP) Single sided 64
CJP GROOVE WELDS
Complete Joint Penetration Groove Weld (CJP)
Single sided
64
Joint Penetration Groove Weld (CJP) Single sided 64 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

CJP GROOVE WELDS Complete Joint Penetration Groove Weld (CJP) Double sided 65
CJP GROOVE WELDS
Complete Joint Penetration Groove Weld (CJP)
Double sided
65
CJP GROOVE WELDS Complete Joint Penetration Groove Weld (CJP) Two thicknesses 66
CJP GROOVE WELDS
Complete Joint Penetration Groove Weld (CJP)
Two thicknesses
66
Joint Penetration Groove Weld (CJP) Two thicknesses 66 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

CJP GROOVE WELDS Complete Joint Penetration Groove Weld (CJP) Corner Joint Different thicknesses 67
CJP GROOVE WELDS
Complete Joint Penetration Groove Weld (CJP)
Corner Joint
Different thicknesses
67
CJP GROOVE WELDS Complete Joint Penetration Groove Weld (CJP) Tee (T) joint 68
CJP GROOVE WELDS
Complete Joint Penetration Groove Weld (CJP)
Tee (T) joint
68
Joint Penetration Groove Weld (CJP) Tee (T) joint 68 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

CJP GROOVE WELDS Single Vee Groove Weld Included Angle α Root Opening R 69
CJP GROOVE WELDS
Single Vee Groove Weld
Included
Angle
α
Root Opening R
69
CJP GROOVE WELDS Square Groove 70
CJP GROOVE WELDS
Square Groove
70
α Root Opening R 69 CJP GROOVE WELDS Square Groove 70 Copyright © 2016 American Institute

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

CJP GROOVE WELDS Single Vee Groove 71
CJP GROOVE WELDS
Single Vee Groove
71
CJP GROOVE WELDS Single Bevel Groove 72
CJP GROOVE WELDS
Single Bevel Groove
72
Vee Groove 71 CJP GROOVE WELDS Single Bevel Groove 72 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

CJP GROOVE WELDS Single J Groove 73
CJP GROOVE WELDS
Single J Groove
73
CJP GROOVE WELDS Single U Groove r 74
CJP GROOVE WELDS
Single U Groove
r
74
Single J Groove 73 CJP GROOVE WELDS Single U Groove r 74 Copyright © 2016 American

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

PJP GROOVE WELDS Single Sided PJP in Butt Joint 75
PJP GROOVE WELDS
Single Sided PJP in Butt Joint
75
PJP GROOVE WELDS Double Sided PJP in Butt Joint 76
PJP GROOVE WELDS
Double Sided PJP in Butt Joint
76
75 PJP GROOVE WELDS Double Sided PJP in Butt Joint 76 Copyright © 2016 American Institute

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

PJP GROOVE WELDS Single Sided PJP in Corner Joint 77
PJP GROOVE WELDS
Single Sided PJP in Corner Joint
77
PJP GROOVE WELDS Double Sided PJP in Tee (T) Joint 78
PJP GROOVE WELDS
Double Sided PJP in Tee (T) Joint
78
77 PJP GROOVE WELDS Double Sided PJP in Tee (T) Joint 78 Copyright © 2016 American

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

PJP GROOVE WELDS Single Sided Vee PJP Groove Weld Included Angle (α) Depth of preparation
PJP GROOVE WELDS
Single Sided Vee PJP Groove Weld
Included
Angle (α)
Depth of preparation
Root Face
Root Opening (R)
79
PJP GROOVE WELDS 80
PJP GROOVE WELDS
80
Root Face Root Opening (R) 79 PJP GROOVE WELDS 80 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

PJP GROOVE WELDS Throat 81
PJP GROOVE WELDS
Throat
81

PJP GROOVE WELDS

• Throat < plate thickness

• Must determine throat

82

< plate thickness • Must determine throat 82 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

