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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

Vikas Khare, Savita Nema, Prashant Baredar

MANIT, Bhopal, India

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The demand for electricity is increasing day by day, which cannot be fullled by non-renewable energy

Received 11 September 2014 sources alone. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind are omnipresent and environmental

Received in revised form friendly. The renewable emulnergy sources are emerging options to fulll the energy demand, but

2 November 2015

unreliable due to the stochastic nature of their occurrence. Hybrid renewable energy system (HRES)

Accepted 21 December 2015

Available online 9 January 2016

combines two or more renewable energy sources like wind turbine and solar system. The objective of

this paper is to present a comprehensive review of various aspects of HRES. This paper discusses pre-

Keywords: feasibility analysis, optimum sizing, modeling, control aspects and reliability issues. The application of

Solar energy evolutionary technique and game theory in hybrid renewable energy is also presented in this paper.

Wind energy

& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hybrid renewable energy system

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2. Pre-feasibility assessment of HRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

3. Optimum sizing of HRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

4. Modeling of HRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

5. Control of HRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

6. Evolutionary technique in HRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

6.1. Genetic algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

6.2. Particle swarm optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

6.3. Fuzzy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

6.4. Neural. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

7. Game theory in HRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

8. Reliability in HRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

9. Future scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

1. Introduction remarkable growth for past two decades in its widespread use of

standalone to utility interactive solarwind systems [3].

Electricity is the important factor for industrialization, urbaniza- Solar and wind energy system works normally in standalone or

tion, nancial growth of any country [1]. There are different types of grid connected mode, but the efciency of these sources is less due

conventional and non-conventional energy sources used to generate to the stochastic nature of solar and wind resources. The hybrid

electricity. Solar and wind energy system is one of the most promi- renewable energy sources with grid integration overcome this

nent sources of energy. The utilization of solar and wind energy drawback of being unpredictable in nature. Hybrid renewable

system has become increasingly popular due to modular and envir- energy system (HRES) is a combination of renewable and con-

onment friendly nature [2]. The eld of solarwind has experienced a ventional energy source, it may also combine two or more

renewable energy sources that work in standalone or grid con-

nected mode. The HRES that combines solar and wind energy key

E-mail addresses: Vikaskhare09@yahoo.co.in (V. Khare), resources, operates in two modes: simultaneous and sequential. In

s_nema@yahoo.com (S. Nema), pbaredar@rediffmail.com (P. Baredar). simultaneous mode, the solar and wind energy system produces

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.223

1364-0321/& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

24 V. Khare et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 58 (2016) 2333

energy concurrently while in sequential mode they produce of stand-alone solarwind hybrid energy system for application in

electricity alternatively [4,5]. Newfoundland. Hydrogen is used as an energy transporter for appli-

The signicant characteristics of HRES are to combine two or cation in Newfoundland, Canada. Sizing, performance and various

more renewable power generation technologies to make proper cost indexes were also analyzed. The capital cost, net present cost and

use of their operating characteristics and to obtain efciencies cost of energy for energy consumption of 25 kW h/d with a 4.73 KW

higher than that could be obtained from a single power source. peak power demand is $36738, $47910 and $0.492 respectively.

This paper presents a review of solarwind hybrid renewable Graditi et al. [9] developed scientic and ecological aspects of hybrid

energy system covering issue such as pre-feasibility study, mod- system as well as non conventional energy source. Nayar et al. [10]

eling, controlling, optimization technique, reliability and power discussed a case study of a Photo-voltaic/Wind/Diesel hybrid energy

quality of the system [6]. Fig. 1 presents a basic component of system installed in three remote islands in the republic of Maldives.

solarwind hybrid renewable energy system. Chong et al. [11] presents prefeasibility analysis of a windsolar

HRES with rainwater collection features for urban high rise applica-

tion. Economic analysis includes manufacturing and preservation

2. Pre-feasibility assessment of HRES costs of the system over the given life span. The system is analyzed for

security, visual impact and noise pollution. Sinha et al. [12] presents

Prior to installation and operation, the prefeasibility study of pre-feasibility analysis of solarwind hybrid systems for a complex

hybrid energy system is customarily carried out. The prefeasibility hilly terrain. The study is carried out to assess the potential for a

analysis includes the study of climatic condition of the proposed solarwind hybrid system for Hamirpur town located in Northern

site, availability of renewable energy sources and assessment of its Province of India. The prefeasibility study indicates the quality of

potential load and load demand of application site. The pre- potential for utilizing solar-micro wind hybrid system to supplement

feasibility study assists in nding out the best location to develop a the energy needs in hilly regions. Aydin et al. [13] explore geological

solar wind hybrid renewable energy system. Few signicant con- information system (GIS) based site allocation for solarwind HRES at

tributions of various researchers are discussed here. western turkey. In this paper Fuzzy logic and geographic information

Rahman et al. [7] gave the feasibility study of Photovoltaic (PV)- system tool are used to search best and alternative location of the

Fuel cell hybrid energy system considering difculty in the use of PV target area that benets nancial and ecological criteria. Tao Ma et al.

