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Semester I Semester II

Course Credit L T Course Credit L T P

P

PHY 401 4 3 1 0 PHY 405 4 3 1 0

Classical Mechanics Classical Electrodynamics

PHY 402 4 3 1 0 PHY 406 4 3 1 0

Mathematical Methods in Electronics

Physics

PHY 403 4 3 1 0 PHY 407 4 3 1 0

Quantum Mechanics I Quantum Mechanics II

PHY 404 4 0 0 8 PH 408 4 3 1 0

General Physics Lab Statistical Mechanics

PHY 409 4 0 0 8

Computational Physics

Lab

PHY 410 4 0 0 8

Electronics Lab

Total 16 Total 24

Course Credit L T P Course Credit L T P

PHY 501 4 3 1 0 PHY 505 12 0 0 24

Atomic and Molecular Project

Physics

PHY 502 4 3 1 0 Open Elective 3 3 0 0

Condensed Matter Physics PHY 50X

PHY 503 4 3 1 0

Nuclear and Particle Physics

PHY 504 4 0 0 8

Advanced Physics lab

PHY 50X 3 0 0 0

Open Elective

Total 19 Total 15

Classical Mechanics PHY 401

principle of least action, Lagrange's equations of motion, conservation laws, systems with a

single degree of freedom, rigid body dynamics, symmetrical top, Hamilton's equations of

motion, phase plots, fixed points and their stabilities.

2. Two-Body Central Force Problem

Equation of motion and first integrals, classification of orbits, Kepler problem, scattering

in central force field.

3. Small Oscillations

Linearization of equations of motion, free vibrations and normal coordinates, forced oscillations.

4. Special Theory of Relativity

Lorentz transformation, relativistic kinematics and dynamics, E=mc2.

5. Hamiltonian Mechanics and Chaos

Canonical transformations, Poisson brackets, Hamilton-Jacobi theory, action-angle variables,

perturbation theory, integrable systems, introduction to chaotic dynamics.

References:

5. E.T. Whittaker, A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies.

Mathematical Methods in Physics PHY 402

Dimensional analysis. Vector algebra and vector calculus. Linear algebra, matrices, Cayley-

Hamilton Theorem. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Linear ordinary differential equations of

first & second order,

Elements of complex analysis, analytic functions; Taylor & Laurent series; poles, residues and

evaluation of integrals.

Elementary probability theory, random variables, binomial, Poisson and normal distributions.

Central limit theorem.

Special functions (Hermite, Bessel, Laguerre and Legendre functions). Fourier series, Fourier

and Laplace transforms. Tensors. Introductory group theory: SU(2), O(3). Greens function.

Partial differential equations (Laplace, wave and heat equations in two and three dimensions).

References:

1. Mathematical Methods for Physics and Engineering. Ken Riley, Cambridge University

Press India

2. George Arfken, Mathematical methods for Physicists, Academic Press.

3. Basic Training in Mathematics: A Fitness Program for Science Students - R. Shankar

4. Elements of group theory for physicists Joshi, a. W, New age international

5. Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences, Boas, Mary, Wiley India.

6. The mathematics of classical and quantum physics, Robert w. Fuller, Dover publications

M. Redheffer. McGraw-Hill

8. Advanced engineering mathematics, R. K. Jain , S. R. K. Iyengar, New age international

9. Matrices and tensors in physics, A. W. Joshi, New age international.

1. Introduction

Inadequacy of classical concepts, wave-particle duality, electron diffraction, notion of state vector

and its probability interpretation.

2. Structure of Quantum Mechanics

Operators and observables, significance of eigenfunctions and eigenvalues, commutation

relations, uncertainty principle, measurement in quantum theory.

3. Quantum Dynamics

Time-dependent Schrdinger equation, stationary states and their significance, time-independent

Schrdinger equation.

4. One-dimensional Schrdinger Equation

Free-particle solution, wave packets, particle in a square well potential, transmission through a

potential barrier, simple harmonic oscillator by wave equation and operator methods, charged

particle in a uniform magnetic field, coherent states.

5. Spherically Symmetric Potentials

Separation of variables in spherical polar coordinates, orbital angular momentum, parity,

spherical harmonics, free particle in spherical polar coordinates, square well

potential, hydrogen atom.

