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Bucharest, vol 27, No.

1/2009 ISSN: 1583 1019

LUCRARI
STIINTIFICE
(INMATEH)

JANUARY - APRIL
Vol. 27, No.1 /2009 LUCRRI TIINIFICE (INMATEH)

Managing Editorial Board

Editor Chief Scientific Secretary


Pirn Ion, General Manager - Ganea Ioan, INMA Bucharest, Assistant Editor
INMA Bucharest, Prof.on.Dr.Eng., Dr.Eng., TDE II; ganea@inma.ro Vldu Valentin, Head of Testing
SR I, Corresponding member of ASAS, Department - INMA Bucharest, Dr.Eng.,
pirna@inma.ro Official translator SR III; valentin_vladut@yahoo.com
Barbu Mihaela, INMA Bucharest,
Prof. English, French

Editorial Board
 Gngu Vergil, ASAS, Prof.on.Dr.Eng., SR I, Member of ASAS
 Bria Nicolae, ASAS, Prof.on.Dr.Eng., SR I, Member of ASAS
 Cojocaru Iosif, INMA Bucharest, Prof.on. Dr.Eng., SR I
 Brtucu Gheorghe, TRANSILVANIA University from Braov, Prof. Dr.Eng.
 Cndea Ioan, TRANSILVANIA University from Braov, Prof.Dr.Eng., Corresponding member of ASAS
 Popescu Simion, TRANSILVANIA University from Braov, Prof.Dr.Eng., Member of ASAS
 Mitroi Adrian, USAMV Bucharest, Prof. Dr.Eng.
 Boruz Sorin, University from Craiova, Lecturer Dr.Eng.
 Biri Sorin, Polytechnic University of Bucharest - Biotechnical Engineering Faculty, Assoc. Prof. Dr.Eng.
 Paraschiv Gigel, Polytechnic University of Bucharest - Biotechnical Engineering Faculty, Assoc. Prof. Dr.Eng.
 Maican Edmond, Polytechnic University of Bucharest - Biotechnical Engineering Faculty, Lecturer Dr.Eng
 Bungescu Sorin, USAMVB Timioara, Assoc. Prof. Dr.Eng.
 Muraru Vergil, INMA Bucharest, Dr.Eng., SR I
 Nedelcu Mihail, INMA Bucharest, MSc. Eng., TDE II

INMATEH - Agricultural Engineering,


vol. 27, no. 1/2009
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF RESEARCH-
DEVELOPMENT FOR MACHINES AND
INSTALLATIONS DESIGNED TO AGRICULTURE
AND FOOD INDUSTRY - INMA Bucharest
6 Ion Ionescu de la Brad Bd, sector 1, Bucharest

Three times a year


ISSN: 1583 - 1019

Edited: INMA Bucharest

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Vol. 27, No.1 /2009 LUCRRI TIINIFICE (INMATEH)

CONTENTS
/ CUPRINS
Pag.

1. PRESENT AND FUTURE IN THE FIELD OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY USE 3


/ PREZENT I PERSPECTIVE N DOMENIUL UTILIZRII ENERGIILOR ALTERNATIVE
Assoc.Prof.Dr.Eng. S.t. Biri1) , Assoc.Prof.Dr.Eng. G. Paraschiv1), Lecturer Dr.Eng. E. Maican1),
As. Msc.Eng. N. Ungureanu1), As.Msc.Eng. M. Manea1 , Dr.Eng. V. Vldu2)
1)
Universitatea Politehnica din Bucureti, 2)INMA Bucureti

2. STUDIES, RESEARCHES AND RESULTS REGARDING THE BIOGAS OBTAINING AND USING 11
/ STUDII, CERCETRI I REZULTATE PRIVIND OBINEREA I UTILIZAREA BIOGAZULUI
Prof.on.Dr.Eng. Ion Pirn, Prof.on.Dr.Eng. Vergil Gngu, Dr.Eng. Valentin Vldu
- INMA Bucureti -

3. MECHANIZATION TECHNOLOGY FOR DEEP DECOMPACTION AND AERATION OF DEFECTIVE SOILS, CONCOMITANTLY 19
WITH THE ADMINISTRATION OF NUTRITIVE ELEMENTS
/ TEHNOLOGIE DE MECANIZARE PENTRU DECOMPACTAREA I AERAREA N PROFUNZIME A SOLURILOR
DEFICITARE, CONCOMITENT CU ADMINISTRAREA DE ELEMENTE NUTRITIVE
Prof.on.Dr.Eng. Iosif COJOCARU, Dr.Eng. Nicolae CONSTANTIN,
Prof.on.Dr.Eng. Ion PIRNA, Dr. Eng Eugen MARIN - INMA Bucureti,
Dr.Eng. Alexandru COCIU - INCDA Fundulea

4. DYNAMICS OF THE AIR FLOW MIXED WITH STRAW CEREAL SEEDS / 24


/ DINAMICA CURENTULUI DE AER N AMESTEC CU SEMINELE DE CEREALE PIOASE
MSc. Eng. Drago Manea INMA Bucharest
Prof. Dr. Eng. Ioan Cndea Transilvania University from Braov

5. DETERMINATION OF THE QUALITATIVE INDEX OF THE EQUIPMENT FOR MICROBIAL INOCULANTS APPLICATION 32
/ DETERMINAREA INDICILOR CALITATIVI DE LUCRU AI ECHIPAMENTULUI PENTRU APLICAT INOCULANI MICROBIENI
MSc. Eng. Drago Manea, Dr. Eng. Iosif Cojocaru, Dr. Eng. Eugen Marin
- INMA Bucharest -

6. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MANUFACTURING OF A MACHINE FOR CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS AND AMENDMENTS 39
SPREADING, MA-3.6
/ CERCETRI PRIVIND REALIZAREA UNEI MAINI PENTRU ADMINISTRAT NGRMINTE CHIMICE I AMENDAMENTE, MA-3,6
Dr.Eng. Lucreia POPA, Eng. Vasilica TEFAN - INMA Bucureti
Eng. Livian Victor ANDREI, Eng. Gicu GURAN - SC MAT SA Craiova

7. RESEARCHES ON THE REDUCTION OF FUEL CONSUMPTION IN CASE OF AUTOMATIC SYSTEMS FOR POSITION CONTROL USE 44
/ CERCETRI PRIVIND REDUCEREA CONSUMULUI DE COMBUSTIBIL N CAZUL UTILIZRII SISTEMELOR AUTOMATE DE
REGLAJ DE POZIIE
Assoc.Prof.Dr.Eng. G. Paraschiv1), Lecturer Dr.Eng. G. Muuroi1), As.Msc.Eng. N. Ungureanu1), Assoc.Prof.Dr.Eng. S.t. Biri1) ,
Dr.Eng. V. Vldu2), Dr.Eng. E. Marin2)
1)
Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti, 2)INMA Bucureti

8. RELEVANT CHARACTERISTICS OF ALTERNATIVE LIQUID FUELS AIMED AT DIESEL ENGINES EXPLOITATION IN 50


POLYCARBURATION DUTY
/ PROPRIETILE RELEVANTE ALE COMBUSTIBILILOR LICHIZI ALTERNATIVI VIZAI PENTRU EXPLOATAREA
MOTOARELOR DIESEL N REGIM POLICARBURAT
Dr.Eng. Mircea Adrian Nicolescu
- INMA Bucureti -

9. VARIANTS TACKLED IN POLYCARBURATION PRACTICE OF DIESEL ENGINES DESIGNED TO BE FED WITH DIESEL OIL 56
/ VARIANTE ABORDABILE N PRACTICA POLICARBURRII MOTOARELOR DIESEL CONSTRUITE PENTRU ALIMENTAREA CU MOTORIN
Dr. Eng. Mircea Adrian Nicolescu
- INMA Bucharest, Romania -

10. INSTALLATION FOR SOLAR DRYING OF SEWAGE SLUDGE 63


/ INSTALAIE PENTRU USCAREA SOLAR A NMOLULUI DE EPURARE
Dr.Eng. Markus BUX Hohenheim University,Stuttgart, Germany
Prof.Dr.Eng. Adrian MITROI, drd.Eng. Liliana CRLAN - USAMV Bucharest
Dr.Eng. Tilo CONRAD, Dr.Eng. Steffen RITTERBUSCH - Thermo-System Industrie&Trocknungstechnik, Germany

11. THE INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE ORGANIC SUBSTRATUM IN THE PRODUCTION OF BIOGAS 70
/ INFLUENA TEMPERATURII I A SUBSTRATULUI ORGANIC N PRODUCIA DE BIOGAZ
Lecturer Ph.D.Eng. Dobre Paul,
Assoc. Prof.Ph.D.Eng. Farca Nicolae - USAMV Bucharest
Stud. Ggeanu Iuliana - Management Faculty USAMV Bucharest

12. CONSTRUCTIVE TYPES OF ADAPTORS FOR THE RAW VEGETABLE OIL USED AT DIESEL MOTORS 76
/ TIPURI CONSTRUCTIVE DE ADAPTOARE PENTRU UTILIZAREA ULEIULUI VEGETAL CRUD LA MOTOARELE DIESEL
Lecturer Ph.D.Eng. Dobre Paul - USAMV Bucharest
Assoc. Prof.Ph.D.Eng. Farca Nicolae - USAMV Bucharest
Student Ggeanu Iuliana - Management Faculty USAMV Bucharest

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13. EOLIAN POWER GENERATION FOR AGRICULTURAL INSTALLATIONS IN REMOTE AREAS 81


/ GENERAREA ENERGIEI EOLIENE PENTRU INSTALATII AGRICOLE N ZONE IZOLATE
Eng. Drago TNASE Politehnica University Bucureti (Romnia)
Eng. PhD student Andreea BORITU Politehnica University Bucureti (Romnia)
Eng. PhD student Camelia NICULI Transilvania University Braov (Romnia)
Eng. PhD student Andrei BENCZE Transilvania University Braov (Romnia)
Prof. Dr. Eng. Ioan CANDEA Transilvania University Braov (Romnia)

14. POSSIBILITIES OF USING SOLID BIOMASS, AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY FOR REDUCING POLLUTION SOIL AND WATER 86
/ POSIBILITI DE UTILIZARE A BIOMASEI SOLIDE, AGRICOLE I FORESTIERE PENTRU REDUCEREA POLURII
SOLULUI I APEI
Eng. Danciu Aurel, Dr. Eng. Vldu Valentin, Eng. Voicea Iulian, Eng. Postelnicu Elena
- INMA Bucharest, Romania -

15. CFD STUDY REGARDING THE MAXIMUM TORQUE VARIATION WITH WIND SPEED, ON A SAVONIUS TYPE TURBINE 93
/ STUDIU CFD PRIVIND VARIAIA CUPLULUI MAXIM CU VITEZA VNTULUI, LA O INSTALAIE EOLIAN TIP SAVONIUS
1 1
Dr. Eng. Edmond MAICAN , Dr. Eng. Sorin-tefan BIRI ,
Dr. Eng. Valentin VLDU2, Eng. Bianca DAVID, Dr. Eng. Mihai BAYER1,
1
POLITEHNICAUniversity of Bucharest
2
Institutul Naional de Cercetare-Dezvoltare pentru Maini i Instalaii destinate Agriculturii i Industriei Alimentare INMA Bucureti

16. SOILS MAPPING INFORMATION SYSTEM 98


/ SISTEM INFORMAIONAL PENTRU CARTAREA SOLURILOR
Dr. Eng. V. Muraru, Dr.Eng. I. Pirn, math. P. Crdei, Dr. Eng. C. Ionel-Muraru, student T. Ticu
- INMA Bucharest, Romania -

17. SOME INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENT FIELD WORK FOR TRACTOR GUIDANCE SYSTEM AND SEEDER USING GPS NAVIGATION 104
/ INVESTIGAII PRIVIND CMPUL DE LUCRU EFICIENT PENTRU SISTEMUL DE GHIDARE A UNUI TRACTOR I
SEMNTOARE FOLOSIND NAVIGAIA GPS
Atanas Atanasov*, Keiichi Inoue**, Valentin Vldut***
*University of Rousse, Bulgaria; **National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, Lowland Crop Rotation
Research Team, Sapporo, Japan
***National Research - Development Institute for Machines and Installations Designed to Agriculture and Food Industry

18. INFLUENCE OF AUTOMATION OF THE CONDITIONED EQUIPMENTS OVER THE WHEAT MILLING PROCESS 110
/ INFLUENA AUTOMATIZRII ECHIPAMENTELOR DE CONDIIONAT ASUPRA PROCESULUI DE MCINAT GRUL
Dr.Eng. Professor, Gheorghe Brtucu
- Transilvania University of Braov -

19. RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION TO THE CONSERVATION THROUGH DRYING OF THE 117
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
/ CERCETRI PRIVIND UTILIZAREA ENERGIEI SOLARE LA CONSERVAREA PRIN USCARE A LEGUMELOR I FRUCTELOR
Dr. Professor Gheorghe Brtucu,
PhD. Student Ionu Cpn
- Transilvania University of Braov -

20. MEASURES AND MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR SOIL COMPACTION 125


/ MSURI I MODELE MATEMATICE PENTRU COMPACTAREA SOLULUI
Math. P. Crdei, Dr. Eng. V. Muraru, Dr. Eng. C. Muraru - Ionel, Eng. R. Sfiru
- INMA Bucharest, Romania -

21. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON TEXTURE HOMOGENEITY FIRMNESS OF THE PULP APPLES 131
/ CERCETRI EXPERIMENTALE PRIVIND OMOGENITATEA FERMITII TEXTURII PULPEI MERELOR
Prof.dr.Eng Csndroiu Tudor; Drd.Eng. Ivnescu Daniela - U.P. Bucureti
Assoc.Prof.Dr.Eng. Vintil Marian ICDIMPH Bucureti

22. INDEPENDENT DISK HARROWS FOR STUBBLE-TURN AND READY GERMINATION, ALL TYPES OF SOIL, DESIGNED 139
120220 HP TRACTORS
/ GRAPA CU DISCURI INDEPENDENTE PENTRU DEZMIRISTIT SI PREGATIT PATUL GERMINATIV, PE TOATE TPURILE
DE SOL, DESTINAT TRACTOARELOR DE 120220CP
Dr. Eng. Nicolae CONSTANTIN, Prof.on Dr. Eng. Iosif COJOCARU, Prof. Dr. Eng. Ion PIRNA,
Dr.Eng. Vasile NITESCU - INMA Bucureti
Eng.Ion LEU - MAT Craiova

23. EXPERIMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE SOIL HILLSLOPE LOSSES BY EROSION CAUSED BY WATER ACTION 144
/ ESTIMAREA EXPERIMENTALA A PIERDERILOR DE SOL PE VERSANTI, PRIN EROZIUNE, DATORITA ACTIUNII APEI
Dr. Eng. V. Herea1), Math. P. Crdei2),
Dr. Eng. V. Muraru2), Dr. Eng. C. Muraru-Ionel2)
1)
ICDVV Valea Clugreasc, Romania;
2)
INMA Bucharest, Romania

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PRESENT AND FUTURE IN THE FIELD OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY USE


/
PREZENT I PERSPECTIVE N DOMENIUL UTILIZRII ENERGIILOR ALTERNATIVE
1) 1) 1)
Assoc. Prof.Dr.Eng. S.t. Biri , Assoc. Prof.Dr.Eng. G. Paraschiv , Lecturer Dr.Eng. E. Maican , As.Msc.Eng.
1) 1) 2)
N. Ungureanu , As.Msc.Eng. M. Manea , Dr.Eng. V. Vldu
1) 2)
Politehnica University of Bucharest, Romania, INMA Bucharest, Romania

Abstract. Alternative energy or renewable energy Rezumat. Prin energie alternativ sau energie regenerabil se
represents the energy derived from a wide variety of nelege energia derivat dintr-o larg diversitate de resurse,
resources, having the ability to renew. Researcher Mark avnd capacitatea de a se rennoi. Cercettorul Mark Jacobson
Jacobson of Standford University established a ranking of de la Universitatea Standford a stabilit un clasament al surselor
alternative energy sources considered to be promising. In de energie alternativ considerate promitoare. Acestea, n
descending order, these are: wind energy, concentrated ordine descresctoare, sunt: energia eolian, energia solar
solar energy (mirrors heating a water tower), geothermal concentrat (oglinzi ce nclzesc un turn de ap), energia
energy, tidal energy, solar panels, wave energy, geotermal, energia mareelor, panouri solare, energia valurilor,
hydroelectric dams. Biofuels obtained from corn and baraje hidroelectrice. Biocombustibilii din porumb i resturi de
vegetable waste are last on that list, along with nuclear plante se gsesc n coada acestei liste, alturi de energia nuclear i de
energy and clean coal. As presented in this paper, crbunele curat. Aa cum este prezentat i n cadrul acestei lucrri,
Romanias situation is still inadequate regarding the use situaia din Romnia este nc una necorespunztoare n ceea
of clean energy. Europe has 34.000 MW installed in ce privete utilizarea energiei curate. n Europa exist 34.000
eolian turbines, while in Romania only 900 kW are in MW instalai n turbine eoliene, n timp ce n Romnia sunt n
2
function. Currently, in Europe are around 14 million m of funciune doar 900 kW. n Europa exist n prezent circa 14
2
solar-thermal panels, while Romania has less than 4.000 milioane m de panouri solar-termale, n timp ce n Romnia sunt
2 2
m . These are just two examples that highlight the ways mai puin de 4.000 m . Acestea sunt doar dou exemple care
Romania must follow. This paper presents an ample and evideniaz ci de urmat i n Romnia. n cadrul prezentului
realistic analysis of the technical-economical and articol este realizat o analiz ampl i realist a eficienei
ecological efficiency on the use of alternative energy tehnico-economice i ecologice la utilizarea surselor alternative
sources and of the interesting perspectives regarding de energie i a perspectivelor interesante n ceea ce privete
their use, including in the agriculture and food industry. utilizarea acestora inclusiv n agricultur i industrie alimentar.

Key words: alternative energy, clean energy, biofuel, Cuvinte cheie: energie alternativ, energie curat,
biodiesel biocombustibil, biodiesel

INTRODUCTION INTRODUCERE
Excessive use of fossil fuel energy (oil, gas, coals), Folosirea excesiv a energiei din combustibili fosili
characteristic for the past century, has had disastrous (petrol, gaz, crbuni), caracteristic ultimului secol, a avut
effects on the environment, more harmful than any other efecte dezastruoase asupra mediului, mai duntoare dect
human activity in history, which led to the accumulation of orice alt activitate umana din istorie, care a condus la
harmful gases into the atmosphere, which started acumularea de gaze nocive n atmosfer, ceea ce a
processes (some irreversible) such as: thinning of the declanat procese (unele ireversibile) precum: subierea
ozone layer, global warming, etc. Therefore, the use of stratului de ozon, nclzirea global, etc. De aceea,
alternative energy sources becomes more important at utilizarea unor surse alternative de energie, devine tot mai
present. These sources, such as the sun or wind, basically important n prezent. Aceste surse, precum soarele sau
cant be exhausted and therefore are called renewable vntul, practic nu se consum, ele reprezentnd surse de
energy sources. They cause far less emissions, reduce energie regenerabil. Acestea produc emisii mult mai puine,
chemical, thermal and radioactive pollution and are reduc poluarea chimic, termic, radioactiv i sunt
available worldwide. They are also known as alternative or disponibile oriunde pe glob. Mai sunt cunoscute i ca surse
unconventional energy sources. alternative sau neconvenionale.
Researcher Mark Jacobson of Standford University Cercettorul Mark Jacobson, de la Universitatea
has recently established the ranking of alternative energy Standford, a stabilit recent un clasament al surselor de
sources considered to be promising. In descending energie alternativ considerate promitoare. n ordine
order, these are: descresctoare, acestea sunt:
1) wind energy 1) energia eolian
2) concentrated solar energy (mirrors heating a water 2) energia solar concentrat (oglinzi ce nclzesc
tower) un turn de ap)
3) geothermal energy 3) energia geotermal
4) tidal energy 4) energia mareelor
5) solar panels 5) panouri solare
6) wave energy 6) energia valurilor
7) hydroelectric dams 7) baraje hidroelectrice
8) biofuels 8) biocombustibili
9) nuclear energy 9) energia nuclear
10) clean coal. 10) crbunele curat.
Despite the successes achieved in the development n ciuda succeselor obinute n dezvoltarea tehnologiilor
of energy production technologies from renewable de producere a energiei din surse energetice regenerabile
energy sources, the cost of electricity produced from costul energiei electrice obinute din aceste resurse rmne
these resources is still higher than the cost of electricity nc mai mare dect costul energiei electrice generate prin
generated from the fossil fuels combustion. The cost of arderea combustibililor fosili. Costul energiei electrice

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the electricity produced from renewable resources may obinut din resurse regenerabile poate fi ns micorat dac
be reduced by taking into account the indirect costs se iau n calcul i costurile indirecte necesare producerii
required for the production of energy (environmental energiei (depoluarea mediului, costuri medicale, securizare
depollution, medical costs, energy security). The use of energetic). Gradul de utilizare a energiilor regenerabile s-a
renewable energy has improved a lot lately due to the mbuntit mult n ultimul timp datorit sprijinului
direct governmental support. guvernamental direct.
Romania has an important potential of resources for Romnia are un potenial important al resurselor de
renewable energy, but, for their recovery, the following energie regenerabil, dar, pentru valorificarea acestora trebuie
requirements must be met: overcoming the main barriers ndeplinite urmtoarele cerine: depirea principalelor
on the development of renewable energy sources (costs, bariere n calea dezvoltrii surselor regenerabile de energie
systems efficiency), the alignment to the specific EU (costuri, eficien a sistemelor), alinierea la reglementrile i
reglementations and procedures, the integration of procedurile specifice UE, integrarea sistemelor regenerabile
renewable systems in the national energetical systems. n sistemele energetice naionale.

WIND ENERGY ENERGIA EOLIAN


Wind energy is a source of renewable energy generated Energia eolian este o surs de energie regenerabil generat
by wind power. Wind energy recovery began with the de puterea vntului. Valorificarea energiei eoliene a nceput odat
first global oil crisis, in the "70 and in the "90 has cu prima criz mondial a petrolului, n anii 70, iar n anii
returned to the foreground due to the environmental 90 a revenit n prim plan din cauza impactului asupra
impact of the pollution generated by fossil fuels. At the mediului generat de poluarea cu combustibilii fosili. La sfritul
end of 2006, worldwide, the total capacity of wind anului 2006, capacitatea total pe plan mondial a generatoarelor
generators was 73.904 MW, representing about 1% of eoliene era de 73904 MW, reprezentnd circa 1% din necesarul
worldwide electricity. In some countries the amount of mondial de energie electric. n unele ri ponderea energiei
wind energy in the total energy consumption is significant, eoliene n consumul total de energie este semnificativ,
respectively: Denmark (23%), Spain (8%), Germany (6%). respectiv, n Danemarca (23%), Spania (8%), Germania (6%).

Fig. 1 - Eolian turbines / Turbine eoliene

Romanias situation is still inadequate regarding the Situaia din Romnia este nc necorespunztoare n
use of clean energy. Europe has 34.000 MW installed ceea ce privete utilizarea energiei curate. n Europa exist
in eolian turbines, while in Romania only 900 kW are in 34.000 MW instalai n turbine eoliene, n timp ce n
function. Romnia sunt n funciune doar 900 kW.
For Romania have been identified five wind areas Pentru Romnia au fost identificate cinci zone eoliene
(Fig. 2), depending on the environmental and (Fig. 2), n funcie de condiiile de mediu i topografice,
topographic conditions, taking into account the level of lund n considerare nivelul potenialului energetic la
the energy potential at an average height of 50 m. nlimea medie de 50 m. Din cercetri rezult c la noi n
Researches shows that in our country the wind energy ar potenialul energetic eolian este cel mai favorabil pe
potential is most favorable on the Black Sea coast, in the litoralul Mrii Negre, n zonele montane i podiuri din
mountain areas and in Moldova or Dobrogeas plateaus. Moldova sau Dobrogea.

Fig. 2 - Map of eolian potential for Romania / Harta potenialului eolian al Romniei
[http://www.energii-regenerabile.ro/]

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CONCENTRATED SOLAR ENERGY ENERGIA SOLAR CONCENTRAT


ABENGOA SOLAR company has developed, Compania ABENGOA SOLAR a dezvoltat n perioada
between 2001 and 2005, near Sevilla, the first private 2001-2005 lng Sevilla prima central solar privat din
solar plant in Europe, based on the PCS technology Europa care are la baz tehnologia PCS (puterea
(concentrated solar power). The system is based on a concentrata a soarelui). Sistemul este bazat pe un cmp de
field having 624 orientable mirrors and a 115 m height 624 de oglinzi orientabile i un turn de 115 m nlime (Fig.
tower (Fig. 3). Solar radiation is concentrated towards a 3). Radiaia solar este concentrat ctre un receptor aflat n
receiver located on top of the tower. The cooling fluid partea superioar a turnului. Fluidul de rcire circul prin
circulates through the tower in order to be converted into turn cu scopul de a fi transformat n abur care apoi se va
steam, which will then expand in a turbine coupled to a destinde ntr-o turbin cuplat la un generator pentru
generator for electrical energy production. producerea energiei electrice.

Fig. 3 - PCS system / Sistem PCS

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY ENERGIA GEOTERMAL


Is the energy from the heat contained in fluids and Reprezint energia provenit din cldura coninut n fluidele i rocile
underground rocks. This energy is clean and renewable, subterane. Aceast energie este nepoluant i regenerabil, putnd
and it can be used for homes heating, raising plants in fi utilizat pentru nclzirea locuinelor, creterea plantelor n sere,
greenhouses, drying crops, heating water in fish farms, uscarea recoltelor, nclzirea apei n cresctoriile de peti,
milk pasteurization or to produce electricity or for balearic pasteurizarea laptelui, pentru producerea de energie electric sau
resorts use. Geothermal reservoirs are located a few pentru utilizare n staiunile baleare. Rezervoarele geotermale se
kilometers deep in the earth's crust (Fig. 4). gsesc la civa kilometri n adncul scoarei terestre (Fig. 4).
For example, steam powered plants are using high Spre exemplu, uzinele pe baz de aburi folosesc apa la
temperature water over 182 C. The vapours put in to temperaturi foarte mari - mai mult de 182 C. Vaporii pun n
function the turbines, generating electricity. There are no funciune turbinele i genereaz electricitate. Nu exist
significant toxic emissions, and carbon dioxide, nitrogen emisii toxice semnificative, iar urmele de dioxid de carbon,
dioxide and sulfur traces appearing are 50 times lower dioxid de azot i sulf care apar sunt de 50 de ori mai mici
than in plants using fossil fuels. dect n uzinele ce utilizeaz combustibili fosili.
Europeans have proposed to double their production Europenii i-au propus ca, pn n 2010, s-i dubleze
of energy from geothermal source by 2010, so that this producia de energie din sursa geotermal, astfel nct acest
type of energy will increase its share in total energy tip de energie s i creasc ponderea n totalul energiei
consumed in Europe from 6%, as it is today, to 12 %. consumate n Europa de la 6%, ct e n prezent, la 12%.

Fig. 4 - Distribuia zonelor geotermale n Europa / Geothermal areas distribution in Europe

TIDAL AND WAVE ENERGY ENERGIA MAREELOR I A VALURILOR


Tides occur regularly in certain coastline areas worldwide, Mareele se produc cu regularitate n anumite zone de litoral de pe
with amplitudes which can sometimes reach 14-18 m, the glob, cu amplitudini care pot s ajung uneori la 14-18 m,
minimum amplitude required for this energy to be amplitudinea minim necesar pentru a putea fi valorificat
rationally recovered being 8 m. Those natural conditions raional aceast energie fiind de 8 m. Astfel de condiii naturale se

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can only be found in 20 zones (Atlantic coast of France, regsesc doar n 20 de zone (rmul atlantic al Franei, Marii
Great Britain, USA, Canada, Northern Australia and Britanii, SUA, Canadei, Nordul Australiei, Estul Chinei). Dac
Eastern China). If it could be fully recovered, this form of ar putea fi valorificat integral, aceast form de energie ar
energy could produce, in tidal motive plants (Fig. 5) about putea produce n centrale mareomotrice (Fig. 5) de circa
100.000 times more electricity than that produced in all 100.000 de ori mai mult energie electric dect cea produs
the hydro-electric plants functioning today worldwide. n toate hidrocentralele aflate n funciune n prezent pe glob.