FLARE VEE GROOVE WELDS 83
FLARE VEE GROOVE WELDS
83
FLARE BEVEL GROOVE WELDS 84
FLARE BEVEL GROOVE WELDS
84
FLARE VEE GROOVE WELDS 83 FLARE BEVEL GROOVE WELDS 84 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

42

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

FILLET WELDS 85
FILLET WELDS
85
FILLET WELDS Terminology Throat (t ω ) Leg size (ω) 86
FILLET WELDS
Terminology
Throat (t ω )
Leg size (ω)
86
FILLET WELDS Terminology Throat (t ω ) Leg size (ω) 86 Copyright © 2016 American Institute

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

43

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

FILLET WELDS Terminology Face Root Toe 87
FILLET WELDS
Terminology
Face
Root
Toe
87

FILLET WELDS

• Applied to tee, corner, lap joints

88

WELDS • Applied to tee, corner, lap joints 88 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

44

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

89
89

FILLET WELDS

• Applied to tee, corner, lap joints

• Specify leg (throat) dimension

• Specify length

90

• Specify leg (throat) dimension • Specify length 90 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

45

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

PLUG AND SLOT WELD 91
PLUG AND SLOT WELD
91

WELD TYPES

• Applied to lap joints

92

WELD 91 WELD TYPES • Applied to lap joints 92 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

46

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

93
93

WELD TYPES

• Applied to lap joints

• Not often applied in structures

• Restricted capacity in cyclically loaded structures

94

Restricted capacity in cyclically loaded structures 94 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction 47

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

47

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Fundamentals of Welded Connections Outline • Applicable Codes • Welding Processes • Joints and Weld
Fundamentals of Welded Connections
Outline
• Applicable Codes
• Welding Processes
• Joints and Weld Types
• CJP Details
• PJP Details
• Fillet Weld Details
95
Details of CJP Groove Welds 96
Details of CJP Groove Welds
96
• Fillet Weld Details 95 Details of CJP Groove Welds 96 Copyright © 2016 American Institute

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

48

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Details of CJP Groove Welds

AWS D1.1 Prequalified CJP Groove Weld Details

• An essential part of a prequalified Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)

• Incorporates geometric features conducive to consistent through thickness fusion and overall weld quality

• Includes root conditions that encourage fusion and proper width-to-depth profiles to discourage solidification cracking

• In some cases, but not all, reflects welding economics

97

AWS D1.1:2015 Structural Welding Code--Steel Single V Groove Weld: CJP 98
AWS D1.1:2015 Structural Welding Code--Steel
Single V Groove Weld: CJP
98
Welding Code--Steel Single V Groove Weld: CJP 98 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

49

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

CJP Groove Welds Single Sided with Backing Backing 99
CJP Groove Welds
Single Sided with Backing
Backing
99
CJP Groove Welds Single Sided with Backing Backing 100
CJP Groove Welds
Single Sided with Backing
Backing
100
99 CJP Groove Welds Single Sided with Backing Backing 100 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

50

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel Single V Groove Weld: CJP
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel
Single V Groove Weld: CJP
CJP Groove Welds Single Sided with Backgouging 102
CJP Groove Welds
Single Sided with Backgouging
102
CJP CJP Groove Welds Single Sided with Backgouging 102 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

51

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

CJP Groove Welds Single Sided with Backgouging 103
CJP Groove Welds
Single Sided with Backgouging
103
CJP Groove Welds Single Sided with Backgouging 104
CJP Groove Welds
Single Sided with Backgouging
104
103 CJP Groove Welds Single Sided with Backgouging 104 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

52

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

CJP Groove Welds Single Sided with Backgouging 105
CJP Groove Welds
Single Sided with Backgouging
105
CJP Groove Welds Single Sided with Backgouging 106
CJP Groove Welds
Single Sided with Backgouging
106
105 CJP Groove Welds Single Sided with Backgouging 106 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

53

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

CJP Groove Welds: Backing

Steel backing:

• Permanent (unless deliberately removed)