and provide new avenues for the fuel cell technology. A photovoltaic [14] presented a comprehensive feasibility study and techno-

system uses photovoltaic cells to directly convert sunlight into elec- economic assessment of a remote solarwind hybrid energy system

tricity and the fuel cell converts the chemical energy into electricity with battery energy storage for a isolated island.

through a chemical reaction with oxygen or other oxidizing agent. Climatic condition is the major input to carried out pre-

Khan et al. [8] gave meticulous description about pre-feasibility study feasibility analysis. Figs. 2 and 3 show global map solar energy and

DC/AC

Solar Energy

DC/DC

AC/ AC/ AC/DC Load

AC/AC

DC AC/DC DC

Wind Energy AC/AC

BUS DC/AC BUS

AC/DC

DC/DC

Bidirectional GRID

Storage

Converter

V. Khare et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 58 (2016) 2333 25

Criteria Methodology

Multi- Graphical Computing

Economic Reliability AI Technique Iterative Analytical Probablistic

objective Constraint Tool

Fig. 4. Optimum sizing analysis of solar wind hybrid renewable energy system HRES.

wind energy potential in all over world [15]. Feasibility of solar evaluated optimal sizing of pumped storage plant using single/multi-

wind hybrid renewable energy system mainly depends on solar objective optimization technique for increased generation. Belfkira

radiation and wind energy potential available at the specic et al. [21] gave a method for sizing and optimizing a standalone

location. Designing a hybrid renewable energy system requires wind/Photo-voltaic/diesel hybrid energy system. Paudel et al. [22]

appropriate weather data. presented feasibility study and determined unit size of hybrid

renewable energy system that combines solar, wind and battery

bank for an isolated location of Nepal. Nagabhusana et al. [23] esti-

3. Optimum sizing of HRES mates optimal size of a solarwind HRES employing linear pro-

gramming technique to minimize present worth of capital and

The next step after prefeasibility analysis is to accurately assess operating cost. Kumar et al. [24] used probabilistic reliability analysis

the size of individual component that can economically satisfy the to nd out the most favorable size of solar wind HRES. The stochastic

load demand. Fig. 4 present implicit criteria/methodology gen- belongings in all the parameter in the optimization models are taken

erally employed for optimum sizing of HRES. Chedid et al. presents into consideration for estimating power reliability. Laterra et al. [25]

unit sizing of integrated wind solar power system for either explains procedure to develop the unit sizing of a grid connected

autonomous or grid linked application with the help of a computer solar wind HRES using fuzzy logic based multi-objective optimization

aided design (CAD) tool. The linear programming is used for

idea. Both scientic and cost-effective objective functions are used to

analysis with the objective function set such that the cost of

nd out the best conguration. Further Erdinc et al. [26] explore a

electricity is minimized.

novel perspective component performance squalor issue in optimum

Kellog et al. [17] determined unit sizing of solar wind HRES by

sizing conguration. Author used observe and focus algorithm based

developing simple arithmetical algorithm. Generation and storage

optimization to compute the possible degradation in performance

system are appropriately sized to meet the annual load and reduce

and meticulous conguration of each integrated system component.

the total annual cost to the customer. Nelson et al. [18] carried out

sizing and economic analysis of a hybrid renewable energy system Bayod-Rujula et al. [27] analyzed the inuence of some unit sizing

consisting of a fuel cell (multiple cells combined to form a stack), an structure of grid connected solarwind integrated non-conventional

electrolyzer and hydrogen storage tank that work as energy storage energy system with energy storage and load consumption on their

arrangement. The sizing and economic analysis is done using a multi- crossing point with the electrical network. In this paper sizing con-

paradigm numerical computing environment and fourth generation straint are used as sizing factor which is the ratio of yearly energy

programming language as Matrix laboratory (MATLAB) and break- produced by the non-conventional energy system and yearly energy

even distance analyses is done for each conguration. Lopez et al. demanded by an end user. Erdinc et al. [28] describes unit sizing

[19] presents the inuence of power converter losses assessment in criteria of solar wind integrated renewable energy system by real

the sizing of a HRES. An improved technique for in loss calculation of time routine analysis and scrutinize the effectiveness for entire

static converter is presented with an objective to assess energy losses generated system. Tables 1 and 2 gives hybrid system analysis of

in the system during the unit sizing process. Khatibi et al. [20] study area and summary of sizing methodology of HRES respectively.

26 V. Khare et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 58 (2016) 2333

Table 1

Hybrid system analysis of study area.

Author (s) Hybrid system component Evaluation area Load details Sizing approach Result of sizing

Kalantar et al. [29] Wind turbine (WT), Photo-voltaic Tehran, Iran 225 kW Peak Genetic Algorithm (GA) 195 kW WT, 85 KW PV 230 kW

(PV), and Battery 25 kW Base Microturbine

2.14 kA h battery

Yang et al. [30] WT, PV, microturbine and battery Dala Jia Island, 1.5 kW Constant GA 6 kW WT, 12.8 kW PV,

China 6 kA h battery

Bounbum roong et al. WT, PV, diesel and battery Chik Island, 26 kW peak Particle swarm optimization 15 kW WT,

[31] Thailand 5 kW base (PSO) 24 kW PV,

50 kW diesel,

151 kW h battery

Table 2

Summary of sizing methodologies of solar wind HRES.

