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Ship Structure - Section Modulus Calculation

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TOPIC 3

The total bending moment or the stress is calculated by the simple beam theory using the

relation

M M M

or

y I I Z

y

where

stress at distance y from the neutral axis

M bending moment

I second moment of area

I/y will have its smallest value when y is greatest; that is when y is measured to the extreme

fibres, at the deck and bottom (keel). This value of I/y or Z is called the section modulus and

is the criterion of the strength of the girder in bending.

In most cases the critical hull girder cross section will be that section which contains the least

amount of effective material that is, the section containing the

Largest hatches or other openings but also depends on the distance of these from the neutral

axis.

EXAMPLE 4.1

In example 3.4 in Chapter 3, if the ship has second moment of area of the midship section

576m4, neutral axis 4.5m from deck and 5.1m from keel, find section modulus of the midship

section, and the location and value of where the maximum stress occurs.

Solution 4.1:

= 576m4 / 5.1m

= 112.94m3

= 576m4 / 4.5m

= 128.00m3

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= 9820.58 tonnes/m / 112.94m3

= 86.95tonnes/m4

= 9820.58 tonnes/m / 128.00m3

= 76.72tonnes/m4

Theoretical analysis shows that the neutral axis occurs exactly at the centre of gravity of the

cross section of the object or beam.

But with the plate and angle acting together as a beam the neutral axis is close to the plate.

[NB. Material close to NA contributes little to the strength of a beam]

To locate the NA of the hull, designers once again look for the centre of gravity of the hull

cross section. These include only on those parts or members of the hull structure that

contribute directly to the bending strength of the hull girder i.e. members that run

continuously fore and aft throughout at least the ships amidships half-length.

The stiffness of a beam is directly influenced by a property of its cross sectional geometry

that we call its second moment of area.

EXAMPLE 4.2

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Solution 4.2

Local 2nd

Area, Height Moment of 2nd Moment of

Moment of

Item Scantlings a h area area

area

(mm2) (mm) ah (mm3) ah2 (mm4)

I (mm4)

Upper 152mm x

3800 240.5 913900 219792950 197916.667

Flange 25mm

203mm x

Web 2639 126.5 333833.5 42229938 9062545.917

13mm

Lower 203mm x

5075 12.5 63437.5 792969 264322.917

Flange 25mm

a = ah = ah2 = i =

11514 1311171 262815857 9524785.5

Step 1

Centre of gravity or height of neutral axis above baseline:

y=

ah 1311171 113.88mm 114mm

a 11514

Step 2

I base i ah 2

9524785.5 262815856.5

272340642 mm 4

Step 3

I base I NA Ay 2

or I NA I base A(h NA ) 2

272340642 - 11514(114)2 122704698mm 4

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EXAMPLE 4.3

Calculate second moment of area at neutral axis and hence section modulus for deck and keel.

8m

22 mm

3m

16 mm

13 m

14 mm

18 mm

1.5 m

12 mm 20 mm

20 m

Solution 4.3

Since the cross section is symmetry about the centerline, it is adequate to carry out the

calculation for one side of the ship and then double the resulting answer.

Local 2nd

Moment of 2nd Moment

Area, Height Moment

Item Scantlings area of area

a (m2) h (m) of area

ah (m3) ah2 (m4)

i (m4)

Upperdeck 6m x 22mm 0.132 13 1.716 22.308 -

2nd Deck 6m x 16mm 0.096 10 0.960 9.600 -

Side Shell 13m x 14mm 0.182 6.5 1.183 7.689 2.563

Tank Top 10m x 18mm 0.180 1.5 0.270 0.405 -

Bottom

10m x 20mm 0.200 0.0 - - -

Shell

Centre

1.5m x 6mm 0.009 0.75 0.007 0.005 0.002

Girder

ah2 =

a = 0.799 ah = 4.136 i = 2.565

40.007

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Step 1

hNA

ah 4.136 5.18m

a 0.799

Step 2

I base i ah 2

2.565 40.007

42.572 m 4

Step 3

I base I NA Ay 2

I NA A(h NA ) 2

or I NA I base A(h NA ) 2

42.572 - 0.799(5.18) 2 21.133 m 4

So, I NA (complete) 21.133 x 2 42.266 m 4

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EXAMPLE 4.4

The mass distribution and buoyancy between sections of a ship, 300m in length, balanced on

a hogging wave, are given below. The second moment of area of the midship section is

752m4 and the neutral axis is 9.30m from the keel and 9.70m from the deck.

Calculate the maximum direct stresses (keel and deck) given by the comparative calculation

and the maximum sheer force and bending moment.