• May be called “fusible” backing

• Becomes part of the weldment

• May introduce notches (depending on the

joint type and direction of loading)

107

CJP Groove Welds: Steel Backing 108
CJP Groove Welds: Steel Backing
108
of loading) 107 CJP Groove Welds: Steel Backing 108 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

54

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

CJP Groove Welds: Steel Backing 109
CJP Groove Welds: Steel Backing
109
CJP Groove Welds: Steel Backing Not permitted for seismic
CJP Groove Welds: Steel Backing
Not permitted for seismic
CJP Groove Welds: Steel Backing Not permitted for seismic Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

55

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

CJP Groove Welds: Steel Backing Remove backing by grinding or gouging 111
CJP Groove Welds: Steel Backing
Remove backing by grinding or gouging
111
CJP Groove Welds: Steel Backing Gouge root 112
CJP Groove Welds: Steel Backing
Gouge root
112
111 CJP Groove Welds: Steel Backing Gouge root 112 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

56

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

CJP Groove Welds: Steel Backing Fill gouged root and apply a contouring fillet 113
CJP Groove Welds: Steel Backing
Fill gouged root and apply a contouring fillet
113
CJP Groove Welds: Steel Backing Eliminates stress raiser in the root 114
CJP Groove Welds: Steel Backing
Eliminates stress raiser in the root
114
Steel Backing Eliminates stress raiser in the root 114 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

57

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

CJP Groove Welds: Backing Backing materials for steel applications: • Prequalified by AWS D1.1 Steel
CJP Groove Welds: Backing
Backing materials for steel applications:
• Prequalified by AWS D1.1
Steel
• Copper
}
Require qualification testing by
• Ceramic
AWS D1.1
115
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION Table J2.5 Allowable Strength of Welded Joints 116
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION
Table J2.5
Allowable Strength
of Welded Joints
116
Table J2.5 Allowable Strength of Welded Joints 116 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

58

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION Table J2.5 Allowable Strength of Welded Joints 117
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION
Table J2.5
Allowable Strength
of Welded Joints
117
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION
Strength of Welded Joints 117 AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

59

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION COMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION
COMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS
CJP GROOVE WELD Tension normal (perpendicular) to the weld axis 120
CJP GROOVE WELD
Tension normal (perpendicular) to the weld axis
120
WELD Tension normal (perpendicular) to the weld axis 120 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

60

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION COMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION
COMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION COMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION
COMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS
SPECIFICATION COMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction 61

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

61

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

CJP GROOVE WELD Compression normal (perpendicular) to the weld axis 123
CJP GROOVE WELD
Compression normal (perpendicular) to the weld axis
123
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION COMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION
COMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS
SPECIFICATION COMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction 62

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

62

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION COMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION
COMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS
CJP GROOVE WELD Tension parallel to the weld axis 126
CJP GROOVE WELD
Tension parallel to the weld axis
126
CJP GROOVE WELD Tension parallel to the weld axis 126 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

63

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

CJP GROOVE WELD Compression parallel to the weld axis 127
CJP GROOVE WELD
Compression parallel to the weld axis
127
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION COMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION
COMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS
SPECIFICATION COMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction 64

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

64

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION COMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION
COMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION COMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION
COMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS
SPECIFICATION COMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION GROOVE WELDS Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction 65

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

65

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Fundamentals of Welded Connections Outline • Applicable Codes • Welding Processes • Joints and Weld
Fundamentals of Welded Connections
Outline
• Applicable Codes
• Welding Processes
• Joints and Weld Types
• CJP Details
• PJP Details
• Fillet Weld Details
131
Details of PJP Groove Welds 132
Details of PJP Groove Welds
132
Fillet Weld Details 131 Details of PJP Groove Welds 132 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