Yang et al. [30] Probabilistic Loss of Power Supply Probability A battery bank with an energy storage space capability of 3 days was appropriate for

(LPSP) ensuring the desired LPSP of 1% can be achieved with a battery bank of 5 days storage

space capacity.

Celik et al. [32] Techno-economic Cost/kW h, level of autonomy Author suggests that a third energy source should be integrated into the system instead

of escalating the hardware size.

Kamels et al. [33] Economic Net Present Value (NPV) Optimization result shows that integrated systems are less costly than diesel generation

from a NPV perspective.

Koutroulis et al. [34] Techno-economic Total cost and load energy The simulation results verify that integrated systems are obtained in terms of desired

requirement system reliability and the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE).

Yang et al. [35] Techno-economic LPSP and LCOE The most favorable congurations of the integrated system are obtained in terms of

desired system reliability and the LCOE.

Gupta et al. [36] Economical LPSP and Life Cycle Cost Result explores the cost V/S prot of growing or decreasing the size/number of each

generating component prior to realization of the design. Net present cost and cost of

energy of a given system is $86462 and $0.41 respectively.

Diaf et al. [37] Economical LPSP and LCOE The result indicates that the HRES is the best option for all the sites considered in the

study.

Yang et al. [38] Techno-economic LPSP This model can be used to compute the system productivity pattern which can attain the

desired LPSP with a least annualized cost of system.

Tina et al. [39] Probabilistic Energy index of reliability The outcome noties the design of a preprocessing phase for one input of an algorithm

that probabilistically optimizes the plan of HRES

Khatod et al. [40] Economic Production cost Result shows that the developed technique needs less computational time than Monte

Carlo simulation method.

Kaabeche et al. [41] Economical Deciency of Power Supply Prob- The most favorable arrangement of the integrated system is determined in terms of

ability, Life Cycle Cost desired system reliability requirement.

4. Modeling of HRES power system. Hybrid system is studied from the view point of small

signal, frequency, voltage and transient stability. Haque et al. [48]

There are different types of renewable energy sources such as solar, investigated the most viable conguration of a hybrid energy system

wind, hydro, biomass, fuel cell, tidal etc. Modeling is the rst step to for a typical electric-heated home in St. John's, Newfoundland. It is

design a system according to the different parameter and constraint. found that multi-port direct current (DCDC) converter is appropriate

Marchetti, et al. [42] gave statistical modeling of solar wind HRES for the desired hybrid energy system. Gupta et al. [49] developed

based on annual cost, battery autonomy function, sizing criteria and modeling of hybrid energy system for off grid electrication of a group

ecological statistical factor. Step by step optimization practice is used to of villages and suggested cost minimization through proper compo-

nd out the betting result of the solar wind HRES model. Consoli nent sizing and load matching. The model is developed with the

et al. [43] developed solar wind hybrid system model based on long objective of minimizing cost function based on demand and potential

term simulation. This system integrates diesel generating sets with the constraint and is optimized using Linear Programming LINDO s/w 6.10

renewable energy source. Bonanno et al. [44] present logistical model versions. Based on the hydrogen fuel cell Alam et al. [50] developed

of HRES to evaluate fuel and energy saving and reported the problem model of wind-photovoltaic-fuel cell. To maintain uniform supply of

related to the exploitation of combined renewable and conventional hydrogen for fuel cell, an electrolyzer and a reformer is used. Badejani

energy sources. A special feature of logistical model is that a supple- et al. [51] developed modeling of standalone hybrid Photovoltaic-wind

mentary ctitious source is introduced in order to obtain the power system. A discrete cost function is dened and optimized to determine

balance at the bus-bar during the simulation stage. Ghali et al. [45] optimal design option with minimum number of Photovoltaic and

used loss of power supply probability (LPSP) to develop integrated wind units to sustain yearly demand load. System imitation and

renewable energy system model. Based on load distribution, the energy balance computation over a period of 3 years are used to

probability density function of the storage is obtained and conse- reimburse for design error caused by the discrete nature of the opti-

quently the battery size is calculated to give the relevant level of the mization approach. Gupta and Saini [52] developed an optimal hybrid

system reliability using the LPSP technique. Zahedi et al. [46] devel- energy system for remote rural area of Jaunpur block Uttaranchal state

oped statistical model of one or more PV arrays to be combined with of India. HRES model consisting of wind, solar, biomass and small-

diesel and/or wind for making a more reliable electricity supply. A micro hybrid is optimized to maintain uninterrupted supply. Gupta

near ideal size of system's component is estimated using Matrix and Saini [53] have explored modeling of solar wind HRES using

Laboratory program to predict system's performance. Potamianakis LINDO s/w 6.10 versions for off grid electrication of a group of vil-

et al. [47] demonstrated modeling and simulation of the small hybrid lages. The model is developed with the goal of cost function

