Lecture 22 Mutual Inductance & Transformers
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Flux Linkages and Faraday’s Law
Magnetic flux passing through a surface area A:
φ=
_{∫} B
A
⋅d A
For a constant magnetic flux density perpendicular to the surface:
= BA
The flux linking a coil with N turns:
λ= Nφ
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Faraday’s Law
Faraday’s law of magnetic induction:
e ^{=}
d λ
dt
The voltage induced in a coil whenever its flux linkages are changing. Changes occur from:
• Magnetic field changing in time
• Coil moving relative to magnetic field
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Lenz’s Law
Lenz’s law states that the polarity of the induced voltage is such that the voltage would produce a current (through an external resistance) that opposes the original change in flux linkages.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Mutual Inductance & Transformers
1. Determine the inductance and mutual
inductance of coils given their physical parameters.
2. Understand ideal transformers and solve circuits that include transformers.
3. Use the equivalent circuits of real transformers to determine their regulations and power efficiencies.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Inductance and Mutual Inductance
Definition of inductance L:
S
u
b tit
s
t
u e
L =
Flux linkages
current
f
or
th
e
fl
ux
li
k
i
n ages us ng
L =
Nφ
i
=
λ
i
λ
N
= φ
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Inductance and Mutual Inductance
Substituting
^{L} ^{=}
R
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Faraday’s Law
Voltage is induced in a coil when its flux linkages change:
dλ 
d (Li) 
di 

e = 
= 

= L 

dt 
dt 
dt 
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Mutual Inductance
M utua
M =
l i d n uctance b il etween co s λ 2 ← 1 = λ 21 = λ 1 ← 2 
1 = 
d 2 an λ 12 
: 

i 1 
i 1 
i 
2 
i 
2 
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Mutual Inductance
Total fluxes linking the coils:
λ=λ ±λ λ =λ ±λ
1
2
11
22
12
21
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Mutual Inductance
Currents entering the dotted terminals produce aiding fluxes
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Circuit Equations for Mutual Inductance
λ
1
λ
2
^{e} 1
=
=
=
e _{2} =
L i
1 1
±
Mi
2
± Mi
1
L i
+
2
2
d
λ
1
di
1
di
2
dt
1
dt
dt
=
L
± M
d
λ
2
di
1
di
=±
M
+ L
2
dt
dt
2
dt
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Example
Self inductance:
R
=
L
L
10
7 (ampere
−
turns) /Weber
_{1} =
2
=
2 100
1
N
2
=
R 10
7
N
2
2
200
2
=
=
=
1 mH
4 mH
R 10 ^{7}
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Example
φ
1
=
N i
1 1
100
i
1
=
R
10
7
= 10
− 5
i
1
Mutual inductance:
λ
21
M
=
=
N
φ
2
1
=
200
λ
21
i
1
=
2 mH
×
10
−
5
i 1
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Example
Does the flux produced by i the flux produced by i _{1} ?
id
_{2} a
e
1
di
di
= − M
dt
L
1
1
2
dt
e
2
=
L
2
di
2
di
1
− M
dt
dt
or oppose
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Exercise 15.13
Mark the dot for coil 2
Fluxes from 1 and 2 aid each other in paths 1&2, oppose in path 3
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Transformers
Can be used to t
s ep up
or
t
s ep
d
own
ac volta es
g
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Electrical Power Distribution
P delivered
P
loss
= V
rms
I
rms
= R
line
I
2
rms
cos(θ )
Minimize loss by increasing voltage and decreasing current. Modern transmission grids use ac voltages up to 765,000 Volts
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
War of the Currents
In the "War of Currents" era in the late 1880s, Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison became adversaries due to Edison's promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution over the more efficient alternating current (AC) advocated by Tesla.
During the initial years of electricity distribution, Edison's direct current was the standard for the United States and Edison was not disposed to lose all his patent royalties. Direct current worked well for the incandescent lamps that were the principal load of the day. From his work with rotary magnetic fields, Tesla devised a system for generation, transmission, and use of AC power. He partnered with George Westinghouse to commercialize this system.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
War of the Currents
Edison's propaganda
Edison went on to carry out a campaign to discourage the use of alternating current. Edison personally presided over several executions of animals, primarily stray cats and dogs, to demonstrate to the press that his system of direct current was safer than that of alternating current. Edison's series of animal executions peaked with the electrocution of Topsy the Elephant. He also tried to popularize the term for being electrocuted as being "Westinghoused".
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
War of the Currents
Topsy the Elephant (circa 1875  January 4, 1903) was a member of a domesticated herd at Coney Island's Luna Park. She had been a part of the Forepaugh Circus. Topsy was deemed an illtempered and dangerous animal since she had killed three men in as many years, including an abusive trainer who tried to feed her a lit cigarette.
Because Topsy was so violent, her owners decided to put her to death. A proposal of hanging was abandoned after the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals protested. The elephant was offered a carrot poisoned with cyanide, but did not eat it. Later, Thomas Edison suggested electrocution, using the Westinghouse alternating current system of electricity transmission, which Edison, a backer of direct current, argued was more dangerous than DC. The ASPCA found this suggestion acceptable, viewing electrocution as a more humane form of killing. Electrocution killed Topsy quickly. Edison recorded the execution with a motion picture camera, and showed his film to audiences around the country as part of his unsuccessful attempt to discredit AC.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Ideal Transformers
v
1
( t )
=
V
1
m
cos(
t
)
ω =
N
^{1}
d φ
dt
by Faraday's Law
φ(t) =
1 
t ∫ 
( t ) 
dt 
+ 
= 
V 1 
m 
t ∫ 
cos( 
t 
) 
dt 
= V 1 m 