Fig. 5 - The worlds first tidal turbine, from England / Fig. 6 - Plant for wave energy capture /
Prima turbin mareic din lume din Anglia Central de captare a energiei valurilor

Wave energy is also renewable, having a great Energia valurilor este de asemenea regenerabil, avnd
potential in areas with waves throughout the year or on un potenial foarte mare n zonele cu valuri pe tot parcursul
the seas and oceans. Portugal, Scotland or the UK have anului sau n largul mrilor i oceanelor. Portugalia, Scoia sau
special programs to convert wave energy into electricity. Marea Britanie au programe speciale de conversie a
The system achieved by the english company Orecon energiei valurilor n energie electric.
is a combination of landmark/sea platform (Fig. 6), Sistemul realizat de firma englez Orecon este o
having special pressure chambers in which the force of combinaie de baliz/platform maritim (Fig. 6), dotat cu
waves that hit the platform is converted into electricity by camere de presiune speciale n care fora valurilor ce lovesc
a turbine. The platform will produce about 1,5 platforma este transformat n electricitate de ctre o
megawatts. Studies have shown that wave energy could turbin. Platforma va produce n jur de 1,5 megawati. Din
provide 5% of the total energy requirements of the studii rezult c energia valurilor poate asigura 5% din
planet. necesarul total de energie al planetei.

SOLAR PANNELS PANOURI SOLARE


Sun can be considered as the most important source Soarele poate fi considerat drept cea mai important surs
of energy for our planet, which, unlike other usual energy de energie pentru planeta noastr, care, spre deosebire de alte
sources, could provide all the energy required by the surse de energie obinuit, ar putea s asigure ntreaga cantitate
modern industrialized society, worldwide, for a undefined de energie de care are nevoie societatea industrializat modern,
future. Figure 7 shows Romanias public map for solar la scar mondial, pentru un viitor indefinit. n figura 7 este
energy potential. prezentat harta public a potenialului energetic solar al Romniei.

Fig. 7 - Romanias map for solar energy potential [ICPE, ANM, ICEMENERG, 2006] /
Harta potenialului energetic solar al Romniei [ICPE, ANM, ICEMENERG, 2006]

Thermo-solar technologies use the heat from sun rays Tehnologiile termo-solare utilizeaz cldura razelor de soare
to produce hot water, electricity or to heat homes. pentru a produce ap cald, energie electric sau pentru
Thermo-solar applications can be simple residential nclzirea locuinelor. Aplicaiile termo-solare pot fi simple
heating water systems (Fig. 8) or even complex plants sisteme rezideniale de nclzire a apei (Fig. 8) sau chiar staii
that generate electricity. complexe de generare a energiei electrice.
According to the scheme in Figure 8, the solar Conform schemei din figura 8, colectorul solar, compus
collector, consisting of voided tubes, captures solar din tuburi vidate, capteaz radiaia solar i o transform
radiation and converts it into heat, transmitting it to a heat n energie termic, transmind-o la un schimbtor de

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exchanger. The heated thermal agent (antifreeze) is cldur. Agentul termic nclzit (antigel) este circulat de
circulated by the pump through the coil inside the tank. pomp prin serpentina din interiorul rezervorului. Apa rece
Cold water takes up the heat from the coil and it can be preia cldura de la serpentin i poate fi folosit ca ap
used as hot running water or for heating. cald menajer sau pentru nclzire.
The solar collector shown in Figure 9 is used for hot Colectorul solar din figura 9 se utilizeaz pentru prepararea
water preparation during March to October. It is made of apei calde n perioada martie - octombrie. Este construit
individual voided tubes that transfer solar radiation by din tuburi vidate individuale ce transfer radiaia solar,
convection, into the mass of water from the tank. prin convecie, n masa apei din rezervor. Din acest motiv
Therefore, the accumulation tank is mounted on top of the rezervorul de acumulare este montat n partea superioar
solar panel. Water from the voided tubes heats, reduces a panoului solar. Apa din tuburile vidate se nclzete, i
its density and rises in the tank, being replaced by an reduce densitatea i se ridic n rezervor, fiind nlocuit de
equivalent volume of cold water with higher density. The un volum echivalent de ap rece, cu densitate mai mare.
void from the glass tubes provides an effective Vidul din tuburile de sticl asigur o termoizolare eficient,
thermoisolation, heat losses outwards being very small. pierderile de cldur spre exterior fiind extrem de mici.
Photovoltaic panels convert the solar radiation into Panourile fotovoltaice transform radiaia solar n
electricity. The efficiency of such panels is between 8- energie electric. Randamentul unor asemenea panouri este
20%, depending on the absorbtion degree of solar cuprins ntre 8-20%, n funcie de gradul de absorbie a
radiation. Quite low efficiency of current photovoltaic radiaiei solare. Eficiena destul de scazut a panourilor
panels is mainly due to the fact that, from the visible solar fotovoltaice actuale este n principal datorat faptului c din
spectrum, only a small part of the wave frequency of light spectrul solar vizibil doar o mic parte de frecvene de und
radiation is converted into electricity. a radiaiilor luminoase sunt transformate n electricitate.

Fig. 8 - Thermo-solar system / Sistem termo-solar Fig. 9 - Solar collector / Colector solar

HYDROELECTRIC DAMS BARAJE HIDROELECTRICE


They are part of hydroelectric plants, converting the Intr n componena hidrocentralelor realiznd transformarea
mechanical energy of water into electricity (Fig. 10). energiei mecanice a apei n energie electric (Fig. 10).
Worldwide, capturing the energy of flowing water is Pe plan mondial, captarea energiei apelor curgtoare reprezint
one of the main sources to obtain electricity. Hydroelectric una dintre principalele surse de obinere a energiei electrice.
dams, in addition to their main role in electricity Barajele hidroelectrice, pe lng rolul lor predilect de obinere a
production, also have an important role into regulate the energiei electrice, au i importantul rol de regularizare a nivelului
level of rivers and prevent flooding. The negative effects rurilor i de prevenire a inundaiilor. Efectele negative ale
of these dams are: stopping the natural migration routes acestor baraje constau n: obturarea cilor de migraie natural a
of some aquatic species (such as sturgeon migration on unor specii acvatice (cum este cazul migraiei sturionilor pe
the Danube), reducing rivers biodiversity, blocking the Dunre), reducerea biodiversitii fluviilor, blocarea sedimentelor
sediment brought by rivers into barrier lakes, etc. aduse de ruri n lacurile de acumulare, etc.

Fig. 10 - Hydroelectric plant / Central hidroelectric

BIOFUELS BIOCOMBUSTIBILII
Oleaginuos plant processing to produce liquid fuels has Procesarea unor plante oleaginoase pentru obinerea de
been seen in the last years as one of the viable alternatives to combustibili lichizi a fost privit n ultimii ani ca una dintre

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the classic hydrocarbons based fuels. alternativele viabile la combustibilii clasici pe baz de hidrocarburi.
Biofuels have enjoyed considerable political support in Biocombustibilii s-au bucurat de un sprijin politic
the last years, the U.S. and Europe assigning datas for considerabil n ultimii ani, SUA i Europa stabilindu-i date
their introduction on the market and for the gradual pentru introducerea lor pe pia i nlocuirea treptat a
replacemen of oil. Experts in environmental and energy petrolului. Experii n mediu i energie i-au exprimat ns
have expressed their concern about biofuels, and last ngrijorarea fa de biocombustibili, iar UE a nceput s-i
year, the EU began to reconsider its position. According to regndeasc poziia anul trecut. Potrivit cercettorului Mark
researcher Mark Jacobson, ethanol based biofuels will be Jacobson, biocombustibilii pe baz de etanol vor duna mai
more harmful to human health, flora and fauna, water mult sntii umane, florei i faunei, resurselor de ap i
resources and soil than current fossil fuels. solului dect combustibilii fosili actuali.
Technical plants cultivation for biofuels leads to the Cultivarea plantelor tehnice din care se obin biocombustibilii
reduction of the area planted with cereals, due to better conduce la reducerea suprafeelor cultivate cu cereale, datorit
prices obtained by farmers for technical plants. This fact preurilor mai bune obinute de ctre fermieri din plantele
has a major contribution in the increasement of world prices tehnice. Acest fapt contribuie major la creterea preurilor
for food. Burning biofuels does not actually reduce the mondiale la alimente. Arderea biocombustibililor nu reduce
emissions of greenhouse effect gases. In some states, de fapt emisiile de gaze cu efect de ser. Cultivarea plantelor
technical plants cultivation is made through the destruction of tehnice n unele state se face prin distrugerea unor suprafee
large natural areas (tropical and equatorial forests, etc.). mari de zone naturale (pduri tropicale i ecuatoriale, etc).
In Figures 11 and 12 are presented two complete n figurile 11 i 12 sunt prezentate dou instalaii complete
plants for oil production as feedstock for biodiesel from de obinere a uleiului ca materie prim pentru biodiesel din
oilseeds (rapeseed, sunflower, etc.), and processing. semine oleaginoase (rapi, floarea soarelui, etc.), respectiv de
Methanol is stored in an airtight container, being procesare. Metanolul este stocat ntr-un recipient etan, fiind
recovered at the end of each processing. Glycerol is recuperat la finalul procesrii fiecrei trane. Glicerolul este
collected in order to be processed for recovery or burning colectat pentru procesare n vederea valorificrii sau arderii n
in special burners or steam generators. The fuel produced arztoare speciale sau generatoare de abur. Carburantul obinut
is filtered in two stages to ensure smooth operation of este filtrat n dou etape pentru a asigura o funcionare fr
diesel engines. Residues obtained by centrifugation for probleme a motoarelor diesel. Reziduurile obinute prin centrifugare
methylesters purification can be used as fertilizer. pentru purificare a metilesterilor poate fi utilizat ca fertilizator.

Fig. 11 - AGERATEC system for oil obtaining for biofuel / Sistem AGERATEC de obinere a uleiului pentru biocombustibil

Fig. 12 - AGERATEC processor for biodiesel / Procesor AGERATEC pentru biodiesel

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A special category of biofuels is biogas, which is in O categorie special a biocombustibililor o reprezint


fact a mixture of gases, mainly methane, resulting from biogazul, care este de fapt un amestec de gaze, n principal
the decomposition of living matter. In many cities of the metan, rezultate din descompunerea materiei vii. n multe
world were built, in recent decades, large collectors of orae ale lumii au fost construite n ultimele decenii mari
organic matter (scrap waste, waste from farm animals). colectoare de materie organic (resturi menajere, deeuri
This organic matter decomposes, and from its ale fermelor de animale). Aceast materie organic se
decomposition results biogas, which is collected. Then, descompune, iar din aceast descompunere rezult
methane is separated from the gas, entering in the biogazul, care este colectat. Din acesta se separ apoi
energetic system (Fig. 13). metanul, care intr n sistemul energetic (Fig. 13).

Fig. 13 - Scheme of biogas production and recovery / Schema de obinere i de valorificare a bigazului

NUCLEAR ENERGY ENERGIA NUCLEAR


Along with the first atom-powered electric plants, have Odat cu primele centrale atomoelectrice, au aprut i
also arised controversies regarding the use of energy controversele legate de utilizarea energiei rezultate din
produced from the decomposition of radioactive material. descompunerea materiei radioactive. n decursul anilor au
During the years, newer and more performant generations aprut generaii din ce n ce mai noi i mai performante de
of electronuclear plants have appeared. Electricity from centrale electronucleare. Energia electric provenit din
nuclear sources represented in 2007 approximately 15% surse nucleare reprezenta n anul 2007 aproximativ 15 % din
of the worldwide total. Major controversies related to the totalul de pe glob. Controversele majore legate de
construction and use of atom-powered electric plants are construirea i utilizarea centralelor atomoelectrice privesc n
primarily based on on their safety, as well as on the principal sigurana acestora, precum i modalitile i locurile
means and storage places of radioactive waste. de depozitare a deeurilor radioactive.

CLEAN COAL CRBUNELE CURAT


Coal remains the best known energy reserve on Earth. Crbunii rmn rezerva energetic cea mai bine cunoscut
Most of the world states (China, USA, Australia, etc.), are de pe Terra. Majoritatea statelor lumii (China, SUA, Australia,
getting today most of the electricity needed by coal etc.), i obin i astzi cea mai mare parte a energiei electrice
burning. The major problem of coal use is related to the necesare prin arderea crbunilor. Problema major a utilizrii
volume of pollutant emissions. Therefore, in the last carbunilor este legat de volumul mare al emisiilor poluante. De
decade have been created technologies called "clean", aceea, n ultimul deceniu au fost create tehnologii numite
which capture most of these emissions. Even the use of curate, care capteaz cea mai mare parte a acestor emisii.
"clean" coal is controversial, because many researchers Utilizarea, chiar i curat a crbunilor este controversat,
argue that the reduction of pollutant emissions is virtually pentru c numeroi cercettori pretind c aceast reducere a
impossible. Issues related on clean coal technologies also emisiilor poluante este practic imposibil. Problemele legate
concerns the high costs of thermo-electric plants de tehnologiile curate ale crbunilor privesc n bun msur i
retechnology. costurile ridicate ale retehnologizrii centralelor termoelectrice.

CONCLUSIONS CONCLUZII
Through a strategy of Romanias energy development, Printr-o strategie de dezvoltare energetic a Romniei se
it can be provided increased safety in the energy supply poate asigura creterea siguranei n alimentarea cu energie i
and limitation of energy resources imports, in terms of limitarea importului de resurse energetice, n condiiile unei
accelerated economic development. This requirement can dezvoltri economice accelerate. Aceast cerin se poate
be achieved, on one hand, by implementing a sustained realiza, pe de o parte, prin implementarea unei politici susinute
policy of energy conservation, increasing energy efficiency de conservare a energiei, creterea eficienei energetice care
leading to the decoupling of economic development rate s conduc la decuplarea ritmului de dezvoltare economic de
from the energy consumption development, while evoluia consumului de energie, concomitent cu creterea
increasing the value of renewable energy. gradului de valorificare a surselor regenerabile de energie.
The recovery of the potential of renewable energy Valorificarea potentialului surselor regenerabile de
sources gives real prerequisites for achieving some energie confer premise reale de realizare a unor obiective
strategic goals regarding the increasing of the security in strategice privind creterea siguranei n alimentarea cu
energy supply by diversifying the sources and reducing energie prin diversificarea surselor i diminuarea ponderii
the share of energy resources imports, the sustainable importului de resurse energetice, respectiv, de dezvoltare
development of energy sector and environmental protection. durabil a sectorului energetic i protejarea mediului nconjurator.
Renewable energy sources can contribute to the Sursele regenerabile de energie pot contribui la

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gratification of current needs of heating in certain under- satisfacerea nevoilor curente de ncalzire n anumite zone
privileged (rural) areas. To valorify the economical (rurale) defavorizate. Pentru valorificarea potenialului economic al
potential of renewable energy sources, in competitive surselor regenerabile de energie, n condiii concureniale ale
energy market conditions, it is necessary to adopt and pieei de energie, este necesar adoptarea i punerea n
implement some policies, tools and specific resources. practic a unor politici, instrumente i resurse specifice.
In "2001/77/EC Directive", of 27 September 2001, on n "Directiva 2001/77/EC", din 27 septembrie 2001,
"Promotion of electricity produced from renewable privind "Promovarea energiei electrice produs din surse
sources, on single energy market", it is set the strategic regenerabile, pe piaa unic de energie", se stabilete
objective regarding the contribution of renewable sources obiectivul strategic privind aportul surselor regenerabile n
in the total primary energy resources, which should be up consumul total de resurse energetice primare, care trebuie
to 12% in 2010. In Romania also, the share of renewable s fie de 12%, n anul 2010. i n Romnia, ponderea
energy sources in total consumption of primary resources, surselor regenerabile de energie n consumul total de
in 2010, will have a level of about 11%, and in 2015 to resurse primare, n anul 2010, urmeaz s aib un nivel de
11,2%. circa 11%, iar n anul 2015 de 11,2%.

BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAFIE
1. Ceauu S., Improved system for solar energy capture, 1. Ceauu S., Un sistem mbuntit de captare a energiei
EcoSapiens, 29.03. 2009 solare, EcoSapiens, 29.03. 2009
2. Stnic A., On alternative energy resources of 2. Stnic A., Despre resursele alternative de energie ale
humanity, HotScience, HotNews.ro, 8.01.2009. omenirii, HotScience, HotNews.ro, 8.01.2009.
3. http://.www.energieverde.wordpress.com 3. http://.www.energieverde.wordpress.com
4. http://www.panourisolare.net/ 4. http://www.panourisolare.net/
5. http://ro.altermedia.info/stiintatehnologie/introducere- 5. http://ro.altermedia.info/stiintatehnologie/introducere-in-
in-energia-geotermala_3077.html energia-geotermala_3077.html
6. http://www.energianoastra.ro/index.php?id=17 6. http://www.energianoastra.ro/index.php?id=17
7. http://www.agir.ro/univers- 7. http://www.agir.ro/univers-
ingineresc/captarea_si_conversia_energiei_valurilor_1 ingineresc/captarea_si_conversia_energiei_valurilor_14
485.html 85.html
8. http://www.ecomagazin.ro/energia-valurilor-o-sursa- 8. http://www.ecomagazin.ro/energia-valurilor-o-sursa-
inepuizabila-la-dispozitia-omenirii. inepuizabila-la-dispozitia-omenirii

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STUDIES, RESEARCHES AND RESULTS FOR OBTAINING AND USING BIOGAS


/
STUDII, CERCETRI I REZULTATE PRIVIND OBINEREA I UTILIZAREA BIOGAZULUI

Prof.on.dr.ing. Ion Pirn, prof.on.dr.ing. Vergil Gngu, dr.ing. Valentin Vldu


- INMA Bucureti -

Abstract. The raw material subjected to the anaerobic Rezumat. Materia prim supus procesului de
fermentation process represents another important factor fermentare anaerob reprezint un alt factor important al
of biogas production. The quantitative and qualitative produciei de biogaz. Influena cantitativ i calitativ
influence on biogas production is determined by the asupra produciei de biogaz este determinat de
content of biodegrading organic matter in the raw coninutul de materie organic biodegradabil din
material that is being exposed to the microorganism materialul brut supus aciunii microorganismelor, de
action, by the C/N ratio, pH, and humidity. raportul C/N, de pH, de umiditate.

Keywords: alternative energy, clean energy, biofuel, Cuvinte cheie: energie alternativ, energie curat,
biodiesel biocombustibil, biodiesel

INTRODUCTION INTRODUCERE
Romania is currently dependent on imported Romnia este n prezent dependent de furnizarea energiei
energy supply (oil + gas) at 60%. din import (petrol + gaze naturale) n proporie de 60%.
The integration of Romania stipulates that by 2020, Programul de Integrare a Romniei stipuleaz c
energy needs produced from renewable sources pn n 2020, necesarul de energie obinut din surse
(biomass, solar, wind, geothermal) are up to 24% of total regenerabile (biomas, energie solar, eolian, geotermal)
energy produced. s fie n proporie de 24% din energia total produs.
At this time the actual contribution of renewable in La aceast dat contribuia efectiv a surselor regenerabile
national energy balance is insignificant (unquantifiable). la balana energetic naional este nesemnificativ (necuantificabil).
Diversion technologies to produce energy and Reorientarea tehnologiilor de producere a energiei i
control the risks it presents. punerea sub control a riscurilor pe care le prezint.
Conservation and enhancement of resources, Conservarea i sporirea bazei de resurse, reducerea
reducing emission of carbon monoxide, the development emisiei de monoxid de carbon, dezvoltarea surselor
of renewable energy. regenerabile de energie.

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PROBLEM NEED TO BIOGAS NECESITATEA ABORDRII PROBLEMEI BIOGAZULUI


Reduction of environmental pollution (air, water, soil): Reducerea polurii mediului (aer, apa, sol):
avoids fallout of ammonia and methane in the - se evit emanaiile de amoniac i metan n atmosfer
atmosphere (the greenhouse effect); (efectul de ser);
reducing air pollution with unpleasant odors (due - reducerea polurii atmosferei cu mirosuri neplcute
residues); (datorate reziduurilor);
use and neutralizing residues from production processes - utilizarea i neutralizarea reziduurilor proceselor de
agro-livestock, food industry, slaughterhouses, producie din fermele agrozootehnice, industrie
marc of beer and alcohol from obtaining biodiesel alimentar, abatoare, borhoturi de bere i alcool, de la
without burning; obinerea biodieselului fr incinerare;
Obtaining a very valuable natural fertilizer, which can Obinerea unui ngrmnt natural foarte valoros, care se
be taken on agricultural land through: poate administra pe terenuri agricole prin mprtiere:
in liquid form; - sub form lichid;
as powdery (dry). - sub form pulverulent (uscat).
The reintroduction of the agricultural production Reintroducerea n circuitul agricol prin cultivarea cu
through the cultivation of "energy plants": plante energetice:
land with low production potential (economically - terenuri cu potenial productiv sczut (nerentabil
unprofitable); economic);
compliance rate of the area under cultivation of - respectarea cotelor de suprafee cultivate conform
.
Romania's EU Accession. Programului de Aderare a Romniei la U.E.

TECHNIQUES FOR RECOVERY OF ENERGY FROM TEHNICI DE RECUPERARE A ENERGIEI DIN


ORGANIC FARM RESIDUE REZIDURILE ORGANICE AGRICOLE
- Anaerobic fermentation at ambient temperature; - Fermentarea anaeroba la temperatura mediului ambiant;
- Anaerobic fermentation at high temperatures; - Fermentarea anaeroba la temperaturi ridicate;
- Termophile anaerobic decomposition; - Descompunerea anaeroba termofil;
- Distillation; - Distilarea;
- Composting; - Compostarea;
- Incineration. - Incinerarea.

BIOGAS BIOGAZUL
- Combustible gas mixture which is formed by the - Amestec de gaze combustibile care se formeaz prin
decomposition of organic substances (plant descompunerea substanelor organice (reziduuri

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residues, animal waste, etc.) in humid environment, vegetale, animale, deeuri menajere, etc) n mediul
devoid of oxygen and light; umed, lipsit de oxigen i lumin;
- It may occur naturally (in garbage pits, swamps, - Se poate produce n mod natural (n gropi de gunoi,
farms); mlatini, ferme);
- May occur in specially equipped stations (depending - Se poate produce n staii special amenajate (n
on the feedstock used, the concentration of methane funcie de materiile prime folosite, concentraia de
varies from 45 to 75%; metan variaz de la 45 la 75%;
- The training is ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION, the - Procesul de formare este FERMENTAREA ANAEROB,
temperature t = 40C, the amount of methane in la temperatura t = 40C, cantitatea de metan n
biogas is 75-80% maximum; biogaz este maxim 7580%;
- Cellulose is the main component of organic matter - Celuloza este principalul component al materiei
used in the formation of biogas (cellulose is about organice utilizat la formarea biogazului (celuloza
50% of organic matter). reprezint circa 50% din materia organic).

TYPES OF BACTERIA THAT GENERATE FERMENTATION TIPURI DE BACTERII CARE GENEREAZA PROCESUL
PROCESS DE FERMENTARE
Groups of bacteria: Grupuri de bacterii:
- hidrolitice; - hidrolitice;
- acidogene; - acidogene;
- acetogene; - acetogene;
- omocetogene; - omocetogene;
- metanogene - classical; - metanogene clasice;
- metanogene - hidrogenotrofe - metanogene hidrogenotrofe
Depending on the temperature at the optimum n funcie de temperatura optim la care activeaz,
working groups of bacteria may be: grupurile de bacterii pot fi:
- mezofile bacteria; toptim = 35C; - bacterii mezofile; toptim = 35C;
- termophile bacteria; toptim = 55C. - bacterii termofile; toptim = 55C.
The mixture of organic material + water efficient Amestecul de materii organice + apa n procesul de
fermentation process must have an optimum pH = 77.5. fermentare eficient trebuie s aib un pH optim = 77,5.

PROCESS STAGES A DECOMPOSITION OF ORGANIC FAZELE PROCESULUI DE DESCOMPUNERE A MATERIILOR


MATTER IN ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION PROCESS ORGANICE N PROCESUL DE FERMENTARE ANAEROB
STAGE 1 "HYDROLYSIS" hidrolitice bacteria convert FAZA 1 HIDROLIZA: bacteriile hidrolitice transform
substrates with enzymes (proteins, carbohydrates, fats, substraturile cu ajutorul enzimelor (proteinele, carbohidraii,
cellulose) in combination with low molecular (amino grsimi, celuloz) n combinaii cu coninut molecular sczut
acids, water, fatty acids); (aminoacizi, ap, acizi grai);
STAGE 2: bacteria decompose acidogene combinations FAZA 2: bacteriile acidogene descompun combinaiile cu
containing low molecular organic acid, carbon dioxide, coninut molecular sczut n acizi organici, dioxid de
hydrogen sulfide, ammonia; carbon, hidrogen sulfurat, amoniac;
STAGE 3: bacteria acetogene produce acetate, carbon FAZA 3: bacteriile acetogene produc acetai, dioxid de
dioxide and hydrogen. carbon si hidrogen.
STAGE 4: bacteria metanogene phase transforms the No.3 FAZA 4: bacteriile metanogene transform rezultatele fazei
in methane, carbon dioxide, water. nr.3 in metan, dioxid de carbon, ap
4H2O + CO2 CH4 + 2H2O + Q (water vapor, ammonia, CO2 + 4H2O CH4 + 2H2O + Q (vapori de ap, amoniac,
etc.). etc).

NOTE: NOT:
If BIOGAS STATIONS, the constant adding organic In cazul STATIILOR DE BIOGAZ, la adugarea constanta
material such phase decomposition takes place de materiale organice aceste faze de descompunere au
simultaneously in the same tank fermentation bacteria loc simultan in acelai bazin de fermentare, bacteriile
uninfluencing negative in some others. neinfluenndu-se n mod negativ unele pe altele.

PARTICULARS OF METANOGENE BACTERIA PARTICULARITATI ALE BACTERIILOR METANOGENE


The temperature of the organic materials in the Nivelul de temperatura a materialelor organice in
process of how weather influences the action of procesul de descompunere influeneaz modul de
bacteria: aciune al bacteriilor:
 how temperature increases with both:  cu cat temperatura creste cu att:
decomposition of organic matter is faster; - descompunerea materiei organice este mai rapid;
the amount of gas generated is greater (CH4, - cantitatea de gaze generat este mai mare
H2, other gases); (CH4; H2; alte gaze);
quantity of biogas decreases.  cantitatea de biogaz scade.
Bacteria are sensitive to temperature variations: Bacteriile sunt sensibile la variaiile de temperatur:
the mezofil (t = 253C), bacteria survive on  n domeniul mezofil (t = 253C), bacteriile
variations of 23C; supravieuiesc la variaii de 23C;
the termofil (t = 4570C) bacteria survive on  n domeniul termofil (t = 4570C) bacteriile
variations of 1 C. supravieuiesc la variaii de 1C.
Metanogene bacteria can not decompose fat, protein, Bacteriile metanogene nu pot descompune grsimi, proteine,
starch or cellulose in pure (requires soluble N2). celuloza sau amidon in stare pura (este nevoie de N2
Stations in biogas manure is recommended to use the solubil). n staiile de biogaz se recomanda utilizarea blegarului

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base substrate to avoid segregation and obtaining a cu substrat de baza pentru a evita segregarea si
stable material in terms of pH. obinerea unui material stabil din punct de vedere al pH-ului.

BIOGAS STATIONS STAIILE DE BIOGAZ


Is a reliable source of environmental protection and Reprezint o sursa sigur de protecie a mediului i de
economic and financial stability of farmers. stabilitate economico-financiar a fermierilor.
A station Biogas can provide: O staie de BIOGAZ poate furniza:
- electricity; - energie electric;
- electricity and heat (heat, hot water cogeneration - energie electric i termic (cldura, ap cald
technology); tehnologic prin cogenerare);
- natural fertilizer in the form of liquid or powdery. - ngrmnt natural sub forma lichid sau pulverulent.
Stations Biogas can be of two types: Staiile de BIOGAZ pot fi de dou tipuri:
- biogas stations agro-livestock fed with droppings, - staii de biogaz agro-zootehnice alimentate cu
corn silage, grass, grain demoted; dejecii, siloz de porumb, iarb, cereale declasate;
- biogas stations powered agro-industrial residues with - staiile de biogaz agro-industriale alimentate suplimentar
supplementary food, the slaughter, from biodiesel cu reziduri din industria alimentar, din abatorizare, de
production, etc. la producerea biodieselului, etc.
Mud result in the process of fermentation: Nmolul rezultat in urma procesului de fermentare:
- does not contain ammonia; - nu conine amoniac;
- can be used successfully during plant growth (pH is - se poate utiliza cu succes n faza de cretere a
slightly alkaline); plantelor (pH-ul fiind uor bazic);
- is not aggressive for soil microorganisms; - nu este agresiv pentru microorganismele din sol;
- inorganic substances resulting from the mud are more - substanele anorganice din nmolul rezultat sunt
easily assimilated in plants avoiding the pollution of mai uor asimilate in plante evitndu-se poluarea
surface and groundwater. apelor de suprafa i freatice.

TYPOLOGY STATIONS BIOGAS TIPOLOGIA STATIILOR DE BIOGAZ


- Model 1: Fermented + Deposit of mud - Model 1: Fermentator + Depozit de nmol;
- Model 2: Prefermentation + Fermented + Deposit of mud - Model 2: Prefermentator + Fermentator + Depozit de nmol;
- Model 3: Fermented + Postfermentator + Deposit of mud; - Model 3: Fermentator + Postfermentator + Depozit de namol;
- Model 4: Prefermentation + Fermented + Postfermentation - Model 4: Prefermentator + Fermentator + Postfermentator +
+ Deposit of mud. Depozit de nmol.

CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS MATERIALE DE CONSTRUCTIE


 Reinforced Concrete  Beton armat
Advantages: in the developed industrial buildings are Avantaje: in tarile dezvoltate construciile industriale sunt
cheap (endowment, experience, know-how). ieftine (dotare, experiena, know-how).
Disadvantages: exact dimensional requirements (wall Dezavantaje: condiii dimensionale exacte (grosimea
thickness), non-stop casting casings with sliding, pereilor); turnare non-stop cu cofraje glisante, vibrare
continuous vibration, corrosion by high acid formation in continu; coroziune ridicata prin formarea acizilor in zona
the area of gas accumulation. acumulrii de gaz.
 Prefabricate  Prefabricate
Advantages: obtaining accurate dimensions; Avantaje: obinerea dimensiunilor exacte;
Disadvantages: requires casting forms, problems with joints, Dezavantaje: necesita forme de turnare, cu probleme la
difficult to transport parts, joints problems because of differences mbinri; componente greu de transportat; probleme la
in temperature and expansion between the different plates mbinri din cauza diferentelor de temperatura si dilatri
and the concrete superstructure. diferite ntre plcile de beton i suprastructur.
 Verinox  Verinox
It is a combination of thin sheets of stainless steel on the Este o combinaie de tabl subire de inox pe interior i
inside and thick galvanized on the outside, having tabl zincat groas pe exterior, avnd ntre ele o folie de
between them a sheet of plastic. Returns the drum, material plastic. Livrare pe tambur, construcia la faa
building on the ground with sander machine. locului cu maina de fluit.
Advantages: easy and quick construction; Avantaje: construcie rapid i uoar;
Disadvantages: at the sander is to destroy the layer of Dezavantaje: la fluire se distruge stratul de zinc i apoi
zinc and the corrosion layer of steel. apare coroziunea stratului de otel.
 Stainless Steel.  Oel inox.

RESEARCH INMA CERCETRI INMA


Biogas plants were known as main disadvantage Instalaiile de biogaz cunoscute au ca principal dezavantaj
unloading equipment. It runs as a separate operation descrcarea instalaiei. Aceasta se execut ca operaiune
with great effort and discomfort in the human or distinct cu mare efort i disconfort uman in cazul descrcrii
manual discharge energy sea, Where mechanized, manuale sau cu consum energetic mare, cazul descrcrii
reducing the operation. mecanizate, reducnd timpul de funcionare a instalaiei.
The installation INMA: Modelul de instalaie INMA:
- ensure the natural flow of material from fermented - asigur curgerea natural a materialului fermentat de
plant entrance to escape, while that of developing la intrare in instalaie pana la evacuare, timp in care se
fermentation processes in biogas liberation; deruleaz procesele de fermentare cu degajare de biogaz;
- construction materials are cheaper, durable (glass - materialele de construcie sunt mai ieftine, durabile
fiber impregnated with resin polyesters); (fibra de sticla impregnata cu rin poliesteric);
- during construction, installation and operation is - timpul de construcie, montaj si punere in funciune este

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short; scurt;
- adaptive for capacity 1050 mc, or in connection - adaptabil pentru capaciti: 1050 mc, sau conexiune
with several fermentation (bioreactor). n paralel cu mai multe fermentatoare (bioreactoare).

CONCLUSIONS CONCLUZII
- The Pilot Stations - INMA is a copy of the distance of - Modelul Staiei Pilot INMA este o copie a traiectului
the digestive system of cattle. digestiv al bovinelor.
- The efficiency of such stations increases if: - Eficienta unei astfel de staii creste daca:
 process is anaerobic (O2 + light excluded);  procesul este anaerob (exclus O2 + lumin);
 substrates of organic material must be strong and  substraturile de materie organica s fie puternic umidificate
mixed moistened (SU less than 15%, 7% optimal); si omogenizate (SU mai mic dect 15%; optim 7%);
 a uniform consistency throughout the fermentation  exist omogenitate uniform n tot volumul fermentatorului
volume (continuous agitation brings fresh food (agitarea continu aduce hrana proaspt bacteriilor
metanogene bacteria, increasing the production of metanogene, crescnd producia de biogaz);
biogas);  mrunirea materiei prime creeaz suprafaa mare de
 grind material created over the surface of bacteria aciune a bacteriilor (macerare, mcinare, scmoare,
(maceration, grinding, extrusion, pasteurization); extrudare, pasteurizare);
 dosage supply of fresh organic material as  dozarea alimentrii cu materii organice proaspete
homogeneous; ct mai omogen;
 constant temperature as a substrate to dosing;  temperatura constant a substratului la dozare;
 constant value of pH = 6.77.5.  valoarea constanta a pH = 6,77,5.
In the fermentation of certain residues (grease, oils, La fermentarea anumitor reziduuri (grsime, uleiuri,
marcs) is necessary for determining permanent injection borhoturi) este necesar dozarea permanenta pentru injectare
and mixing. si agitare.
Of action for further research in INMA: Direcii de aciune pentru continuarea cercetrilor n INMA:
- deepen food recipes mixed fermentation a practical - aprofundarea reetelor amestecurilor de alimentare a
applicability to the farmers; fermentatorului pentru aplicabilitatea practic la fermieri;
- determination of the nutrient (C / N / P / S) and - determinarea raportului nutritiv (C/N/P/S) i a
nomogrames dosage; ciclogramelor de dozare;
- technical solutions - economic coupling in parallel. - soluii tehnico economice de cuplare n paralel.

Fig. 1 - Section view of a biogas plant / Vedere n seciune a unei instalaii de biogaz

Fig. 2 Providing a constant temperature inside fermentation main results and discharge gas in the fermentation /
Asigurarea unei temperaturi constante n interiorul fermentatorului principal i evacuarea gazelor rezultate n procesul de fermentare

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Fig. 3 - Wall structure / Fig. 4 - Links valence space, heat stable /


Structura peretelui Legturile de valen spaiale, termic stabile
1 - protective outer layer / stratul de protecie exterior; 2 - outer layer of reinforcement / stratul de armare exterior;
3 - intermediate layer / stratul intermediar; 4 - kernel layer / stratul nucleu; 5 - intermediate layer / stratul intermediar;
6 - interior reinforcement layer / stratul de armare interior; 7 - layer closure / stratul de nchidere; 8 - layer of protection inside / stratul de protecie interior

Raw materials Materiile prime


Resin polyesters Rin poliesteric
Polyesters resin consists of two components: Rina poliesteric este alctuit din dou componente:
- saturated polyesters resin;  rin poliesteric saturat;
- firming agent reactive unsaturated.  agent de ntrire reactiv nesaturat.
During polymerization, liquid mixture becomes a Pe parcursul polimerizrii, amestecul lichid se transform
solid mass. Polyesters resin is part of a group reactive ntr-o mas solid. Rina poliesteric face parte din grupa
plastics (duroplaste). Macromolecules of these materials materialelor plastice reactive (duroplaste). Macromoleculele
occurs through molecular interpenetration areas in a acestor materiale apar prin ntreptrunderea zonelor
space and creates a solid link, of which none of the moleculare ntr-o reea spaial i creeaz o legtur solid,
molecules can not be freed. The product does not distort din care nici una dintre molecule nu se poate elibera. Produsul
in heat and mass released is insoluble. nu se deformeaz la cldur iar masa aprut este insolubil.

Fig. 5 - Location of tanks and fermentation of food / Amplasarea tancurilor de alimentare i fermentare

Fig. 6 - Supply droppings plant / Alimentarea cu dejecii a instalaiei

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Fig. 6 Measurement of gas flow and pressure result / Msurarea debitului i presiunii gazului rezultat

Fig. 7 Solar panels to ensure/enhance the process of fermentation Fig. 8 Supply and evacuation of the biogas /
in the biogas / Panouri solare pentru asigurarea/ intensificarea Alimentarea i evacuarea instalaiei de biogaz
procesului de fermentare n instalaia de biogaz

EXEMPLE DE COSTURI UNITARE DE BIOGAZ PRODUS DE DIVERSE TIPURI DE BIOMASA /


EXAMPLES OF BIOGAS UNIT COSTS PRODUCT OF VARIOUS TYPES BIOMASS
Tabel 1
Costul unitar de
Subst. Producia potenial
biogaz produs / Unit
uscat / de biogaz / Potential Pre / Price
Biomasa / Biomass cost of biogas
dry production of biogas (euro / t) 3
3 produced (euro/m
substance (m /tt.q.)
biogas)
Siloz de porumb / Silage corn 30 200,48,2 72 0,36
Siloz de sorg / Sorghum silage 20 118,84,7 65 0,55
Fin de porumb / Corn Flour 32,7 225,620,9 75 0,33
Faina de orez / Rice flour 89 517,91,8 150 0,29
Grune de porumb / Grain maize 26,6 182,9+2,7 80 0,44
Past de cereale / Paste grain 45 316,9+8 110 0,35
Paie de orz / Barley straw 36 190,44,9 47 0,26
Dejecii porcine proaspete / Fresh pig droppings 4,2 10,40,4 0 0,00
Dejecii porcine prefermentate / Pig droppings presour 3,3 5,20,3 0 0,00
Dejecii bovine / Cattle droppings 1,8 2,40,1 0 0,00
Excremente de pasare / Bird droppings 23,5 97,86,4 0 0,00
Dejecii de iepure / Rabbit droppings 37,1 130,23,8 0 0,00
Noroi din staia de purificare / Mud from station purification 19,3 46,4+0,9 0 0,00
Resturi organice selecionate (1) / Selected organic
55,1 430,324,2 -45 -0,10
scraps (1)
Resturi organice selecionate (2) / Selected organic
48,1 376,1+2,6 -45 -0,12
scraps (2)
Resturi organice selecionate (3) / Selected organic
45,2 351,2146,6 -45 -0,13
scraps (3)
Fraciuni de resturi organice / Cut fractions scraps
35 226,1 7,7 -45 -0,20
of organic
Resturi vegetale / Vegetable scraps 26,4 177,09,3 -45 -0,25
Resturi de fructe i legume / Remains of fruit and
23,7 158,118,7 -45 -0,28
vegetables
Resturi de carne de pete / Scraps of meat fish 42,4 415,510 -45 -0,11

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Resturi de la mcelrii / Remains of the butcheries 19 102,50,4 -45 -0,44


Resturi de la panificaie / Remains of the bakery 66 482,5+27,8 -60 0,12
Resturi de lapte / Scrap milk 14,5 112,84,4 0 0,00
Resturi marinate de la prelucrarea berii / Marine
26 101,8+2,1 20 0,20
scrap processing beer
Drojdie de la producerea berii / Yeast in beer
6,3 29,50,2 10 034
production
Resturi de cartofi / Scrap potatoes 20 126,83,5 0 0,00
Melas / Molasses 98 498,56,7 120 0,24
Glicerin / Glycerin 98 587,643,3 70 0,12
Resturi de msline stoarse 1 / Remains of crushed
27,6 301,09,3 20 0,07
olives 1
Resturi de msline stoarse 2 / Remains of crushed
83,2 521,95 20 0,04
olives 2
Resturi de la fabricile de ulei / Remains of the oil
24,1 175,48 20 0,11
factories

BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAFIE
[1]. E. Popa, etc. - RESEARCH ON PROCESS OPTIMIZATION [1]. Popa E. .a. - CERCETARI PRIVIND OPTIMIZAREA
ANAEROBIC BIOCHEMICAL FFERMENTATIE OF PROCESELOR BIOCHIMICE DE FFERMENTATIE
BIODEGRADABLE WASTE TO OBTAIN COMBUSTIBLE ANAEROBA A DESEURILOR BIODEGRADABILE IN
GASES, Study on optimization of biochemical processes VEDEREA OBTINERII DE GAZE COMBUSTIBILE, Studiu
of anaerobic fermentation of biodegradable organic privind optimizarea proceselor biochimice de fermentare
waste in biogas plants, Research report, INMA anaeroba a deseurilor organice biodegradabile in
Bucharest, 2006; instalatii de biogaz, Raport de cercetare, INMA 2006;
[2]. E. Popa, etc. - TECHNOLOGY OBTAINING BIOGAS [2]. Popa E., .a - TEHNOLOGIE DE OBTINERE A
AS SOURCE OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY THROUGH BIOGAZULUI CA SURSA ALTERNATIVA DE ENERGIE
3
FERMENTATION ANAEROBIC, IN THE 10m , PRIN FERMENTAREA ANAEROBA, IN MODUL DE
3
ORGANIC WASTE MENAJERE AND ANIMAL 10m , A DESEURILOR ORGANICE MENAJERE SI A
DROPPINGS, Report of experimentation, INMA Bucharest, DEJECTIILOR DE ANIMALE, Raport de experimentri,
2005; INMA 2005;
[3]. E. Popa, A. Muscalu, Alexandrescu I. - Installation of [3]. Popa E., Muscalu A., Alexandrescu I. - Instalatie de
biogas microferme for livestock and household peasant biogaz pentru microferme zootehnice si gospodarii
farming, Agriculture Mechanization Nr. 7 / 2006. agricole rneti, Mecanizarea Agriculturii Nr. 7/2006.

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MECHANIZATION TECHNOLOGY FOR DEEP DECOMPACTION AND AERATION OF


DEFECTIVE SOILS, CONCOMITANTLY WITH THE ADMINISTRATION OF NUTRITIVE
ELEMENTS
/
TEHNOLOGIE DE MECANIZARE PENTRU DECOMPACTAREA I AERAREA N PROFUNZIME
A SOLURILOR DEFICITARE, CONCOMITENT CU ADMINISTRAREA DE ELEMENTE
NUTRITIVE
Prof. on. dr. ing. Iosif COJOCARU, Dr. ing. Nicolae CONSTANTIN, Prof. on. dr. ing. Ion PIRNA,
Dr. ing Eugen MARIN - INMA Bucureti
Dr.ing. Alexandru COCIU - INCDA Fundulea

Abstract: The occupied surface in our country by the soils Abstract: Suprafaa ocupat n ara noastr de solurile cu
with a high degree of quality deterioration is about 19,8% un grad ridicat de deteriorare a calitii este de circa
of the total agricultural surface. The new mechanization 19,8% din totalul suprafeei agricole. Noua tehnologie de
technology of soil work in the arable substrate has as mecanizare a lucrrii solului n substratul arabil are drept
purpose the deep decompaction and aeration of defective scop decompactarea i aerarea n profunzime a solurilor
soils concomitantly with the administration of nutritive deficitare concomitent cu administrarea de elemente
elements. Its application at an appropriate qualitative level nutritive. Aplicarea ei la un nivel calitativ corespunztor
to the agricultural-pedologic requirements, at a price as cerinelor agropedologice, la un pre de cost ct mai
much as low and with a reduce energy consumption has sczut i cu un consum redus de energie a impus
imposed promoting a new technical equipment, with promovarea unui nou echipament tehnic, cu parametri
superior constructive and functional parameters, destined constructivi i funcionali superiori, destinat tractoarelor pe
to the wheeled tractors of 180-240 HP, equipped with five roi de 180-240 CP, echipat cu cinci organe active de tipul
active organs of blade reversible chisel type and two cuit dalt reversibil i doi tvlugi cu gheare, pe care se
field rollers with claws, on which is mounted an equipment monteaz un echipament de administrat elemente nutritive
for administrating hard soluble nutritive elements. The new greu solubile. Noul echipamentul tehnic denumit DECOM-
technical equipment named DECOM-FERTI is realizing FERTI, realizeaz adncimi de lucru de max. 40cm la
working depths of max. 40 cm at soils chiseling and of cizelatul solului si de max. 60 cm la lucrarea solului din
max. 60 cm at soils work in the arable substrate, the substratul arabil, limea de lucru fiind de cca. 2,55 m si
working width being of approx. 2,55 m and the working capacitatea de lucru de cca 1,56 ha/h; administreaz
capacity of approx. 1,56 ha/h; it administers nutritive elements elemente nutritive (fosfor i potasiu) cu norme de 70120
(phosphorus and potassium) with norms of 70120 kg/ha. kg/ha.

Keywords: technical equipment; soil decompaction and Cuvinte cheie: echipament tehnic; decompactare i
aeration; administration of nutritive elements aerare sol; administrare elemente nutritive.

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS CONSIDERAII GENERALE


Romania is confronting with a degree of soil quality Romnia se confrunt cu un grad de deteriorare a
deterioration by phenomenon as erosion, acidification, calitii solului prin fenomene de eroziune, acidificare,
alkalinization, humidity excess or drought, soil salinization, alcalinizare, exces de umiditate sau seceta, srturare,
compaction, etc. The main process of soil degradation, by compactare etc. Principalul proces de degradare a solului,
extension with socio-economic impact too, is represented by prin extensie i impact socio-economic l reprezint
erosion by water, which together with the landslides comprise eroziunea prin ap, care mpreun cu alunecrile de teren
over 7 mil ha of agricultural terrain. The second factor as cuprind peste 7 mil. ha teren agricol. Al doilea factor ca
importance in soil degradation is the periodical excess of importan n degradarea solului este excesul periodic de
humidity, which affects 3,8 millions ha of agricultural terrain umiditate care afecteaz 3,8 milioane ha teren agricol i
and 0,6 millions ha of forestry terrains, and the frequent 0,6 milioane terenuri forestiere, iar excesul de seceta
drought excess is manifesting on approximate 7,1 millions ha frecvent se manifest pe aprox. 7,1 milioane ha de teren
of agricultural terrain and 0,2 millions ha of sylvan terrain. An agricol i 0,2 milioane ha teren silvic. Un rol important n
important role in the soils physical degradation is occupied by degradarea fizic a solului l ocup compactarea antropic
the soils antropic compaction and crust formation. a solului i formarea crustei. Compactarea este ntlnit pe
Compaction is met on approximate 1,3 mil ha arable terrain cca. 1,3 mil. ha arabil i se datoreaz n principal greutii
and is mostly due to the weight and/or to the usage too i/sau folosirii prea frecvente a utilajelor agricole, cu
frequent of the agricultural gear, especially in inappropriate deosebire n condiii de umiditate nepotrivit a solului, fie
soils humidity conditions, either on soils too dried or too wet. pe soluri prea uscate, fie pe soluri prea umede.
The new mechanization technology of soils work in the Noua tehnologie de mecanizare a lucrrii solului n
arable substrate is specific to the hard and compacted soils, substratul arabil este specific solurilor grele si tasate,
alternative affected by humidity excess and deficit as also to afectate alternativ de exces si deficit de umiditate precum si
other soils categories which presents limitations of the production altor categorii de soluri care prezint limitri ale capacitii
capacity determined by salinization, alkalinization, pollution, etc. Its de producie determinate de salinizare, alcalinizare, poluare
application at a qualitative level corresponding to the agropedological etc. Aplicarea ei la un nivel calitativ corespunztor
requirements, at a cost price as low as possible and with a cerinelor agropedologice, la un pre de cost ct mai sczut
reduce energy consumption is imposing the assurance of some i cu un consum redus de energie impune asigurarea unor
agricultural gears with superior constructive and functional parameters. utilaje cu parametri constructivi i funcionali superiori.

DESIGNATION AND THE USAGE DOMAIN DESTINAIA I DOMENIUL DE UTILIZARE


The technical equipment DECOM-FERTI is of carried Echipamentul tehnic DECOM-FERTI este de tipul

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type on the hydraulic lifters of the 180-240 HP tractors, the purtat pe ridictoarele hidraulice ale tractoarelor de 180-
third category, SR ISO 730-1+C1:2000 and is designed to 240 CP pe roi, categoria a III-a, SR ISO 730-1+C1:2000 i
execute the deep decompaction and aeration of the este destinat a executa decompactarea i aerarea n
defective soils, concomitantly with the administration of profunzime a solurilor deficitare, concomitent cu administrarea
nutritive elements (phosphorus and potassium) and the de elemente nutritive (fosfor i potasiu) i eliminarea
elimination of the waterproof soil layer (hardpan) between stratului impermeabil de sol (hardpanul) dintre stratul i
the arable stratum and substrate. Its used in autumn on substratul arabil. Se utilizeaz toamna pe soluri degradate
degraded soils located on plane terrains or with slope up to 6. aflate pe terenuri plane sau cu pant pn la 6.

Fig. 1 - DECOM-FERTI technical equipment / Echipamentul tehnic DECOM-FERTI

CONSTRUCTIVE AND FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION DESCRIEREA CONSTRUCTIV I FUNCIONAL


The DECOM-FERTI technical equipment is composed from Echipamentul tehnic DECOM-FERTI se compune din
the following principal assemblies: chassis; active organs urmtoarele ansambluri principale: asiu; organe active cu
with reversible chisel type blades and special blades for cuite dalt reversibil i cuite speciale pentru eliminarea
hardpan elimination; rollers with claws; wheel for adjusting hardpanului; tvlugi cu gheare; roat de reglare a
the working depth; equipment for administrating hard adncimii de lucru; echipament de administrat elemente
soluble nutritive elements. nutritive greu solubile.
The chassis is assuring the equipments linkage in asiul asigur prinderea echipamentului n trei puncte
three points to the coupling-bars of the tractors hydraulic la tiranii ridictorului hidraulic ai tractorului i amplasarea
lifter and the lay-out of the 5 active organs (each formed celor 5 organe active (formate fiecare dintr-un suport de
from a base support on which is mounted the reversible baz pe care se monteaz cuitul tip dalt reversibil,
chisel type blade, the vertical blade and two blades L cuitul vertical i dou cuite tip L ) de afnare adnc a
type) for arable substrate soils deep aeration. solului din substratul arabil.
The rollers with claws assure the crumbling and a Tvlugii cu gheare asigura mrunirea i o uoar
slight leveling of the soil processed by the active organs, nivelare a solului prelucrat de ctre organele active, fiind
being located behind these ones. They are linked to the amplasai n spatele acestora. Ei se prind de asiu prin
chassis through the medium of some lateral walls and of a intermediu unor perei laterali i a unui paralelogram
deformable parallelogram being able to be adjusted on deformabil putndu-se regla pe vertical la diferite distane
vertical plane at different distances from the active organs. fa de organele active.
The wheel for adjusting the working depth is assuring Roata de reglare a adncimii de lucru asigur
the control and the limitation of the active organs working reglarea i limitarea adncimii de lucru a organelor active
depth. de lucru.
The equipment for administrating nutritive elements is Echipamentul de administrat elemente nutritive se
composed from the following principal assemblies: the crate compune din urmtoarele ansambluri principale: lada cu
with the system of administrating nutritive elements; tubes for sistemul de administrare a elementelor nutritive; tuburi de
administrating nutritive elements; hydraulic installation; administrat elementele nutritive; instalaia hidraulica;
reduction gear; platform; stair. reductor; platforma; scara.
Adjustments Reglaje
- the adjustment of the frame parallelism with the soil - reglarea paralelismului cadrului cu suprafaa solului n
surface in transversal plane is done by bringing at the plan transversal se face prin aducerea la aceeai
same length the vertical arms, adjustable, for lungime a braelor verticale, reglabile, de susinere a
sustaining the two lateral coupling-bars of the tractors celor doi tirani laterali ai ridictorului hidraulic al
hydraulic lifter; tractorului;
- the adjustment of the frame parallelism with the terrain - reglarea paralelismului cadrului cu suprafaa terenului n
surface in longitudinal plane is done by lengthening or shorting plan longitudinal se face prin lungirea sau scurtarea
the central coupling-bar of the tractors hydraulic lifter; tirantului central al ridictorului hidraulic al tractorului;
- the adjustment of the working depth is done by fixating - reglarea adncimii de lucru se face prin fixarea
the metallic wheel support in a position corresponding suportului roii metalice ntr-o poziie corespunztoare
to the wanted working depth, correlated with the position adncimii de lucru dorite corelat cu poziia tvlugilor
of the rollers with claws; cu gheare;
- the adjustment of the administrating norms of nutritive - reglarea normelor de administrare a elementelor
elements is effectuated continuously, with a reduction nutritive se efectueze continuu, cu un reductor i un
gear and a hydro-motor; hidromotor;

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- the administrating norms for phosphorus and potassium - normele de administrare fosfor i potasiu sunt ntre
are between 70120 kg/ha. 70120 kg/ha.

CONSTRUCTIVE AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CARACTERISTICI CONSTRUCTIVE SI FUNCIONALE


A. Constructive Characteristics A. Caracteristici constructive
- Type Towed - Tipul tractat
- Necessary tractor, Hp 180-240 - Tractor necesar, CP 180-240
- Working width, m 2,55 - Limea de lucru, m 2,55
- Transportation overall width, m 2,4 - Limea de gabarit n transport, m 2,4
- Number of aeration organs 5 - Nr. organe de afnare 5
- Distance between the aeration organs 510 - Distanta ntre organele de afnare, mm 510
- Type of the aeration organs: - Tipul organelor de afnare:
- reversible chisel blade - cuit dalt reversibil
- L left- right - L stg.- dreapta
- vertical blade - cuit vertical
- Number of the leveling - crumbling rollers 2 - Nr. tvlugilor de nivelare-mrunire 2
- Diameter of the leveling - crumbling rollers, mm: 500 - Diametrul tvlugilor nivelare-mrunire, mm: 500
-Administered nutritive elements: phosphorus and -Elemente nutritive administrate: fosfor i potasiu
potassium, super- phosphate, complex, ammonium nitrate, superfosfat, complexe azotat de amoniu, uree, nitrocalcar
alloxan, nitrocalcite - Dimensiuni de gabarit, mm
- Overall size dimensions, mm - Lungime 1765
- Length 1765 - Lime 2400
- Width 2400 - nlime
- Height - n lucru 1865
- in exploitation 1865 - n transport 2165
-in transportation 2165 B. Caracteristici funcionale
B. Functional characteristics - Adncimea de lucru, cm:
- Working depth, cm: -afnare adnca: max 60
- deep aeration max 60 -cizelat max 40
- chiseling max 40 - Viteza n lucru, km/h max 8
-Working velocity, km/h max 8 - Norm de administrare elemente nutritive, kg/ha: 70120
- Administrating norm for nutritive elements, kg/ha: 70120 (fosfor i potasiu)
(phosphorus and potassium)

TESTS IN FIELD-LABORATORY AND EXPLOITING NCERCRI N CONDITII DE CMP-LABORATOR SI DE


CONDITIONS EXPLOATARE
The home tests and in field-laboratory conditions of the ncercrile de cas i n condiii de cmp-laborator ale
DECOM-FERTI technical equipment were effectuated echipamentului tehnic DECOM-FERTI s-au efectuat n cadrul
inside SC MAT SA Craiova quarters and on the agricultural Sediului SC MAT SA Craiova i pe terenurile agricole ale
terrains of the LEU Farm, Craiova, in aggregate with the 195 Fermei LEU, Craiova n agregat cu tractorul de 195 CP
HP ZIMBRU tractor from the production of SC MAT SA ZIMBRU din fabricaia SC MAT SA Craiova. In figura 2 este
Craiova. In figure 2 is presented the DECOM-FERTI prezentat echipamentul tehnic DECOM-FERTI (stnga).
technical equipment (left), DECOM technical equipment Echipamentul tehnic DECOM (dreapta) n agregat cu
(right) in aggregate with the ZIMBRU tractors. tractoarele ZIMBRU.

Fig. 2 - DECOM-FERTI technical equipment and DECOM technical equipment in aggregate with the ZIMBRU tractor /
Echipamentul tehnic DECOM-FERTI i echipamentul tehnic DECOM in agregat cu tractorul ZIMBRU

Determination of the soils aeration degree Determinarea gradului de afnare a solului


The main qualitative indicator of work, at soils Principalul indicator calitativ de lucru, la lucrarea
working in the arable substrate is represented by the soils solului n substratul arabil l reprezint gradului de afnare
aeration degree. a solului.
The soils aeration degree was determined by measuring Gradul de afnare a solului s-a determinat prin
the coordinates of different points towards a reference system, msurarea coordonatelor diferitelor puncte fa de un
consisting of a ruler put on top of the field on two stakes. sistem de referin, constnd ntr-o rigl aezat deasupra

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The ruler was laid down horizontally with the help of a cmpului pe doi rui. Rigla a fost aezat orizontal cu
bubble air inclinometer and was oriented perpendicularly on ajutorul unei nivele cu bul de aer i a fost orientat
the machines advancing direction. There were made perpendicular pe direcia de naintare a mainii. S-au fcut
measurements of the distances between the ruler and the msurtori ale distanelor dintre rigl i cmp, la distane
field, at distances from 5 to 5 cm or from 10 to 10 cm. din 5 n 5 cm sau din 10 n 10 cm.
For shaping the bottom of the furrow it was cleaned the Pentru profilarea fundului brazdei s-a curat solul
aerated soil on the rulers distance, being made a trench afnat pe distana riglei fcndu-se o tranee cu limea de
with the width of approx. 40 cm and the length equal with the cca. 40 cm. i lungimea egal cu cea a riglei (limea de
length of the ruler (machines working width). The aerated soil lucru a mainii). Solul afnat s-a nlturat cu lopata pn la
was removed with a shovel till approx. 5 cm from the worked cca. 5 cm. de fundul brazdei lucrate si restul cu o scaf sau
furrows bottom and the rest with a soffit or by hand, taking care cu mna, avnd grij s nu se strice eventualele denivelri
not to broke the eventual dislevelments of the furrows bottom. ale fundului brazdei. S-au executat 2 profiluri pentru fiecare
There were executed two profiles for each repetition. repetiie.
The soils aeration degree was calculated in %, with Gradul de afnare a solului s-a calculat n %, cu
the relation: relaia:
i =n
h2 h1

h2
Gas= i =1
.100
n
in which: n care:
h1 = dimension measured in a certain point from the h1 =dimensiunea msurat ntr-un anumit punct de la
ruler to the soils surface, before de machines pass; rigl la suprafaa solului, nainte de trecerea mainii;
h2 = dimension measured in the same point from the ruler to h2 = dimensiunea msurat n acelai punct de la rigl
the bottom of the furrow worked by the machine; la fundul brazdei lucrate de main;
n = number of effectuated measurements. n = numrul de msurtori efectuate.
At the tests from the august-september 2008 period, La ncercrile din perioada august- septembrie 2008,
the DECOM-FERTI technical equipment has realized echipamentul tehnic DECOM-FERTI a realizat lucrri de
quality works, with appropriate working and energetic calitate, cu indici calitativi de lucru i energetici
qualitative indices, in the limits provided in the design corespunztori, n limitele prevzute n tema de proiectare -
theme, indices presented in the diagram from figure 3. indici prezentai n diagrama din figura 3.
The equipment had a good stability in horizontal and Echipamentul a avut o bun stabilitate n plan orizontal
vertical plane. i vertical.