References:

7. Quantum physics of atoms, molecules, solids R. Eisberg & r. Resnick, Wiley

8. Principles of quantum mechanics,Ishwar singh tyagi, Pearson

9. Modern approach to quantum mechanics, Johns townsend,Viva books

General Physics Laboratory PHY404

1. Measurement of Magnetic Susceptibility of Paramagnetic Solution by Quincks Method.

2. Hall Effects.

3. Fraunhofer Diffraction Pattern.

4. To determine the wavelength of laser using grating.

5. To Determine the Co-efficient of Rigidity as a Function of Temperature using Torsional

Oscillator (Resonance Method).

6. Four Probe Method.

7. Faraday effect.

1. Electrostatics

Differential equation for electric field, Poisson and Laplace equations, formal solution for

potential with Green's functions, boundary value problems, examples of image method and

Green's function method, solutions of Laplace equation in cylindrical and spherical coordinates

by orthogonal functions, dielectrics, polarization of a medium, electrostatic energy.

2. Magnetostatics

Biot-Savart law, differential equation for static magnetic field, vector potential, magnetic field

from localized current distributions, examples of magnetostatic problems, Faraday's law of

induction, magnetic energy of steady current distributions.

3. Maxwell's Equations

Displacement current, Maxwell's equations, vector and scalar potentials, gauge symmetry,

Coulomb and Lorentz gauges, electromagnetic energy and momentum, conservation laws,

inhomogeneous wave equation and Green's function solution.

4. Electromagnetic Waves

Plane waves in a dielectric medium, reflection and refraction at dielectric interfaces, frequency

dispersion in dielectrics and metals, dielectric constant and anomalous dispersion, wave

propagation in one dimension, group velocity, metallic wave guides, boundary conditions at

metallic surfaces, propagation modes in wave guides, resonant modes in cavities.

5. Radiation

Field of a localized oscillating source, fields and radiation in dipole and quadrupole

approximations, antenna, radiation by moving charges, Lienard-Wiechert potentials, total power

radiated by an accelerated charge, Lorentz formula.

6. Covariant Formulation of Electrodynamics

Four-vectors relevant to electrodynamics, electromagnetic field tensor and Maxwell's

equations, transformation of fields, fields of uniformly moving particles.

7. Concepts of Plasma Physics

Formation of plasma, Debye theory of screening, plasma oscillations, motion of charges in

electromagnetic fields, magneto-plasma, plasma confinement, hydromagnetic waves.

References:

2. D.J. Griffiths, Introduction to Electrodynamics.

3. J.R. Reitz, F.J. Milford and R.W. Christy, Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory.

7. Elements of plasma physics, Satendra nath goswami, New central book agency

1. Introduction

Survey of network theorems and network analysis, AC and DC bridges, transistors at low and

high frequencies, FET.

2. Electronic Devices

Diodes, light-emitting diodes, photo-diodes, negative-resistance devices, p-n-p-n characteristics,

transistors (FET, MoSFET, bipolar).

Basic differential amplifier circuit, operational amplifier characteristics and applications, simple

analog computer, analog integrated circuits.

3. Digital Electronics

Gates, combinational and sequential digital systems, flip-flops, counters, multi-channel analyzer.

4. Electronic Instruments

Power supplies, oscillators, digital oscilloscopes, counters, phase-sensitive detectors,

introduction to micro-processors.

References:

1. P. Horowitz and W. Hill, The Art of Electronics.

6. J.H. Moore, C.C. Davis and M.A. Coplan, Building Scientific Apparatus.

1. Symmetry in Quantum Mechanics

Symmetry operations and unitary transformations, conservation principles, space and time

translations, rotation, space inversion and time reversal, symmetry and degeneracy.

2. Angular Momentum

Rotation operators, angular momentum algebra, eigenvalues of J2 and Jz, spinors and Pauli

matrices, addition of angular momenta.

3. Identical Particles

Indistinguishability, symmetric and antisymmetric wave functions, incorporation of spin, Slater

determinants, Pauli exclusion principle.

4. Time-independent Approximation Methods

Non-degenerate perturbation theory, degenerate case, Stark effect, Zeeman effect and other

examples, variational methods, WKB method, tunnelling.

5. Time-dependent Problems

Schrdinger and Heisenberg picture, time-dependent perturbation theory, transition probability

calculations, golden rule, adiabatic approximation, sudden approximation, beta decay as an

example.