N 1 
0 
v 
1 
φ 0 
N 1 
0 
ω 
N 1 
ω 
sin(
t
ω
)
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Ideal Transformers
v
2
( t ) =
=
N
2
d φ 
= 
N 
V 1 m 
d 

dt 
2 N 
ω 
dt 
1
[sin( t
ω
N
2
N
2
V
cos(
t
)
1 m
ω =
N
1
N
1
v
1
( )
t
)]
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Ideal Transformers
v
2
()
t
=
^{N} 2
N
1
v
1
(t)
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Ideal Transformers
The magnetomotive force (mmf) applied to the core:
F = N i
1 1
N i
1 1
i
2
( )
t
= N
2
i
=
N
1
N
2
2
i
− N
1
( )
t
2
i
2
= Rφ≈
0 since
R ≈
0
If the voltage is stepped up
the current is stepped down
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Ideal Transformers
p
2
( )
t
= v
= v
2
1
( )i
t
2
( )
t
( )
t i
p
1
2
( )
t
(t)
=
N
2
N
1
N
1
v
1
( )
t
N
2
= p
1
( )
t
= p
1
(t)
i
1
( )
t
Net power is neither generated nor consumed by an ideal transformer
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Ideal Transformers
p
2
(t) = p
1
(t)
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Mechanical Analog
v
2
()
t
i
2
t
( )
=
=
N
2
l
2
l
l
1
1
()
t
d
N
1
N
1
i
v
1
2
=
( t )
F
1
2
=
N
2
l
2
^{d}
1
F
1
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Transformer Summary
1. We assumed that all of the flux links all of the windings of both coils and that the resistance of the coils is zero. Thus, the voltage across each coil is proportional to the number of turns on the coil.
v
2
()
t
=
N
2
N
1
v
1
(t)
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
2. We assumed that the reluctance of the core is negligible, so the total mmf of both coils is zero.
i
2
()
t
^{=}
N
1
N 2
i
2
(t)
3. A consequence of the voltage and current relationships is that all of the power delivered to an ideal transformer by the source is transferred to the load.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Analysis of a Circuit Containing an Ideal Transformer
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Example
Find the rms values of the currents and voltages with the switch open and closed. With the switch open:
V _{2}
I
rms
^{1} rms
=
=
N
2
1
V
1
=
110
V
N
1
rms
5 rms
=
22
V
rms
N 2
N
1
I
2
rms
0
= →
No
p ower is taken from the source
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Example
With the switch closed:
I
2 rms
I _{1}
rms
=
=
V
2
rms
22 V
=
R
L
10
Ω
N
1
2
I
2
=
N
1
rms
_{5}
= 2.2 A
×
2.2
A
=
0.44
A
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Impedance Transformations
V
^{2}
I
2
= Z
L
=
=
( 
N 2 
/ 
N 1 
) V 1 