66

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Details of PJP Groove Welds Unfused root creates a crack-like notch 133
Details of PJP Groove Welds
Unfused root creates a
crack-like notch
133
Details of PJP Groove Welds Unacceptable: straining about root 134
Details of PJP Groove Welds
Unacceptable: straining about root
134
of PJP Groove Welds Unacceptable: straining about root 134 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

67

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Details of PJP Groove Welds Acceptable: no straining about root 135
Details of PJP Groove Welds
Acceptable: no straining about root
135
Details of PJP Groove Welds 136
Details of PJP Groove Welds
136
straining about root 135 Details of PJP Groove Welds 136 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

68

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Details of PJP Groove Welds Acceptable: no straining about root 137
Details of PJP Groove Welds
Acceptable: no straining about root
137

Details of PJP Groove Welds

General characteristics of PJP groove welds

• Throat < plate thickness

• Connection designer must determine throat

138

• Connection designer must determine throat 138 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction 69

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

69

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Details of PJP Groove Welds Thickness (t) Weld Throat (t ω ) 139
Details of PJP Groove Welds
Thickness (t)
Weld Throat (t ω )
139

Details of PJP Groove Welds

General characteristics of PJP groove welds

• Throat < plate thickness

• Connection designer must determine throat

• “E” dimension (effective throat)

• “S” dimension (depth of bevel)

140

throat) • “S” dimension (depth of bevel) 140 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

70

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Details of PJP Groove Welds α S S = depth of bevel α = included
Details of PJP Groove Welds
α
S
S = depth of
bevel
α = included angle
141
Details of PJP Groove Welds E α S S = depth of bevel E =
Details of PJP Groove Welds
E
α S
S = depth of
bevel
E = effective throat
α = included angle
142
of bevel E = effective throat α = included angle 142 Copyright © 2016 American Institute

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

71

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Details of PJP Groove Welds α S E S = depth of bevel E =
Details of PJP Groove Welds
α S
E S = depth of
bevel
E = effective throat
With fusion to the root,
S=E
143
Details of PJP Groove Welds α S S = depth of bevel 144
Details of PJP Groove Welds
α
S S = depth of
bevel
144
Details of PJP Groove Welds α S S = depth of bevel 144 Copyright © 2016

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

72

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Details of PJP Groove Welds S α S = depth of bevel α reduced in
Details of PJP Groove Welds
S
α
S = depth of
bevel
α reduced in an attempt to
save weld metal
145
Details of PJP Groove Welds S E α S = depth of bevel Fusion to
Details of PJP Groove Welds
S
E
α
S = depth of
bevel
Fusion to the weld root is
not achieved
146
of bevel Fusion to the weld root is not achieved 146 Copyright © 2016 American Institute

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

73

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Details of PJP Groove Welds S E S = depth of α bevel When fusion
Details of PJP Groove Welds
S
E S = depth of
α
bevel
When fusion is not
achieved to root, S = E
147
TABLE J2.1 Effective Throat of Partial Joint Penetration Groove Welds
TABLE J2.1
Effective Throat of Partial Joint Penetration Groove Welds
Effective Throat of Partial Joint Penetration Groove Welds Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

74

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel Figure 3.3
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel
Figure 3.3
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel Figure 3.3
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel
Figure 3.3
3.3 AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel Figure 3.3 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

75

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel Figure 3.3 151
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel
Figure 3.3
151

Details of PJP Groove Welds

General characteristics of PJP groove welds

• Throat < plate thickness

• Connection designer must determine throat

• “E” dimension (effective throat)

• “S” dimension (depth of bevel)

• The Connection Designer (the Engineer)

specifies the E dimension

• The Shop (the detailer) determines the

required S dimension

152

(the detailer) determines the required S dimension 152 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

