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TCP/IP and Networking

Fundamentals

By Ed Liberman

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

Introduction

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

In This Video
Series

What is a Protocol?
What is TCP/IP?
Configuring an IP Address
IP Address Planning
Binary Numbers
Internetworking
Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR)
Fundamentals of IPv6
Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

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Video 1
What is a Protocol?

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In This Video

Definition of a Protocol
What is the OSI Model?

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Definition of a
Protocol

A protocol is a set of rules and


procedures used for communication.

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Example: USPS
Protocol

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Example: USPS
Protocol

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Example: Fedex
Protocol

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Definition of a
Protocol

Computers on a network must agree upon a


common protocol in order to communicate.

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

Standards of
Communication

In this example:
Packaging
Addressing
Payment
Getting the package on the network

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What is the OSI


Model?

In the 1970s the International


Standards Organization (ISO)
developed the Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI) reference model
to define the basic standards for
network communication.

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What is the OSI
Model?

In the 1970s the International


Standards Organization (ISO)
developed the Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI) reference model
to define the basic standards for
network communication.

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

What is the OSI


Model?

The OSI Model is made up of 7 layers.


Application
Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
Data Link
Physical
Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

What is the OSI


Model?

The OSI Model is made up of 7 layers.


Application
Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
Data Link
Physical
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Review

After watching this video you should be


able to:
Explain what a protocol is and how we use
it to communicate on a network.
Define the 7 layers of the OSI Model and
explain its significance within a network.

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

Video 2
What is TCP/IP?

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In This Video

What is TCP/IP?
TCP/IP Architecture
TCP/IP Protocol Suite
Types of TCP/IP Communication

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

What is TCP/IP?

TCP/IP stands for the Transmission


Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. It is
the basic communication protocol of
the Internet.
Although it was designed to be an
Internet protocol, it can also be used as
a communication protocol in a private
network.
Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

TCP/IP
Architecture

The TCP/IP architecture is based off the


4 layer DARPA model. Each layer of
the DARPA model corresponds to one
or more of the layers of the 7 layer OSI
model.
Each of the 4 layers have individual
protocols which all work together to
form a protocol stack.
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What is the
TCP/IP (DARPA)
Model?

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What is the
TCP/IP (DARPA)
Model?

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What is the
TCP/IP (DARPA)
Model?

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The TCP/IP
Protocol Suite

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Transport Layer
Protocols

TCP Transmission Control Protocol


One to One
Connection-oriented
Reliable Communication
UDP User Datagram Protocol
Connectionless
Unreliable Communications
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What makes
TCP connection-
oriented?
Connection-oriented communication
means that a connection must be
established before data can be
exchanged.
TCP uses a three-way handshake to
establish this connection.

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Three-way
Handshake

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Three-way
Handshake

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Three-way
Handshake

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Transport Layer
Protocols

TCP Transmission Control Protocol


One to One
Connection-oriented
Reliable Communication
UDP User Datagram Protocol
Connectionless
Unreliable Communications
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Internet Layer
Protocols

IP Internet Protocol
Addressing
Routing
ARP Address Resolution Protocol
Resolves an IP address to hardware
address

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Internet Layer
Protocols

ICMP Internet Control Message


Protocol
Diagnostic and error reporting
IGMP Internet Group Management
Protocol
Manages IP multicast group membership

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Types of TCP/IP
Communication

Unicast (One to One)


Multicast (One to Many)
Broadcast (One to All)
Anycast IPv6 only (One to One of
Many)

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Unicast (One to
One)

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Multicast (One
to Many)

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Broadcast (One
to All)

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Anycast (One to
One of Many)

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Review

After watching this video you should


understand:
The TCP/IP protocol architecture.
The different protocols that make up the
TCP/IP protocol suite.
The 4 different types of TCP/IP
communication.

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Video 3
Configuring an IP Address

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

In This Video

What is an IP Address?
Network ID
Host ID
What is the purpose of a Subnet Mask?
How to configure a computer with an IP address
Static
Dynamic
How to view a computers IP configuration
How to check for connectivity

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

What is an IP
Address?

A 32 bit address that is used to uniquely


identify a computer on a network.
The Network ID portion of the IP Address
identifies the network where the computer
sits.
The Host ID portion of the IP Address
uniquely identifies the computer on its
network.
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What is an IP
Address?

Example:

IP Address: 192.168.10.1
Network ID Host ID

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What is the
purpose of a
Subnet Mask?
Example:

IP Address: 192.168.10.1
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Network ID Host ID

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What is the
purpose of a
Subnet Mask?
Example:

IP Address: 192.168.10.1
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Network ID Host ID

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What is the
purpose of a
Subnet Mask?
Example:

IP Address: 192.168.10.1
Subnet Mask: 255.255.0.0
Network ID Host ID

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What is the
purpose of a
Subnet Mask?
Example:

IP Address: 192.168.10.1
Subnet Mask: 255.0.0.0
Network ID Host ID

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My Basic
Network

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How to configure a computer with an IP
Address.
Lets go take a look!!!