V. Khare et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 58 (2016) 2333 27

minimization based on demand and potential constraint. Belfkira and 5. Control of HRES

Nichita [21] modeled and optimized sizing of HRES and used a

deterministic algorithm to diminish the life cycle cost of the system Control technique plays a very important role in enhancing

while guarantee the accessibility of the energy. The statistical model- system efciency and desired output of a plant. The availability of

ing of the principle elements of the hybrid Wind-Photovoltaic system power from a hybrid system can be economically maximized by

is exposed showing the key sizing variable. Ruiz and Cirstea [54] choosing proper control technique in the system design process.

modeled integrated renewable energy system (PV-wind) and used an Jonathan et al. [62] presented a control technology for HRES that

optimized holistic digital control system design followed by rapid track and make control decisions based on the denite battery state

prototyping of the controller into a single eld programmable gate of charge offering signicant advantages over other methods.

array (FPGA) where as Karagiannis et al. [55] modeled and analyzed a Ottoson et al. [63] used a data logger and gave exhaustive analysis

solar wind hybrid energy system using fuzzy cognitive maps and of the energy production and performance of a remote hybrid

learning algorithm. Olulope et al. [56] presented modeling and power plant having solar, wind and diesel plant. Nogaret et al. [64]

simulation of hybrid power system and investigated the dynamic developed a new expert system based control system tool for HRES

impact of hybrid wind/Photovoltaic/small hydro-power on transient and used an advanced control system for the optimal operation and

stability with the help of DIgSILENT power factor software which is supervision of Photovoltaic and wind based medium size power

carried out using single machine innite system concept. Bansal et al. system. CAD (Computer aided design) tool is used by Chedid et al.

[57] modelled and optimized integrated renewable energy system for [13] for optimal design and control of a hybrid wind solar power

a rural site considering total price as an objective function. Hybrid systems considering all ecological factor. Linear programming

Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software is used techniques are used to reduce the production cost while meeting

to model the above conguration. Table 3 gives summary of modeling the load requirement. Pitrone and Pitrone [65] used an expert

method of HRES. system, fuzzy logic theory, neural network and programmable

Table 3

Summary of modeling method of solar wind HRES.

Marchetti [42] Mathematical model of HRES Analytical method Gave a mathematical approach to the environment statistical factor.

Consoli [43] Long term simulation model of HRES Matlab simulink 1. The system integrates different kind of generator and by traditional

electric energy plant.

2.Estimated the long term performances of hybrid system for electric

energy production

3. Model result shows a fuel consumption reduction of 64% in case of full

DC conguration and about 72% in AC conguration

Rahman and Optimal design of a hybrid windsolar Linear programming 1. Reduce the average production cost of electricity while meeting the

Chedid power system load constraint

2.Environmental factors are considered both for the design and opera-

tion phases

Ghali [45] Model of HRES based on LPSP. Loss of power supply 1. The probability density function of the storage is obtained and battery

probability size is calculated the system reliability.

2. Changing the number of PV modules is not much effective in dropping

the storage capacity required

Kellog [17] Generation unit sizing and cost analysis Numerical algorithm 1. Optimum generation capability and storage required is determined for

for PV/ wind system a stand-alone, wind, PV, and hybrid wind PV system for an experimental

site in Montana with a typical residential load

2. The hybrid combination of wind and solar generation makes the

system more reliable

Zahedi [46] Numerical model of HRES Analytical method Developed a numerical model for optimum sizing of the components in

PV-hybrid power systems and presented an optimum way to predict the

performance of the system.

Ai and Yang [58] Computer-aided design of PV/wind hybrid Loss of power supply 1. Developed complete sets of mathematical formulation for optimum

system probability sizing of PV/wind hybrid system.

2. Performance of PV-wind system in view of loss of power supply

probability is studied considering practical load data.

Vani [59] Modeling of HRES HOMER Hybrid power system contains solar, wind and diesel power generation

with battery storage for Jamnya Van village dist. Barwani in Madhya

Pradesh, India. Optimized a problem to minimize total net present cost,

operating and running cost of the hybrid system.

Gupta [52] Modeling of HRES for off grid electrica- LINDO Software 6.10 version Based on demand and potential constraints cost function is minimized.

tion of cluster of villages

Alam [50] Modeling of HRES Fuzzy logic 1. Performance of HRES studied under different environmental

condition.

2. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of the PV system and blade

angle pitch control of wind turbine included.

Gupta [53] Steady state modeling for grid electrica- Mixed integer linear mathe- 1. Cost constant for each of the proposed resource is introduced with the

tion of cluster of villages matical programming objective that source having lesser unit cost shares more to optimize the

objective function.

2. A case study of rural remote area is presented.

Dursun [60] Hydrogen production capacity of a stan- Matlab/Simscape software 1. Dynamic model based on PEM electrolyzer hydrogen productions are

dalone renewable hybrid power system is developed with Matlab/Simscape and simple application developed for

used Istanbul's 2010 meteorological condition.

Mezzai [61] Identication and modeling of HRES. Matlab/Simulink/Labvie w The identication and the control of the hybrid system are presented.

software Lab- view software has been used and has a real-time acquisition of

renewable energy parameters.