76

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Details of PJP Groove Welds

Minimum sizes of PJP groove welds

• AISC Table J2.3

• AWS D1.1 Table 3.4

153

TABLE J2.3 Minimum Effective Throat of Partial Joint Penetration Groove Welds Minimum Thickness of Thinner
TABLE J2.3
Minimum Effective Throat of
Partial Joint Penetration Groove Welds
Minimum Thickness of
Thinner Part Joined
Minimum
Effective Throat Thickness
To 1/4” inclusive
1/8”
Over 1/4” to 1/2”
3/16”
Over 1/2” to 3/4”
1/4”
Over 3/4” to 1 1/2”
5/16”
Over 1 1/2” to 2 1/4”
3/8”
Over 2 1/4” to 6”
1/2”
Over 6”
5/8”
3/8” Over 2 1/4” to 6” 1/2” Over 6” 5/8” Copyright © 2016 American Institute of

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

77

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Details of PJP Groove Welds

Minimum sizes of PJP groove welds

• AISC Table J2.3

• AWS D1.1 Table 3.4

• Has nothing to do with design

• Deals with ensuring adequate heat input for fusion

and fabrication-related cracking resistance

• Helps achieve some reasonable proportionality

between plate thickness and weld size

• These are minimum weld sizes; larger welds can

be used

155

Details of PJP Groove Welds Flare V Flare Bevel 156
Details of PJP Groove Welds
Flare V
Flare Bevel
156
155 Details of PJP Groove Welds Flare V Flare Bevel 156 Copyright © 2016 American Institute

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Details of PJP Groove Welds The weld throat is a function of the radius Throat
Details of PJP Groove Welds
The weld throat is a
function of the radius
Throat (t ω )
Radius (R)
t ω = (5/16) R
(illustrative only)
157
Table J2.2 Effective Weld Sizes of Flare Groove Welds Welding Process Flare-Bevel Flare-Vee SMAW FCAW-S
Table J2.2
Effective Weld Sizes of Flare Groove Welds
Welding Process
Flare-Bevel
Flare-Vee
SMAW
FCAW-S
5/16 R
5/8 R
GMAW FCAW-G
5/8 R
3/4 R
SAW
5/16 R
1/2 R
158
R 5/8 R GMAW FCAW-G 5/8 R 3/4 R SAW 5/16 R 1/2 R 158 Copyright

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Details of PJP Groove Welds underfill t ω 159
Details of PJP Groove Welds
underfill
t ω
159
Reduced distortion 160
Reduced distortion
160
Groove Welds underfill t ω 159 Reduced distortion 160 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

80

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Reduced cost 161
Reduced cost
161
Details of PJP Groove Welds 6t R = 3t 162
Details of PJP Groove Welds
6t
R = 3t
162
cost 161 Details of PJP Groove Welds 6t R = 3t 162 Copyright © 2016 American

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

81

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Details of PJP Groove Welds Permitted underfill option, providing the required weld throat can be
Details of PJP Groove Welds
Permitted underfill option, providing
the required weld throat can be
achieved.
R = 3t
163
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel Single V Groove Weld: PJP 164
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel
Single V Groove Weld: PJP
164
Welding Code--Steel Single V Groove Weld: PJP 164 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

82

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel Double V Groove Weld: PJP
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel
Double V Groove Weld: PJP
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel Flare Bevel Groove Weld: PJP
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel
Flare Bevel Groove Weld: PJP
Structural Welding Code--Steel Flare Bevel Groove Weld: PJP Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

83

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel Flare V Groove Weld: PJP
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel
Flare V Groove Weld: PJP
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION Filler metal with a strength level equal to or less than matching
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION
Filler metal with a
strength level equal to
or less than matching
filler metal is
permitted.
168
to or less than matching filler metal is permitted. 168 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of

Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

84

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Fundamentals of Welded Connections Outline • Applicable Codes • Welding Processes • Joints and Weld
Fundamentals of Welded Connections
Outline
• Applicable Codes
• Welding Processes
• Joints and Weld Types
• CJP Details
• PJP Details
• Fillet Weld Details
169
CJP Details • PJP Details • Fillet Weld Details 169 Details of Fillet Welds 170 Copyright
Details of Fillet Welds 170 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction
Details of Fillet Welds
170
Copyright © 2016
American Institute of Steel Construction