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Review

After watching this video you should


know how to:
Explain what an IP Address and Subnet
Mask are.
Configure an IP Address
View an IP configuration
Check for connectivity

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

Video 4
IP Address Planning

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In This Video

How to Plan an IP Addressing Scheme


Rules for IP Addressing
What is Classful IP Addressing?
Private vs. Public IP Addressing
What is Network Address Translation
(NAT)?

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

How to Plan an
IP Addressing
Scheme
How many IP Addresses do you need
today?
How many IP Addresses will you need
in the future?
Are you dealing with a pre-existing IP
scheme?

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

Rules for IP
Addressing

Each of the 4 numbers in an IP Address


is called an octet (8 bits).
192.168.10.101
A bit is a 1 or a 0.
Each octet can only have a number
from 0 to 255
00000000 = 0
11111111 = 255
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Rules for IP
Addressing

The first octet cannot be 127.


The 127 range has been reserved for
diagnostics.
127.0.0.1 is known as the loopback
address. (It is sometimes also referred
to as localhost.)

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

Rules for IP
Addressing

The Host ID cannot be all 0s or all


255s.
All 0s represents the Network ID
All 255s is the broadcast address
Example:
192.168.10.0 is a Network ID
192.168.10.255 is the broadcast address
for the 192.168.10.0 network.
Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

What is Classful
IP Addressing?

Originally IP Addresses where divided


into different class ranges:
A Class: 1-126255.0.0.0
B Class: 128 191 255.255.0.0
C Class: 192 223 255.255.255.0
D Class: 224 239 Multicast
E Class: 240 243 Experimental

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What is Classful
IP Addressing?

A Class 126 Networks, 16,777,214 Hosts


B Class 16,384 Networks, 65,534 Hosts
C Class 2,097,152 Networks, 254 Hosts
Total of 3,720,314,628 host addresses
available

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

Private vs.
Public IP
Addressing
Private IP ranges which have been
reserved from Public Internet use:
10.0.0.0 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255
169.254.0.0 169.254.255.255

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

Private vs.
Public IP
Addressing
Hosts assigned private IP Addresses
can get to the Internet through a
technology called Network Address
Translation (NAT)
Most of todays companies use private
IP Addresses on their private networks.

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What is NAT?

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Review

After watching this video you should


understand:
How to plan an IP Addressing scheme
Basic rules for IP Addressing
Classful IP Addressing
When to use Private vs. Public IP
Addresses
Network Address Translation (NAT)
Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

Video 5
Binary Numbers

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What is this
Number? 3,482

Three Thousand Four Hundred Eighty Two


1,000 100 10 1
3 4 8 2
3 x 1,000 = 3,000
4 x 100 = 400
8 x 10 = 80
2x1 = 2
3,482
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Decimal vs.
Binary

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Convert Binary
to Decimal

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

10101010

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Convert Binary
to Decimal

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Convert Decimal
to Binary

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Using the
Calculator

Decimal Binary
3482 = 110110011010

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IP Address

Each of the 4 numbers in an IP Address


is called an octet (8 bits).
192.168.10.101
A bit is a 1 or a 0.
Each octet can only have a number
from 0 to 255

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Binary IP
Address

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Binary IP
Address

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Binary IP
Address

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Binary IP
Address

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Binary IP
Address

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Binary IP
Address

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Binary Subnet
Mask

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Binary IP
Address &
Subnet Mask

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Review

After watching this video you should be


able to:
Convert a Decimal number to Binary
Convert a Binary number to Decimal
Convert a Decimal IP Address to Binary

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

Video 6
Internetworking

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

In This Video

IP Address Review
What is a Router?
What is a Default Gateway?
Introduction to Subnetting

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IP Address
Review

An IP Address is a 32 bit address which


is divided into four 8 bit octets.
The Network ID portion of the IP
Address identifies the network where
the computer sits.
The Host ID portion of the IP Address
uniquely identifies the computer on its
network.
Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

IP Address
Review

Example:

IP Address: 192.168.10.101
Network ID Host ID

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IP Address
Review

Example:

IP Address: 192.168.10.101
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Network ID Host ID

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IP Address
Review

Example:

IP Address: 192.168.10.101
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Network ID Host ID

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

What is a
Router?

A router is a device that forwards data packets along networks.


A router is connected to at least two networks, commonly two
LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISPs network. Routers are
located at gateways, the places where two or more networks
connect, and are the critical device that keeps data flowing
between networks and keeps the networks connected to the
Internet. When data is sent between locations on one network
or from one network to a second network the data is always
seen and directed to the correct location by the router. They
accomplish this by using headers and forwarding tables to
determine the best path for forwarding the data packets, and
the use protocols such as ICMP to communicate with each
other and configure the best route between any two hosts.