28 V. Khare et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 58 (2016) 2333

logical controller for on line supervision and control of distributed step perturbation tracking maximum power point algorithm. The

hybrid renewable energy power plant. A real time analysis of the control strategies of the PV array, wind power generation and

control structure and management functions of a solar wind hybrid battery is simulated using Matlab/Simulink. Preethishri et al. [77]

micro-grid system is reported by Gaztanaga et al. [66] which works developed embedded emulator of the PV array and wind driven

perfectly in both operation and transition mode. Based on the induction generator by using digital signal regulator. Prabhakar

power transfer utility concept Jinhong and Seulki [67] developed et al. [78] proposed a control system for accomplishing consistent

several power control module in service modes such as normal harmonization of windsolar energy adaptation system in remote

operation, power dispatching and power averaging according and locations. The control technique is formulated to utilize the avail-

effectively controls the inverter. The control module has environ- able energy source in an efcacious manner to render power at

mental and utility friendly operation policy such that power injec- nearly constant voltage and frequency to the isolated load. Croci

tion into network is less uctuating. Based on supervisory con- et al. [79] developed obedience based control method which han-

troller, Abdulwahid and Manwell [68] developed a dynamic central dles the energy exchange directly for PV-Wind HRES. Budh et al.

communication system for hybrid power system. Capacitor voltage [80] explained smoothing control for battery energy storage system

equilibrium control scheme is used to control hybrid cascaded H (BESS) based HRES. Professionally simulation tool for computer

bridge inverter with single direct current (DC) source to get rid of aided design (PSCAD) is used to develop the smoothing control

higher order harmonics for an integrated energy system by Hui system for effective regulation of power output level. Table 4 gives

et al. [69]. Web based actual time monitoring with supervisory summary of controlling method of HRES.

control and data attainment system for a Wind-PV battery renew-

able energy system is developed by Wang et al. [70] which consists

of two wind induction generator, ACDC converter, a PV unit and a 6. Evolutionary technique in HRES

battery. Vechu et al. [71] developed digital control over analog

control with a 3 phase four leg inverter for HRES. This system Evolutionary computation is a subeld of articial intelligence

compensates unbalance voltage conditions and the addition of a that involves combinatorial optimization difculty. The use of

fourth leg provides an extra degree of freedom, making it possible Darwinian principles for automated problem solving originates in

to handle the natural current caused by the unbalance load. Zhang the 1950s.

et al. [72] used PSO based statistical dynamic control system to

manage Wind-PV hybrid system operation. Hernandez et al. [73] 6.1. Genetic algorithm

developed a hierarchical control of hybrid power system consisting

of a wind turbine, PV panels, a battery for a DC bus arrangement. Genetic algorithm is a randomized hunt and optimization system

Mbaup et al. [74] gave a new concept control design using a guided by the morality of the natural genetic system. GA is an

Petri-net regulator which calculates the operating mode of the adaptive heuristic search algorithms based on the evolutionary ideas

multisource renewable energy system to optimize the energy of natural selection and genetics. Daming et al. [83] explained an

transfer and the load irregularity for HRES. Arulampalam et al. [75] elitist strategy of optimal sizing of standalone hybrid PV-wind power

developed micro-grid control of PV-wind-diesel hybrid system with systems using genetic algorithm with loss of power supply prob-

island and grid linked function. Huang et al. [76] gave the MPPT ability as a constraint and minimizes the total capital of the entire

control scheme to track the global power of the windsolar hybrid system. Zhao et al. [84] used a genetic algorithm with PSO to observe

generating system according to the basic standard of the variable the best probable capacity model of a solar wind hybrid renewable

Table 4

Summary of controlling method of solar wind HRES.

reference

Lynch [62] Maximizing hybrid availability 1.battery voltage Amp. Hour accumulation offers signicant compensation over voltage based

through system control 2.Avg. battery voltage methods of system control for HRES

3. Amp. hour accumulation

Akurlund [63] A data logger By data logger Analysis of the energy production and performance of HRES is studied in

and remote control of HRES. detail

Vander Linde [81] Microprocessor Microprocessor Life span of battery is increased by controlling state of charge of the battery

Based control of HRES. based, 'C' Programming,

Motorola 6800

Chedid Unit sizing and control of HRES Linear programming ,RAPSODY 1. This analysis allows the user to study the interaction among economic,

Software operation and environmental factor.

2. It offers a useful tool for the design and analysis of HRES.

Jinhong [67] Power control of a HRES By prototype system design 1. The system has several operation modes which are normal operation,

power dispatching and power average to coordinate control of the battery

energy storage system (BESS).

2. The BESS operate as an energy buffer to exibly shift the generation from

the renewable energy sources without frequent shifts between battery

charging and discharging.

Boquan [72] Dynamic control of HRES Particle swarm optimization A mathematical model is developed and a new PSO algorithm based on

(PSO) uniform design and inertia mutation is used to solve the mathematical model

which is further is used to control the operation of wind-PV HRES.