85

AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Details of Fillet Welds

Minimum sizes of fillet welds

• AISC Table J2.4

• AWS D1.1 Table 5.8

• Has nothing to do with design

• Deals with ensuring adequate heat input for fusion

and fabrication-related cracking resistance

• Helps achieve some reasonable proportionality

between plate thickness and weld size

• These are minimum weld sizes; larger welds can

be used

• These are minimum weld sizes; larger welds can be used 171 TABLE J2.4 Minimum Size

171

TABLE J2.4 Minimum Size of Fillet Welds Material Thickness of Thinner Part Joined Minimum Size
TABLE J2.4
Minimum Size of Fillet Welds
Material Thickness of
Thinner Part Joined
Minimum Size of Fillet Weld
To 1/4”, inclusive
1/8”
Over 1/4” to 1/2”
3/16”
Over 1/2” to 3/4”
1/4”
Over 3/4”
5/16”
172
Over 1/2” to 3/4” 1/4” Over 3/4” 5/16” 172 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

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AISC Night School November 8, 2016

Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION J2.2b Maximum Fillet Weld Size t < 1/4” [6 mm] ω max
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION J2.2b
Maximum Fillet Weld Size
t < 1/4”
[6 mm]
ω max
The maximum size of a fillet weld of connected parts
shall be:
(a) Along edges of material less than ¼ in. [6 mm] thick,
not greater than the thickness of the material.
Also addressed in AWS D1.1:2010 clause 2.4.2.9
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION J2.2b t > 1/4” Maximum Fillet Weld Size [6 mm] 1/16” min.
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION J2.2b
t > 1/4”
Maximum Fillet Weld Size
[6 mm]
1/16” min.
(b) Along edges of materials ¼ in. [6 mm] or more in
thickness, not greater than the thickness of the material
minus 1/16 in [2 mm], unless the weld is especially
designated on the drawings to be built out to obtain full-
throat thickness.
Also addressed in AWS D1.1:2010 clause 2.4.2.9
thickness. Also addressed in AWS D1.1:2010 clause 2.4.2.9 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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Details of Fillet Welds t ω t ω 175
Details of Fillet Welds
t
ω
t
ω
175
Details of Fillet Welds 1/16 in [2 mm] t ω 176
Details of Fillet Welds
1/16 in [2 mm]
t
ω
176
ω 175 Details of Fillet Welds 1/16 in [2 mm] t ω 176 Copyright © 2016

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Details of Fillet Welds 1/16 in [2 mm] 1/16 in [2 mm] 177
Details of Fillet Welds
1/16 in [2 mm]
1/16 in
[2 mm]
177
Details of Fillet Welds t Maximum Fillet Weld Size Does Not Apply If t ω
Details of Fillet Welds
t
Maximum Fillet Weld Size
Does Not Apply
If t ω = t,
then ω = 1.4 t
and ω > t - 1/16”
ω
178
ω = t, then ω = 1.4 t and ω > t - 1/16” ω 178

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Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Details of Fillet Welds

Minimum length of fillet welds

179

AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION J2.2b Minimum Fillet Weld Length The minimum effective length of fillet welds
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION J2.2b
Minimum Fillet Weld Length
The minimum effective length of fillet welds
designed on the basis of strength shall be not less
than four times the nominal size, or else the size of
the weld shall be considered not to exceed 1/4 of its
effective length.
Also addressed in AWS D1.1:2010 clause 2.4.2.3
length. Also addressed in AWS D1.1:2010 clause 2.4.2.3 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Details of Fillet Welds If ω = ¼” (6 mm), then L min = 1”
Details of Fillet Welds
If ω = ¼” (6 mm),
then L min = 1” (24 mm)
Length (L)
Leg Size (ω)
181
Details of Fillet Welds Or…if ω = 1/2” (12 mm) and L= 1.5” (40 mm),
Details of Fillet Welds
Or…if ω = 1/2” (12 mm) and
L= 1.5” (40 mm),
then ω min = 3/8” (10 mm)
Length (L)
ω eff
Leg Size (ω)
182
min = 3/8” (10 mm) Length (L) ω eff Leg Size (ω) 182 Copyright © 2016