Fig. 3 - The working indices variation of the DECOM-FERTI technical equipment /


Variaia indicilor de lucru ai echipamentului tehnic DECOM-FERTI

The principals working and energetic qualitative indices Principalii indici calitativi de lucru i energetici realizai
realized are: sunt:
- aeration degree, %: Gas=19,422,5% at 2530 cm - gradul de afnare, %: Gas=19,422,5% la 2530 cm
Gas=15,318,6% at 5060 cm Gas=15,318,6% la 5060 cm
- working depth, cm 50-60 at soils scarifying - adncimea de lucru, cm: 50-60 la scarificarea solului
25-30 at subsoilling 25-30 la subsolajul solului
- average working speed, km/h: 6,3 at soils scarifying - viteza de lucru medie, km/h: 6,3 la scarificarea solului
with three active organs; cu trei organe active;
6,1 at subsoilling with 6,1 la subsolajul solului cu
five active organs; cinci organe active;
- average working capacity, ha/h: 1,61 at soils scarifying - capacitatea medie de lucru, ha/h: 1,61 la scarificarea solului
with three active organs; cu trei organe active;
1,56 at subsoilling with 1,56 la subsolajul solului
five active organs; cu cinci organe active;
- average fuel consumption, l/ha: 28,12 at soils scarifying - consum de combustibil mediu, l/ha: 28,12 la scarificarea solului
with three active organs; cu trei organe active

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29,78 at subsoilling with 29,78 la subsolajul solului


five active organs; cu cinci organe active
- administrating normv nutritive elements, kg/ha: 70120 - norm de administrare elemente nutritive, kg/ha: 70120

CONCLUSIONS CONCLUZII
After the tests they have resulted the following advantages n urma ncercrilor au rezultat urmtoarele avantaje ale
of using the DECOM-FERTI technical equipment designed folosirii echipamentului tehnic DECOM-FERTI, destinat
for 180-240 HP tractors: tractoarelor de 180 -240 CP:
- it can work in all soil types, at soils optimum or reduced - poate lucra n toate tipurile de sol, la umiditatea optim
humidity at which is obtained a maximum aeration sau redus a solului la care se obine un grad maxim de
degree of this one. afnare a acestuia
- it can execute the soils work (soil scarifying, in B1 - poate executa lucrarea solului (scarificarea solului, n
horizon), in the arable substrate equipped with three orizontul B1) n substratul arabil echipat cu trei organe
working active organs and distanced between them at active de lucru i distanate ntre ele la 100 cm i
100 cm and subsoilling (soils aeration, in A2 horizon) subsolajul solului (afnarea solului, n orizontul A2)
equipped with five working active organs and distanced echipat cu cinci organe active de lucru i distanate ntre
between them with 50 cm; ele cu 50 cm;
- it administers nutritive elements between the minimum - administreaz elemente nutritive ntre norma minima de
norm of 70 kg/ha and the maximum norm of 120 kg/ha; 70kg/ha i norma maxima de 120 kg/ha;
- in penetrates easy in soil, up to the maximum depth, the - ptrunde uor n sol, pn la adncimea maxim,
space covered by the aggregate in this time is short spaiul parcurs de agregat n acest timp este scurt (cca.
(around 0,5 m); 0,50 m);
- has a good stability in the working position, both in the - -are o bun stabilitate n poziia de lucru, att n plan
vertical and horizontal planes, for the entire range of vertical, ct i n plan orizontal, pentru ntreaga gam
realized working depths; de adncimi de lucru realizate;
- it assures a good soils aeration, without reversing, - asigur o bun afnare a solului, fr ntoarcerea,
inverting or mixing the soil horizons. inversarea sau amestecarea orizonturilor de sol.

BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAFIE
1. Cojocaru I., a.o -.Studies and researches regarding 1. Cojocaru I., .a. -.Studii i cercetri privind tehnologia
the soil working technology without reversing the furrow de lucrare a solului fr rsturnarea brazdei i
and the experimenting technology of a Chisel at founding metodologia de experimentare a unui Cizel la nfiinarea
of straw cereals crops - Symposium organized by ASAS culturilor de cereale pioase - Simpozion organizat de
in collaboration with AOSR, 1999; ASAS n colaborare cu AOSR, 1999;
2. Cojocaru I., a.o Ecological technology for subsoilling 2. Cojocaru I., a. - Tehnologie ecologic de subsolaj i
and soil working in conservative system and realization of lucrarea solului n sistem conservativ i realizarea unui
a high productivity technical equipment papers of echipament tehnic de mare productivitate - lucrrile
scientific session INMATEH 2004-II, Bucharest, 2004 Sesiunii tiinifice INMATEH 2004-II, Bucureti, 2004
3. Kolozsvari C., Constantin N. - Equipment for soils deep 3. Kolozsvari C., Constantin N. - Echipament pentru
aeration, MAS 220. Magazine Agriculture Mechanization, afnarea adnc a solului, MAS 220. Revista Mecanizarea
nr.10/2005, Bucharest Agriculturii, nr.10/2005, Bucureti
4. Balaci, C. Machines and working organs for soils deep 4. Balaci, C. - Maini i organe de lucru pentru afnarea
aeration. Documentary synthesis, bibliotheca A.S.A.S., adnc a solului. Sintez documentar, biblioteca A.S.A.S.,
Bucharest, 1980. Bucureti, 1980.
5. Canarache, A. .a.- Soils compaction, causes and effects. In: 5. Canarache, A. .a.- Compactarea solului, cauze i
Magazine. Vegetal production, nr. 9 and 10, 1984 efecte. n: Rev. Producia vegetal, nr. 9 i 10, 1984
6. Canarache, A. .a. Researches and results regarding 6. Canarache, A. .a. - Cercetri i rezultate privind
the optimal agricultural-physical and hydro-physical parameters parametri agrofizici i hidrofizici optimi ai fertilitii solului.
of soils fertility. In: magazine. Cereals and technical plants, n: Rev. Cereale i plante tehnice, nr. 10, 1989.
nr. 10, 1989. 7. Brc, Gh. - Noi utilaje i tehnologii pentru lucrarea
7. Brc, Gh. New gear and technologies for soil working solului fr rsturnarea brazdei. n Lucrrile Simpozionului
without furrow reversing. In the works of Symposium Probleme de mecanizarea agriculturii, vol. II, Universitatea
Agricultures mechanization problems, vol. II, Technical Tehnic Timioara, 1991.
University Timioara, 1991

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DYNAMICS OF THE AIR FLOW MIXED WITH STRAW CEREAL SEEDS /


/
DINAMICA CURENTULUI DE AER N AMESTEC CU SEMINELE DE CEREALE PIOASE
MSc. Eng. Drago Manea INMA Bucharest
Prof. Dr. Eng. Ioan Cndea Transilvania University from Braov

Abstract: In the construction of straw cereal sowing Rezumat: n construcia semntorilor pentru cereale
machines as mechano pneumatic type is used an pioase de tipul mecano-pneumatice se utilizeaz un
transport assembly for the sowing material on pneumatic ansamblu de transport a materialului de semnat pe cale
way to a central distributor which divides seeds for the pneumatic pn la un distribuitor central care repartizeaz
pipes driving them to the shares for incorporate into soil. seminele la tuburile ce conduc pe acestea la brzdarele de
For this purpose the paper presents the dynamics of the ncorporare n sol. n acest scop n lucrare se prezint
air seeds mixture from the mechanic distributor to the dinamica amestecului aer semine de la distribuitorul
seeds distribution head. There are presented the mecanic pn la capul de distribuie al seminelor. Astfel: se
movement of a seed as a heavy material point in a prezint micarea unei semine considerat punct material
vertical resisting environment, the air seed mixture flow greu ntr-un mediu rezistent pe vertical; circulaia aerului
which hits an obstacle, the impact between seeds and purttor de semine care ntlnete un obstacol; ciocnirea
the cover of the distribution head. dintre semine i capacul capului de distribuie.

Keywords: dynamics, distribution head, material point, Cuvinte cheie: dinamica, cap de distribuie, punct
impact. material, ciocnire.

1. INTRODUCTION 1. INTRODUCERE
For the devices with mechanic measuring and La aparatele cu dozare mecanic i distribuie
pneumatic distribution, seeds measuring for all shares is pneumatic, dozarea seminelor pentru toate brzdarele se face
done mechanical, with a distributor and a grooved drum pe cale mecanic, cu un distribuitor cu cilindru canelat sau
or cells rotor and their distribution and transport to the rotor cu celule, iar repartiia i transportul lor spre brzdare se
shares is done pneumatically. From the seed tank 1, face pneumatic. Din buncrul de semine 1, seminele dozate
seeds measured by the grooved drum 2 are ejected in de cilindrul canelat 2, sunt evacuate n conducta 3, unde sunt
the pipe 3, where are taken by the air flow delivered by preluate de curentul de aer debitat de ventilatorul 4. Prin
the fan 4. Through the vertical pipe 5, the air seeds conducta vertical 5, amestecul aer-semine ajunge la capul
mixture gets to the distribution head 6, where its principal de distribuie 6, unde se face distribuia acestuia ctre
distribution to the shares is done. The place where brzdare. Locul n care seminele sunt preluate de curentul de
seeds are taken by the air flow it is a Venturi shape for aer are o construcie (form) de tip Venturi, pentru a se preveni
obviate some overpressures which crank seeds back to apariia unor suprapresiuni care s refuleze seminele napoi,
the cells rotor. spre cilindrul cu alveole.

Fig. 1 - Diagram of the device with mechanic


measuring and pneumatic distribution /
Schema aparatului cu dozare mecanic i
distribuie pneumatic

The vertical pipe walls, on their last sector, before the Pereii conductei verticale, pe ultima poriune, nainte
distribution head, are puckered for assure the air de capul principal de distribuie, sunt gofrai pentru a asigura
seeds mixture homogenization. In terms of their omogenizarea amestecului aer-semine. n funcie de
destination, the sowing machines equipped with such destinaie, mainile de semnat echipate cu astfel de aparate
distribution devices work on 2496 rows, the distribution de distribuie lucreaz pe 2496 de rnduri, aparatul de
device providing the norma adjustment between 2360 distribuie asigurnd reglarea normei ntre 2360 kg/ha.
kg/ha. The sowing machine working speed is 812 km/h. Viteza de lucru a mainii este de 812 km/h.

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2. MOVEMENT OF A SEED, AS A HEAVY MATERIAL 2. MICAREA UNEI SEMINE, CONSIDERAT PUNCT


POINT, IN A VERTICAL RESISTING ENVIRONMENT MATERIAL GREU, NTR-UN MEDIU REZISTENT PE VERTICAL
On consider that the seed grain has initial speed zero Se consider c bobul de smn are viteza iniial
or directional on the vertical of its initial position (v0 0). If nul sau dirijat pe verticala poziiei sale iniiale (v0 0).
on consider the pipe motionless, then its trajectory is Dac se consider tubul n poziie de repaus, atunci
vertical. traiectoria sa este vertical.
r r
Air resistance Ra is generally in terms and contrary Rezistena aerului Ra este n general n funcie de viteza
of the grain speed. On consider generally its formula: bobului i este opus vitezei. Se consider, n general expresia
r r acesteia:
v
R = mg (v ) (1) r r
v
v R = mg (v ) (1)
and the R modulus is given by: v
R = mg (v ) (2) iar modulul lui R este dat de:
The function (v ) is generally unknown and should
R = mg (v ) (2)

be obtained through aerodynamic tests in specific Funcia (v ) este n general necunoscut i ar trebui
installations. obinut prin experimentri aerodinamice n instalaii specifice.
On admit that (v ) 0 and because its known that Se admite c (v ) 0 i deoarece se tie c n
in fact the grain (material point) let free, without initial realitate bobul (punctul material) lsat liber, fr vitez
speed, falls down vertically in descending movement, it iniial, cade pe vertical n micare descendent,
must be accomplished the condition 0 (0) 1 . On trebuie ndeplinit condiia 0 (0) 1 . Se admite c
admit that (v ) is an increasing continuous and differentiable (v ) este o funcie cresctoare continu i derivabil de
function by the v modulus of speed, thus lim (v ) = + . modulul v al vitezei, astfel c lim (v ) = + .
v + v +
Under these aspects, the vertical movement of the n baza acestor consideraii, micarea pe vertical a
material point is described by the equation: punctului material este descris de ecuaia:
r r r r
dv r v dv r v
m = m g m g (v ) (3) m = mg mg (v ) (3)
dt v dt v
or upward vertically projected, Ox taken as axis: sau n proiecie pe vertical ascendent, luat ca ax Ox:
x& x&
m x&& = mg mg ( v ) (4) m x&& = mg mg (v ) (4)
v v
and grain movement is studied in two states, descending iar micarea bobului se studiaz n dou stri, micare
movement and upward movement. descendent i micare ascendent.
a) Descending movement - initial speed is zero or a) Micare descendent viteza iniial este nul sau
downward vertically directed, x& = v . dirijat pe vertical n jos, x& = v .
From relations (3) and (4) results: Din relaiile (3) i (4) rezult:
dv
= g [1 (v )] (5) dv
= g [1 (v )] (5)
dt dt
On consider vcr > 0 the critical value of v for which Se consider vcr > 0 valoarea critic a lui v pentru
(v cr ) = 1 care (v cr ) = 1.
If the availability of speed v is assured, following over Dac existena vitezei v este asigurat, ca urmare asupra
the hypothesizes made on (v ) , results: ipotezelor fcute asupra lui (v ) , rezult:
dv
= g [ (v cr ) (v )] (6) dv
= g [ (v cr ) (v )] (6)
dt dt
Applying the integration operator results: Aplicnd operatorul de integrare rezult:
v
dv v
dv
v (v cr ) (v ) = g (t t 0 ) (7)
(v = g (t t 0 ) (7)
0 v0 cr ) (v )
Analyzing relations (5) and (7) results following Din analiza relaiilor (5) i (7) rezult urmtoarele
remarks: comentarii:
 If the initial speed modulus v0 < vcr, then  Dac modulul vitezei iniiale v0 < vcr, atunci
(v cr ) (v ) is positive at start, and the ecuation (5) (v cr ) (v ) este la nceput pozitiv, iar ecuaia (5)
shows that the speed increases. Generally speeds arat c viteza crete. n general vitezele nu pot
can not exceed vcr, because from relation (7) results depi pe vcr, deoarece din relaia (7) rezult c dac
that if v v cr then t . v v cr atunci t .
 If v0 > vcr, speed decreases from the initial value v0  Dac v0 > vcr, viteza descrete de la valoarea iniial
tending to vcr for t . v0 tinznd ctre vcr pentru t .
 If v0 = vcr, then we have v = v0 whatever is t.  Dac v0 = vcr, atunci avem v = v0 oricare ar fi t.
The abscissa x is given in terms of v through: Abscisa x este dat n funcie de v prin relaia:
v
1 vdv 1
v
vdv
g v0 1 (v )
x x0 = (8) x x0 =
g v 0 1 (v )
(8)

b) The upward movement - initial speed vertically b) Micarea ascendent - viteza iniial dirijat pe
directed upward, x& = v , that means x increases. In vertical n sus, x& = v , ceea ce nseamn c x

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these conditions from relation (4) results: crete. n aceste condiii din relaia (4) rezult:
dv dv
= g [1 + (v )] (9) = g [1 + (v )] (9)
dt dt
dx 1 vdv dx 1 vdv
and results = v and therefore dx = . i rezult = v i deci dx = .
dt g 1 + (v ) dt g 1 + (v )
The point (grain) leaves at the moment t=0 from Punctul (bobul) pleac la momentul t=0 din poziia
initial position x0 having speed v0 > 0, and its abscissa is iniial x0 cu viteza v0 > 0, iar abscisa sa este dat de
given by the relation: relaia:
v v
1 vdv 1 vdv
x = x0
g v 0 1 + (v )
(10) x = x0
g v 0 1 + (v )
(10)

and the time is in terms of v through: iar timpul este exprimat tot ca funcie de v prin relaia:
v v
1 dv 1 dv
t= (11) t= (11)
g v 0 1 + (v ) g v 0 1 + (v )
From relation (9) results that speed decreases and Din relaia (9) rezult c viteza descrete i se
gets zero at the moment tcr given by: anuleaz la momentul tcr dat de relaia:
v v
1 dv 1 dv
tmax =
g v 0 1 + (v )
(12) tmax =
g v 0 1 + (v )
(12)

At this moment, the grain touched the high: n acest moment, bobul a atins nlimea:
v0 v
1 vdv 1 0 vdv
g 0 1 + (v ) g 0 1 + (v )
hmax = xcr x0 = (13) hmax = xcr x0 = (13)

which measure the high above the initial position. From care msoar nlimea deasupra poziiei iniiale. Din
this position, where the speed is zero, it starts the aceast poziie, n care viteza mobilului este nul,
descending state of the movement described at ncepe faza descendent a miscrii descris la
paragraph (a). paragraful (a).
The theoretical study presented in the upward Studiul teoretic prezentat n micarea ascendent a
movement get to the relations 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 which condus la relaiile 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 care au un caracter
are generally. For matching these relations at one of the de generalitate. Pentru adaptarea relaiilor respective la
paper problem, on consider the vertical upward una din problematica tezei se consider micarea
movement having initial speed v0, figure no. 2, at low ascendent pe vertical cu viteza iniial v0, figura 2, in
speds, when the resistance force is proportional with varianta vitezelor mici, cnd fora de rezisten este
speed v. proporional cu viteza v.

On consider axis Ox directed upward having its Se consider axa Ox n sensul ascendent cu
origin in point O from where the grains are taken by the originea n punctul O de unde boabele sunt luate de
air flow delivered by fan. curentul de aer generat de ventilator.
The movement differential equation is: Ecuaia diferenial a micrii este:
mx&& = mg kmx& sau mx&& = mg kmx& sau
x&& + kx& = g (14) x&& + kx& = g (14)
where k is a coefficient which determines function (v ) . n care k este un coeficient care determin funcia (v ) .
Solving the inhomogenous differential equation (14) Rezolvnd ecuaia diferenial neomogen (14) i
and taking into account by the initial conditions at t=0, innd seama de condiiile iniiale la t=0, x=0, x& = v 0
x=0, x& = v 0 get to: conduc la:
displacement law, x = g + kv 0 (1 e kt ) g t (15) legea de micare, x =
g + kv0 g
(1 ekt ) t (15)
2
k k k 2
k
g + kv 0 kt g g + kv 0 kt g
speed, x& = e (16) viteza, x& = e (16)
k k k k

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The maximum high is touchedd in point A where nlimea maxim este atins n punctul A unde viteza
speed is zero, x& = 0 and from the relation (16) results: se anuleaz, x& = 0 i din relaia (16) rezult:
g + kv 0 kt A g g + kv 0 kt A g
0= e , from where results: 0= e , de unde rezult:
k k k k
1 g + k0 1 g + k0
t A = ln (17) t A = ln (17)
k g k g
In this way on obtain maximum high: Astfel se obine nlimea maxim:
v g g + k0 v 0 g g + k0
hmax = 0 2 ln (18) hmax = ln (18)
k k g k k2 g
This study gets to the following conclusions: Studiul efectuat conduce la urmtoarele concluzii:
 The descending movement proves that in this  Micarea descendent demonstreaz c n acest
functional context the constructive and functional context funcional parametrii constructivi i funcionali
parameters must be accomplished thus such a trebuie s fie realizai astfel ca o astfel de micare a
grains movement must not exist; boabelor s nu aiba loc;
 The upward movement proves that the height of the  Micarea ascendent demonstreaz c nlimea
distribution head must be at a quota toward the start capului de distribuie trebuie s fie la o cot fa de
position of grains at which their speed must not be poziia de plecare a boabelor la care viteza acestora
zero, for dont happen the descending movement (v0 s nu fie nul, pentru a nu se produce micarea
> vcr - critical floating speed); descendent (v0 > vcr - viteza critic de plutire);
 The condition for speed v not to be zero is imposed  Condiia ca viteza v s fie diferit de zero este impus din
by the distribution head operation inside where the funcionarea capului de distribuie n care curentul de aer
air flow carring seeds, in upward movement hits the purttor de semine, n micarea ascendent ciocnete
upper plate, and following the impact with this one placa superioar, iar n urma impactului cu aceasta
seeds are circular rebounded in the pipes which seminele sunt ricoate circular n tuburile care conduc
drive seeds to the shares for soil incorporation. seminele la brzdarele de ncorporare a acestora n sol.
Seeds transport is made under the air flow and Transportul seminelor se face sub aciunea curentului
gravitational force action. de aer i a forei gravitaionale;
 Following seeds rebound to be equally ditributed at  Ca n urma ricorii seminelor acestea s fie repartizate
pipes driving seeds to shares it is necessary to be uniform la tuburile ce conduc seminele la brzdare este
accomplished a theoretical study regarding the necesar s se efectueze un studiu teoretic cu privire la
interaciunea dintre un curent de aer purttor de semine
interaction between an air flow carring seeds which care se mic ntr-un tub urmnd s ntlneasc o
moves in a pipe and meet a non-deflecting plate. plac considerat nedeformabil.
3. THEORETICAL STUDY REGARDING THE CIRCULATION 3. STUDIUL TEORETIC CU PRIVIRE LA CIRCULAIA UNUI
OF A FLUID CARRING SEEDS WHICH MEET AN FLUID PURTTOR DE SEMINE CARE NTLNETE
OBSTACLE (FLAT PLATE) UN OBSTACOL (PLAC)
The theoretically study is based on mechanics Studiul teoretic se bazeaz pe teoreme fundamentale ale
fundamental laws, such as impulse law which contains mecanicii, precum teorema impulsului i n care intervin
geometric, kinematic and dinamic parameters as: - parametrii geometrici, cinematici si dinamici ca: - desitate;
density; Q - flow rate; v - speed; G - fluid weight; p - Q - debit; v - vitez; G - greutatea fluidului; p - presiunea
resulting pressure on pipe walls; pa - air pressure; pr- rezultant pe pereii tubului; pa - presiunea atmosferic; pr-
pipe action on the fluid; R - reaction on the angle pipe; actiunea tubului asupra fluidului; R - reaciunea asupra
pi - pressures in normal sections on the fluid flow cotului; pi - presiunile in sectiunile normale pe direcia
direction; Si - fluid flow section; - angle of inclination of curentului de fluid; Si - seciunea curentului de fluid; -
the fluid flow in proportion with the plate position. unghiul de nclinare a curentului de fluid n raport cu poziia plcii.
r r
Studies reffer to the establishment of reaction R on Studiile se refer la stabilirea reaciunii R asupra
a angle pipe, fluid flow press on a flat plate having accliv unui cot de tub, apsarea curentului de fluid pe o plac
and normal incidence and the deviation of a fluid flow at plan cu inciden nclinat i normal i devierea unui
the impact with an wall and in the same time results the curent de fluid la impactul cu un perete i concomitent
seeds deviation carried
r
by the fluid flow (the air flow) cu acesta rezult devierea seminelor antrenate de
and the reaction R . curentul de fluid (curentul de aer), implicit i de reaciunea R.
Thus, in figure no. 3 on consider an angle pipe Astfel, n figura 3 se consider un cot prin care
wherethrough passes a fluid flow. circul un curent de fluid.

Fig. 3 - Reaction on an angle pipe /


Reaciunea pe un cot

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Under impulse law applied on a pipe wherethrough n baza teoremei impulsului aplicat la un tub prin
fluid passes results: care circul fluidul rezult:
Q(v 2 v1 ) = G + P , unde (19) Q(v 2 v1 ) = G + P , unde (19)
Q = v1S1 = v 2S2 (20) Q = v1S1 = v 2S2 (20)
If the external pressure is equal with air pressure pa, Dac presiunea exterioar este egal cu presiunea atmosferic
then the resultant pressure on the pipe walls is: pa atunci rezultanta presiunii pe pereii tubului este:
P = n1( p1 pa )S1 + n2 ( p2 pa )S2 + Pr (21) P = n1( p1 pa )S1 + n2 ( p2 pa )S2 + Pr (21)
Finally results reaction R which is equal with -Pr: n final rezult reaciunea R care este egal cu -Pr:
R = Pr = G Q(v2 v1) + n1(p1 pa )S1 + n2(p2 pa )S2 (22) R = Pr = G Qv ( 2 v1) + n1(p1 pa )S1 + n2(p2 pa )S2 (22)
If the angle pipe is situated in an horizontal plane, Dac cotul este situat ntr-un plan orizontal,
the fluid reaction is qualitatively directed as shown in reaciunea fluidului are calitativ sensul artat n figura 2,
figure no. 3, and in other positions it is composed with iar n alte poziii se compune cu vectorul greutatea
the fluid weight vector G. fluidului G.
In figure no. 4 on consider the action of a fluid flow n figura 4 se consider aciunea unui curent de fluid pe
on a flat plate under an angle . o plac plan cu aciune asupra acesteia sub un unghi .

Fig. 4 - The action of a fluid flow on a flat plate / Aciunea unui curent de fluid pe o plac plan

On consider as a control volume, the volume limited Se consider ca volum de control, volumul mrginit de
by the normal sections AB, CD, EF and the lines of flow seciunile normale AB, CD, EF i liniile de curent AF i BC,
AF and BC, as are sketched in figure above, and aa cum sunt schiate n figur, iar seciunile CD i EF fiind
sections CD and EF being situated at the plate borders. situate la marginea plcii. Pentru simplificare, se
For simplification is neglected weight effect, which is neglijeazefectul greutii, care se consider foarte mic
considered very small or suppose thea the mentioned sau presupun c figura menionat se afl ntr-un plan
figure is in a horizontal plane. On consider the orizontal. Se consider aproximaia c viteza curentului de
approximation that the fluid flow speed is uniform in fluid este uniform n seciunile CD i FE i c viteza are
sections CD and FE and speed has value v both in valoarea v att n seciunea AB, ct i n seciunile CD i
section AB as in sections CD and EF. On all areas EF. Pe toate zonele ABCD i AFE presiunea are aceiai
ABCD and AFE the pressure has the same value with valoare cu presiunea atmosferic pa. Aceast observaie
the air pressure pa. This observation is necessary for este necesar pentru determinarea debitelor Q1 i Q2.
determine flow rates Q1 and Q2. Reaciunea R este provenit din presiunile de pe
Reaction R comes from the pressures on DE face faa DE care este normal pe plac. Dac se aplic
which is normal on the plate. If on apply the impulse law teorema impulsului pe direcie normal, reaciunea este
on normal direction, the reaction is equal with the egal cu componenta pe aceeai direcie normal a
component on the same normal direction of the impulse impulsului la intrare deoarece pe o fa a plcii DE
at entrance, because on a face of the plate DE acts the acioneaz presiune alichidului, iar pe cealalt,
fluid pressure, and on the other acts the air pressure. presiunea atmosferic.
R = vQ sin (23) R = vQ sin (23)
On the plate direction, when the fluid weight is not Pe direcia plcii, n condiiile n care greutatea
considerred and taking DE as positive direction results fluidului nu iuntervine i lund sensul pozitiv DE rezult
following equation: relaia:
vQ2 + vQ1 vQ cos = 0 (24) vQ2 + vQ1 vQ cos = 0 (24)
whereon on attach the condition Q1 + Q2 = Q (25) la care se adaug condiia Q1 + Q2 = Q (25)
Solving the equation system results: Prin rezolvarea sistemului rezult:
1 + cos 1 + cos
Q1 = Q Q1 = Q
2 2
(26) (26)
1 cos 1 cos
Q1 = Q Q1 = Q
2 2
If on take into account the fluid weight and the mechanic Dac se ine seama de greutatea fluidului i modelul
model from figure no. 4, on consider in vertical plane as mecanic din figura 4 se consider n plan vertical ca in
in figure no. 2, then the relations (23) and (24) become: figura 2, atunci relaiile (23) i (24) devin:

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Vol. 27, No.1 /2009 LUCRRI TIINIFICE (INMATEH)

R = Qv sin + G cos R = Qv sin + G cos


(27) (27)
Q2v 2 Q1v1 + Qv cos G sin = 0 Q2v 2 Q1v1 + Qv cos G sin = 0
where it could be admit forwards v 1 v 2 v . If the unde se poate admite in continuare v 1 v 2 v . Dac jetul
flow acts upward, that means if is replaced with angle ar aciona de jos in sus, adic dac ar fi nlocuit cu
( - ), the weigt effect is contrary in relations (27): unghiul ( - ), efectul greutii ar fi invers n relaiile (27):
R = Qv sin G cos (28) R = Qv sin G cos (28)
A case met in practice is when the upward vertical Un caz care se ntlnete n practic este cnd curentul de
fluid flow meet a horizontal flat plate (=/2) as in figure fluid vertical ascendent ntlnete o plac plan
no. 5. orizontal (=/2) ca n figura 5.