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What is a
Router?

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What is a
Router?

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What is a Default
Gateway?

Computers can only communicate directly


with other computers on the same network.
The only way for a computer to communicate
with a computer on a different network is
through a router. (Internetworking)
The Default Gateway represents the IP
Address of a router that a computer uses to
communicate outside of its network.
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My Basic
Network

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Client Configuration
Lets go take a look!!!

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Subnetting

Subnetting is the process of taking a


large network and dividing it into
smaller networks to increase efficiency
and manageability.

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Subnetting

Example:
Network - 172.16.0.0 (65534 Hosts)
Subnet Mask - 255.255.0.0
Subnet 1 - 172.16.1.0 (254 Hosts)
Subnet 2 - 172.16.2.0 (254 Hosts)
Subnet 3 - 172.16.3.0 (254 Hosts)
Subnet Mask - 255.255.255.0

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Review

After watching this video you should


understand:
Routers
Default Gateways
Subnetting

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Video 7
Classless Interdomain
Routing (CIDR)

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

In This Video

Problems with Classful IP Addressing


What is CIDR & VLSM?
Subnetting with CIDR

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Problems with
Classful IP
Addressing
Class A 16,777,214 Hosts
Class B 65,534 Hosts
Class C 254 Hosts
What do you do if you have 2,000 hosts?
Pick Class B and waste 63,000+ addresses.
Take 8 Class Cs and have cluttered routing table
entries.

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Solution:

Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) with


Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM)
Decimal Subnet Mask:
255.255.255.0
Binary Subnet Mask:

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Variable Length
Subnet Masks

11111111 255
11111110 254
11111100 252
11111000 248
11110000 240
11100000 224
11000000 192
10000000 128
00000000 0
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Subnetting with
CIDR & VLSM

If we start with 255.255.0.0, but want to divide


into smaller networks we need to take bits
from the Host ID and move them into the
Network ID.

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Formulas

Number of Subnets:
2n
n = Number of 1s in the Subnet ID
Number of available host addresses:
2n 2
n = Number of 0s in the Host ID
Host ID cannot be all 0s or all 1s
Example:
11111111.11111111.11111000.00000000
25 = 32 Subnets
211 2 = 2046 Available hosts in each subnet
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My Basic
Network

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Why wont my
network work?

Vista1 - 192.168.10.101
DC1 - 192.168.10.201
Router - 192.168.10.200
SM - 255.255.255.248

We need to look at everything in binary:

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How can we fix


my network?

With a subnet mask of 255.255.255.248 each network will be


broken into blocks of 6 host addresses:
Example:

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

How can we fix


my network?

With a subnet mask of 255.255.255.248 each network will be


broken into blocks of 6 host addresses:
Example:

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How can we fix
my network?
With a subnet mask of 255.255.255.248 each network will be
broken into blocks of 6 host addresses:
Example:

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

How can we fix


my network?

With a subnet mask of 255.255.255.248 each network will be


broken into blocks of 6 host addresses:
Example:

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My Basic
Network (Fixed)

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CIDR Notation

Without CIDR Notation


192.168.10.1
255.255.255.248
With CIDR Notation
192.168.10.1/29

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

Review

After watching this video you should


understand:
Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR)
Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM)

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

Video 8
Fundamentals of IPv6

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In This Video

Disadvantages of IPv4
IPv6 Solutions
IPv6 Addressing
Types of IPv6 Addresses

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

Disadvantages
of IPv4

Not Enough Addresses


Cluttered the Internet Routing Tables
Difficult to Configure
Security Was Optional

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IPv6 Solutions

Plenty of Addresses - 3.4 x 1038


Simplified the Internet Routing Tables
Easy and Automated Configuration
Security is Required

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IPv6 Addressing

128 bits long


1111111010000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000010111101110000000001111111100000010001110000100011110110001
Displayed in 16 bit hexadecimal blocks
FE80:0000:0000:0000:05EE:00FF:0238:47B1
Simplify by suppressing the leading 0s
FE80:0:0:0:5EE:FF:238:47B1
Further compress by expressing a single
contiguous set of 0 blocks into ::
FE80::5EE:FF:238:47B1

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

Types of IPv6
Addresses

Unicast (One to One)


Global Addresses
Link-Local Addresses - FE80
Unique Local Addresses - FC or FD
Multicast (One to Many)
Anycast (One to One of Many)

Train Signal, Inc., 2002-2008

Review

After watching this video you should


understand:
The way IPv6 solves the problems we are
facing with IPv4.
What an IPv6 address looks like.

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