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AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION J2.2b Intermittent Fillet Welds Intermittent fillet welds are permitted to be used
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION J2.2b
Intermittent Fillet Welds
Intermittent fillet welds are permitted to be used to transfer
calculated stress across a joint or faying surfaces when the
required strength is less than that developed by a continuous
fillet weld of the smallest permitted size, and to join
components of built-up members. The effective length of any
segment of intermittent fillet welding shall be not less than four
times the weld size, with a minimum of 1-1/2 in. (38 mm).
Also addressed in AWS D1.1:2010 clause 2.4.2.4
L min = 1.5” [38 mm] and L min = 4 ω Leg Size (ω)
L min = 1.5” [38 mm] and L min = 4 ω
Leg Size (ω)
Length (L)
184
[38 mm] and L min = 4 ω Leg Size (ω) Length (L) 184 Copyright ©

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Details of Fillet Welds Fillet Welds in Skewed T-Joints Ψ > 90 o Ψ <
Details of Fillet Welds
Fillet Welds in Skewed T-Joints
Ψ > 90 o
Ψ < 90 o
Details of Fillet Welds ω ω ω ω ω
Details of Fillet Welds
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
o Ψ < 90 o Details of Fillet Welds ω ω ω ω ω Copyright ©

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Details of Fillet Welds Greater angle Greater thickness
Details of Fillet Welds
Greater angle
Greater
thickness
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel 2.3.4 Weld Size and Length. For fillet welds and skewed
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel
2.3.4 Weld Size and Length.
For fillet welds and skewed T-joints, the following
shall be provided on the contract documents.
(1) For fillet welds between parts with surfaces
meeting at an angle between 80° and 100°, contract
documents shall specify the fillet weld leg size.
(2) For welds between parts with the surfaces
meeting at an angle less than 80° or greater than
100°, the contract documents shall specify the
effective throat.
188
contract documents shall specify the effective throat. 188 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel Specify fillet weld leg size (ω) within these limits: 80
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel
Specify fillet weld leg size (ω) within these limits:
80 o < Ψ < 100 o
Ψ < 100 o
Ψ < 100 o
Ψ > 80 o
Ψ > 80 o
ω
ω
ω
ω
189
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel 2.3.4 Weld Size and Length. For fillet welds and skewed
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel
2.3.4 Weld Size and Length.
For fillet welds and skewed T-joints, the following
shall be provided on the contract documents.
(1) For fillet welds between parts with surfaces
meeting at an angle between 80° and 100°, contract
documents shall specify the fillet weld leg size.
(2) For welds between parts with the surfaces
meeting at an angle less than 80° or greater than
100°, the contract documents shall specify the
effective throat.
190
contract documents shall specify the effective throat. 190 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel Specify effective throat (t ω-eff ) within these limits: for
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel
Specify effective throat (t ω-eff ) within these limits:
for Ψ >100 o and Ψ < 80 o
Ψ >100 o
Ψ >100 o
Ψ < 80 o
Ψ < 80 o
t ω-eff
t ω-eff
191
t ω-eff
t ω-eff
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel 2.3.5.2 Fillet Welds and Welds in Skewed T- Joints. The
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel
2.3.5.2 Fillet Welds and Welds in Skewed T-
Joints.
The following shall be provided on the shop
drawings:
(1) For fillet welds between parts with surfaces
meeting at an angle between 80° and 100°, shop
drawings shall show the fillet weld leg size,
192
shop drawings shall show the fillet weld leg size, 192 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of