Mass / m Buoyancy / m

Station

(MN) (MN)

1

0.88 0.005

2

1.609 0.025

3

2.093 0.714

4

3.082 3.038

5

2.56 5.684

6

3.064 6.368

7

3.237 4.929

8

3.489 2.445

9

2.22 0.498

10

1.645 0.106

11

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Solution 4.4

MN MN MN MN MN MN MN MNm MNm

1 0 0 0 0

0.88 0.005 0.875 26.25 13.125 393.75

2 26.25 393.75 4.005 389.745

1.609 0.025 1.584 47.52 50.01 1500.3

3 73.77 1894.05 8.01 1886.04

2.093 0.714 1.379 41.37 94.455 2833.65

4 115.14 4727.7 12.015 4715.685

3.028 3.038 -0.01 -0.3 114.99 3449.7

5 114.84 8177.4 16.02 8161.38

2.56 5.684 -3.124 -93.72 67.98 2039.4

6 21.12 10216.8 20.025 10196.78

3.064 6.368 -3.304 -99.12 -28.44 -853.2

7 -78 9363.6 24.03 9339.57

3.237 4.929 -1.692 -50.76 -103.38 -3101.4

8 -128.76 6262.2 28.035 6234.165

3.489 2.445 1.044 31.32 -113.1 -3393

9 -97.44 2869.2 32.04 2837.16

2.22 0.498 1.722 51.66 -71.61 -2148.3

10 -45.78 720.9 36.045 684.855

1.645 0.106 1.539 46.17 -22.695 -680.85

11 0.39 40.05 40.05 0

Maximum bending moment = 10196.78 MNm

M y

=

I

Keel stress = 4

= 126.10MNm2

752 m

10196.78MNm 9.7m

Deck stress = 4

= 131.53MNm2

752m

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Some ships strength cross section is composed of two different materials. Typically the hull

may be steel and the superstructure aluminum. Other materials used may be wood or

reinforced plastic. In such a case it is convenient to think in terms of an effective modulus in

one of the materials. Usually this would be in terms of steel.

The stress, , in a beam at a point y from the NA is Ey/R, where E is the Young Modulus or

Modulus of Elastic, and R is the radius of curvature. Provided transverse sections of the beam

or ship remain plane, this relationship will hold as the extension or strain at any given y will

be the same. For equilibrium of the section, the net force across it must be zero. Hence using

the subscripts s and a for steel and aluminum:

E A y E A y

(sAs + aAa) = 0 and s s s a a a 0

R R

that is:

E

As y s a Aa y a 0

Es

BM = (sAsys + aAaya)

Es Ea

= A ys

2

s Aa y a2

R Es

Es I E

=

R

The composite cross-section can therefore be considered made up of material s, usually steel,

if an effective area of material a is used in place of the actual area. The effective area is the

actual multiplied by the ratio Ea/Es. For different steels the ratio is effectively unity, for

aluminum alloy/steel it is about 1/3 and for GRP/steel it is about 1/10.

4.5 SUPERSTRUCTURES

Superstructures and deckhouses are major discontinuities in the ship girder. They contribute

to the longitudinal strength but will not be fully efficient in so doing. They should not be

ignored as, although this would play safe in calculating the main hull strength, it would run

the risk that the superstructure itself would not be strong enough to take the loads imposed on

it at sea. Also they are potential sources of stress concentrations, particularly at their ends.

For this reason they should not be ended close to highly stressed areas such as amidships.

A superstructure is joined to the main hull at its lower boundary. As the ship sags or hogs the

boundary becomes compressed and extended respectively. Thus the superstructure tends to be

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arched in the opposite shear forces due to the stretch or compression and normal forces trying

to keep the two in contact.

The ability of the superstructure to accept these forces, and contribute to the section modulus

for longitudinal bending, is regarded as an efficiency. It is expressed as:

0 a

Superstructure efficiency =

0

Where o, a and are the upper deck stresses if no superstructure were present, the stress

calculated and that for a fully effective superstructure.

EXAMPLE 4.5

Cross-sectional area of longitudinal material = 2.3m2

Distance from neutral axis to upper deck = 7.6m

Second moment of area about the neutral axis = 58m4

A superstructure deck is to be added 2.6m above the upper deck. This deck is 13m wide,

12mm thick and is constructed of aluminum alloy. If the ship must withstand a sagging

bending moment of 450MNm, calculate the superstructure efficiency if with the

superstructure deck fitted, the stress in the upper deck is measured as 55MN/m 2. (Youngs

modulus of aluminum as 0.322 that of steel)

Solution 4.5

Since this is a composite structure, the second moment of area an equivalent steel section

must be found first. The stress in the steel section can then be found and, after the use of the

modular ratio, the stress in the aluminium can be determined.