Fig. 5 - Upward vertical fluid flow which meet a horizontal flat plate /
Curent de fluid vertical ascendent ce ntlnete o plac plan orizontal

On apply the impulse law, the first relation (27) for Astfel se aplic teorema impulsului, respectiv prima relaie
the control volume ABCDEF (fig. 4, a) and for the (27) pentru volumul de control ABCDEF (fig. 5, a) i pentru
volume ABCDEF. The fluid weight in these two volumul ABCDEF. Greutatea fluidului n cele dou situaii
situations is different, but reaction on plate results the este diferit, dar reaciunea pe plac rezult aceeai,
same, because at the same flow rate Q, speeds v i v deoarece la acelai debit Q, vitezele v i v din seciunile
from sections AB and AB are different. Indeed, from AB i AB sunt diferite. ntr-adevr, din formula lui Bernoulli
Bernoulli formula results: rezult:
2g h 2gh (29)
v = v ' 1+ (29) v = v ' 1+
v '2 v '2
while the section modifies thus the flow rate remains n timp ce seciunea se modific astfel nct debitul s
constant. rmn constant.
Applying relation (29) and calculating the volume Aplicnd relaia (29) i calculnd greutatea volumului
ABBA weight on obtain the same value for reaction R. ABBA se obine aceeai valoare pentru reaciunea R. n
Under the circumstances it is advisable in the chosen consecin este recomandabil ca n soluiile tehnice
technical solutions to consider section AB as close as alese s se considere seciunea AB ct mai aproape de
possible from the plate, and the weight be included or plac, iar greutatea s se includ sau s se neglijeze
neglected depending on case. dup caz.
In figure no. 5, b on consider the flat plate situated n figura 5, b se consider placa plan situat ntr-un
in a vertical fluid flow, from where we can see the curent de fluid vertical, din care se vede modul de
modification mode of the flow lines at the plate modificare a liniilor de curent la ocolirea plcii. n baza
avoidance. Based on the accomplished study, in figure studiului efectuat, n figura 5, c se prezint, n principiu,
no. 5, c, on present, in principle, how must be cum trebuie s se realizeze constructiv capul de
constructively realized the distribution head of a distribuie al unei semntori mecano-pneumatice.
mechano - pneumatic sowing machine. Thus, the fluid Astfel, curentul de fluid transport seminele pn ce
flow transports seeds untill they meet (hit) the flate acestea ntlnesc (ciocnesc) placa plan DE, iar dup
plate De, and after impact, seeds will be directed to the ciocnire, seminele vor fi dirijate spre gurile tuburilor care
pipes entrances which are connected with the shares sunt n legtur cu brzdarele pentru ncorporarea
for soil incorporation. seminelor n sol.

4. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS ON THE IMPACT 4. CONSIDERAII TEORETICE ASUPRA CIOCNIRII


BETWEEN SEEDS AND FLAT PLATE DINTRE SEMINE I PLAC
From the theoretical study accomplished resulted that Din studiul teoretic efectuat a rezultat c prin transportul
through the upward transport of seeds by the fluid flow ascendent al seminelor de ctre curentul de fluid rezult
results between seeds and flat plate the impact ntre semine i plac fenomenul de ciocnire care se
phenomena which could be realized by a centric or a poate produce printr-o ciocnire centric i printr-o
bevelled collision. The mechanical models are ciocnire oblic. Modelele mecanice sunt prezentate n
presented in figure no. 6. In figure no. 6, a on present figura 6. n figura 6, a se prezint ciocnirea centric, n
the centric collision, in figure no. 6, b on present the figura 6, b se prezinta ciocnirea oblic, fr s se
bevelled collision, without consider the friction, and in considere frecarea, iar n figura 6, c se prezint ciocnirea
figure no. 6, c on present the bevelled collision with friction. oblica n care se consider frecarea.

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Vol. 27, No.1 /2009 LUCRRI TIINIFICE (INMATEH)

Fig. 6 - The impact between a grain with the horizontal plate /


Ciocnirea dintre o smn cu placa orizontal

In figure no. 6, a, the speed after collision (v) is n figura 6, a viteza dup ciocnire (v) este ndreptat
directed to the normal direction on plate, having an dup direcia normal la plac n sensul opus vitezei
opposite sense to the speed before collision (v), but the nainte de ciocnire(v), dar aciunea curentului de fluid
upward fluid flow action which is directed lateral left - ascendent care este orientat lateral stnga - dreapta, va
right, will direct seeds displacement to the lateral orienta deplasarea seminelor spre gurile laterale a tuburilor
entrances of pipes for driving seeds to shares. de conducere a seminelor spre brzdare.
In figure no. 6, b, the speed after collision (v) is n figura 6, b viteza dup ciocnire (v) este ndreptat
bevelled directed after a direction which has an angle oblic dup o direcie ce face cu normala la plac unghiul
with the normal to plate. This situation is desired . Situaia este dorit deoarece seminele sunt orientate
because seeds are directed to the lateral entrances of spre gurile laterale ale tuburilor ce conduc seminele la
pipes which drive seeds to shares. brzdare.
In figure no. 6, c, is presented the collision from n figura 6, c este considerat ciocnirea din figura 6,
figure no. 6, b, the bevelled collision where the contact b, adic ciocnirea oblic n care se consider contactul
between seeds and plate is done with friction. dintre semine i plac cu frecare.
The problem hypothesis are: grain is assimilate with Ipotezele problemei sunt: smna se asimileaz cu
a sphere with mass m, radius r, moment of inertia o sfer de mas m, raz r, momentul de inerie fa de
2 2
toward a diameter I=2mr /5, the impact is done with un diametru I=2mr /5, se efectueaz ciocnirea cu viteza
speed v, the grain hit the plate under the angle toward v, smna ciocnete placa sub unghiul fa de
the normal to plate, the restitution coefficient is k. normala la plac, coeficientul de restituire este k.
r r
In the contact point O emerges percussion P which n punctul de contact O apare percuia P care are
has two components: Pn percussion after the normal dou componente: Pn percuia dup direcia normal i
direction and Pt - percussion after the tangent direction to Pt percuia dup direcia tangent la plac. Acestea
plate. These are connected through relation: sunt legate prin relaia:
Pt = Pn (30) Pt = Pn (30)
Wall being fixed results v2 = v2 = 0, where v2 - plate Peretele fiind fix rezult v2 = v2 = 0, unde v2 viteza
speed before impact, v2 - plate speed after impact. For plcii nainte de ciocnire, v2 viteza plcii dup ciocnire.
the movement study on apply the impulse law: Pentru studiul micrii se aplic teorema impulsului:
r r r r r r
H2 H1 = Pi (40) H2 H1 = Pi (40)
and the kinetic moment law: i teorema momentului cinetic:
r r s r r r s r
K 2 K1 = r xP
i i (41) K 2 K1 = r xP
i i (41)
where: n care:
r r r r r r
H1 = mv sin i mv cos j (42) H1 = mv sin i mv cos j (42)
r r r r r r
H 2 = mv ' sin i mv ' cos j (43) H 2 = mv ' sin i mv ' cos j (43)
2 2
K1Oz = 0; K 2Oz = J ' = mr 2 ' (44) K1Oz = 0; K 2Oz = J ' = mr 2 ' (44)
5 5
where v - speed after impact, - speed from the n care v - viteza dup ciocnire, - viteza din micarea
rotation movement after impact. de rotaie dup ciocnire.
The restitution coefficient formula is: Expresia coeficientului de restituire este:
v 2n ' v1n ' v 'cos v 2n ' v1n ' v 'cos
k= = (45) k= = (45)
v1n v 2n v cos v1n v 2n v cos
With the equations (30), (42), (43), (44), (45) is Cu ecuaiile (30), (42), (43), (44), (45) se formeaz
made a five equations system with five unknowns: v, un sistem de cinci ecuaii cu cinci necunoscute: v, , ,
, , Pn, Pt. Pn , Pt .
Solving the equations system results following solutions: Rezolvnd sistemul de ecuaii rezult soluiile:
Pn = mv (1 + k )cos Pn = mv (1 + k )cos
(46) (46)
Pt = mv (1 + k )cos Pt = mv (1 + k )cos

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v ' = v cos k 2 + [tg (1 + k )]2 (47) v ' = v cos k 2 + [tg (1 + k )]2 (47)
1 1
tg = [tg (1 + k )] (48) tg = [tg (1 + k )] (48)
k k
rmv rmv
' = (1 + k )cos (49) ' = (1 + k )cos (49)
I I
The obtained solutions resulted for k (1,0), 0 Soluiile obinute au rezultat n varianta k (1,0), 0 .
There are particulary cases such as: Se pot considera cazuri particulare ca:
a) k = 0, 0; b) k = 0, = 0; c) k = 1, 0; d) k = 1, a) k = 0, 0; b) k = 0, = 0; c) k = 1, 0; d) k = 1,
= 0; e) k (1,0), = 0; f) k (1,0), 0. = 0; e) k (1,0), = 0; f) k (1,0), 0.
Keeping sight of the system solutions and innd seama de soluiile sistemului i de cazurile
particulary cases results: particulare rezult:
Case a: Pn = mv cos ; Pt = mv cos ; Cazul a: Pn = mv cos ; Pt = mv cos ;
v ' = v cos(tg ) ; tg = ,( = undefined ) ; v ' = v cos (tg ) ; tg = ,( = nedefinit ) ;
' = 0 ; ' = 0 ;
Case b: Pn = mv cos ; Pt = 0 ; v ' = v sin ; Cazul b: Pn = mv cos ; Pt = 0 ; v ' = v sin ;
tg = ,( = undefined ) ; ' = 0 ; tg = ,( = nedefinit ) ; ' = 0 ;
Case c: Pn = 2mv cos ; Pt = 2 mv cos ; Cazul c: Pn = 2mv cos ; Pt = 2 mv cos ;

v ' = v cos 1 + (tg 2 )2 ; tg = tg 2 ; v ' = v cos 1 + (tg 2 )2 ; tg = tg 2 ;


2 rmv 2 rmv
' = cos ; ' = cos ;
I I
Case d: Pn = 2mv cos ; v ' = v cos 1 + tg 2 ; Cazul d: Pn = 2mv cos ; v ' = v cos 1 + tg 2 ;
tg = tg ; ' = 0 ; tg = tg ; ' = 0 ;
Case e: Pn = mv (1 + k )cos ; Cazul e: Pn = mv (1 + k )cos ;
tg tg
v ' = v cos k 2 + tg 2 ; tg = ; ' = 0 . v ' = v cos k 2 + tg 2 ; tg = ; ' = 0 .
k k
Case f: Results (46), (47), (48), (49). Cazul f: Sunt rezultatele (46), (47), (48), (49).

5. CONCLUSIONS 5. CONCLUZII
Cases (a) and (b) where the collision is plastic, with Cazurile (a) i (b) n care ciocnirea este plastic, fie cu frecare
or without friction, results that the value of angle sau fr frecare rezult c valoarea unghiului (unghi de
(reflection angle) is undefined, that is not a seed reject, reflexie) este nedefinit, adic nu exist o respingere a
seeds always keep the contact with the upper plate. seminelor, acestea rmn mereu n contact cu placa superioar.
Case (c), angle is smaller than angle (incidence Cazul (c) unghiul este mai mic dect unghiul
angle) because of the friction coefficient , the grain in (unghi de inciden) datorit coeficientului de frecare ,
its reflection movement accomplishes also a rotation iar smna n micarea de reflexie efectueaz i o
movement. micare de rotaie.
Case (d), angle is equal with angle (reflection is Cazul (d) unghiul este egal cu unghiul
equal with incidence), being the ideal reflection case for (reflexiaegal cu incidena) fiind cazul ideal de reflexie,
the elastic impact. caracterizat ciocnirii elastice.
Case (e), angle is bigger than angle because k Cazul (e), unghiul este mai mare dect unghiul
< 1, and in the reflection process the grain will move deoarece k < 1, iar in procesul de reflexie smna se va
without rotation. misca fara s se roteasc.
Case (f) is generally when the impactis is Cazul (f) este general cnd ciocnirea este cvasiplastic
quasiplastic or quasielastic with friction. sau cvasielastic considerndu-se i frecarea.
In conclusion, cases admitted in practice are the n concluzie, cazurile admise n realitate sunt cazurile
ones where tg < (1 + k ) , tg < 2 , tg > ktg , n care tg < (1 + k ) , tg < 2 , tg > ktg , adic
that are cases f, c i e. In this way seeds fall down from cazurile f, c i e. Astfel seminele se desprind de placa
the upper plate by jumping back with the angle and superioar prin srirea napoi fcnd unghiul i apoi
then taken by the fluid flow to the pipes driving seeds to preluate de curentul de fluid spre tuburile de conducere a
the shares for soil incorporation. seminelor la brzdarele de ncorporare a acestora n sol.

BIBLIOGRAPHY / BIBLIOGRAFIE
[1]. Candea,I., Constantin, F., Pirna,I., Cotoros,L.D., [4]. Toma, D., Maini i instalaii agricole, Editura
Comanescu,I.S. - Mechanics/Statics Theory and didactic i pedagogic, Bucureti, 1975.
applications. Transilvania University Publishing House [5]. Vergil, G., Cojocaru, I., Neacu, F., Studii i
2001. cercetri privind perfecionarea sistemelor de
[2]. Candea,I., Constantinescu,D., Macovici,M. - Mechanics / transmisie i distribuie ale semntorilor de cereale
Statics Transilvania University Brasov 1992. pioase n vederea creterii fiabilitii acestora i a
[3]. Scripnic, V., Toma, G., Principii i realizri noi n calitii lucrrii de semnat, Lucrri tiinifice, INMA
construcia mainilor de semnat, Editura Ceres, Bucureti, 1998.
Bucureti, 1973.

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DETERMINATION OF THE QUALITATIVE INDEX OF THE EQUIPMENT FOR MICROBIAL


INOCULANTS APPLICATION
/
DETERMINAREA INDICILOR CALITATIVI DE LUCRU AI ECHIPAMENTULUI PENTRU
APLICAT INOCULANI MICROBIENI
MSc. Eng. Drago Manea, Dr. Eng. Iosif Cojocaru, Dr. Eng. Eugen Marin
- INMA Bucharest -

Abstract: The equipment for microbial inoculants application Rezumat: Echipamentul pentru aplicarea inoculanilor
is designed to the modern technology of sowing and microbieni este destinat tehnologiei moderne de
inoculating hoeing plants and vegetables, being used to semnat i inoculat culturi de plante pritoare i
apply a targeted suspension of bacteria inoculated in the leguminoase pentru boabe, fiind utilizat la aplicarea intit a
best area for rhizosphere colonization for improve plants suspensiei de bacterii inoculante n cea mai bun zon pentru
nutrition, protection, stimulation and soil structure. This colonizarea rizosferei pentru mbuntirea nutriiei, proteciei,
paper presents the results obtained at the tests stimulrii plantelor i a structurii solului. Lucrarea prezint
accomplished in laboratory conditions of the equipment for rezultatele obinute la experimentrile efectuate n condiii de
microbial inoculants application INOC, which has been laborator a echipamentului pentru aplicarea inoculanilor
designed, realized and tested at INMA Bucharest. microbieni INOC, care a fost proiectat, realizat i testat de INMA
Performing the laboratory tests it have been determined Bucureti. n urma experimentrilor efectuate s-au determinat
following qualitative working index: pump debit, nozzles urmtorii indici calitativi de lucru: debitul pompei, debitul prin
debit, substance norms, stirring system efficiency. duze, normele de substan, eficacitatea sistemului de agitare.

Keywords: Microbial Inoculants, Equipment, Test, Cuvinte cheie: inoculani microbieni, echipament, testare,
Qualitative Working Index. indici calitativi de lucru.

1. INTRODUCTION 1. INTRODUCERE
The equipment is designed for microbial inoculants Echipamentul este destinat aplicrii inoculanilor
application in hoeing plants and vegetables plants. Because microbieni n culturi de plante pritoare i leguminoase
at present in exploitation, for setting up the main crops pentru boabe. Deoarece la ora actual n exploatare,
whereon apply microbial inoculants (ex. soya, pea, bean, pentru nfiinarea principalelor culturi la care se aplic
chick pea, tick bean), there are used in the main the sowing inoculani microbieni (soia, mazre, fasole, nut, bob),
machines as SPC type, the equipment which has been sunt utilizate cu preponderen semntorile tip SPC,
designed, realized and tested by INMA Bucharest works echipamentul care a fost proiectat, realizat i testat de
attached to this kind of machine, having as energy source INMA Bucureti lucreaz ataat acestui tip de main, n
the 65 HP tractors. This equipment accomplishes the agregat cu tractoarele de 65 CP pe roi. Acest
targeted application of the inoculum bacteria suspension and echipament realizeaz aplicarea intit a suspensiei de
allows, in the same time with the sowing process, the bacterii inoculante i permite, concomitent cu semnatul,
radiculosphere inoculation (the radiculosphere is the area inocularea radiculosferei (adic a zonei n care se va
where the small plant risen from seed will grow). Also, this dezvolta plantula rezultat din smn). Totodat,
allows to eliminate the technical problems connected with acesta permite eliminarea problemelor tehnice asociate
the seed treatment with inoculants, for example: low bio- cu tratamentul seminei cu inoculani (biocompatibilitate
compatibility with other products used for seed treatment, sczut cu alte produse folosite pentru tratarea seminei;
the high mortality of bacteria on the seeds surface because mortalitatea ridicat a bacteriilor de pe suprafaa
of drying, of the exposure to the solar radiation and of seminelor tratate datorit uscrii, expunerii la radiaia
various handlings. solar i diferitelor manipulri ale seminelor etc.).
The equipment for microbial inoculants application INOC Echipamentul pentru aplicarea inoculanilor microbieni
presented in figure no. 1, is carried while working and has INOC prezentat n figura 1, este de tipul purtat n lucru i are n
the following main subassemblies: two liquid tanks attached componen urmtoarele subansambluri principale: dou
on the machine frame through mounting supports, one filter, rezervoare pentru lichid montate pe cadrul semntorii prin
a liquid pump driven with a hydraulic engine, a pressure intermediul unor supori, un filtru, o pomp de lichid
controller, two hydraulic stirrers, pipes, nozzles for the acionat de un motor hidraulic, un distribuitor, dou
inoculant liquid application. agitatoare hidraulice, furtune i duze de aplicare a
lichidului inocul.

Fig. 1 - The equipment for microbial inoculant application attached to the sowing machine SPC6 /
Echipamentul pentru aplicarea inoculanilor microbieni ataat semntorii SPC 6

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2. TESTS IN LABORATORY CONDITIONS OF THE 2. EXPERIMENTAREA N CONDIII DE LABORATOR A


EQUIPMENT FOR MICROBIAL INOCULANTS ECHIPAMETULUI PENTRU APLICAT INOCULANI
APPLICATION MICROBIENI
The test in laboratory conditions of the equipment ncercarea n condiii de laborator a echipamentului
for microbial inoculants application INOC has been made pentru aplicat inoculani microbieni INOC a fost efectuat la
at INMA Bucharest location. sediul INMA Bucureti.
The preparation for tests of the equipment for microbial Pregtirea pentru experimentri a echipamentului INOC
inoculants application INOC consisted in the following actions a constat n efectuarea urmtoarelor operaiuni necesare n
requested for determination the qualitative working vederea determinrii indicilor calitativi de lucru:
index: pompa nu are voie s produc pulsaii vizibile (ale
pump do not have to operate with rhythmic variations lichidului);
of the liquid; pompa trebuie s fie etan, nu are voie s picure lichid;
pump must be sealed, it doesnt have to drip liquid; rezervorul i gura de umplere trebuie s fie etaneizate cu
the liquid tank and the charging hole must be sealed un capac care s nu se deschid de la sine;
with a cover which doesnt open itself; n gura de umplere trebuie s se gseasc o sit n stare
in the charging hole must be a clean sieve having impecabil cu orificii mai mici de 2 mm;
holes less than 2 mm; indicaiile aparaturii de control (presiune, debit, vitez)
the control device informations (pressure, debit, trebuie s se afle n cmpul vizual al operatorului sau s
speed) must be in the operator field of vision or they poate fi citite cu exactitate de acesta de la locul su (scaun);
must be exactly red of the operator from its place toate instrumentele (componentele) de msur, dispozitivele
(chair); de comand, de reglare a presiunii i/sau debitului trebuie
all the metering devices, the control, pressure and/or s funcioneze impecabil i s fie etane;
debit adjustment devices must work without fail and verificarea modului de funcionare a comenzilor distribuitorului;
be sealed; piesele de comand care trebuiesc mnuite n timpul operaiunii
inspection the operation mode of the distribution controls; de aplicare a lichidului inocul, trebuie s fie astfel poziionate
the control parts which must be handled during the nct n timpul aplicrii s fie uor accesibile i manipulabile;
operation of the inoculant application must be situated diviziunile scalei manometrului trebuie s fie bine vizibile i
that during working to be easy to reach and to handle; corespunztoare domeniului de presiune de lucru folosit;
the manometer scale must be visible and adequate to tolerana de precizie a manometrului trebuie s fie:
the working pressure area used; - 0,2 bari pentru presiuni cuprinse ntre 1 i 8 bari;
the precision limit of the manometer must be of: - 0,5 bari pentru presiuni cuprinse ntre 8 i 20 bari;
- 0,2 bar for pressures between 1 and 8 bar; - 1,0 bari pentru presiuni mai mari de 20 bari.
- 0,5 bari for pressures between 8 and 20 bar; conductele (furtunurile) trebuie s fie etane la presiunea
- 1,0 bari for pressures higher than 20 bar. maxim de lucru;
the pipes (hoses) must be sealed at the maximum furtunurile trebuie s fie astfel amplasate (poziionate) nct s nu
working speed; apar ndoituri sau poriuni supuse frecrii, care pot s
the pipes must be situated (posted) that dont emerge uzeze furtunul fcnd vizibil stratul interior de armtur (estur);
bends or parts in friction, which may take off the pipe, raza minim de curbur trebuie s corespund indicaiilor
making visible the layer of reinforcement (textile); furnizorului;
the minimum radius of curvature must fits to the n poziie de lucru, nu este permis ca furtunurile se se
manufacturer indications; gseasc pe direcia jetului de picturi;
in working position, its not allowed the pipes to be pe racordul de presiune (refulare) al pompei trebuie s se
along the drops jet; gseasc cel puin un filtru;
on the pressure joint (upset) of the pump must be at filtrul trebuie s fie n stare impecabil; dimensiunea
least one filter; ochiurilor trebuie s se coreleze cu duzele folosite i s
the filter must be immaculate; the holes dimension corespund cu indicaiile date de productorul duzelor;
must be in accordance with the nozzles and to operatorul trebuie s aib posibilitatea sesizrii nfundrii
comply with the indications given by the nozzles filtrului, iar elementul filtrant s fie uor accesibil;
manufacturer; dispozitivul de nchidere (robinetul), trebuie s permit
the operator must have the possibility to see the filter curirea filtrului cu rezervorul plin pn la volumul
clogging and the filter cell must be easy to get at; nominal, fr a se pierde mai mult lichid dect cel existent n
the closing device (valve) must allow filter to be carcasa filtrului i n conducta (racordul) de aspiraie;
cleaned with the liquid tank filled till the nominal elementul filtrant trebuie s fie schimbabil;
volume, without losing more liquid than is inside filter verificarea modului de montaj a suporilor duzelor;
and intake pipe (joint); toate duzele montate pe seciile de semnat trebuie s fie
the filter cell must be detachable; identice (ca i tip, mrime, material i productor);
the control of the fitting mode for the nozzles supports; toate celelalte componente (filtre de duz, dispozitive
all nozzles attached on the sowing sections must be antipicurare) trebuie s fie similare;
identical (as type, size, material and manufacturer); la nchiderea accesului lichidului sub presiune, cantitatea de
all the other parts (nozzles filters, antidropping lichid scurs nu trebuie s depeasc 2 ml, n timp de 5 min;
devices) must be similar; duzele nu au voie s picure dup oprirea stropirii. la 5
closing the under pressure liquid, the dropped liquid secunde dup dispariia jetului lenticular nu este permis
quantity must not exceed 2 ml during 5 minutes; picurarea.
the nozzles are not allowed to drop after liquid verificarea modului de funcionare a duzelor de aplicare a
application stop; after 5 seconds dropping is not lichidului i eventual corectarea reglajelor efectuate;
allowed; experimentarea n condiii de laborator - cmp n vederea
control of the operating mode of nozzles for inoculant determinrii parametrilor constructivi i funcionali ai
application and correction of adjustments; echipamentului.
test in laboratory field conditions for determine the
constructive and functional parameters of the Pregtirea pentru experimentri a standului de ncercri

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equipment. Experimentrile n condiii de laborator pentru


determinarea indicilor calitativi de lucru ai echipamentului
Preparation for tests of the experimental stand pentru aplicat inoculani microbieni INOC s-au efectuat pe
Tests in laboratory conditions for determine the standul prezentat n figura 2, aflat n dotarea Laboratorului
qualitative working index of the equipment for microbial DITRMA - INMA, care se compune n principal din urmtoarele
inoculants application INOC have been accomplished echipamente:
on the stand presented in figure 2, which endows the - cadrul, format din profile sudate, prevzut cu sistem de
DITRMA INMA Laboratory and has following main culisare i fixare n pardoseal;
components: - motor electric trifazat cu puterea de 7,5 kW i turaia
- the frame in welding structure, provided with a 1440 rot/min;
system for board sliding and fixing; - reductor, tip C 21 2 P P132, raport de transmisie 2,6;
- three-phase electric engine with the power of 7,5 kW - transmisie cardanic.
and rotative speed of 1440 rot/min;
- reducer, C 21 2 P P132 type, ratio 2,6;
- cardan drive.

3 2

Fig. 2 - The experimental stand used / Standul de ncercri utilizat:


1 frame / cadrul; 2 electric engine / motor electric; 3 reducer / reductor; 4 cardanic drive / transmisie cardanic

The preparation of experimental stand for tests Pregtirea standului pentru experimentri a constat n
consisted in adjustments and fixing the support elements of efectuarea reglajelor i fixarea elementelor de sprijin a cadrului,
the frame, cardanic drive coupling at the pump driving axle cuplarea transmisiei cardanice la arborele de antrenare al
and the inspection of cardanic drive cover to be adequate pompei i verificarea ca aprtoarea transmisiei cardanice s
fixed, the inspection of joints for the electric engine, the fie montat n stare corespunztoare, verificarea conexiunilor
electric network connection and the inspection of its pentru acionarea motorului electric, cuplarea la reeaua electric i
integrity and operation. There have been accomplished verificarea integritii i funcionrii lui. Au fost efectuate
trainings for all operators safety work. instructaje pentru securitatea muncii tuturor operatorilor.
Assurance of the instrumentation and metering devices Asigurarea aparaturii i a dispozitivelor de msurare
For the tests accomplishment the team used following Pentru efectuarea experimentrilor colectivul de
metering devices which are adequate calibrated and ncercri a utilizat urmtoarele mijloace de msur
adjusted: etalonate i reglate n mod corespunztor:
- manometer of 6 bar, uncertainty of 0,008 bar (fig. 3, a); - manometru de 6 bar incertitudine de 0,008 bar (fig. 3, a);
- liquid container for the nozzles; - recipient colector pentru duze;
- measuring cylinders for liquid, 1000 ml (fig. 3, b); - cilindrii gradai pentru msurarea lichidului, 1000 ml
- mechanical chronometer with the uncertainty of 0,4 s (fig. 3, b);
(fig. 3, c); - cronometru mecanic cu incertitudinea de 0,4 sec (fig. 3, c);
- revmeter with the uncertainty of 2 rot/min. - turometru cu incertitudinea de 2 rot/min.

a) b) c)
Fig. 3 - Metering devices / Dispozitive de msurare
a) manometer 6 bar / manometru 6 bar; b) measuring cylinder 1000 ml / cilindru gradat 1000 ml; c) mechanical chronometer / cronometru mecanic

3. RESULTS OBTAINED AT TESTS IN LABORATORY 3. REZULTATE OBINUTE LA EXPERIMENTRILE N


CONDITIONS CONDIII DE LABORATOR
At the tests in laboratory conditions of the equipment for La experimentrile n condiii de laborator a
microbial inoculants application INOC have been echipamentului pentru aplicat inoculani microbieni INOC
determined following qualitative working index: s-au determinat urmtorii indici calitativi de lucru:
pump debit; debitul pompei;
nozzles debit; debitul prin duze;
liquid norms; normele de substan;
stirring system efficiency. eficacitatea sistemului de agitare.
In figure 4 there is presented the equipment for microbial n figura 4 este prezentat echipamentul pentru aplicat
inoculants application INOC attached to the sowing inoculani microbieni INOC ataat semntorii SPC 6 n

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machine SPC 6 during tests in laboratory conditions. timpul experimentrilor n condiii de laborator.
Pump debit has been determined using volumetric Debitul pompei s-a determinat prin metoda volumetric,
method, at the entrance rotative speed of 540 rot/min. la turaia de intrare de 540 rot/min. Probele s-au efectuat
Tests have been accomplished whith the pump working at n condiiile n care pompa lucreaz pe main la
pressures between 0 and 5 bar. presiuni de lucru cuprinse ntre 0 i 5 bar.

