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Return Path Demodulator

RPD 2000

ARPD 1000

Motorola General Business Information, RPD, Rev 3.1


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All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. Motorola, Inc. 2005

Page 0
Objectives

Describe the purpose of the return path data stream


List the input and output interfaces available on the
RPD 2000 and ARPD 1000
Compare RPD 2000 and ARPD 1000 technical
specifications
Configure the ARPD 1000 using the SDM in a lab
environment
Use the DAC, ARPD statistics, and set-top status screens
to troubleshoot ARPD return path problems in a lab
environment

Motorola General Business Information, RPD, Rev 3.1


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Page 1
Return Path Data Stream

Return path data originates at the set top box and is sent to
the cable headend.

Examples of return path data include:


Poll responses (used in billing the customer for services)
Video on Demand (VOD) commands
Other interactive commands

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Page 2
RPD/ARPD Overview

An RPD is the upstream communications link between set


top boxes and the headend.

RPD/ ARPD Functions:


Receive data from set top boxes
Demodulate the return path, QPSK signal
Perform Forward Error Correction
Collect packet statistics
Send data to the controller as UDP Ethernet packets

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Page 3
RPD 2000 Input Signals

The RPD 2000 can tune to signals received on any one of 36


upstream frequencies1 with the following characteristics:
Starting at 8.096 MHz (default)
192 kHz channel spacing
Ending at 14.816 MHz
Examples: 8.096, 8.288, 8.480, ..., 14.624, 14.816 MHz

Input carrier to noise ratio of 20 dB must be maintained.


Due to this, in a non-interactive environment, Motorola
recommends no more than 2,000 homes passed per
demod card.2

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1
Set-tops only transmit return path data at frequencies up to 12 MHz, so the
input frequencies available on the RPD ranging from 13.088 to 14.816 MHz
should not be used.
2
In interactive (VOD) systems, the number of homes passed per demod card
will most likely be much lower due to the increased amount of upstream data
competing for RPD demod card resources.

Page 4
ARPD 1000 Input Signals

The ARPD 1000 can tune to signals received on any one of


311 upstream frequencies1 with the following
characteristics:
Starting at 5.216 MHz
192 kHz channel spacing
Ending at 64.736 MHz
Each Demod card contains 3 demodulator channels, and
two wideband filters
Only one of the two wideband input filters can be active at
a given time, so all demodulated frequencies on a card
must fall within one wideband filter
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1
Set-tops only transmit return path data at frequencies from 8.096 MHz to 12
MHz, so the input frequencies available on the ARPD ranging from 5.216 to
7.904 MHz and 13.088 to 64.736 should not be used.
2
The 45 MHz wide filter supports signals received in the 5 to 50 MHz
spectrum, and the 19 MHz wide filter supports signals received in the 46 to 65
MHz spectrum.

Page 5
ARPD Protocols

Legacy aka Version 1


Legacy RPD frame format
ARPD aka Advanced Protocol Mode aka Version 2
ARPD frame format

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The legacy protocol is supported by both a RADD and an NC 1500. The ARPD
protocol (available in version 2.0.2 and higher on an ARPD) is only supported
by an NC 1500 (with version 1.8.4 or higher) not by a RADD. When configuring
the ARPDs protocol there are 3 selections: Legacy, ARPD or Mixed.
The legacy protocol mode limits the number of ARPD 1000s per NC 1500 to
either 10 or 16 (depending on configuration) if 3 Demods are used per
upstream path.
The limit is 10 ARPDs per NC in the legacy protocol mode, if all upstream
traffic is sent to the NC.
The limit is 16 ARPDs per NC in the legacy protocol mode, if only interactive
traffic is sent to the NC (polling traffic is sent directly to the RADD).
In the ARPD protocol mode, the maximum limit is 32 ARPDs per NC even
when using up to 3 Demod channels per upstream path.
The mixed protocol mode uses both the legacy and ARPD protocol mode at
one time. When using the mixed protocol mode the ARPD:
Sends all polling cells to the RADD, using legacy protocol mode.
Sends all interactive cells directly to the NC, using the advanced protocol
mode.
Using the mixed protocol mode eliminates the need for the NC to handle any
polling cells.