6. Scattering Theory

Differential cross-section, scattering of a wave packet, integral equation for the scattering

amplitude, Born approximation, method of partial waves, low energy scattering and bound states,

resonance scattering. Relativistic quantum mechanics: Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations.

References:

Same as in Quantum Mechanics I plus

1. C. Cohen-Tannoudji, B. Diu and F. Laloe, Quantum Mechanics (Volume II).

2. A. Messiah, Quantum Mechanics (Volume II).

3. S. Flgge, Practical Quantum Mechanics.

4. J.J. Sakurai, Modern Quantum Mechanics.

5. K. Gottfried, Quantum Mechanics.

1. Elementary Probability Theory

2. Review of Thermodynamics

Extensive and intensive variables, laws of thermodynamics, Legendre transformations and

thermodynamic potentials, Maxwell relations, applications of thermodynamics to (a) ideal gas,

(b) magnetic material, and (c) dielectric material.

3. Formalism of Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics

Concept of phase space, Liouville's theorem, basic postulates of statistical mechanics, ensembles:

microcanonical, canonical, grand canonical, and isobaric, connection to thermodynamics,

fluctuations, applications of various ensembles, equation of state for a non-ideal gas, Van der

Waals' equation of state, Meyer cluster expansion, virial coefficients.

4. Quantum Statistics

Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics. Applications of the formalism to:

(a) Ideal Bose gas, Debye theory of specific heat, properties of black-body radiation, Bose-

Einstein condensation, experiments on atomic BEC, BEC in a harmonic potential.

(b) Ideal Fermi gas, properties of simple metals, Pauli paramagnetism, electronic specific heat,

white dwarf stars.

References:

1. F. Reif, Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics.

1. Overview of computer organization, hardware, software, scientific programming in

FORTRAN and/or C, C++.

2. Numerical Techniques

Sorting, interpolation, extrapolation, regression, numerical integration, quadrature, random

number generation, linear algebra and matrix manipulations, inversion, diagonalization,

eigenvectors and eigenvalues, integration of initial-value problems, Euler, Runge-Kutta,

and Verlet schemes, root searching, optimization, fast Fourier transforms.

3. Simulation Techniques

Monte Carlo methods, molecular dynamics, simulation methods for the Ising model and atomic

fluids, simulation methods for quantum-mechanical problems, time-dependent Schrdinger

equation, discussion of selected problems in percolation, cellular automata, nonlinear dynamics,

traffic problems, diffusion-limited aggregation, celestial mechanics, etc.

4. Parallel Computation

Introduction to parallel computation.

References:

1. V. Rajaraman, Computer Programming in Fortran 77.

2. W.H. Press, B.P. Flannery, S.A. Teukolsky and W.T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in

FORTRAN 77: The Art of Scientific Computing. (Similar volumes in C, C++.)

7. Numerical methods : for scientific and engineering computation Jain, mahinder kumar,

iyengar, New age international

List of experiments:

1. A/D Converter.

2. D/A Converter.

3. Study of Flip-Flops.

4. Study of transistor charactricts in all three modes

5. Study of half adder and full adder using NAND gate IC on Bread Board

6. Study of various gates using Omega Kit

7. Study of Astable, Mono, And Bi-stable Multivibrator Using IC 555 On Bread Board.

8. Study of Astable, Mono, And Bi-stable Multivibrator Using Omega Kit.

9. Decimal to BCD conversions

10. Study of Operation Amplifier.

11. Multiplexer

12. Regulated Power Supply

1. Many-electron Atoms

Review of He atom, ground state and first excited state, quantum virial theorem, Thomas-Fermi

method, determinantal wave function, Hartree and Hartree-Fock method, periodic table and

atomic properties: ionization potential, electron affinity, Hund's rule.

2. Molecular Quantum Mechanics

Hydrogen molecular ion, hydrogen molecule, Heitler-London method, molecular orbital, Born-

Oppenheimer approximation, bonding, directed valence.

3. Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy

Fine and hyperfine structure of atoms, electronic, vibrational and rotational spectra for diatomic

molecules, role of symmetry, selection rules, term schemes, applications to electronic and

vibrational problems.

4. Second Quantization

Basis sets for identical-particle systems, number space representation, creation and annihilation

operators, representation of dynamical operators and the Hamiltonian, simple applications.