( 
N 1 
/ 
N 2 
) I 1 

( 
N 2 
/ 
N 1 
) 
Z 
' 

( 
N 1 
/ 
N 2 
) 
L 
⎛ N ⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
= ⎜
⎜
⎝
2
N
1
2
'
Z
L
→
'
Z
L
⎛ N ⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
⎜
⎝
= ⎜
1
N
2
2
Z
L
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Impedance Transformations
Z ′
L
=
⎛ N ⎞
⎟
⎜
⎠
⎟
⎝
^{V}
1
= ⎜
^{1}
I
1
N
2
2
Z
L
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Example 15.11
Find the phasor voltages and currents. First, transform Z _{L} to the primary side of the transformer:
Z
10
⎛ N ⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
+
j
20
2
Z
L
=
= ⎜
1
2
(10) (10
Z
⎜
⎝
R
2000
j
=
+
20)
1000
=
+
j
2000
'
L
N
2
1 +
L
Z
s
=
=
Z
L
+
' =
j
1000
+
1000
+
j
2000
2000
2000
∠ 45
2828
∠
45
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
=
=
I
1
V
1
Example 15.11
=
V
s
1000
∠
0
o
=
=
0.3536
∠−
45
^{Z} s
1
2828
=
45
(0.3536
∠
o
= I
=
= 790.6∠18.43
Z
∠−
o
45 )(1000
o
+
'
L
(0.3536∠ − 45 )(2236∠63.43 )
o
o
j
o
A
2000)
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Example 15.11
We can now calculate the current and voltage phasors on the secondary side using the turns ratio:
I =
2
N
1
N
2
I =
1
10(0 3536
.
∠−
45
o
)
=
V =
2
N
2
1
V =
N
1
1
10
(790.6
∠
o
18.43 )
3 536
.
∠−
45
o
=
79.60
∠
18.43
o
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Example 15.12
The voltage source and R _{1} can also be transformed to the secondary side:
' N
=
2
1
^{V} s
V
s
N
1
10
=
1000∠0
o
R
2
' ⎛ ⎜ N ⎞
1
⎟
⎟
1 ⎠
⎛ 1 ⎞
^{⎜} ⎝
⎠
⎟
10
2
R
=
⎜
N
1
=
⎝
2
(1000) = 10 Ω
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Example 15.12
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Exercise 15.17
Find the values of V _{2} and the power delivered to the load. To find I _{2} , transform V _{s} and R _{s} from the primary to the secondary side:
V
' N
s
=
4 (100∠0 ) = 400∠0
1
o
2
V
s
N
1
=
R
'
S
=
⎛ N ⎞
⎟
⎝
⎠
⎟
⎜
⎜
2
N
1
2
R
S
=
16
R
S
=
640
Ω
o
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Exercise 15.17
I
V
2
2
P
=
'
s
V
R
'
S
+
400
Ω
=
400
∠
0
o
640
+
400
=
0.385
∠
0
o
= I
2
= (
I
R
L
2
r
ms
=
(0.385
∠
o
0 )(400
Ω=
)
153.8
∠
0
o
)
2 R
L
2
(400
Ω=
)
29.6 W
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Exercise 15.18
Find the turns ratio that maximizes the power transfer to the load. What turns ratio transforms the 400Ω load resistance into a resistance of 40Ω on the primary side?
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Fourth Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
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