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1. Define subjective brightness and brightness adaptation?

2. Define Weber ratio

3. What is meant by mach band effect?

4. What is simultaneous contrast?

5. What is meant by illumination and reflectance?

6. Define sampling and quantization

7. Find the number of bits required to store a 256 X 256 image with 32 gray levels?

8. What do you meant by Zooming of digital images?

9. What do you meant by shrinking of digital images?

10. What is geometric transformation?

11. What is image translation and scaling?

12. What is the need for transform?

13. What is meant by digital image processing?

14. Give any four applications of digital image processing.

15. What is meant by interlaced scanning?

16. What are light receptors?

17. Differentiate between rods and cones.

18. How an image is represented in RGB color model?

19. State some advantages of HIS color model.

20. Give the characteristics by which colors can be differentiated?

21. List any five properties of 2-D Fourier transform.

22. Briefly explain the translation property of 2-D Fourier transform.

23. Write down the one-dimensional discrete cosine transform pair.

24. State convolution theorem.

25. Give some applications of singular value decomposition (SVD) transform in digital image



1. Describe the elements of visual perception. (16)

2. i. Describe image formation in the eye with brightness adaptation and discrimination. (8)

ii. Explain the steps involved in digital image processing. (8)

3. i. Write short notes on sampling and quantization. (8)

ii. Describe the functions of elements of digital image processing system with a

diagram. (8)

4. i. Explain the properties of 2D Fourier Transform. (8)

ii. Explain singular value decomposition and specify its properties. (8)

5. i. Explain K-L transform in detail. (8)

ii. Explain convolution property in 2D Fourier transform. (8)

6. Explain discrete cosine transform and specify its properties.


7. Explain in detail about vidicon camera tube. (16)




1. What is meant by image enhancement?

2. Give some examples of image enhancement process.

3. Mention the basic approaches of image enhancement.

4. What is mask processing?

5. Give some of the applications of power -law transform?

6. What is Bit-plane slicing?

7. What is a histogram?

8. What are the applications of histogram processing?

9. Give any three advantages of histogram equalization.

10. What is white noise?

11. What is salt and pepper noise?

12. What is meant by spatial averaging?

13. What is directional smoothing?

14. Define box filter.

15. Mention some applications of image sharpening.

16. Write down the equation used to obtain the enhanced image using Laplacian filters?

17. Define unsharp masking?

18. What is a median filter?

19. Define high-frequency emphasis filtering.

20. What is homomorphic filtering?


1. What is histogram? Explain histogram equalization. (16)

2. i. Explain the types of gray level transformation used for image enhancement. (8)

ii. Discuss the image smoothing filter with its model in the spatial domain. (8)

3. i. What are image sharpening filters. Explain the various types of it. (8)

ii. Explain spatial filtering in image enhancement. (8)

4. i. Explain image enhancement in the frequency domain. (8)

ii. Explain Homomorphic filtering in detail. (8)

5. i. Explain detail about color image enhancement. (8)

ii. Explain in detail about directional smoothing. (8)




1. Define image restoration.

2. Draw the model of image degradation/ restoration process.

3. State the concept of inverse filtering.

4. Give any two advantages of wiener filtering over inverse filtering.

5. Differentiate wiener filtering and constrained least squares filtering.

6. What is blind image restoration?

7. What are the ways to estimate the degradation function?

8. What is pseudo inverse filter?

9. Why geometric transformations are called rubber sheet transformations?

10. State the basic operations of geometric transformation.

11. What is tie points?

12. Mention the methods of gray- level interpolation?

13. State the concept behind nearest neighbor interpolation.


1. Explain the algebra approach in image restoration. (16)

2. What is the use of wiener filter in image restoration? Explain. (16)

3. i. What is meant by inverse filtering? Explain. (8)

ii. Explain discrete degradation model in detail. (8)

4. Explain image degradation model /restoration process in detail. (16)

5. What are the two approaches for blind image restoration? Explain in detail. (16)

6. Explain in detail about unconstrained and constrained restoration. (16)

7. Explain about removal of blur caused by uniform linear motion. (16)




1. Define image segmentation.

2. What is an isolated point? How it detected?

3. What is an edge?

4. Give the Roberts cross-Gradient operators.

5. Why the Laplacian cannot be used in its original form for edge detection?

6. What is Hough transform?

7. Give any two applications of Hough transform.

8. What is thresholding? Give its types.

9. What is meant by region growing?

10. Define catchment basin.

11. What is Marker? Mention its types.


1. i. What is image segmentation? Explain in detail. (8)

ii. Explain region splitting and growing in detail. (8)

2. Explain Edge Detection in details. (16)

3. Define Thresholding and explain the various methods of thresholding in detail. (16)

4. Discuss about region based image segmentation techniques. Compare threshold

region based techniques. (16)

5. i. Explain in detail about Edge linking via Hough transform. (8)

ii. Explain region growing in detail. (8)

6. Explain in detail about segmentation by morphological watersheds. (16)




1. What is image compression? What are its types?

2. Give any four applications of image compression.

3. Define relative data redundancy.

4. How interpixel redundancy is created in image?

5. What is variable length coding?

6. Name some near optimal variable-length codes. Why they are called so?

7. Give a brief note on bit-plane coding.

8. Give some methods used for the compression of bit planes.

9. What is run length coding?

10. Draw the lossless predictive coding model.

11. What is meant by lossy compression?

12. Differentiate lossless and lossy compression.

13. How the subimage size affects transform coding?

14. What are the methods used to select the coefficients in transform coding?

15. State the concept behind wavelet coding.

16. Draw the wavelet coding system model.

17. Give some examples for video compression standards.

18. What are the types of encoded outputs frames that can be obtained from an MPEG encoder?


1. What is image compression? Explain any four variable length coding compression schemes. (16)

2. i. Explain about Image compression model. (8)

ii. Explain about Lossy compression. (8)

3. Explain the schematics of image compression standard JPEG. (16)

4. Discuss about MPEG standard and compare with JPEG. (16)

5. Explain arithmetic coding. (16)

6. i. Explain Huffmann coding and shift codes in detail. (8)

ii. Explain vector quantization in detail. (8)

7. i. Explain run length encoding in detail. (8)

ii. Explain Transform coding in detail. (8)