Page 6
ARPD 1000 Front Panel

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A DM card slots (Located behind front panel)


B RS-232 Port
C DM Board Status LEDs
D ENET Status LEDs
E Status LED

Page 7
ARPD 1000 Rear Panel

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A AC input
B RF input connectors
C RF output connectors1
D Cooling Fan
E Grounding Lugs
F Ethernet ports

1
Connectors should be terminated with a 75-ohm terminator, when a demod
cards RF output is not in use.

Page 8
RPD/ARPD - RF Plant Connectivity
Example

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Page 9
ARPD 1000
Cascading the Demodulator Boards

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On an ARPD 1000, if a single coaxial cable carries more than 3 frequencies, or


if the carried frequencies fall in two separate ranges (5-50 MHz/46-65 MHz),
the signal must be split or the demodulator boards must be cascaded. To
cascade the demodulator boards, connect the input coaxial cable to the first
demodulator board RF in connector, and then connect RF out to RF in of the
next demodulator board. Connect a 75-ohm terminator to the RF out of the last
demodulator in the cascade.

The figure above illustrates an ARPD 1000 configuration with two cascades:
RF IN A using demodulator boards 1 and 2
RF IN B using demodulator boards 4 and 5

Remember to set your cascaded state for the DM board in the SDM.

Page 10
RPD 2000 vs. ARPD 1000

Demodulation RPD 2000 ARPD 1000


RF Input (6) F-Type 75 Connectors (6) F-Type 75 Connectors

Optimal Input Level 0 dBmV (+/- 3 dBmV) 0 dBmV (+/- 10 dBmV)

Number of Demod Boards 6 (Non-Hot Swappable) 6 (Hot Swappable)1

Frequencies Per Demod board 1 32

Possible Demodulated Signals 6 182

Demod Frequency Range 8.096 14.816 MHz3 5.216 64.736 MHz3

Demodulated Packet Output TCP/UDP 10Mbps TCP/UDP 100Mbps

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1
The best practice for inserting and removing the cards is as follows:
Inserting Insert cards one at a time. Do not remove any of the newly inserted
cards until they are fully configured (the LED will change from blinking yellow to
either solid green, blinking green, solid yellow or solid red).
Removing Remove cards one at a time. Allow a minimum of a two second
delay before inserting a new card into the same slot. In a case where the
system is configuring other cards (DM LEDs will be blinking yellow) allow the
system to finish configuring the cards before inserting a DM card into the slot.
2
Only one of the two wideband input filters housed on each Demod card, can
be active at a given time. The 45 MHz wide filter supports signals received in
the 5 to 50 MHz spectrum, and the 19 MHz wide filter supports signals
received in the 46 to 65 MHz spectrum.
3
Set-tops only transmit return path data at frequencies ranging from 8.096
MHz to 12 MHz.

Page 11
RPD 2000 vs. ARPD 1000

Physical RPD 2000 ARPD 1000


Mounting 5 Rack Units (5 RU)1 1 Rack Unit (1 RU)

Cooling Passive Convection Forced Convection

Configuration
Front Panel Yes No

RS-232 No Yes Terminal Emulation (Linux Based)

Element Manager No Yes (Java Based)

SDM Yes Yes Minimum Ver. 3.1.1 SP2

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1
Chassis takes up 3 RU and requires 1 RU above and below for a total of 5
RU.

Page 12
ARPD 1000 Configuration - IP Address
The ARPD 1000s IP address can be configured via the embedded Linux
based console, using a nine-pin straight-through cable connected
from the PC to the front panel RS-232 port.

Terminal Emulation Communication parameters:


Connection Port: COM 1
Bits per second: 9600
Data bits: 8
Parity: None
Stop bits: 1
Flow control: None

Terminal Login/Password:
Login: motorola
Password: motorola

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1
The IP address can also be configured BOOTP protocol.

Page 13
ARPD 1000 Configuration IP address

Configuring the Ethernet is done with a single command. The syntax is as follows:

ipa <interface> a <address> n <netmask>


where,
<interface> is ENET1 or ENET2
<address> is the desired ARPD Ethernet IP address
<netmask> is the desired subnet mask

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SDM version 3.1.1 SP2, or higher is required for administration of an ARPD


1000.
After setting the IP address, and rebooting, the ARPD 1000 can be discovered
in the SDM (if the appropriate device firmware is loaded on the SDM and
ARPD).

