Sunteți pe pagina 1din 5

IGCSE Chemistry 1 The particulate nature of

matter

1 Demonstrate understanding of the terms atom and molecule.

atom

element

molecule

compound

particle any small piece of a substance; it could be a


molecule or billions of molecules
mixture

solute

solvent

solution

solution

filtrate

residue

saturated solution

concentration

colorless

purity -
4.1 States of matter
State the distinguishing properties of solids, liquids
and gases.
4.2 Molecular model
Describe qualitatively the molecular structure of solids,
liquids and gases.
Relate the properties of solids, liquids and gases to the
forces and distances between molecules and to the
motion of the molecules.

solid liquid gas


fixed volume, any volume
fixed volume,
description takes shape of takes shape of
own shape
container container

in a regular
arrangement
patter called a random random
of particles
lattice
still close
together, just
close
separation of slightly farther separated, far
together,
particles apart than apart
touching
those in the
solid phase
slow
movement in
vibration a random way
movement of fast random
around a fixed from place to
particles movement
position place, sliding
past each
other
attractive slightly no attractive
stronger than
forces weaker than forces
the liquid
between the solid between
phase
particles phase particles
When the temperature of a solid increases, so does the energy
of the particles.
At the melting point the particles have enough energy to move
past each other and change positions.

Liquids can flow and change their shape.

When a liquid is heated, the energy of the particles increases.

At the boiling point the intermolecular forces can no longer


hold the particles together, so the particles separate & become
a vapor or gas.

The particles can change position and move apart.

Gases can flow and expand to fill any space.

supply heat supply heat


energy energy

solid liquid gas


heat energy heat energy
given to given to
surroundings surroundings
Interpret the temperature of a gas in terms of the
motion of its molecules.

The higher the temperature, the faster the speed of the


molecules.

Temperature is a measure of the average speed of the


molecules.

Temperature is how hot something is; heat is energy that flows


from hot substances to cold substances.

Describe qualitatively the effect of a change of


temperature on the pressure of a gas at constant
volume.

The higher the temperature, the larger the volume of gas at a


constant pressure.

Describe qualitatively the pressure of a gas in terms of


the motion of its molecules.

At a constant temperature, gas molecules move at a constant


average speed, so that the force of the collision is the same (
on average ).
If the gas is compressed into a smaller volume, there are more
frequent collisions on each unit of area, so that the total
force per unit area increases and the pressure increases.

If a gas expands to a greater volume at a constant


temperature, the pressure decreases.