Fig. 4 - The INOC equipment during tests on experimental stand /


Echipamentul INOC n timpul experimentrilor pe stand

In table 1 there are presented the measurements n tabelul 1 sunt prezentate rezultatele msurtorilor
results of the liquid debits at the chosen working pressures. debitelor de lichid la presiunile de lucru alese.

Table 1
Specifications / Measured values /
Average /
Specificaii Valori msurate [l/min]
Media
Rot. speed / Turaia Pressure / Presiunea
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 [l/min]
[rot/min] [bar]
0,5 14,5 14,8 14,5 14,9 15 14,7
1,0 12,9 13,3 13,7 13,5 13,5 13,3
1,5 11,7 11,1 12,0 11,5 11,8 11,6
540
2,0 9,8 10,2 10,6 9,9 10,4 10,1
2,5 7,2 7,5 7,6 7,1 7,9 7,4
3,0 4,8 5,0 4,9 5,1 5,0 4,9

Following tests resulted that pump aqccomplished liquid A rezultat c pompa realizeaz debite de lichid
debits between 4,9 and 14,7 l/min at pressures between 0 cuprinse ntre 4,9 i 14,7 l/min la presiuni cuprinse ntre
and 3 bar and a rotative speed of 540 rot/min, these 0 i 3 bar i o turaie de 540 rot/min., aceste valori
values comply with the equipment functional requests. satisfcnd cerinele funcionale ale echipamentului.
The average values of the liquid debit are presented Valorile medii intermediare ale debitului de lichid sunt
in table 2, and the diagram of its variation in terms of prezentate n tabelul 2, iar aspectul grafic al variaiei
pressure is presented in figure 5. acestuia funcie de presiune este prezentat n figura 5.

Table 2
Working pressure
0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3
Presiunea de lucru [bar]
Liquid debit /
14,7 13,3 11,6 10,1 7,4 4,9
Debitul de lichid [l/min]

14
12
d eb it (l/m in )

10
8
6
4
2
0
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

pressure [bar]

Fig. 5 - Diagram of the debit variation in terms of pressure / Reprezentarea grafic a variaiei debitului funcie de presiune

Nozzles debit has been determined using volumetric Debitul prin duze s-a determinat prin metoda volumetric
method for each nozzle, collecting the liquid through every pentru fiecare duz n parte, colectnd lichidul debitat
nozzle during 1 minute, at the same pressures for pump debit prin fiecare duz n interval de 1 minut, la presiunile la care s-
determination, that means: 0,5; 1; 1,5; 2; 2,5 and 3 bar. The au fcut determinrile pentru debitul pompei, respectiv: 0,5;
working pressure has been written on the manometer 1; 1,5; 2; 2,5 i 3 bar. Presiunea de lucru a fost citit la
attached to the equipment. There has been determined the manometrul montat pe echipament. S-a determinat apoi
average value of the debit on each nozzle. This last value valoarea medie a debitului pe fiecare duz n parte. Aceast
doesnt have to deviate with more than 10% with the ultim valoare nu are voie s se abat cu mai mult de 10%
nominal debit indicated by the nozzle manufacturer. For each fa de debitul nominal indicat de productorul (fabricantul)

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pressure have been accomplished three measurements. The duzei. Pentru fiecare presiune s-au fcut 3 msurtori.
liquid quantity in liters, which flows through nozzle during 1 Cantitatea de lichid exprimat n litri, care se scurge prin duz n
minute, is the real debit through that nozzle. timp de 1 minut, reprezint debitul real prin duza respectiv.
In table 3 there are presented the measurements results n tabelul 3 sunt prezentate rezultatele msurtorilor cu ajutorul
helping with on determined the debit through nozzles. crora s-a determinat debitul prin duze i coeficientul de debit.

Table 3
Specifications / Measured values /
Nozzle debit /
Specificaii Valori msurate [l/min]
Debit duz
Nozzle type / Pressure / Nozzle no./
R1 R2 R3 [l/min]
Tipul duzei Presiune [bar] Nr. duz
1 0,515 0,520 0,510 0,515
2 0,510 0,500 0,510 0,507
3 0,590 0,520 0,540 0,550
0,5
4 0,450 0,480 0,460 0,463
5 0,480 0,500 0,510 0,497
6 0,515 0,530 0,500 0,515
1 0,590 0,630 0,610 0,610
2 0,590 0,650 0,630 0,623
3 0,720 0,700 0,680 0,700
1
4 0,600 0,640 0,620 0,620
5 0,530 0,550 0,580 0,553
6 0,670 0,690 0,650 0,670
1 0,750 0,720 0,760 0,743
2 0,680 0,660 0,690 0,677
3 0,750 0,730 0,750 0,743
1,5
4 0,700 0,760 0,720 0,727
5 0,750 0,740 0,780 0,757
ARAG 6 0,810 0,780 0,770 0,787
0,3 1 1,100 0,990 1,050 1,047
2 0,880 0,950 0,960 0,930
3 0,960 0,980 1,050 0,997
2
4 0,930 0,980 0,950 0,953
5 1,100 1,000 1,050 1,050
6 1,100 0,990 1,200 1,097
1 1,180 1,110 1,130 1,140
2 1,060 1,120 1,060 1,080
3 1,180 1,200 1,150 1,177
2,5
4 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,050
5 1,130 1,180 1,100 1,137
6 1,160 1,200 1,160 1,173
1 1,210 1,210 1,230 1,217
2 1,170 1,210 1,190 1,190
3 1,270 1,230 1,200 1,233
3
4 1,240 1,210 1,250 1,233
5 1,210 1,220 1,190 1,207
6 1,230 1,210 1,200 1,213

Flow of liquid through the nozzle ranged from 0463 l / Debitele de lichid prin duze sunt cuprinse ntre 0,463
min at 0.5 bar pressure and 1233 l / min at 3 bar pressure. l/min la presiunea 0,5 bar i 1,233 l/min la presiunea 3
Change the graphics of flow depending on the nozzle bar. Aspectul grafic al variaiei debitului prin duze funcie de
pressure is shown in figure 6. presiune este prezentat n figura 6.
1,300

1,200

1,100

1,000
debit [l/min]

0,900

0,800

0,700

0,600

0,500

0,400
0,5

presiune [bar]

Duza 1 Duza 2 Duza 3 Duza 4 Duza 5 Duza 6

Fig. 6 - Graphical representation of variation of flow depending on the nozzle pressure /


Reprezentarea grafic a variaiei debitului prin duze funcie de presiune

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Norms of liquid are based on the flow of liquid of width Normele de lichid se determin n funcie de debitul de
and speed of movement using the relation: lichid, de limea de lucru i viteza de deplasare folosind
N = 60 q /0,1 L v [l/ha], where: relaia: N = 60 q /0,1 L.V [l/ha], unde:
N = liquid norm [l/ha]; N = norma de lichid [l/ha];
q = liquid debit [l/min]; q = debitul de lichid [l/min];
L = equipment working width [m]; L = limea de lucru a mainii [m];
v = equipment working speed [km/h]. v = viteza de lucru a mainii [km/h].
In laboratory on determined the flow, colecting n laborator s-a determinat debitul, colectnd substana
substance that is leaking through the nozzles equipment for care se scurge prin duzele echipamentului timp de 1 minut.
1 minute. Determinations were made in 3 rehearsals, the Determinrile s-au fcut n 3 repetiii, rezultatele
results of measurements are presented in table 4. msurtorilor fiind prezentate n tabelul 4.

Table 4
Measured values of debit /
Specifications / Specificaii Liquid norm /
Valori msurate ale debitului [l/min]
Norma de lichid [l/ha]
Pressure / Presiunea [bar] R1 R2 R3 Average / Media
0,5 3,060 3,050 3,030 3,040 91,20
1 3,700 3,860 3,770 3,776 113,28
1,5 4,440 4,390 4,470 4,433 132,99
2 6,070 5,890 6,260 6,073 182,19
2,5 6,710 6,860 6,700 6,756 202,68
3 7,330 7,290 7,260 7,293 218,79

Provided with nozzle ARAG 0,3, the equipment Prevzut cu duze ARAG, 0,3, echipamentul realizeaz
accomplishes liquid norms between 91,20 and 218,79 l/ha norme de lichid cuprinse ntre 91,20 i 218,79 l/ha pentru
for working pressures between 0,5 and 3 bar at a average presiuni de lucru cuprinse ntre 0,5 i 3 bar, la o vitez
speed of movement of the sowing aggregate of 7 km/h. medie de deplasare a agregatului de semnat de 7 km/h.
Standard liquid values are presented in table 4, the Valorile normei de lichid sunt prezentate n tabelul 4,
graphics and the variation with pressure is shown in iar aspectul grafic al variaiei acesteia cu presiunea este
Figure 7. prezentat n figura 7.
250

200
liq uid n orm [l/ha ]

150

100

50

0
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
pressure [bar]
Fig. 7 - Graphical representation of the variation liquid norm depending on pressure /
Reprezentarea grafic a variaiei normei de lichid funcie de presiune

Effectiveness of stirring Eficacitatea sistemului de agitare


To avoid variations in the concentration of illegal liquid Pentru a evita variaiile nepermise ale concentraiei
inocul equipment is provided with a mixing system lichidului inocul, echipamentul este prevzut cu un sistem
composed of two ejector (Venturi tube), fig. 8, placed at de agitare alctuit din dou ejectoare (tub Venturi), fig. 8,
the bottom of the tank, parallel to the longitudinal axis plasate n partea de jos a rezervoarelor, paralel cu axa
thereof and fed through a shunt directly from the longitudinal a acestora i alimentate printr-o derivaie
distributor. direct de la distribuitor.

Fig. 8 - Hydraulic agitator / Agitator hidraulic

The agitators rise of the liquid reservoir stirring all the Agitatoarele antreneaz lichidul din rezervor, agitndu-l tot
time and thus maintaining a constant concentration of timpul i meninnd astfel o concentraie constant a lichidului
liquid inocul, over 85%. To determine the parameters of inocul, peste 85%. Pentru determinarea parametrilor sistemului
shaking used turdacupral a suspension of 3% which was de agitare s-a folosit o suspensie de turdacupral 3%-care s-a
left in tanks for 2 hours at rest, during which time the lsat n rezervoare timp de 2 ore n repaus, timp n care
suspension was deposited in the bottom of the tank. At the suspensia s-a depus n partea de jos a rezervoarelor. La
end of this period was the agitation system in operation for sfritul acestei perioade s-a pus sistemul de agitaie n
3 minutes, after which the liquid collected by the spray funciune timp de 3 minute, dup care s-a colectat lichidul
nozzles. Concentration determined after the operation and prin duzele de pulverizare. Concentraia determinat dup perioada

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rest 3 minutes of the agitation was not greater than 5% de repaus i funcionare de 3 minute a sistemului de agitaie
of the training. nu a fost mai mare de 5% din concentraia de pregtire.

4. CONCLUSIONS 4. CONCLUZII
Following experiments carried out with equipment for n urma experimentrilor efectuate cu echipamentul pentru
applied microbial inoculants INOC have the following aplicat inoculani microbieini INOC, au rezultat
result: urmtoarele:
It is simply designed and easy to carry out all Este simplu, uor de deservit i realizeaz toate
agrotechnical requirements imposed to microbial cerinele agrotehnice impuse pentru aplicarea
inoculants application at hoeing plants and grain inoculanilor microbieni la culturi de plante pritoare i
legumes; leguminoase pentru boabe;
Pump liquid flow of liquid carried out between 4,9 and Pompa de lichid realizeaz debite de lichid cuprinse ntre 4,9
14,7 l/min at pressures of 0,53 bar and rotative speeds i 14,7 l/min la presiuni de 0,53 bar i turaii de 540 rot/min,
of 540 rpm, these values satisfy functional requirements aceste valori satisfcnd cerinele funcionale ale echipamentului;
of equipment; Echipamentul a fost prevzut cu duze ARAG 0,3 ;
Equipment was provided with ARAG 0,3 nozzles; Debitele duzelor au fost cuprinse ntre 0,463 l/min i
Nozzles debits were between 0,463 l/min and 1,233 1,233 l/min la presiuni de lucru cuprinse ntre 0,53 bar;
l/min at pressures of between 0,5 - 3 bar; Prevzut cu duze ARAG, 0,3, echipamentul realizeaz
Provided with nozzles ARAG, 0,3, made the fluid norme de lichid cuprinse ntre 91,20 i 218,79 l/ha pentru
norms between 91,20 and 218,79 l/ha for working presiuni de lucru cuprinse ntre 0,5 i 3 bar, la o vitez medie
pressures between 0,5 and 3 bar at a average speed of de deplasare a agregatului de semnat de 7 km/h i ndeplinete
movement of the sowing aggregate 7 km/h and meets cerinele agrotehnice la toate regimurile de lucru;
agrotechnical requests to all schemes of work; Eficacitatea sistemului de agitare a lichidului inocul este
The effectiveness of mixing of liquid inocul is over 85%. de peste 85%.
The technical equipment ensures parameters at high Echipamentul tehnic asigur parametrii calitativi de lucru
quality work, safe operating, contains constructive superiori, siguran n exploatare, conine soluii constructive
solutions for the major sub-assemblies to the best pentru principalele subansambluri la nivelul celor mai bune
products on the global plan and technological solutions for produse similare existente pe plan mondial i soluii
component parts leading to savings in material and tehnologice pentru piesele componente care conduc la
manufacturing at a low table equipment, so at a reduced economii de material n fabricaie i la o mas redus a
cost of manufacture. echipamentului, deci la un cost de fabricaie redus.

BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAFIE
1. Manea D., Cojocaru I., Pirn I., Report Testing, Phase 1. Manea D., Cojocaru I., Pirn I., Raport de experimentare, faza nr.
no. 3, Experimentation equipment for applying microbial 3, Experimentarea echipamentului pentru aplicarea inoculanilor
inoculants, Project: Inoculated Microbial Systems for microbieni, proiectul Inoculani microbieni pentru sisteme
Sustainable Agriculture, contract no. 31-048 / 14.09.2007. de agricultur durabil, contract nr. 31-048 / 14.09.2007.

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RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MANUFACTURING OF A MACHINE


FOR CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS AND AMENDMENTS SPREADING, MA-3.6
/
CERCETRI PRIVIND REALIZAREA UNEI MAINI PENTRU ADMINISTRAT
NGRMINTE CHIMICE I AMENDAMENTE, MA-3,6
Dr.ing. Lucreia POPA, Ing. Vasilica TEFAN - INMA Bucureti
Ing. Livian Victor ANDREI, Ing. Gicu GURAN - SC MAT SA Craiova

Abstract: The machine for spreading chemical fertilizers Rezumat: Maina pentru administrat ngrminte chimice
and amendments, MA-3,6, is designed for transporting and i amendamente, MA-3,6, este destinat transportului i
spreading fertilizers and amendments in field crops.The mprtierii ngrmintelor chimice i amendamentelor n
machine works in aggregate with over 45 HP tractors. The culturile de cmp. Maina lucreaz n agregat cu tractoare
machine MA-3,6 contributes to diversifying the range of avnd puterea de minim 45 CP. Maina MA-3,6 contribuie
machines designed tor chemical fertilizing and soil quality la diversificarea gamei de maini destinate fertilizrii
improvement and spreadings low quantities of mineral chimice i ameliorrii calitilor solului i asigur norme de
fertilizers, according to the actul orientations regarding the mprtiere reduse, n conformitate cu orientrile actuale
environmental protection. privind protecia mediului.

Keywords: chemical fertilizer process . Cuvinte cheie: fertilizare cu ngrminte chimice

1. GENERALITIES 1. CONSIDERAII GENERALE


For the plants germination, the fertility of the soil has un Pentru dezvoltarea corespunztoare a plantelor, un rol
important function, which it means the capacity of the soil to deosebit l are solul, n principal capacitatea acestuia de a fi
offer, all over the germination period, permanently and fertil, de a pune la dispoziia plantelor, n tot timpul vegetaiei,
simultaneously, water and nourishing substances. Because permanent i simultan, substane nutritive i ap. Datorit cultivrii
of the frequent cultivation on the same surfaces, the fertility repetate pe aceleai suprafee, fertilitatea solului se reduce,
of the soil decreases, therefore the men intervention is fiind necesar intervenia omului. Agricultura durabil
necessary. For increasing the fertility of the soil, the prevede utilizarea ngrmintelor organice pentru
sustainable agriculture advices the utilisation of the manure, creterea fertilitii solului, dar acest lucru nu este posibil,
but this is not possible all the time, because the manure deoarece ngrmintele organice nu se gsesc n cantiti
doesnt exist enough, being very difficult to obtain them. suficiente, fiind foarte greu de obinut. De aceea, este necesar
Consequently, it is necessary to use the chemical fertilizers, aplicarea n continuare a fertilizrii cu ngrminte minerale,
but only keeping that under a strict control, spreading the numai c acest lucru trebuie realizat n regim controlat, cu
minimum quantity, according to the agro technical administrarea unor norme minime, n concordan cu cerinele
requirements. agrotehnice.
Chemical fertilizers must fulfil certain agro technical Mainile de fertilizat trebuie s ndeplineasc anumite
requirements such us: cerine agrotehnice i anume:
 to spread granulates, crystal or powder fertilizers, s distribuie ngrminte n form granulat, cristalizat sau
granulates organic-mineral fertilizers and amendments under pulbere, ngrminte organo-minerale granulate i amendamente
7 mm grain, their humidity being under the standard cu granulaia la dimensiunea maxim de 7 mm, a cror
values; umiditate s nu depeasc valorile prevzute n norme;
 to provide the uniformity of chemical fertilizers and s asigure distribuirea uniform a ngrmintelor i
amendments spreading, both on length and width of the amendamentelor, att pe lungimea de distribuie ct i
spreading area, the maximum deviation from the medium pe lime, abaterea maxim admis de la valoarea
value must be under 15%; medie fiind de max.15%;
 to spread quantities according to the standards, with s asigure respectarea normelor impuse cu abateri de
35% deviation; 35% din norm;
 during the technological process, the spreaders mustnt pe parcursul procesului tehnologic efectuat de maini
break the granulates fertilizers. s nu se produc spargerea granulelor.

2. DESCRIPTION OF THE SPREADER MA 3,6 2. DESCRIEREA MAINII MA 3,6


According to RNTR 2, the machine MA 3.6 is a rigid hitch Maina MA-3,6, se ncadreaz conform RNTR 2, n
trailer. categoria remorc cu proap rigid.
The main subassemblies of the spreading machine are: Principalele subansambluri componente ale mainii sunt:
- assembled frame; - asiu asamblat,
- mechanism for act the conveyer; - mecanism de acionare transportor,
- centrifugal spreading device; - aparat pentru mprtiere centrifugal,
- bin; - buncr,
- assembled beam; - travers asamblat,
- electrical installation; - instalaie electric,
- single axle; - tren de roi asamblat,
- inertial principal braking system; - sistem de frnare prin inerie,
- mechanical parking braking system; - frn de parcare mecanica,
- transport conveyor; - band de transport,
- other assemblies and fits elements. - alte elemente de asamblare i fixare.

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Fig.1 - Spreading machine for chemical fertilizers, MA 3.6 /


Maina pentru administrat ingrasaminte chimice granulate MA 3,6

The assembled chassis comprises welded frame, eye asiul asamblat are n componen asiul sudat, ochiul de
hitch and nuts for fixing the hitchs eye. The welded remorcare i piuliele de fixare a ochiului de remorcare. asiul
chassis is made by longerons and beams, realized by sudat este o construcie metalic sudat, alctuit din lonjeroane
special standardized profiles. The hitch is mounted in i traverse, realizate din profile speciale standardizate. Proapul
front of the chassis and it is provided by a trailer eye, se afl la partea inferioar a cadrului i este prevzut cu un ochi
diameter 50+0.8, torus section, according to SR ISO 5692. de remorcare 50+0,8 cu seciune toric, conform SR ISO 5692.

Fig.2 - Main frame / Sasiul

The acting device of the conveyor is compounded by a Mecanismul de acionare a transportorului are n componen
special iron pressing wheel, acted from the left transport o roat presoare de construcie metalic special, care preia
wheel. The moving is transferred by a universal coupling micarea de la roata de transport din stnga, micare ce se
to an axle, and than, by a transmission chain, at the drive transmite prin intermediul unei transmisii cardanice la un ax i
axle of the conveyor. For maintaining the spreading apoi prin intermediul unei transmisii cu lan la axul motric al benzii
uniformity, according to the agricultural norms, the transportoare. Pentru asigurarea uniformitii de mprtiere
movement has been taken from the transport wheel, conform cerinelor agrotehnice, micarea a fost preluat de la
therefore the quantity of the fertilizers which is spread, to roata motric a mainii, astfel nct cantitatea de ngrminte
be in correlation with the speed of the machine. distribuit s fie corelat cu viteza de deplasare a mainii.
During the spreading work, the mechanism is n timpul lucrului, mecanismul este meninut n
maintained in contact with the transport wheel, by traction contact cu roata de transport cu ajutorul unui arc elicoidal
helicoidally spring. de traciune.
During the transport, for uncoupling the pressing wheel La transport, n scopul decuplrii roii presoare i
and to break off the alimentation of the spreading device, it is ntreruperii alimentrii cu material a aparatului de
mounted a plunger hydraulic cylinder, by this cylinder the mprtiere, este prevzut un cilindru hidraulic tip plunjer

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force of the spring is surmounted and the pressing wheel can cu ajutorul cruia se nvinge fora din arc i se
be moved away, in case of the movement between the fields ndeprteaz roata presoare, n cazul deplasrii ntre
or between the charging place and the surface where the sole sau de la punctul de ncrcarea pn la postaa ce
fertilizers will be spread, because the transport speed is urmeaz a fi lucrat, viteza de deplasare fiind mai mare
higher than the work speed (transport speed=15 km/h work dect n timpul lucrului (vtransport=15 km/h; vlucru=8 km/h).
speed = 8 km/h). On the same time, during the work, acting Totodat, n timpul lucrului, prin acionarea acestui
this cylinder, it is possible to modify the pressing between cilindru se poate modifica presiunea de contact ntre cele
both wheels, avoid the slipping which can be appear dou roi, evitndu-se apariia patinrii roii presoare pe
between the pressing wheel and the transport wheel. roata motric.
In case that the worker forget to uncoupling the acting Pentru protejarea transportorului cu band n situaia
mechanism and he move the machine backward, it is n care mecanizatorul uit s decupleze mecanismul de
mounted a single directional coupling to protect the acionare i se manevreaz maina ctre napoi, este
conveyor. This can stop the transmission of the rotation prevzut un cuplaj unisens cu clichet, ceea ce face ca
movement of the pressing wheel to the driving axle of the micarea de rotaie a roii presoare s nu mai fie
conveyor. transmit la axul motric al benzii transportoare.
The centrifugal spreading device is mounted on the Aparatul pentru mprtiere centrifugal se fixeaz pe buncr, la
back of the machine, by a joint screw-nut. It is possible to partea posterioar a acestuia, cu ajutorul unor mbinri urub-
modify the spreading width and the fertilizer norm, piuli. Se poate modifica astfel limea de mprtiere i implicit
modifying the angle of the aisles on the disc, in horizontal norma de ngrminte la hectar, prin reglarea unghiului n plan
plane, function the type of the fertilization (granulated or orizontal a paletelor pe disc, funcie de tipul ngrmntului
powder, diameter of the granules, the volume weight etc.). (granule sau pulverulente, diametrul granulelor , greutatea volumic).
The acting is made by a universal coupling, taking the Acionarea se face de la priza de putere a tractorului,
movement from the tractors PTO. The rotation movement prin intermediul unei transmisii cardanice, ax intermediar
is transferred by a multiplier group, mounted on the back i caseta de antrenare fixat n partea din spate a
side of the machine. suportului buncrului.

Fig. 3 - Centrifugal spreader device / Aparatul de distribuie centrifugal

The bin of the machine is made of welded sheet iron, Buncrul este o construcie metalic sudat, fiind confecionat
the shape of the bin being truncated pyramid. It was din tabl i avnd forma tronco-piramidal. S-a ales aceast form a
selected this shape, because the pitch of the walls allows buncrului deoarece nclinarea pereilor buncrului permite
an easily flow of the fertilizers, the pith being according to scurgerea cu uurin a materialului ncrcat, nclinarea fiind n
the natural talus angle of the fertilizers. concordan cu unghiul de taluz natural al materialelor mprtiate.
At the bottom of the bin, there is an iron sheet pail, in La partea inferioar se afl o cuv confecionat tot din
this pail coulisses the conveyor. tabl, pe care culiseaz banda transportoare.

Fig. 4 - Assembled bin / Buncr asamblat

To modify the fertilizers overflow transported by the Pentru modificarea debitului de material transportat de
conveyor to the spreading device, at the backside of the band pe aparatul de mprtiere centrifugal, n partea
bin has been mounted a gate which allows the flow of the posterioar a buncrului a fost prevzut un uber prin care
fertilizer, the opening of the gate is obtained by the action se scurge materialul, deschiderea acestuia putnd fi reglat
of a lever. On the other side of the gate, on the back wall cu ajutorul unei prghii. Pe partea lateral a uberului, pe
of the bin, there is a branch strip and on the gate there is peretele posterior al buncrului, a fost montat o reglet
a needle. The correlation of these two elements, it is gradat iar pe uber se afl un ac indicator. Prin corelarea

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possible to obtain the good-size of the fertilizer, function celor dou se poate face o dozare corespunztoare a
with the type of the fertilizer and the necessity, according to materialului, funcie de tipul ngrmntului i de necesarul
the agro technical conditions. The gate is acted by the determinat din condiiile agrotehnice. uberul este acionat cu
lever. ajutorul unei prghii.
In order to detach the foreign objects, or the n scopul separrii corpurilor strine ori a fertilizatorilor
agglomerated fertilizers or amendments, top of the bin aglomerate sub form de bulgri, la partea superioar a
there is a sieve, foursquare holes. buncrului a fost prevzut o sit de cernere, cu guri ptrate.
The fertilizer which has been transported by the Pentru dirijarea materialului adus de banda transportoare
conveyor is distributed on the spreading discs by a pe discul de mprtiere, la partea inferioar a buncrului
deflector, mounted bottom of the bin, therefore the este prevzut un deflector, astfel nct materialul s cad
fertilizer falling down in central area of the discs. pe discuri n zona central a acestora.
The conveyor. Bottom of the bin, inside, there is the Banda de transport. La partea inferioar, n interiorul
conveyor, made by special chains, with alveoli which buncrului, se afl banda transportoare, sub form de lan de
bring the movement of the fertilizers to the spreading tip special, cu alveole ce fac posibil deplasarea materialului,
device. respectiv a ngrmintelor ctre aparatul de mprtiere.
The conveyor is conducted by a barrel mounted in Banda transportoare este ghidat la partea anterioar de
front side of the bin. For acting the conveyor, backside of un tambur. Pentru antrenare, la partea posterioar a benzii
the conveyor there is a driving axle with chain wheels. a fost prevzut un ax motric pe care sunt montate nite
This axle takes the rotation movement, by a chain roi de lan. Acest ax motric primete micarea, prin
transmission, from the acting mechanism situated on the intermediul unei transmisii cu lan, de la mecanismul de
left of the machine. acionare dispus pe partea stng a mainii.

Fig.5 - Conveyor / Banda de transport

The assembled beam makes the connection between Traversa asamblat face legtura ntre buncr i asiu.
the bin and the chassis.