Page 14
ARPD 1000 Configuration SDM

1 -- -----------3

2 --

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1. Protocol Version
Legacy, ARPD or Mixed (Refer to the previous page on Protocols for a
description.)
2. RPD Configuration
Virtual RPDs When operating in legacy mode, the ARPD can represent up to 3
virtual RPDs. The number of virtual RPDs is directly proportional to the number of
demod channels being used per demod board. In other words an ARPD configured
for two virtual RPDs, has two available demod channels per demod board.
Demods per RF Input Not user definable. This value will auto adjust as the
number of virtual RPDs are changed.
Destination IP This IP address is the Virtual RPDs destination hosts IP address
(RADD / NC1500).
Destination UDP Port This UDP port number is the unique port number used for
the communication exchange between the Virtual RPD and the destination host.
RPD IP Address In order for the destination host to handle each Virtual RPD, as
an individual Legacy RPD, each must have a IP address on the (same) OAM&P
network.

3. Demod Assignment
Demods can be assigned to a vertical, or horizontal configuration
In a Horizontal assignment, the ARPD groups demodulator channels by ID, where
all demodulator channels with the same channel ID are assigned to the same
Virtual RPD.
In a Vertical assignment, the ARPD groups demodulator channels by DM board,
where all demodulator channels of the same DM board are assigned to the same
Virtual RPD.
A single virtual RPD can contain demodulator channels from multiple DM boards.

Page 15
ARPD 1000 Configuration SDM

1 --

2 --

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1. DM Board Configuration Within this section you will find:


DM Board ID Indicates the ID for the DM board
Status Shows a green indicator, when a DM board is installed.
RF Input State Select (check) to enable or disable DM Board input.
Spectrum Inversion Select (check) to enable spectrum inversion. Default, is
unchecked
Suppress Errored Packets - Select (check) to suppress the transmission of
errored data packets to the destination device.
Low Level Threshold - Set the minimum dBmV at which packets will be
demodulated and not rejected. Range is -16.0 dBmV to +15.5 dBmV, in 0.5 dBmV
increments
Cascaded State - Indicate here whether or not the RF Out is cascaded to another
board. This setting prevents 2 cascaded boards from operating on the same
frequency.
Cascaded To - Select board is the selected DM Board, being cascaded to
2. Demod Configuration
DM Board ID Identifies the DM Board
Demod ID Identifies the channel of the DM Board
Frequency Drop-down to select the channels frequency. All frequencies on a
single board must fall within a single filters range.
Mode Drop-down to select the operation mode. Usually Data Only.
Data+Noise, and Noise Only are used for diagnostic purposes
Storage Select to enable collection and storage of statistical information about
this channel.

Page 16
Set-Top Box (STB) Power Leveling
Example
OM

DAC/ STB
1. Level: 24 dBmV
RADD 3. Level: 32 dBmV
5. Level: 40 dBmV

RF return path:
40 dB drop
RPD 2000
2. No response
4. No response
6. Receives: 0 dBmV

Motorola General Business Information, RPD, Rev 3.1


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In this example, the DAC/RADD attempt to set the STB RF output level until
the RPD 2000 receives a signal that is 03dBmV.

1. The DAC/RADD tells the STB to set its power level to 24 dBmV and
respond.
2. Since there is 40 dB of signal loss in this example, only -16 dBmV of signal
would reach the RPD, not enough for the RPD to detect the packets.
Essentially, the RPD does not hear back from the STB and therefore, nor
does the DAC/RADD.
3. The DAC/RADD tells the STB to set its power level to 32 dBmV and
respond.
4. Since there is 40 dB of signal loss in this example, only -8 dBmV of signal
would reach the RPD, which is most likely not enough for the RPD to detect
and correct the packets. Essentially, the RPD does not hear back from the
STB and therefore, nor does the DAC/RADD.
5. The DAC/RADD tells the STB to set its power level to 40 dBmV and
respond.
6. The signal would reach the RPD at a level of 0 dBmV in this case. This is
the ideal level for an RPD 2000. The RPD interprets the packets and sends
the data back to the DAC/RADD. The RPD also tells the DAC/RADD that
the STBs signal level is ideal and power leveling stops.

The next time the STB sends a poll response, it will use the output level of 40
dBmV.