Taking the Youngs modulus of aluminium as 0.322 that of steel, the effective steel area of

the new section is:

The movement upwards of the neutral axis due to adding the deck:

(13 x 0.012)

0.322 (7.6 2.6) 0.218 m

2.35

The second moment of area of the new section about the old NA is:

58 0.322(13 0.012)(7.6 2.6)2 63.23 m 4

63.23 2.35(0.218)2 = 63.12 m4

The distance to the new deck from the new NA = 7.6 + 2.6 0.218 = 9.98 m

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450 9.98

Stress in the new deck (as effective steel) = 71.15 MN / m 2

63.12

The superstructure efficiency relates to the effect of the superstructure on the stress in the

upper deck of the main hull. The new stress in that deck, with the superstructure in the place,

is given as 55 MN / m2. If the superstructure had been fully effective it would have been:

450(7.6 0.218)

52.63 MN / m 2

63.12

450 7.6

with no superstructure the stress was 58.97MN / m 2

58

58.97 55

Hence the superstructure efficiency = 62.6%

58.97 52.63

Ships section modulus plays an important role in the overall transverse strength of a ship,

thus calculation process needs to be repeated till an optimum section modulus is obtained.

During this calculation process, ships section modulus structures will be added or deducted.

Figure 4.1 shows a structure with area, a, being added to a ship at distance y from the neutral

axis.

where,

A = Ship cross section area

I = 2nd moment of area at neutral axis

yD = distance from neutral axis to deck

yK = distance from neutral axis to keel

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As a result from the extra structure/area, the ships neutral axis will move h upward and 2nd

moment of area becomes I + I. The effect on deck is mainly based on the location of the

area a. For example, adding of the area will reduce the stress at deck but stress at keel might

increase. Thus, to assure that the stress at keel will not increase:

I I I

0

y K h y K

or

Iy K y K I Iy K Ih 0

till

I h

I yK

ay

h

Aa

I ay 2 i ( A a)(h) 2

due to the value of i (local 2nd moment of area) that is too small and can be neglected, thus:

a2 y2

I ay 2

A a

2

Aay

A a

if the added area located below the neutral axis, then y value will be negative. Similarly if

area is being reduced/deducted, then a and i will be negative.

a) Area being added in between the structure cross section modulus

b) Area being added at above the deck

For area being added in between the structure cross section modulus, the changes in keel are:

I h

I yK

or

Aay 2 ay

A ( A a) y K ( A a)

2

where,

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I

A

and

2

y

yK

To reduce the stress at keel and deck, area to be added must be located at distance more than

2 / yK from the neutral axis.

For area being added at above the deck, maximum stress will occur on the area/structure itself.

The distance of the area from the new neutral axis is:

ay

y h y

A a

Ay

Aa

and for situation where the new section modulus not less than I / yD:

I I I

0

y h y D

or

A y / y D 1

a

y2 / 2 1

where the value above is the minimum area to be added so that the maximum stress can be

reduced.

EXAMPLE 4.6

A superstructure deck with width 8.5m is plan to attached 2.7m above the main deck of a ship.

Find the thickness of the superstructure deck so that the stress on the superstructure deck will

not exceed the main deck.

Given:

A = 25000 cm2

INA = 280000 cm2 m2

Neutral axis from deck = 7.4 m

Solution 4.6

Using formula:

A y / y D 1

a

y2 / 2 1

where,

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y = 2.7 m + 7.4 m

= 10.1 m

2 =I/A

= 280000 / 25000

= 11.2 m2

thus,

10.1

2.5 1

a 7.4 = 0.090 m2

2

10.1

1

11.2

a bt

t a/b

= 0.090 m / 8.5 m

= 0.0106 m

Ay 2.5 10.1

y h

A a 2.5 0.09

y h 9.75 m

and

h 10.1 9.75 0.35 mm

I

y h

yD

= 368920 cm2 m2

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Yahya Bin Samian, Department of Marine Technology, FKM , UTM Feb 2005

8m

1.5

DECK m

PLATE

t = 8 mm

DECK LONGL

A = 12 cm2

SIDE PLATE

t = 7 mm 2.0

m

LONG BKHD PLATE

t = 6 mm

INNER BOTTOM

PLATE SIDE LONGL 2.0

t = 6 mm A = 12 cm2 m

INNER BOTTOM

LONGL

CENTR A = 12 cm2

E

GIRDE 0.5 m

1m 2m 1m 1m BILGE

R 2.0

PLATE

t = 6 mm m

t = 6 mm

2.8 m t = 6 mm A = 10 cm2

2.3

BOTTOM m

2.5 LONGL

m BILGE PLATE

A = 12 cm2 t = 10 mm

BOTTOM

PLATE 4m

t = 10 mm

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Data Required and Calculation Diagram