Mboup [74] Petri-nets control design of Petri-nets controller A supervisory control strategy optimize the energy transfer according to the

HRES source power variation and the load characteristics

Preethishri [77] Digital signal controlling of PV- Matlab/embedded emulator This HRES can tolerate the rapid changes in natural conditions and sup-

Wind HRES presses the effect of uctuation on the voltage within the acceptable range.

Gota [82] Design and control of smart Genetic Algorithm (GA) and direct An efcient tool for the selection of the component of the energy system is

HRES design control developed with two major selection criteria (Price and number) using

modied GA.

V. Khare et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 58 (2016) 2333 29

energy system with rapid global convergence. Gupta et al. [85] used an island. The result obtained proves its feasibility and efciency.

GA to design and supply varying load located in the area of Jaipur Dehgan et al. [88] develop most favorable sizing of a hydrogen based

(India). Result shows that the system can deliver energy in a stan- wind/PV plant allowing for reliability indices by applying a particle

dalone installation with an acceptable price. Ben et al. [86] developed swarm optimization. Wang et al. [89] modied PSO algorithm to

optimum sizing of hybrid PV/Wind battery system using Fuzzy develop multicultural design of the integrated power generation

adaptive GA which decides the optimal number of PV panels, WT and system. Sensitivity study is also carried out to examine the impacts of

storage units, Further GA is used to conclude optimal power different system parameter on the overall design performance. Sizing

arrangement of an off-grid hybrid renewable energy system. Tutkun of solarwind renewable energy system is done by Sanchez et al. [90]

et al. [87] develop authentic power scheduling of an off grid HRES and evolutionary computation technique called PSO is used with the

used for heating and lighting in an archetypal residential house. In cost of system as an objective function. PSO algorithm is used by

this paper binary coded GA is used instead of assorted integer linear Ardakani et al. [91] for optimal sizing of system's component. As a

programming to minimize the operational unit cost of HRES. result the optimum number of pv modules, wind turbine and battery

along with inverter capacity is obtained. Bansal et al. [92] develop

6.2. Particle swarm optimization optimization of hybrid PV/Wind/ batteries energy system using

multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO). An objective

Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a population based sto- function for cost of the hybrid system is formed which includes initial

chastic optimization practice enthused by social behavior of bird costs, yearly operating costs and maintenance costs. . Due to the

ocking or sh schooling, where bird ocking or sh schooling is the intricacy of hybrid renewable energy system with nonlinear integral

collective motion of a large number of self propelled entities. Zhao planning, MOPSO is used to solve the problem. The improved PSO

et al. [84] gave an improving the PSO algorithm for optimal capacity can avoid the option of a local minimum trap. Bashir et al. [93]

arrangement of an independent wind/PV hybrid power supply sys- explain size optimization of new hybrid standalone renewable

tem. The way out for Hybrid power system capacity optimal con- energy system by PSO. To assess system dependability level, the

guration is a typical non-linear integrated integer optimization equivalent loss factor (ELF) has been used as an index. Keyrouz et al.

problem. An algorithm is projected and tested on system located at [94] developed a unied MPPT for controlling a hybrid windsolar

Table 5

Summary of evolutionary technique in solar wind HRES.

Wang [70] Improvement of power factor (P.F.) and Programmable logical controller This paper presents a novel control scheme using a PLC with a new

voltage for RES (PLC)'s new Fuzzy module fuzzy module to enhance the P.F. and voltage of a hybrid Wind/PV

system.

Alam [50] Modeling and analysis of a Wind/PV/ Fuzzy and HOMER Based on simulation result it has been found that RES would be a

Fuel cell feasible solution for distributed generation of electric power for

standalone application at remote location.

Chakraborthy [98] Optimal economic operation of smart Fuzzy logic The method is tested on a hypothetical power system with 10

grid thermal units, 4300 equivalent solar and wind farm.

Berrazouane [104] Energy management and supervision Fuzzy logic The method addresses and resolves power quality issue resulting

from real power imbalance uctuations due to non-conventional

energy.

Chakraborthy [100] Intelligent economic operation of smart Fuzzy logic Wind generator and PV generation as renewable power generation

grid source are modeled.

Shahirinia [105] Optimal sizing of hybrid power system Genetic Algorithm(GA) A GA approach is employed to obtain the best cost value of hybrid

power system construction.

Xu et al. [106] Capital cost GA The issues regarding loss of power supply probability and reliability

criteria are discussed.

Yang et al. [35] Annualized cost GA Probability of loss of power supply is explained.

Arabali [107] Optimization approach for energy GA A new strategy to meet the controllable HVAC with a solarwind

management HRES is proposed.

Merei [108] Sensitivity analysis of an off grid hybrid GA Sensitivity analysis is done for different battery prices, interest rate

system with battery technology. and cost of carbon emission.

Jifang [102] Control strategy for multi-energy com- Neural Simulation shows that this strategy can be used to keep make the

mon dc bus hybrid power supply voltage stable and continuous.