5. Interaction of Atoms with Radiation

Atoms in an electromagnetic field, absorption and induced emission, spontaneous emission and

line-width, Einstein A and B coefficients, density matrix formalism, two-level atoms in a

radiation field.

References:

M. Karplus and R.N. Porter, Atoms and Molecules: An Introduction for Students of Physical

Chemistry.

Condensed Matter Physics PHY 502

1. Metals

Drude theory, DC conductivity, Hall effect and magneto-resistance, AC conductivity, thermal

conductivity, thermo-electric effects, Fermi-Dirac distribution, thermal properties of an electron

gas, Wiedemann-Franz law, critique of free-electron model.

2. Crystal Lattices

Bravais lattice, symmetry operations and classification of Bravais lattices, common crystal

structures, reciprocal lattice, Brillouin zone, X-ray diffraction, Bragg's law, Von Laue's

formulation, diffraction from non-crystalline systems.

3. Classification of Solids

Band classifications, covalent, molecular and ionic crystals, nature of bonding, cohesive

energies, hydrogen bonding.

4. Electron States in Crystals

Periodic potential and Bloch's theorem, weak potential approximation, energy gaps, Fermi

surface and Brillouin zones, Harrison construction, level density.

5. Electron Dynamics

Wave packets of Bloch electrons, semi-classical equations of motion, motion in static electric

and magnetic fields, theory of holes.

6. Lattice Dynamics

Failure of the static lattice model, harmonic approximation, vibrations of a one-dimensional

lattice, one-dimensional lattice with basis, models of three-dimensional lattices, quantization of

vibrations, Einstein and Debye theories of specific heat, phonon density of states, neutron

scattering.

7. Semiconductors

General properties and band structure, carrier statistics, impurities, intrinsic and extrinsic

semiconductors, p-n junctions, equilibrium fields and densities in junctions, drift and diffusion

currents.

8. Magnetism

Diamagnetism, paramagnetism of insulators and metals, ferromagnetism, Curie-Weiss law,

introduction to other types of magnetic order.

9. Superconductors

Phenomenology, review of basic properties, thermodynamics of superconductors, London's

equation and Meissner effect, Type-I and Type-II superconductors.

References:

1. Nuclear Physics

Discovery of the nucleus, Rutherford formula, form factors, nuclear size, characteristics of

nuclei, angular momentum, magnetic moment, parity, quadrupole moment. Mass defect,

binding-energy statistics, Weiszacker mass formula, nuclear stability, Alpha-decay, tunnelling

theory, fission, liquid drop model. Nuclear forces, nucleon-nucleon scattering, deuteron

problem, properties of nuclear potentials, Yukawa's hypothesis. Magic numbers, shell model,

calculation of nuclear parameters, basic ideas of nuclear reactions.

2. Particle Physics

Relativistic quantum theory, Dirac's equation and its relativistic covariance, intrinsic spin and

magnetic moment, negative energy solution and the concept of antiparticle.

Accelerators and detectors, discovery of mesons and strange particles, isospin and internal

symmetries, neutrino oscillations, quarks, parity violation, K-mesons, CP violation.

3. Weak Interactions

Fermi's theory of beta-decay, basic ideas of gauge symmetry, spontaneous symmetry breaking,

elements of electro-weak theory, discovery of W-bosons.

4. Strong Interactions

Deep inelastic scattering, scaling concepts, quark model interpretation, colour quantum number,

asymptotic freedom, quark confinement, standard model.

References:

G.D. Coughlan and J.E. Dodd, The Ideas of Particle Physics.

List of Experiments:

1. B-H curve

2. Determination of e/m for electron in crossed fields of variable strength

3. Diffraction grating constant using Hg light source.

4. Zeeman effect

5. To determine the wavelength of laser using grating.

6. Fourier analysis of periodic signal using LC circuit

Electives Courses:

PHY506: Materials Science

PHY 507: Advanced Computational Physics

PHY 508: Nanoscience: Theory & Experiments

PHY 509: Fundamental Concepts of Semiconductors

PHY 510: Introduction to Fourier Optics and its applications in image processing

PHY 511: Introduction to Dynamical Systems

PHY 512: Science & Technology of Thin Films

PHY 513: Ferroelectric Materials and Devices

PHY 514: Vacuum Science and Cryogenics

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