L = Length (m)

t = Thickness (mm) t

Z = Distance of Centroid from keel (m)

A = Area = L x t (m.mm) L

st 2

1 . Moment = A x Z (m .mm)

2nd. Moment = A x Z2 or 1st Moment x Z (m3.mm)

Io = Inertia Moment = L3 x t (m3.mm)

Z From Keel

TYPE 2 : Horizontal Plate

Data Required and Calculation Diagram

L = Length (m)

t = Thickness (mm) t

Z = Distance of Centroid from keel (m)

A = Area = L x t (m.mm)

1st. Moment = A x Z (m2.mm)

2nd. Moment = A x Z2 or 1st Moment x Z (m3.mm) L

Io = Inertia Moment = 0 (Negligible)

Data Required and Calculation Diagram

L = Length (m)

t = Thickness (mm)

h = Distance of Centroid to base = L/2 x Sin() t

Z = Distance of Centroid from keel (m)

A = Area = L x t (m.mm) L

1st. Moment = A x Z (m2.mm)

2nd. Moment = A x Z2 or 1st Moment x Z (m3.mm) h

Io = [A x (2xh)2 ] / 12 (m3.mm)

Z From Keel

TYPE 4 : Sections

Data Required and Calculation Diagram

A = Area (m.mm)

= Area (cm2/100)

= Area (mm2/1000)

Z = Distance of Centroid from keel (m)

1st. Moment = A x Z (m2.mm)

2nd. Moment = A x Z2 or 1st Moment x Z (m3.mm)

Io = 0 (Negligable) Z From Keel

Sections can be grouped together provided they

have the same centroid position (Z)

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L t Z A 1st Moment 2nd Moment Io Angle h

DESCRIPTION Type

(m) (mm) (m From Keel) (m.mm) (m^2.mm) (m^3.mm) (m^3.mm) (deg) (m)

Bottom Plate 4 6 0 24 0 0 0 HP

Inner Bottom Plate 5.5 6 2.8 33 92.4 258.72 0 HP

Deck Plate 4 8 10 32 320 3200 0 HP

Centre Girder 2.8 7.5 1.4 21 29.4 41.16 13.72 VP

Side Girder 2.8 6 1.4 16.8 23.52 32.928 10.976 VP

Long BKHD 7.2 6 6.4 43.2 276.48 1769.472 186.624 VP

bilge Plating 4.61 8 1.15 36.88 42.41 48.77 16.33 IP 30 1.15

Margin Plate 2.54 6 2.55 15.24 38.84 99.01 0.31 IP 11.3 0.25

Deck Longi x 4 (4x10/10) 9.8 4 39.20 384.16 0 Sec

Side Longi -1 (1x12/10) 8.3 1.2 9.96 82.67 0 Sec

Side Longi -2 6.3 1.2 7.56 47.63 0 Sec

Side Longi -3 4.3 1.2 5.16 22.19 0 Sec

Inner Botton Longi x 5 2.5 4 10.00 25.00 0 Sec

Bottom Longi x 2 0 2.4 0.00 0.00 0 Sec

Bilge Longi -1 0.43 1 0.43 0.18 0 Sec

Bilge Longi -2 1.15 1 1.15 1.32 0 Sec

238.12 896.52 6013.22 227.97

Actual Section Modulus

Total Area = 238.12 m.mm

Total 1st. Moment = 896.52 m^2.mm

Dist of NA from Keel = 3.76 m

Total 2nd. Moment = 6013.22 m^3.mm 60132.17 m^2.cm^2

Total Io = 227.97 m^3.mm 2279.67 m^2.cm^2

Total I about Keel = 62411.84 m^2.cm^2

Total I about NA = 59036.47 m^2.cm^2

Height of Deck = 10.00 m

Max y (ydeck or Ykeel) = 6.24 3.76 6.24 m

Section Modulus (Half) = 9468.53 m.cm^2

Section Modulus (Full) = 18937.06 m.cm^2

Required Section Modulus (Example based on Large Tanker)

L= 80 m

B= 16 m

CB = 0.7

C1 = 7.27

C2 = 0.01

SM required = 10422.27 m.cm^2 Safety Factor = 1.82 Acceptable but slightly over designed

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