Ricalde [109] Design of a smart grid management Neural A management system based on multi-agents is designed to measure

system with renewable energy and control the loads inside the building using neural network.

generation

Ghareeb [110] Renewable energy sources for con- Neural The performance of solarwind hybrid power system with high

tinuous supply in microgrid application penetration of renewable energy sources was investigated under

dominant weather condition.

Zhao [84] The optimal capacity conguration of a Particle swarm optimization The algorithm is tested for a standalone RES, the result analysis

supply system (PSO) shows its feasibility and effectiveness.

Kaviani et al. [111] Annualized cost PSO The equivalent loss factor and impact of component outages on the

reliability performance analysis is discussed.

Hakimi et al. [112] Net Present Value PSO Extra energy was delivered to the electrolyzer and decit power is

fullled by fuel cell.

Ardakani [91] Design of an optimum HRES PSO Hybrid generation system under different design scenarios are

designed based on PSO approach.

Khare [113] Optimization of HRES PSO, CPSO, HOMER The study is based on simulation and optimization of the renewable

energy system of a police control room in Central India. The pattern

of load consumption is studied and optimized by PSO, CPSO algo-

rithm and HOMER software. Net present cost, operating cost and cost

of energy for 1.5KW system is $34,811, $950/yr. and 0.444/kW h

respectively.

30 V. Khare et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 58 (2016) 2333

Study of Duopoly- Formal Theory of games- Theory of games-John Economic Behaviour-John Finite games on

Antoine Cournot [1838] Emile Borel [1921] Neumann [1928] Neumann [1944] equilibrium -Nash [1950]

and fuel cell system. A tracking algorithm based Bayesian informa- analysis more complex plans and strategies. Fig. 5 presents over-

tion combined with swarm intelligence is used as an optimization, view of GAME theory.

searching algorithm by Amer et al. [95] for minimizing the loss of Sharp et al. [114] developed several types of solar energy incen-

energy with a satisfactory choice of the production taking in delib- tives for industrial energy consumer. The incentives are formulated

eration the losses between production and demand sides to reduce using Stackelberg game theory with the government as a leader

the cost. Sanchez et al. [96] congure isolated solar wind energy offering incentives to the end user. Ogino et al. [115] presented non-

system in the southeast region of Mexico and scientic-nancial cooperative game approach in an electric generating system which is

analysis is done very effectively using PSO technique which searches related to public participation and resource supply. The main draw-

the best possible sizing for the energy system, minimizing the total back of this system is that it does not give any control mechanism of

cost of the system. An outcome shows that PSO performance is faster the entire system. This problem is compensated when Lygeros and

and is capable of providing an optimization pattern that saves around Godbole [116] designed multi-agent hybrid system using game the-

10% of the total cost of the integrated system. Borhanazad et al. [97] ory. A methodology for designing a hybrid controller for the large

developed optimization of micro-grid system using MOPSO and scale multi-agent system is presented. The paper reports problem

found the best conguration of the hybrid system using power based on the optimal and timely investment on grids and is solved

management algorithm. using the concepts of the Nash-Bayesian equilibrium. Wu and Rad

[117] developed demand side management solution for wind power

6.3. Fuzzy integration in micro grid using dynamic potential game theory.

Interaction among users to efciently utilize the available renewable

Chakraboty et al. [98] presents an optimal economic operation of and conventional energy sources is analyzed and coordinated to

smart grid by fuzzy advanced quantum evolutionary method. Adhikari minimize the total energy cost to the system. Street and Lima [118]

et al. [99] explained analysis, design and control of a standalone gave, sharing quotas of a non-conventional energy hedge pool with

integrated non-conventional energy conversion system based on the the help of a cooperative game theory approach. The objective of this

work was twofold: rst objective was to propose a risk-adverse

fuzzy logic control method by sensing the DC voltage and current

renewable energy hedge pool to jointly sell a single complementary

output of solar and the rectied output voltage of permanent magnet

renewable generation portfolio and secondly it analyzes different

brushless direct current (PMBLDC) generator driven by a wind turbine.

schemes of sharing the nancial gains, namely quotas between the

Chakarborty et al. [100] developed intelligence economic operation of

members of such a pool from a cooperative game theory point of

smart grid using fuzzy advanced quantum evolutionary method.

view. Saad and Han [119] has given a coalitional game theory of

cooperative micro-grid distribution networks of solar panels, wind

6.4. Neural turbines etc. Baeyens and Bitar [120] explained the wind energy

aggregation with the help of a coalitional game approach. The paper

Neural network is an interconnected group of articial neurons studied the extent to which a group of N wind power producers can

that uses a mathematical model or computational model for infor- exploit the statistical benets of aggregation and amount risk is

mation processing based on a connectionist approach to computation. formulated by coalitional game approach. Mei and Wang [121]