Page 17
RPD 2000 Front Panel

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A Demod board (up to 6 per RPD)


B Blank
C FEC board
D CPU board
E Slot configuration label
F Status LEDs
G Status display
H Selection keys
I Power switch

Page 18
RPD 2000 Rear Panel

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A AC input
B Ethernet port
C RF input connectors
D RF output connectors1

1
Connectors should be terminated with a 75-ohm terminator, when a demod
cards RF output is not in use.

Page 19
RPD 2000
Cascading the Demodulator Boards

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If a single coaxial cable carries the input frequencies for multiple demodulator
boards on an RPD 2000, the signal must be split or the demodulator boards
must be cascaded. To cascade the demodulator boards, connect the input
coaxial cable to the first demodulator board RF in connector, and then connect
RF out to RF in of the next demodulator board. Connect a 75-ohm terminator
to the RF out of the last demodulator in the cascade.

The figure above illustrates an RPD 2000 configuration with two cascades:
RF IN A using demodulator boards 1 - 3
RF IN B using demodulator boards 4 6

Page 20
RPD 2000 Configuration IP address

Front Panel Menus:

1.

6. 2.

3.
5. 4.

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To configure the RPDs IP address, use the front panel menus:

1. From the MAIN MENU, enter the NET menu using the cursor keys and the
ENT key on the front of the RPD.
2. From the NET menu, enter the OAM&P menu.
3. Move the cursor to the IP field and use the up, down, left, and right arrow
keys on the front of the RPD to adjust the IP address. Press the ENT key
when you are finished.
4. Move the cursor to the SUBNET field and use the up and down arrow keys
on the front of the RPD to adjust the subnet mask. Press the ENT key when
you are finished.
5-6. Return to the main menu using the UP navigation options.

Page 21
RPD 2000 Configuration IP address

Front Panel Menus:

7.

8. 9.

After rebooting, the RPD 2000 can be discovered in the SDM.

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To finish configuring the RPDs IP address, use the front panel menus:

7. To save the change to non-volatile memory, enter the ADMIN menu.


8. Navigate to the SAVE field in the ADMIN menu. To perform a save, you
must do the following:
a. With the cursor on SAVE, press ENT on the front panel.
b. Press the up arrow on the front panel (the word SAVE will change to OK)
c. Press ENT on the front panel (the word OK will change to SAVING)
d. When the word SAVING changes back to SAVE, the settings have been
saved.
9. The RPD must be rebooted for the new IP address to take affect. From the
ADMIN menu, reboot the RPD using the REBOOT field using keystrokes
similar to those used when saving.

The RPD can now be discovered by the SDM. An alternate means of setting
the IP address would be via BOOTP. This can be done by adding the device
to the SDM using its MAC address. (The MAC address can be found via the
front panel by following the menu path: MAIN MENU->NET).

Page 22
RPD 2000 Configuration SDM

1.

2.

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1. Network:
The Destination Host should point to the systems RADD.
Note: the RADD must have already been discovered in the SDM
Note: in an interactive system, you would choose the name of your
NC1500
The Service Port (UDP) should be 5861 (RPD2RADD)
Note this would be a different service port for an interactive system
[RPD2NCx]
2. Demods:
For each demod card in use:
Choose the Frequency
Set the Mode to Data Only

All configurations in this presentation are shown using the SmartStream


Device Manager (SDM). This is the recommended method of configuring
Motorola headend devices. If an SDM is not available, the same settings
can be changed via the front panel menus of the RPD or by using the
Headend Configuration Tool (HCT). [Note that the Destination Host cannot
be directly entered via the front panel. It must be BOOTPed into the RPD.]

Page 23
Lab Activity

Complete RPD Lab

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Page 24
Learning Exercise

1. Name two types of messages transmitted through the


return path data stream.

2. Name two connections that must be made at the back of


the ARPD 1000.

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Page 25
Learning Exercise

TRUE or FALSE?

3. The STB upstream frequency range is from 50 MHz - 1 GHz. _____

4. The ARPD transfers data to the controller via the Ethernet


Network. _____

5. The input to the ARPD 1000 is optimally 0 dBmV. _____

6. The RF OUT should be terminated when not cascaded. _____

7. When the ARPD RF Input box is checked the DM board is


enabled. _____
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Page 26
Learning Exercise

8. After configuring the IP Address using the RS-232 port connection,


how do you save changes to non-volatile memory?

9. When using the SDM to configure the ARPD 1000, name 2 settings
that must be set.

10. Name two places to find data that will help you troubleshoot a return
path problem.

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Page 27