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Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel 2.3.5.2 Fillet Welds and Welds in Skewed T- Joints. The
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel
2.3.5.2 Fillet Welds and Welds in Skewed T-
Joints.
The following shall be provided on the shop
drawings (cont’d):
(2) For welds between parts with surfaces meeting
at an angle less than 80° or greater than 100°, the
shop drawings shall show the detailed arrangement
of welds and required leg size to account for effects
of joint geometry and, where appropriate, the Z-loss
reduction for the process to be used and the angle, 193
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel 194
AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel
194
angle, 193 AWS D1.1:2010 Structural Welding Code--Steel 194 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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t ω Z-loss Ψ 195
t
ω
Z-loss
Ψ
195
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION FILLET WELDS 196
AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION
FILLET WELDS
196
Z-loss Ψ 195 AISC 360-10 SPECIFICATION FILLET WELDS 196 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

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Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Details of Welded Connections: fillets versus PJPs 197
Details of Welded Connections: fillets versus PJPs
197

Details of Welded Connections: fillets versus PJPs

• Both used in corner, tee joints

• PJPs more “efficient” in use of weld metal

198

• PJPs more “efficient” in use of weld metal 198 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of

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Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Details of Welded Connections: fillets versus PJPs Same volume t ω t ω 40% stronger
Details of Welded Connections: fillets versus PJPs
Same volume
t ω
t ω
40% stronger
199
Details of Welded Connections: fillets versus PJPs Same throat 50% less metal 200
Details of Welded Connections: fillets versus PJPs
Same throat
50% less metal
200
fillets versus PJPs Same throat 50% less metal 200 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

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Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Details of Welded Connections: fillets versus PJPs Cost to bevel 201
Details of Welded Connections: fillets versus PJPs
Cost to bevel
201

Details of Welded Connections: fillets versus PJPs

• Both used in corner, tee joints

• PJPs more “efficient” in use of weld metal

• PJPs require joint preparation, adding cost

• Rule of thumb: if the weld throat is less than

3/4” [18 mm], use fillet welds. Note: that

corresponds to a leg size of approximately

1” [25 mm].

• Rule of thumb: if the weld throat is greater

than 3/4” [18 mm], use PJP groove welds.

202

greater than 3/4” [18 mm], us e PJP groove welds. 202 Copyright © 2016 American Institute

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Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Fundamentals of Welded Connections

Outline

• Applicable Codes

• Welding Processes

• Joints and Weld Types

• CJP Details

• PJP Details

• Fillet Weld Details

203

Fundamentals of Welded Connections
Fundamentals of Welded Connections
Fillet Weld Details 203 Fundamentals of Welded Connections Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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Individual Webinar Registrants

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205

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PDH Certificates

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206

• Password: Same as AISC website password. 206 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel Construction

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Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

8-Session Registrants

PDH Certificates

One certificate will be issued at the conclusion of all 8 sessions.

207

8-Session Registrants

QUIZZES

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Quiz and Attendance records: Posted Tuesday mornings. www.aisc.org/nightschool - click on Current Course Details.

Reasons for quiz:

EEU – must take all quizzes and final to receive EEU PDHS – If you watch a recorded session you must take quiz for PDHs. REINFORCEMENT – Reinforce what you learned tonight. Get more out of the course.

NOTE: If you attend the live presentation, you do not have to take the quizzes to receive PDHs.

208

you do not have to take the quizzes to receive PDHs. 208 Copyright © 2016 American

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Fundamentals of Bolting and Welding Welding Pt. 1: Fundamentals of Welded Connections

8-Session Registrants

RECORDINGS

Access to the recording: Information for accessing the recording will be emailed to you by this Thursday. The recording will be available for two weeks. For 8-session registrants only. EMAIL COMES FROM NIGHTSCHOOL@AISC.ORG.

PDHS – If you watch a recorded session you must take AND PASS the quiz for PDHs.

209

Thank You Please give us your feedback! Survey at conclusion of webinar. 210
Thank You
Please give us your feedback!
Survey at conclusion of webinar.
210
us your feedback! Survey at conclusion of webinar. 210 Copyright © 2016 American Institute of Steel

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