Fidalgo et al. [101] applied articial neural network (ANN) based developed the game approaches for integrated power systems

approach for applying preventive control strategies for a large hybrid planning. Game theory is introduced in this paper to model the

renewable energy system. ANNs are an essential part which is better planning of a grid connected integrated power system comprising of

than customary statistical methods in the dynamic security pattern wind turbines, PV panels and storage batteries. Both non-cooperative

class and also evaluates the degree of security. Jifang et al. [102] pro- and cooperative game theory models are built by taking wind tur-

posed a neural network control strategy for multi-energy common DC bines, PV Panels and storage batteries as players and their life cycle

bus hybrid power supply by analyzing the distinctiveness of solar income as payoffs. Wu and Rad [122] develops wind power inte-

energy, wind energy. LevenbergMarquaret algorithm linked to neural gration via aggregator end user coordination by a Game theoretic

network is used and momentum factor is introduced in the training. approach. The game theory algorithm is implemented in an aggre-

Duang et al. [103] develop a hybrid model for an hourly forecast of PV- gator in order to organize the action of demand side resources via

wind renewable energy system and used computational intelligence of pricing in order to tackle the intermittency and uctuations in wind

PSO for computing different denitions of the forecast error. Table 5 power generation. Wei and Liu [123] presented game theory based

gives summary of evolutionary technique used in HRES. scheduling of modern power systems with large scale wind power

integration. A mixed integer Stackelberg game model is proposed to

address the generation arrangement problem under uncertainties.

7. Game theory in HRES Zhu and Zhang [124] developed a framework for control of dis-

tributed renewable based energy resources in smart grids. Author

In 1838 games appeared in economics literature and at that used a game theory structure for modeling the tactical behavior of

time cournot and others developed a model which is based on buses that are connected to renewable energy system and study the

oligopoly pricing and production, but the model has the drawback equilibrium distributed power generation at each buses. Dai and Qiao

of restricted player to strategies that only involved quantity or [125] proposed a Game based stochastic programming to generate

price decision. After the cournot in 1944 John Von Neumann and optimal bidding strategies to maximize the total prots of wind and

Oskar Morgenstern explained the basic theory of games which can conventional power producers in both the energy market and a

V. Khare et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 58 (2016) 2333 31

Reliability Analysis

Loss of power supply probablity

Levelized cost of energy

Expected Energy not supplieed

Level of autonomy

bilateral reserve market, where the reserve price is settled between system installed on the Davutpasa campus of the Yildiz technical

wind and conventional power producers by using game theory. Vikas university. Reliability indexes are calculated for the system.

et al. [126] developed game theory based cournot's model for solar

wind HRES and provides strategic decision to nd out best response

from solar and wind energy system. Vikas et al. [127] discuss appli- 9. Future scope

cation of game theory in PV-wind hybrid system. A game approach is

employed to analyze solar wind hybrid system. Various methods The utilization of solarwind hybrid renewable energy system

such as GAME theory logic, Nash equilibrium, cooperative and non is increasing day by day and has shown tremendous growth in last

cooperative GAME theory are studied and compared. few decades for electricity production all over the world. With the

development of new technologies in the eld of solar wind hybrid

renewable energy system, a new problem arises, which become

8. Reliability in HRES much more fascinating to be solved. These problems will be

compensated by some future research in the respective eld.

Reliability is dened as the probability of a device or system The following lists give idea of future research this eld:

performing its purpose adequately for the intended operating

period of time. It is also dened as the ability of electrical power Some problem are reported to nd out the exact location and

system to supply the system load having reliable continuity and climate condition, site to site data is needed, which is difcult to

quality of supply. Fig. 6 presents reliability analysis indices. obtain for remote location. Hence it is necessary to develop an

Billionton and Karki [128] addressed reliability analysis of small exact optimization technique and geographical software to nd

isolated renewable energy system by deterministic and probabilistic out the potential of solar radiation and wind velocity.

technique. Zhao et al. [84] deals with the comprehensive objective There are different types of sizing methods being used such as

functions which not only include the investment cost, but also the iterative method, articial intelligence method, but these

reliability and optimal operation of the system. The objective func- methods do not represent accurate dynamic performance of

tion consists of the investment of wind turbine, PV and cost of loss of solar and wind energy system. Hence it is necessary to develop

power energy in the system which can be calculated by reliability. a unit sizing method which avoid complexity in designing of the

Ardakani and Riahy [91] developed a design of an optimum HRES system and explain perfectly frequency response of the system

considering reliability indices subjected to nancial and scientic in dynamic performance criteria.

constraints. The technical constraints related to system reliability are It is necessary to develop centralized and multilevel controlling

articulated by the equivalent loss factor. The reliability index is cal- technique which avoid the potential complexity of commu-

culated from component stoppage that includes WT, PV array, bat- nication system and large computation burden which is sub-

tery and inverter failure. Zhao and Wang [129] presented impacts of jected to single point failure.

renewable energy penetration on nodal price and nodal reliability in Game theory is a recent topic in the eld of solar wind hybrid

deregulated power system. In this paper the reliability of wind and renewable energy system. It is necessary to use cournot,

solar power is investigated in a pool co-market operation. The stackelberg, Bertrand duopoly concept to nd out the exact

method captures the chronological performance of enumeration system cost and salvage value of integrated system in view of

reliability analysis. Kishore and Farnandez [130] presents a reliability increased day by day installation of HRES.

assessment of PV-wind hybrid system using Monte-Carlo simulation.

The paper discusses the various components of HES involving PV and

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