Fig.6 - Assembled beam / Traversa asamblata

Electrical installation. Because the machine moves Instalaia electric. Deoarece maina se deplaseaz i pe
on the public roads to arrive at the spreading surfaces, drumuri publice pentru a ajunge acolo unde trebuiesc distribute
the machine compound an electrical installation, which ngrmintele, maina a fost prevzut cu instalaie electric
contains lighting and flashing lamps, according to the care are n componen elementele necesare iluminrii i
rules concerning the displacement on the public roads, semnalizrii, n concordan cu cerinele reglementate de
added in Rules regarding the technical conditions which normele interne privind circulaia pe drumurile publice cuprinse n
must perform the road vehicles to be allowed in traffic on Reglementri privind condiiile tehnice pe care trebuie s
the Romanian public roads RNTR 2 and which are in le ndeplineasc vehiculele rutiere n vederea admiterii n
accordance with the European rules. circulaie pe drumurile publice din Romnia - RNTR-2 i
The machine has a single axle. care sunt n concordan cu reglementrile UE.
The principal braking system is an inertial system, Trenul de roi asamblat este de tip monoax.
acted by the inertia of the trailer, at the moment of the Frna de serviciu a mainii este constituit dintr-un sistem
tractors braking. de frnare inerial, care este pus n funciune de ineria
The inertial braking system is compound by a levers remorcii n momentul frnrii tractorului.
assembly, a middle lever, joint parts, all of these reacting Sistemul de frnare inerial este compus dintr-un ansamblu
under the action of the hitch eye, which coulisses inside de prghii, un cntar intermediar, elemente de articulaie, toate
the bushes mounted on the chassis. This movement acestea intrnd n funciune sub aciunea ochiului de remorcare
displaces the levers of the braking system, which act the care culiseaz n interiorul unor buce fixate pe asiu i determinnd
principal brake of the braking system. acionarea prghiilor din componenta frnei trenului de rulare.

TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS: CARACTERISTICI TEHNICE:


- Type ......................................................... semi mounted - Tipul mainii ..................................................... semipurtat

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- Tractor of the aggregate ...................................... 45CP - Tractorul din agregat ................................................ 45CP
- Effective mass, t ........................................................ 3,6 - Masa util, t .................................................................... 3,6
- Overall dimensions, mm - Dimensiunile de gabarit, mm
- Length ............................................................ 4420 - Lungime ............................................................. 4420
- Width .............................................................. 1900 - Lime ................................................................ 1900
- Height ............................................................ 1945 - nlime............................................................... 1945
- Spreading device ........................................... centrifugal, - Dispozitiv de mprtiere ................................... centrifugal,
with 2 discs and 4 aisles cu 2 discuri cu 4 palete reglabile
- Acting of the spreading device .......... from tractors PTO - Acionare dispozitiv de mprtiere .. de la APP al tractorului
- Revolution speed at the discs, rot/min ...................... 729 - Turaie la disc, rot/min ................................................... 729
- Spreading width, m ................................................. 618 - Limea de mprtiere, m......................................... 618
- Spreading norm, kg/ha - Norma de mprtiere, kg/ha
- chemical fertilizers ................................... 50...1.000 - ngrminte chimice ................................. 50...1.000
- amendments ......................................... 80010.000 - amendamente ........................................ 800...10.000
- Axle ................................................................ single axle - Tren de rulare......................................................... monoax
- Wheels ........................................................ 10.0/75-15.3 - Pneuri ..............................................................10.0/75-15.3
- Wheel track, mm ..................................................... 1625 - Ecartament, mm .......................................................... 1625
- Wheelbase, mm ............................................ 35003600 - Ampatament tren de rulare, mm....................... 3500...3600
- Conveyor ............................................. chain with alveoli - Transportor..........................................lan cu zale speciale
- Conveyors width, mm ............................................... 200 - Limea transportorului, mm.......................................... 200
- Conveyer acting ................................ with friction wheel, - Acionare transportor ...........................cu roat de friciune,
from the left movement wheel de la roata de la transport stg.
- Speed, km/h - Viteza max.de deplasare, km/h
- transport ............................................................. 15 - n transport 15
- work ............................................................ 6,258 - n lucru........................................................... 6,25...8

3. CONCLUSIONS 3. CONCLUZII
The spreader is a novelty in our country, because is Maina constituie o noutate pe plan intern, deoarece
designed to realize reduces norms, till 50 kg/ha, este proiectat s realizeze distribuia unor norme reduse,
according to the fertilizer type, in this way it is possible to de pn la 50 kg/ha, funcie de tipul de ngrmnt, n
protect the environment. acest fel contribuindu-se la protejarea mediului nconjurtor.
In the same time, the spreader allows the transport Totodat, maina permite transportul n vederea distribuiei,
of a great quantity of fertilizer to be spread, max.3.6 tons, a unei cantiti de ngrminte destul de mari, max.3,6
therefore allows the reduction of the fuel consumption at tone, acest lucru favoriznd reducerea consumului de
the spreading fertilizers ton. combustibil la tona de ngrmnt distribuit.

4. BIBLIOGRAPHY / BIBLIOGRAFIE
[1]. Lucreia Popa, Gicu Guran .a.- Studiu tehnologic.
Etapa 1. Ctr.13/2007. Programul INOVARE;
[2]. Lucreia Popa, Gicu Guran .a.- Memoriu tehnic de
prezentare. Etapa 2. Ctr.13/2007. Programul INOVARE;
[3]. Lucreia Popa, Gicu Guran .a.- Memoriu tehnic de
prezentare. Etapa 3. Ctr.13/2007. Programul INOVARE.

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RESEARCHES ON THE REDUCTION OF FUEL CONSUMPTION IN CASE OF AUTOMATIC


SYSTEMS FOR POSITION CONTROL USE
/
CERCETRI PRIVIND REDUCEREA CONSUMULUI DE COMBUSTIBIL N CAZUL UTILIZRII
SISTEMELOR AUTOMATE DE REGLAJ DE POZIIE
1) 1) 1) 1)
Conf.dr.ing. G. Paraschiv , .l.dr.ing. G. Muuroi , As.drd.ing. N. Ungureanu , Conf.dr.ing. S.t. Biri , Dr.ing. V.
2) 2)
Vldu , Dr.ing. E. Marin
1) 2)
Politehnica University of Bucharest, Romania, INMA Bucharest, Romania

Abstract. Tillage machines, especially ploughs, require Rezumat. Mainile de lucrat solul, n special plugurile, necesit
high traction forces, limited by the value of adhesion fore mari de traciune, care ns sunt limitate de valoarea
forces between the tractor driving wheels and the soil. forelor de aderen dintre roile motoare ale tractorului i
One of the means used to increase the adhesion force sol. Unul din mijloacele utilizate pentru mrirea forei de
between the tractor wheels and the soil is to use a part of aderen dintre roile tractorului i sol este acela de a folosi
the vertical component of the resultant force acting on the o parte din componenta vertical a rezultantei forelor care
working parts as increase force of the adhesion weight. In acioneaz asupra organelor de lucru ca for de mrire a
order to transfer this part of the vertical component on the greutii de aderen. Pentru transferarea acestei pri din
tractor driving wheels, are used hydraulic systems with componenta vertical pe roile motoare ale tractorului se
automatic position control of the agricultural machine folosesc sistemele hidraulice cu reglare automat a poziiei
towards the soil. This article presents a new automatic mainii agricole fa de sol. n acest articol se prezint un
system for position control of the machine towards the nou sistem automat de reglare a poziiei mainii fa de sol,
soil, whose use, according to the experimental results a crui utilizare, conform rezultatelor experimentale prezentate,
presented, leads to the reduction of hourly fuel conduce la reducerea consumului orar de combustibil cu
consumption with approximately 0.7 kg / h. aproximativ 0,7 kg/h.

Keywords: plough, automatic system for position control, Cuvinte cheie: plug, sistem automat de reglare a
fuel consumption . poziiei, consum de combustibil.

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS CONSIDERAII GENERALE


Rational use of tractor power, increased productivity, Folosirea raional a puterii tractorului, mrirea productivitii,
reduced fuel consumption, preventing soil degradation, reducerea consumului de combustibil, evitarea degradrii
ease of aggregates exploitation are issues that concern solului, uurarea exploatrii agregatelor sunt probleme
specialists in the field. care preocup specialitii n domeniu.
Agricultural machinery development and continuous Dezvoltarea i perfecionarea continu a mainilor agricole
improvement requires ever more the use of hydraulic impune folosirea, din ce n ce mai mult, a instalaiilor de
installations, in order to facilitate the driving, simplify the acionare hidraulic n vederea uurrii comenzilor, simplificrii
machinery transmissions and construction, as well as transmisiilor i construciei mainilor, precum i a uurrii
facilitate and ensure the control of their optimal operation i asigurrii reglrii regimurilor optime de funcionare a
regimes. However, the use of these equipments creates acestora. Totodat, utilizarea acestor instalaii creeaz
the possibility to automatize the work processes carried posibilitatea automatizrii proceselor de lucru executate
out by the agricultural machines. de mainile agricole.
In order to optimize fuel consumption for the soil tillage n vederea optimizrii consumului de combustibil pentru agregatele
aggregates, solutions were soughed to increase the de prelucrare a solului au fost cutate soluii n vederea creterii
traction force, forces generally limited by the adhesion forei de traciune, fore care n general sunt limitate de forele de
forces. The traction force can be increased using a part of aderen. O modalitate prin care se poate obine creterea forei
the vertical component of the resultant forces acting on de traciune este aceea de a folosi o parte din componenta vertical
the working parts as increase force of the adhesion a rezultantei forelor care acioneaz asupra organelor de lucru
weight. This becomes possible if agricultural tractors are ca for de mrire a greutii de aderen. Lucrul acesta devine
equipped with hydraulic systems with automatic position posibil dac tractoarele agricole sunt echipate cu sisteme hidraulice
control of the agricultural machine towards the soil. cu reglare automat a poziiei mainii agricole fa de sol.
This article presents a new automatic system for n acest articol se prezint un nou sistem automat de
position control of agricultural machine towards the soil, reglare a poziiei mainii agricole fa de sol, sistem care a
system tested on the field, with good results. fost ncercat n cmp, cu rezultate bune.

MATERIALS AND METHODS MATERIALE I METODE


The hydraulic system with automatic position control of Sistemul hidraulic cu reglare automat a poziiei mainii
the agricultural machine towards the soil, presented in agricole fa de sol, prezentat n aceast lucrare, a fost gndit
this paper, was designed to be mounted on the 65 HP pentru a fi montat pe tractorul de 65 CP i s foloseasc de la
tractor and to use, from its hydraulic equipment, the instalaia hidraulic a acestuia pompa hidraulic, distribuitorul i
hydraulic pump, distributor and hydraulic cylinder, to drive cilindrul hidraulic pentru acionarea mecansimului de
the suspension mechanism with three-points grip. suspendare cu prindere n trei puncte.
Figure 1 shows a functional diagram of the hydraulic n figura 1 este prezentat schema funcional a
system with automatic position control of the agricultural sistemului hidraulic cu reglare automat a poziiei mainii
machine towards the soil, in which the following notations agricole fa de sol, n care s-au notat: 1 - mecansimul de
were made: 1 - suspension mechanism with three-points suspendare cu prindere n trei puncte; 2 palpator; 3

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grip, 2 - palpable, 3 plough body working at depth a; 4 - trupia ce lucreaz la adncimea a; 4 cablu flexibil; DT
flexible cable; DT tractors distributor; D1 distributor of distribuitorul tractorului; D1 distribuitorul sistemului automat
automatic system with dual action from the lever on prevzut cu dubl acionare de la maneta aflat la bord
board and from the palpable; Sr1, Sr2 restraint valves forming i de la palpator; Sr1, Sr2 supape de reinere ce
the double blocking valve; Ch - hydraulic cylinder. alctuiesc supapa dubl de blocare; Ch cilindru hidraulic.

Fig. 1 - Functional scheme of the hydraulic system with automatic position control of the agricultural machine towards the soil /
Schema funcional a sistemului hidraulic cu reglare automat a poziiei mainii agricole fa de sol

The D1 distributors command from the palpable runs Comanda distribuitorului D1 de la palpator se execut
through the flexible cable, as follows: prin intermediul cablului flexibil, astfel:
- if the palpable lowers, the D1 distributor is passed in - dac palpatorul coboar, distribuitorul D1 este trecut n
lower position (C); poziia cobort (C);
- if the palpable goes up, the D1 distributor passes in - dac palpatorul se ridic, distribuitorul D1 este trecut
high position; n poziia ridicat;
To operate the hydraulic system with automatic Pentru punerea n funciune a sistemului hidraulic cu
position control of the agricultural machine towards the reglare automat a poziiei mainii agricole fa de sol
soil, the following operations are necessary: sunt necesare urmtoarele operaii:
- adjust the palpable position, corresponding to the - se regleaz poziia palpatorului, corespunztoare adncimii
desired working depth; de lucru dorite;
- pass the DT distributor in upper position in (R); - se trece distribuitorul DT n poziia ridicat (R);
- lower the plough using the command lever of the D1 - se coboar plugul utiliznd maneta de comand a
distributor; distribuitorului D1;
- perform a test and measure the working depth; - se efectueaz o prob i se msoar adncimea de lucru;
- if the depth is appropriate, bring the thrust of the - dac adncimea de lucru este corespunztoare, se
command lever of the D1 distributor near it and fix it; aduce limitatorul manetei de comand a distribuitorului
- if the desired depth is not obtained, modify the D1 lng aceasta i se fixeaz;
position of the palpable and redo the working test. - dac adncimea dorit nu este obinut, se modific
At the end of the parcel, for return, the distributor of the poziia palpatorului i se reface proba de lucru.
automat system is operated to lift the plough. After returning, La captul parcelei, pentru ntoarcere, se acioneaz
for the ploughs driving into the soil, the lever of D1 distributor distribuitorul sistemului automat pentru ridicarea plugului.
must be brought near the thrust and then the tractors DT Dup ntoarcere pentru antrenarea plugului n sol se aduce
distributor must be brought in high position. The plough maneta distribuitorului D1 lng limitator i se trece
begins to lower, falling into the soil until it reaches the distribuitorul tractorului DT n poziia ridicat. Plugul ncepe
adjusted depth, when the palpable will command the D1 s coboare, intr n sol pn la adncimea reglat, cnd palpatorul
distributor to transit in neutral position. comand trecerea distribuitorul D1 n poziia neutru.
The hydraulic system with automatic position control of Sistemul hidraulic cu reglare automat a poziiei
the agricultural machine towards the soil consists of: mainii agricole fa de sol are n componen: instalaia
hydraulic equipment of the tractor IH-1; automatic control hidraulic a tractorului IH1; dispozitivul de reglare
system, including distributor D1 with three positions and four automat ce include distribuitorul D1 cu trei poziii i patru
ways and the double blocking valve, composed of restraint ci i supapa dubl de blocare, alctuit din supapele de
valves Sr1 and Sr2; double-acting hydraulic cylinder CH. reinere Sr1 i Sr2; cilindrul hidraulic cu dubl aciune CH.
The conventional scheme for the hydraulic system with Schema convenional a sistemului hidraulic cu
automatic position control of the agricultural machine reglare automat a poziiei mainii agricole fa de sol
towards the soil is presented in Figure 2, where following este prezentat n figura 2, n care au fost folosite
notations were used: IH-1 - hydraulic equipment of notaiile: IH-1 - instalaia hidraulic a tractorului Universal
Universal 650 tractor; P pump; F - filter; St crossing 650; P pomp; F filtru; St supap de trecere; Ss
valve; Ss - safety valve; Rh - hydraulic resistance; RZ - supap de siguran; Rh rezisten hidraulic; Rz
reservoir; DT - distributor; D.R.A. - automatic control rezervor; DT distribuitor; D.R.A. dispozitiv de reglare
device; Dl - distributor with three positions and four ways; automat; Dl distribuitor cu trei poziii, patru ci; Sr1, Sr2
Sr1, Sr2 restraint valves; CH - hydraulic cylinder. supape de reinere; CH cilindru hidraulic.

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Fig. 2 - Conventional scheme for the hydraulic system with automatic position control of the agricultural machine towards the soil /
Schema convenional a sistemului hidraulic cu reglare automat a poziiei mainii agricole fa de sol

In the neutral position (N) of the DT distributor drawer it n poziia neutru (N) a sertarului distribuitorului DT
is made the connection between pump and tank, through este realizat legtura dintre pomp i rezervor, prin
passage valve St. supapa de trecere St.
If the hydraulic system with automatic position control n cazul n care sistemul hidraulic cu reglare automat
of the agricultural machine towards the soil is working (DT a poziiei mainii agricole fa de sol funcioneaz
distributor drawer is in high position - R), Dl distributor (sertarul distribuitorului DT se afl n poziia ridicat R),
makes the following connections, corresponding to the distribuitorul Dl realizeaz urmtoarele legturi, corespunztoare
positions occupied by the drawer: poziiilor ocupate de sertarul acestuia:
- the neutral position (N) - oil flows through the pump P, - poziia neutru (N) uleiul debitat de pompa P parcurge
covering DT and Dl distributors, reaching the reservoir. distribuitoarele DT i Dl ajungnd n rezervor. Cele
The two chambers of the hydraulic cylinder are blocked; dou camere ale cilindrului hidraulic sunt blocate;
- the high position (R) - connection is made between the pump - poziia ridicat (R) se realizeaz legtura ntre
and the chamber in front of the hydraulic cylinder piston pomp i camera din faa pistonului cilindrului
by DT (b-d), Dl (h-k), Sr2. In the same time, connection is hidraulic prin DT (b-d), Dl (h-k), Sr2. n acelai timp
made between the chamber behind the hydraulic este realizat i legtura ntre camera din spatele
cylinder piston and the reservoir by means of Sr1, Dl (j-i), pistonului cilindrului hidraulic i rezervor prin Sr1, Dl
DT (c-g); (j-i), DT (c-g);
- lowered position (C) connection is made between the - poziia cobort (C) se realizeaz legtura pomp
pump and hydraulic cylinder by DT (b-d), Dl (h-j), Sr1, cilindru hidraulic prin DT (b-d), Dl (h-j), Sr1, precum i
and the connection between hydraulic cylinder and legtura dintre cilindrul hidraulic i rezervor prin Sr2,
reservoir by Sr2, Dl (k-i), DT (c-g). Dl (k-i), DT (c-g).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS REZULTATE I DISCUII


The hydraulic system with automatic position control of Sistemul hidraulic cu reglare automat a poziiei
the agricultural machine towards the soil, whose functional mainii agricole fa de sol, a crui schem funcional,
and conventional schemes were presented in Figures 1 respectiv convenional, au fost prezentate n figurile 1 i
and 2, was developed (fig. 3 - automatic hydraulic system, 2, a fost realizat (fig. 3 sistemul hidraulic automat; fig. 4
fig. 4 - the control position device) and tested on the field. dispozitivul de reglare a poziiei) i ncercat n cmp.
For the developement of the automatic hydraulic Pentru realizarea sistemului hidraulic automat,
system, the hydraulic equipment of U 650 tractor (IH-1) instalaia hidraulic a tractorului U 650 (IH-1) a fost
was supplemented with (fig. 3): the position control device completat cu (fig. 3): dispozitivul de reglare a poziiei -1;
-1; flexible cable - 2; distributor - 3; blocking valve - 4; cablul flexibil - 2; distribuitorul - 3; supapa de blocare - 4;
control lever - 5. maneta de comand - 5.

Fig. 3 - Components of the automatic hydraulic system / Prile componente ale sistemului hidraulic automat

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On the position control device (fig. 4) it can be Asupra dispozitivului de reglare a poziiei (fig. 4) se
intervened to: poate interveni pentru:
- modify the precompression resort 4 to ensure - modificarea precomprimrii resortului 4 pentru a
different pressings of the palpable on the soil; asigura apsri diferite ale palpatorului pe sol;
- change the connection point (joint) between rod 3 - modificarea punctului de legtur (articulaiei) dintre tija 3 i
and lever 5, to adjust the work depth; prghia 5, pentru a regla adncimea de lucru;
- change the holding point of the flexible cable at lever - modificarea punctului de prindere a cablului flexibil la
5, to modify the sensitivity of the automatic hydraulic prghia 5, pentru a modifica sensibilitatea sistemului
system; hidraulic automat;
- block or release joint 6 to prevent or allow horizontal - blocarea sau eliberarea articulaiei 6 pentru a mpiedica sau a
oscillations of the palpable. permite oscilaiile palpatorului n plan orizontal.
Following the automatic hydraulic system tests, the n urma ncercrilor sistemului hidraulic automat a
results pointed that is necessary to replace the fixed skid rezultat necesitatea nlocuirii patinei fixe cu o patin
with a mobile one, to prevent the system to operate at mobil, pentru a mpiedica sistemul s intre n funciune
very low subsidences, as well as the replacement of the la denivelari foarte mici, precum i a cablului flexibil cu un
flexible cable with another flexible cable that works both in cablu flexibil ce lucreaz att la ntindere, ct i la
stretching and compression (steel wire inserted in the compresiune (srm de oel introdus n cmaa
flexible shirt). flexibil).
The method of use for this system is the following: Modul de utilizare a acestui sistem este urmtorul:
- adjust the depth of work by intervening on the joint - se regleaz adncimea de lucru intervenind asupra
point between rod 3 and lever 5; punctului de articulaie dintre tija 3 i prghia 5;
- pass the tractor distributor in high position; - se trece distribuitorul tractorului n poziia ridicat;
- lower the plough using the command lever of the - se acioneaz coborrea plugului utiliznd maneta de
automatic systems distributor; comand a distribuitorului sistemului automat;
- perform a test and measure the depth of work; - se efectueaz o prob i se msoar adncimea de lucru;
- if the depth is appropriate, bring the thrust of the - dac adncimea de lucru este corespunztoare, se aduce
command lever for the automatic system distributor limitatorul manetei de comand a distribuitorului
near it and fix it. sistemului automat lng aceasta i se fixeaz.

Fig. 4 - Position control device / Dispozitivul de reglare a poziiei

At the end of the parcel, for return, the automatic La captul parcelei, pentru ntoarcere, se acioneaz
system distributor is operated from the command lever, to distribuitorul sistemului automat de la maneta de
lift the plough. After the return, to drive the plough into the comand pentru ridicarea plugului. Dup ntoarcere,
soil, the automatic system distributor lever must be pentru antrenarea plugului n sol se aduce maneta
brought near the thrust, followed by the lift command from distribuitorului sistemului automat lng limitator i se
the tractor distributor. The plough begins to lower, being comand ridicarea de la distribuitorul tractorului. Plugul
drived into the soil to the adjusted depth, when the ncepe s coboare, se antreneaz n sol pn la
palpable commands the shift of the automatic system adncimea reglat, cnd palpatorul comand trecerea
distributor in neutral position. distribuitorului sistemului automat n poziia neutru.
Within the experimental tests using the new hydraulic n cadrul ncercrilor experimentale cu noul sistem
system for position control of the agricultural machine towards hidraulic de reglare a poziiei mainii agricole fa de sol
the soil, were observed: the depth of work, the aggregate au fost urmrite: adncimea de lucru, viteza agregatului,
speed, hourly fuel consumption, traction force and consumul orar de combustibil, fora de traciune i
wheels slippage. patinarea roilor.
For comparison, the same parameters were measured Pentru comparaie, aceiai parametri au fost urmrii
for an aggregate with a support wheel plough for limiting i n cazul unui agregat format cu un plug cu roat de
depth of work. limitare a adncimii de lucru.
The two aggregates were subjected to tests on the Cele dou agregate au fost supuse ncercrilor pe
same soil (without subsidences and natural barriers), in acelai teren (fr denivelri i obstacole naturale), n

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the same conditions of humidity, temperature and degree aceleai condiii de umiditate, temperatur i grad de
of weed infestation. The experimental results for the two mburuienare al solului. Rezultatele experimentale,
aggregates are presented in Table 1. pentru cele dou agregate, sunt prezentate n tabelul 1.
It should be noted that prior to the tests execution on Se impune observaia ca nainte de efectuarea
the comparative analysis of the two aggregates (with probelor privind analiza comparativ a celor dou
hydraulic system with automatic position control of the agregate (cu sistem hidraulic cu reglare automat a
agricultural machine towards the soil and with classical poziiei mainii agricole fa de sol i cu sistem clasic)
system) test have been performed on the operation of the s-au efectuat ncercri privind modul de funcionare a
hydraulic system with automatic position control of the sistemului hidraulic cu reglare automat a poziiei mainii
agricultural machine towards the soil. agricole fa de sol.
During the tests several attempts have been made to Pe durata ncercrilor s-au fcut mai multe ncercri
observe the behavior of hydraulic automatic system in pentru a urmri comportarea sistemului hidraulic automat
work. n lucru.
To determine the slippage coefficient have been Pentru determinarea coeficientului de patinare s-au
accomplished empty trips of the tractor plough aggregate. realizat deplasri n gol ale agregatului tractor - plug.
The measurements for the two tested aggregates were Determinrile, n cazul celor dou agregate
performed for three values of the working depth, in two ncercate, s-au efectuat pentru trei valori ale adncimii
rehearsals. de lucru, n dou repetiii.

Table 1 / Tabel 1

Aggregate Hourly Wheel slippage / Patinarea roilor [%]


Medium depth / Traction force /
No. speed / Viteza consumption/
Adncimea medie Left wheel / Right wheel / Mean / Fora de
crt. agregatului Consumul
[m] Roat stnga Roat dreapta Media traciune [daN]
[m/s] orar [kg/h]
Plough with automatic system / Plug cu sistem automat
1 0,1972 0,735 5,53 13,5 4,4 8,95 839,5
2 0,1963 0,725 5,70 9,9 5,6 7,75 1173,9
3 0,1631 1,042 4,45 6,0 1,7 3,85 712,7
4 0,1585 1,059 7,75 7,6 2,3 4,59 980,6
5 0,2315 0,862 9,59 22,7 24,8 23,75 1811,3
6 0,2377 0,954 9,92 20,4 13,2 16,80 1785,5
Support wheel plough for depth limitation / Plug cu roat de limitare a adncimii
7 0,24 0,709 11,71 33,5 23,8 28,65 1712,3
8 0,237 0,975 8,95 20,1 17,1 18,6 1555
9 0,2055 0,794 9,47 18,8 13,8 16,3 1465,5
10 0,205 0,926 9,44 17,75 16,05 16,9 1639,5
11 0,1668 0,943 6,85 10,25 6,95 8,6 1018,7
12 0,1681 0,877 9,94 18 16,4 17,20 1701,8

Figure 5 shows the graphical representation of the Reprezentnd grafic consumul orar de combustibil n
dependence between hourly fuel consumption and funcie de fora de traciune, pentru cele dou agregate
traction force, for the two tested aggregates. . supuse ncercrilor, se obin variaiile din figura 5.

Fig. 5 - Graphical representation of the dependence between hourly fuel consumption and traction force, in both cases /
Reprezentarea grafic a consumului orar de combustibil n funcie de fora de traciune, n cele dou cazuri

CONCLUSIONS CONCLUZII
Because the systems with force and position control Deoarece sistemele cu reglaj de for i poziie
ensure an adhesion increase, a reduction in fuel asigur o mrire a aderenei, o reducere a consumului de
consumption and increased productivity, they were combustibil i o cretere a productivitii, ele s-au

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generalized to modern tractors, choosing the appropriate generalizat la tractoarele moderne, alegndu-se reglajul
control of working conditions. potrivit condiiilor concrete de lucru.
Given the fact that in our country the soils are not innd seama de faptul c n ara noastr terenurile
leveled and neighter homogeneous, in which case are nu sunt nivelate i nici omogene, caz n care se lucreaz
worked with the classic support wheel system, losing the cu sistemul clasic cu roat de sprijin, pierzndu-se
advantages mentioned above, solutions are quested to avantajele menionate mai sus, se caut soluii care s
ensure the transfer of machine weight and vertical asigure transferul greutii mainii i a componentei
component of the resulting forces acting on the tractor verticale a rezultantei forelor ce acioneaz asupra
working organs, regardless of the conditions. organelor de lucru pe tractor n orice condiii.
The system presented in this article removes the Sistemul prezentat n cadrul acestui articol nltur
disadvantages of classical systems, by ensuring, dezavantajele sistemelor clasice prin aceea c asigur n
regardless of the working conditions (unleveled soil or/and orice condiii de lucru (teren denivelat sau/i neomogen)
heterogeneous) a constant ploughing depth and at the o artur de adncime constant i n acelai timp
same time transferring the ploughs weight and of the transfer greutatea plugului i a componentelor verticale
vertical components of the forces acting on it, to the ale forelor ce acioneaz asupra acestuia tractorului,
tractor, increasing the pressure on the driving wheels, and mrind apsarea pe roile motoare, i ca urmare, prin
therefore, by increasing the adhesion, also increases the creterea aderenei crete fora de traciune i
traction force and aggregate productivity, downsizing productivitatea agregatului, micorndu-se patinrile i
slippages energy consumption. consumurile energetice.
Following the analysis of experimental datas presented n urma analizei datelor experimentale, prezentate n
in Table 1, it can be observed that, when using automatic tabelul 1, se poate constata c n cazul utilizrii
hydraulic system with position control of the agricultural sistemului hidraulic automat de reglare a poziiei mainii
machine towards the soil, the pressure on the driving agricole fa de sol, apsarea pe roile motoare crete cu
wheels increases with 750 daN and the slippage 750 daN iar patinrile scad, n medie, cu 29%.
decreases, on average, by 29%. n cazul consumului orar de combustibil, aa cum se
Hourly fuel consumption, as it can be observed in poate constata i din figura 5, acesta se reduce n cazul
Figure 5, reduces when using the presented automatic utilizrii sistemului hidraulic automat prezentat cu
hydraulic system, by approximately 0.7 kg/h. aproximativ 0,7 kg/h.
Researches on the hydraulic systems with automatic position Cercetrile privind sistemele hidraulice cu reglare
control of the agricultural machime towards the soil could automat a poziiei mainii agricole fa de sol ar putea
continue with the achievement of a automatic hydraulic system continua cu realizarea unui sistem hidraulic automat cu
electrical connection response. Determination of agricultural legtura de reacie electric. Determinarea poziiei mainii
machines position towards the soil could be achieved by agricole fa de sol s-ar putea realiza nlocuind palpatorul
substituting the palpable mounted on the machine with a montat pe main cu un sistem format dintr-un emitor
system consisting of a transmitter and a ultrasounds receiver, i un receptor de ultrasunete care s msoare distana
to measure the distance from the car to the soil and to de la cadrul mainii la sol i s comande distribuitorul
command the distributor of the automatic hydraulic system. sistemului hidraulic automat.
The presented hydraulic system with automatic Sistemul hidraulic cu reglare automat a poziiei
position control of the agricultural machine towards the mainii agricole fa de sol prezentat poate fi completat
soil can be completed with a device for traction force fie cu un dispozitiv de control al forei de traciune, fie cu
control, or with a slippage device control. un dispozitiv de control al patinrii.
In this situation, the automatic hydraulic system can n aceast situaie, sistemul hidraulic automat poate
operate with position control and it can switch on force or funciona cu reglaj de poziie i poate comuta pe reglajul
slippage control when the traction force, respectively the de for sau patinare cnd fora de traciune, respectiv
slippage, exceeds the maximum prescribed values. patinarea, depesc valorile maxime prescrise.

BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAFIE
1. Babiciu P., .a. Hydraulic systems for tractors and 1. Babiciu P., .a. Sisteme hidraulice ale tractoarelor i
agricultural machines, Ceres Reader, Bucharest, 1984; mainilor agricole, Editura CERES, Bucureti, 1984;
2. Caproiu t., .a. Tillage machines, harvesting and 2. Caproiu t., .a. Maini agricole de lucrat solul,
yield sustenance, Teaching and Pedagogic Reader, semnat i ntreinere a culturilor, Editura Didactic i
Bucharest, 1982; Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1982;
3. Ciulu Gh. Exploitation of hydraulic mechanisms 3. Ciulu Gh. Exploatarea mecanismelor hidraulice
from 65 and 80 HP tractors, Ceres Reader, de la tractoarele de 65 i 80 CP, Editura Ceres,
Bucharest, 1983; Bucureti, 1983;
4. Muuroi G. Researches on the achievement of a 4. Muuroi G. Cercetri privind realizarea unui
hydraulic system with automatic position control of sistem hidraulic cu reglare automat a poziiei mainii
the agricultural machine towards the soil, Doctoral agricole fa de sol, Tez de doctorat, Bucureti, 2002;
Thesis, Bucharest, 2002; 5. Paraschiv G., .a. Acionarea hidraulic a mainilor
5. Paraschiv G., .a. Hydraulic drive of agricultural agricole, Editura Printech, Bucureti, 2000.
machines, Printech Reader, Bucharest, 2000.

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RELEVANT CHARACTERISTICS OF ALTERNATIVE LIQUID FUELS AIMED


AT DIESEL ENGINES EXPLOITATION IN POLYCARBURATION DUTY
/
PROPRIETILE RELEVANTE ALE COMBUSTIBILILOR LICHIZI ALTERNATIVI
VIZAI PENTRU EXPLOATAREA MOTOARELOR DIESEL N REGIM POLICARBURAT
Dr. Eng. Mircea Adrian Nicolescu
- INMA Bucharest, Romania -

Abstract. Following the route of fuel starting the feeding Rezumat. Urmrind drumul parcurs de combustibil din
tank till its combustion in a Diesel engine cylinder, the rezervorul de alimentare pn la arderea n cilindrul unui
current paper presents all the actions at witch the fuel is motor Diesel, lucrarea prezint toate aciunile la care
exposed. From this point of view, for each phenomenon acesta este supus. Pe acest fundal, pentru fiecare
in witch the fuel is involved, certain analyses are made, fenomen la care combustibilul ia parte, sunt fcute
aiming to emphasize the influences of its charactristics analize menite s evidenieze influenele pe care
upon the development of the respective phenomenon and proprietile acestuia le au asupra desfurrii
the technical environment as well as the extent of these fenomenului respectiv i a mediului tehnic de
influences. The rich inventory of these features tinted by desfurare, precum i amploarea acestor influene.
significant influences will contain the relevant Inventarul nuanat al proprietilor cu influene
characteristics appropriate to any liquid fuel aimed at semnificative va conine proprietile relevante pentru
being used for Diesel engines feeding. Furthermore, the orice combustibil lichid vizat a fi folosit pentru alimentarea
evaluations even those qualitative related to motoarelor Diesel. n plus, evalurile chiar i calitative
intensities of influences which have been emphasized, privind intensitile influenelor evideniate, permit o prim
allow a first assessment of capabilities of a fuel that apreciere a capabilitii ca un combustibil alternativ s
should be used at polycarburation exploitation of engines poat fi folosit pentru exploatarea n regim policarburat a
designed at Diesel oil feeding. motoarelor construite pentru alimentarea cu motorin.

Keywords: Diesel engine, alternative fuel, policarburation . Cuvinte cheie: motor Diesel, combustibil alternativ, policarburare

1. Delivery fuel way of the working cycle of a Diesel engine 1. Traseul de alimentare a ciclului unui motor Diesel
In the arrangement of operating any internal n aranjamentul de funcionare al oricrui motor cu
combustion engine installed, load controlled delivery dose ardere intern instalat, sarcina de livrare controlat a
of fuel needed for each deployment cycle engine it is an dozei de combustibil necesar desfurrii fiecrui ciclu
assembly that can be called, generically, feeding motor i revine unui ansamblu ce poate fi denumit, generic,
installation of the engine cycle. Formally, in the traveled instalaia de alimentare a ciclului motor. Formal, n traseul
route by the fuel through this installation facility can parcurs de combustibil prin aceast instalaie se pot distinge
distinguish two sections. The first section, called currently dou seciuni. Prima seciune, numit curent instalaia de
the feeding installation of the engine and considered as alimentare a motorului i considerat ca instalaie auxiliar
auxiliary installation in the engine, the fuel tank includes a acestuia, corespunztoare instalrii motorului n punctul de
lucru, cuprinde rezervorul de combustibil, un sorb
whirlpool with a coarse filter, a transfer pump, filter and prevzut cu un filtru grosier, o pomp de transfer, un filtru
pipes fin what binds these elements and ensure delivery fin i conductele ce leag aceste elemente i asigur
of fuel, in a continuous manner, to the entry into the livrarea combustibilului, n mod continuu, la intrarea n
engine. The second section, considered as part of the motor. Cea de a doua seciune, considerat ca fcnd
motor is made, in the case of Diesel engines, from the parte integrant din motor, este constituit, n cazul
injection installation, which provides fuel dosage and motoarelor Diesel, din instalaia de injecie, care asigur
preparation for the formation of the mixture. In stage - dozarea combustibilului i pregtirea acestuia pentru procesul
considered mature - development of Diesel engines, are de formare a amestecului. n stadiul actual considerat matur
two variants of injection technologies. The first of these de dezvoltare a motoarelor Diesel, sunt folosite dou variante
widespread, which was the historical development of de tehnologii de injecie. Prima dintre acestea, larg rspndit,
modern diesel engines technology is making use of care a constituit baza de dezvoltare istoric a motoarelor
injection pumps and injectors controlled by the fuel Diesel moderne, este tehnologia care apeleaz la pompe de
pressure. In this variant, the facility includes an pump for injecie i injectoare comandate de nivelul presiunii combustibilului.
fuel pre-compression and, in principle, for each cylinder n aceast variant, instalaia de injecie cuprinde o pomp
of the engine, a sequential volumetric pump with pentru precomprimarea combustibilului i, n principiu, pentru
adjustable flow rate, injector connected to corresponding fiecare cilindru al motorului, cte o pomp volumetric
hydraulic cylinder respectively. Overall, the supply cycle secvenial, cu debit reglabil, conectat hidraulic la injectorul
engine variant for the injection pump and injectors corespunztor cilindrului respectiv. n ansamblu, instalaia de
alimentare a ciclului motor pentru varianta de injecie cu
controlled by the pressure of fuel composition are shown pomp i injectoare comandate de presiunea combustibilului
schematically in figure 1. are componena prezentat schematic n figura 1.

Fig. 1 - Instalaia de alimentare a ciclului motor n varianta cu pomp de injecie / Feeding installation of the Diesel working cycle in injection pump technology
R rezervor de combustibil / fuel tank ; FG filtru grosier / raw filter ; PT pomp de transfer / conduction pump; FF filtru fin / fine filter ; PPC pomp de precomprimare / pre-
compression pump; EPI element de pomp de injecie / injection pumping element ; ICP injector comandat de presiune / pressure-controlled injector

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A second injection technology, developed and A doua tehnologie de injecie, dezvoltat i maturizat
matured over the last two decades, is so-called common n ultimele dou decenii, este aa-numita tehnologie de
rail injection technology. In this technology, the fuel is injecie cu ramp comun. n aceast tehnologie,
compressed until the pressure required for injection into a combustibilul este comprimat, pn la presiunea necesar
single chamber (common rail) and continuously injeciei, ntr-o incint unic (rampa comun) i distribuit
distributed to the injectors which are with electrical continuu ctre injectoare cu deschidere comandat
ordered opening, placed in each cylinder. In this case, the electric, plasate n fiecare cilindru. n acest caz, instalaia
injection installation includes a high pressure pump, the de injecie cuprinde o pomp de nalt presiune, incinta de
high pressure precinct (common rail) and, for each nalt presiune (rampa comun) i, pentru fiecare cilindru
engine cylinder, a pipe connecting an injector opening al motorului, cte o conduct de legtur i un injector cu
electric ordered. Overall, the feeding installation of the deschidere comandat electric. n ansamblu, instalaia de
Diesel working cycle in common rail technology has the alimentare a ciclului motor n varianta de injecie cu ramp
component presented schematically in the figure 2. comun are componena prezentat schematic n figura 2.

Fig. 2. Instalaia de alimentare a ciclului motor n varianta cu ramp comun /


Feeding installation of the Diesel working cycle in common rail technology
R rezervor de combustibil / fuel tank ; FG filtru grosier / raw filter ; PT pomp de transfer / conduction pump;
FF filtru fin / fine filter ; PIP pomp de nalt presiune / high-pressure pump ; RC rampa comun / common rail ;
ICE injector comandat electric / electrical-controlled injector

2. Features, local phenomena and influence factors along 2. Funcii, fenomene locale i factori de influen n
delivery fuel way of the working cycle traseul de alimentare a ciclului motor
Each from the elements of the feeding installation of Fiecare dintre elementele instalaiei de alimentare a
cycle engine performs functions well defined and, in ciclului motor ndeplinete funcii bine precizate i, n
exercising these functions, participating in fuel exercitarea acestor funcii, combustibilul particip la
phenomena whose conduct may be influenced by its fenomene a cror desfurare poate fi influenat de
physical properties. Highlighting impact assessment and proprietile sale fizice. Evidenierea influenelor i
consequences of carrying out a normal process of evaluarea consecinelor acestora asupra desfurrii
feeding functions involve descriptions and examine in normale a procesului de alimentare presupun descrierea
detail the phenomena involved. funciilor i examinarea n detaliu a fenomenelor implicate.
Rezervorul de combustibil are funcia de a asigura
The fuel tank has the function to ensure the fuel
combustibilul necesar funcionrii motorului, fr asisten,
necessary for the engine, without assistance, for a set
pentru o perioad stabilit de timp. Dincolo de o fireasc
period of time. Beyond a natural lack of solid impurities, lips a impuritilor solide, stocarea combustibilului n rezervor,
the fuel storage tank, even for a limited period of time, chiar i pentru o perioad limitat de timp, reclam ca
requires that it be homogeneous from the viewpoint of acesta s fie omogen din punctele de vedere al fazei i
phase and composition. Phase homogeneity refers, for al compoziiei. Omogenitatea de faz se refer, de pild, la
example, the lack of so-called "liquid crystal" (microzone lipsa aa-numitelor cristale lichide (microzone din masa
mass of liquid in which it acquires properties of gel) lichidului n care acesta capt proprieti de gel) care se
which is formed in diesel temperature close to freezing formeaz n motorine la temperaturi apropiate de punctul de
point and the present lack of gums form of congelare a acestora i la lipsa gumelor prezente, sub forma
microfilaments in crude vegetable oils. Compozition de microfilamente, n uleiurile vegetale crude. Omogenitatea
homogeneity when the composition of the fuel used is a de compoziie privete cazurile n care combustibilul folosit
mixture of two or more liquids and indicate requirement, este un amestec de dou sau mai multe lichide i indic cerina,
otherwise elementary, liquids that are mixed move. altminteri elementar, ca lichidele amestecate s fie miscibile.
The raw filter intended to prevent penetration into the Filtrul grosier are rolul de a mpiedica ptrunderea n instalaie a
plant mechanical impurities are, accidentally, in the impuritilor mecanice aflate, accidental, n rezervorul de
supply tank. Filtration process conducted at the level can alimentare. Procesul de filtrare desfurat la nivelul acestuia
be influenced, in itself, the phase homogeneity of the fuel poate fi influenat, n sine, de omogenitatea de faz a
through the filing of any gels or gums sections flow. Also, combustibilului, prin eventuale depuneri de geluri sau gume
the energy ad filtering process is dependent on fuel n seciunile de curgere. De asemenea, cantitatea de
viscosity. energie reclamat de procesul de filtrare este dependent
The transfer pump provides tank retrieval of the fuel de viscozitatea combustibilului.
and sending him to the injection with crossing of the Pompa de transfer asigur extragerea combustibilului
filters posted on the route. Regardless of pump type of din rezervor i trimiterea lui ctre instalaia de injecie cu
transfer, the amount of energy consumed by it is affected strbaterea filtrelor nseriate n traseu. Indiferent de tipul
by fuel viscosity. pompei de transfer, cantitatea de energie consumat de
The fine filter is to keep impurities from microscopic fuel aceasta este influenat de viscozitatea combustibilului.

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before entry into the injection engine. Similar cases Filtrul fin are rolul de a reine impuritile microscopice
occur filtration, fine filtration process can be influenced din combustibil naintea intrrii acestuia n instalaia de
by the homogeneity of the fuel phase and its injecie a motorului. Similar cazului filtrrii grosiere, procesul
viscosity. de filtrare fin poate fi influenat de omogenitatea de faz a
The precompression fuel pump present in classical combustibilului i de viscozitatea acestuia.
variants of injection technology, has a discreet Pompa de precomprimare a combustibilului, prezent
existence, is usually integrated, as a rule, in the building n variantele clasice de tehnologie de injecie, are o
currently known as engine injection pump. Its role is to existen discret fiind, de regul, nglobat n construcia
raise the pressure of fuel sent to the dosing pump and ansamblului denumit curent pompa de injecie a motorului.
injectors sequentially by up to a value which is to avoid Rolul ei este acela de a ridica presiunea combustibilului trimis
the phenomenon of cavitation in the suction routes of ctre elementele de dozare i pompare secvenial ctre
these items. Obviously, the precompression level of fuel, injectoare pn la o valoare la care este evitat fenomenul de
decided by construction, is set according to the vapor cavitaie n traseele de aspiraie ale acestor elemente.
Evident, nivelul de precomprimare a combustibilului, decis
pressure of the fuel concerned. As in any process of
prin construcie, este stabilit n funcie de presiunea de
pumping, the fuel viscosity involved and in this case in
vapori a combustibilului vizat. Ca n orice proces de
terms of quantities of consumed energy. pompare, viscozitatea combustibilului intervine i n acest
The sequential element of dosage and pumping caz sub aspectul cantitilor de energie consumate.
ensure separation of quantities of fuel controlled by the Elementul de dozare i pompare secvenial asigur
control of the task of sending its engine and, under the separarea unei cantiti de combustibil controlat prin
injection pressure, to the injector mounted in cylinder. comanda de sarcin a motorului i trimiterea acesteia,
Energy involved in the process of transferring the dose sub presiunea de injecie, ctre injectorul montat n
inside the cylinder depends, practically proportionally by cilindru. Energia implicat n procesul de transfer al dozei
its table built, in turn, by the volume determined and ctre interiorul cilindrului depinde, practic proporional, de
density of the fuel. masa acesteia modelat, la rndul ei, de volumul dozat i de
The injector controlled by the level of fuel pressure densitatea combustibilului.
is to allow the entry of fuel into the cylinder only achieve Injectorul comandat de nivelul presiunii combustibilului
a preset pressure and to shape the flow in one or more are rolul de a permite ptrunderea combustibilului n cilindru
jets characterized by high flow speeds. Modeling flow in numai la atingerea unei presiuni prestabilite i de a modela
streams is achieved by passing fuel through a number of curgerea acestuia n unul sau mai multe jeturi caracterizate
very small holes, and in this process, the fuel viscosity de viteze de curgere foarte mari. Modelarea curgerii n jeturi se
are very important influences, which must be detailed. obine prin trecerea combustibilului printr-un numr corespunztor
In the classical technology of injection, with injection de orificii foarte mici i, n acest proces, viscozitatea combustibilului
pumps and injectors controlled by the fuel pressure, the are influene deosebit de importante, care trebuie detaliate.
flow of fuel injected is determined by the size of dose n varianta clasic de tehnologie de injecie, cu pompe de injecie
and duration of injections. The laminate process i injectoare comandate de nivelul presiunii combustibilului,
corresponding to formation of injected fuel jets is debitul de combustibil injectat este stabilit de mrimea dozei
governed by the difference between upstream pressure i de durata injeciei. Procesul de laminare corespunztor
injector (injection pressure) and the pressure inside the formrii jeturilor de combustibil injectate este guvernat de
cylinder engine. In the design of injection equipment, diferena dintre presiunea din amontele injectorului (presiunea
must taking into account the viscosity of concerned fuel de injecie) i presiunea din cilindrul motorului. La proiectarea
and seeks for the opening of injector at a pressure which echipamentului de injecie, se ine seama de viscozitatea
combustibilului vizat i se urmrete deschiderea injectorului
ensures the laminate conditions said. If the fuel is used
la un nivel de presiune care asigur condiiile de laminare
with higher viscosity, the rolling process, must be
amintite. n cazul n care se folosete un combustibil cu
conducted at the same rates, differences will ad higher
viscozitate mai mare, procesul de laminare, obligat s se desfoare
pressure and this will be achieved by increasing the la aceleai debite, va reclama diferene de presiune mai mari
injection pressure. Therefore, even if the injector to open i acest lucru se va realiza prin creterea presiunii de injecie.
at preset pressure, injection pressure will increase until Prin urmare, chiar dac injectorul se deschide la presiunea
the required dose to achieve lamination streams. These prestabilit, presiunea de injecie va crete n continuare
increases in injection pressure are generated at the pn la nivelul necesar realizrii laminrii dozei n jeturi.
injector but the effects were especially sensitive to the Aceste creteri ale presiunii de injecie sunt generate la nivelul
injection pump, where the forces involved in sequential injectorului dar au efecte sensibile mai ales la nivelul pompei de
dose pump fuel can accuse significant increases, which injecie, unde forele implicate n pomparea secvenial a
may significantly affect the duration of its operation. dozelor de combustibil pot acuza creteri importante, ce pot
High pressure pump, present in common rail injection afecta semnificativ durata de funcionare a acesteia.
technology is intended to raise fuel pressure to a Pompa de nalt presiune, prezent n tehnologia de
prescribed level, regarded as sufficient for carrying injecie cu ramp comun, are rolul de a ridica presiunea
Injection. It should be noted that in this technology, combustibilului la un nivel prescris, considerat ca suficient
injection pressures are much higher to allow pentru desfurarea injeciei. Trebuie menionat faptul c, n
fragmentation dose of fuel and practicing several aceast tehnologie, presiunile de injecie sunt mult mai
sequences injection fuel cycle (the technology of multi- ridicate, pentru a permite fragmentarea dozei de combustibil
injection). In terms of quantities of consumed energy , i practicarea mai multor secvene de injectare a combustibilului
the fuel viscosity affect its compression into the n ciclu (tehnologia de injecie multipunct). Sub aspectul
common ramp. cantitilor de energie consumate, viscozitatea combustibilului
The injector with electrical-controlled opening, used influeneaz comprimarea acestuia n rampa comun.
in the common rail injection technology, allowing fuel to Injectorul cu deschidere comandat electric, folosit n
enter the cylinder at times decided by the electrical instalaiile de injecie cu ramp comun, permite ptrunderea
signals emitted by an electronic control of engine combustibilului n cilindru la momente decise prin semnale
operation and the flow model in the same way as with electrice emise de o instalaie electronic de control al funcionrii
classical injector described above. In this case, the motorului i modeleaz curgerea acestuia n acelai mod ca i
viscosity of fuel does not influence the parameters of n cazul injectorului clasic descris mai sus. n acest caz,

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the plant, but influence the energy performance of the viscozitatea combustibilului nu influeneaz parametrii din
engine and this should be detailed. instalaie, dar influeneaz performanele energetice ale
In thecommon rail technology, injection pressure is motorului i acest aspect trebuie detaliat.
invariable, so the flow of flux in the lamination of the fuel n varianta de tehnologie de injecie cu ramp comun,
jets is constant. In this case, the size of the dose of presiunea de injecie este invariant, deci debitul de curgere
injected fuel in the engine cycle is determined by the n procesul de laminare a combustibilului n jeturi este
total ordered injector opening. In the design of injection constant. n acest caz, mrimea dozei de combustibil injectat n
equipment, the total opening of the injector in each cycle ciclul motor este stabilit de timpul total comandat de
is fixed taking into account the viscosity of fuel in deschidere a injectorului. La proiectarea echipamentului de
question. If the fuel is used with higher viscosity, the injecie, timpul total de deschidere a injectorului n fiecare ciclu
laminate will take place with lower rates and, given the este fixat innd seama de viscozitatea combustibilului vizat. n
total fixed injection, this will lead to a decrease of fuel cazul n care se folosete un combustibil cu viscozitate mai
mare, procesul de laminare se va desfura cu debite mai mici
injected cycle dose. As a result, the actual power
i, dat fiind durata total fix a injeciei, acest lucru va
delivered by the engine will be lower.
conduce la o micorare a dozei de combustibil injectat n ciclu.
Injection pipes are designed to ensure hydraulic
Ca urmare, puterea efectiv livrat de motor va fi mai redus.
contact between the injectors and injection pump or Conductele de injecie au rolul de a asigura legtura
common rail. Although the influences at this level are hidraulic ntre injectoare i pompa de injecie sau, dup caz,
negligible, it must be said that the fuel flow through these rampa comun. Dei influenele la acest nivel sunt
pipes is influenced, in terms of quantities of energy neglijabile, trebuie spus c i curgerea combustibilului prin
consumed by its viscosity. aceste conducte este influenat, sub aspectul cantitilor de
energie consumate, de viscozitatea acestuia.
3. Phenomena and factors of influence inside the 3. Fenomene i factori de influen n interiorul
cylinder cilindrului
The introduced fuel by injection inside the cylinder Combustibilul introdus prin injecie n cilindrul motorului, sub
engine in the form of one or more jets, enters into an forma unuia sau mai multor jeturi, ptrunde ntr-un mediu
established environment, in principle, of a quantity of air constituit, n principiu, dintr-o cantitate de aer (ncrctura
(fresh load) heated in the process of compression and proaspt) nclzit n urma procesului de comprimare i
in a motion agitation promoted by the routing aflat ntr-o micare de agitaie promovat prin arhitectura
architecture admission. In a formal succession after traseului de admisie. ntr-o succesiune formal, dup ptrunderea
entering the cylinder, the dose of fuel is subjected to n cilindru, doza de combustibil este supus pulverizrii, vaporizrii,
spraying, vaporizing, mixing with air, self-ignition and amestecrii cu aerul, autoaprinderii i arderii. Este de menionat
combustion. It should be noted that, beyond some faptul c, dincolo de unele suprapuneri ale acestor procese n
overlapping of these processes in real engine cycle, an ciclul motor real, desfurarea eficient a fenomenelor reclam
efficient advertising phenomena as spraying, ca pulverizarea, vaporizarea i amestecarea cu aerul unite,
vaporization and mixing with air united, generically, as generic, sub denumirea de formare a amestecului s se
the mixture training to achieve more fast. Of course, realizeze ct mai rapid. Bineneles, toate aceste procese
all these processes shows marked dependency of some prezint dependene marcante de unele proprieti ale
properties of the fuel. combustibilului.
Fuel spraying takes place under the combined effect of Pulverizarea combustibilului are loc sub efectul combinat
vibration of the jet-induced flow during the overcritical al unor vibraii induse n jet n timpul curgerii n regim
regime during lamination and friction with the air cylinder. supracritic din timpul laminrii i al frecrii cu aerul din cilindru.
The spraying depends, especially in terms of quality size Procesul de pulverizare depinde, mai ales sub aspectul calitativ
drops, on the surface pressure of fuel. al mrimii picturilor, de tensiunea superficial a combustibilului.
Fuel vaporization takes place at the drops of fuel Vaporizarea combustibilului se desfoar la suprafaa
surfaces, following contact with hot air from cylinder. picturilor de combustibil pulverizat, n urma contactului acestora
Naturally, in the data rate of vaporization depends on the cu aerul cald din cilindru. Firete, n condiiile date, ritmul de
specific heat of fuel and the latent heat of vaporizare depinde de cldura specific a combustibilului i
vaporization of it. de cldura latent de vaporizare a acestuia.
Mixing air with fuel vapor occurs as a result of the Amestecarea cu aerul a vaporilor de combustibil are loc n
entrainment of these in turbulent movements of the urma antrenrii acestora n micrile turbulente ale aerului
compressed air inside the cylinder. The only fuel comprimat din cilindru. Singura proprietate a combustibilului
property affecting this process is molecular weight, but care influeneaz acest proces este masa molecular,
the influences are negligible compared with the intensity dar influenele sunt neglijabile n raport cu cele ale
of turbulence said. intensitii turbulenelor amintite.
Selfignition is a complex process, polistadial, marked by Autoaprinderea este un proces complex, polistadial, marcat
numerous influences of composition and molecular structure de numeroase influene ale compoziiei i structurii moleculelor
of fuel. Formally, all these influences have been de combustibil. Formal, toate aceste influene au fost cumulate
aggregated in a specific property expressed by cetane ntr-o proprietate specific exprimat prin cifra cetanic a
number fuel, which expressed by a number of self- combustibilului, care exprim printr-un numr tendina de
ignition tendency of the mixture formed in the cylinder in autoaprindere a amestecului format n condiiile existente n
a standard engine. cilindrul unui motor etalon.
Burning of fuel is taking place, in principle, by the flame Arderea combustibilului are loc, n principiu, prin
propagation of self-ignition kernels in the preforms propagarea flcrilor din nucleele de autoaprindere pe
mixtures existing inside the cylinder. In reality, this model amestecurile preformate existente n cilindru. n realitate,
is valid for conducting simultaneously or in succession, acest model de desfurare este valabil, simultan sau
only for limited areas of the cylinder, and environmental succesiv, numai pentru zone limitate din volumul cilindrului,
movements of duplication events leading to a chaotic, micrile mediului i suprapunerile de fenomene ducnd la o
but progressive party of combustion. Under these imagine haotic, dar progresiv, de petrecere a arderii. n
conditions, the evaluation process of burning can be aceste condiii, evaluarea procesului de ardere poate fi fcut

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done under two aspects, namely the quantity of heat sub dou aspecte i anume cantitatea de cldur dezvoltat
developed and composition of combustion products. i compoziia produilor de ardere. Dincolo de unele aspecte
Apart from some aspects of the quality of the specific privind calitatea procesului de ardere specific motorului,
combustion engine, the quantity of heat developed by cantitatea de cldur dezvoltat prin arderea complet a
combustion of the fuel is dose-dependent low calorific dozei de combustibil este dependent de puterea caloric
power of it. Regarding compounds combustion inferioar a acestuia. n ceea ce privete compoziia
compozition, must to observe the influence of ultimate compuilor de ardere, trebuie observat influena
composition of the fuel. Thus, the number of carbon compoziiei moleculare a combustibilului. Astfel, numrul
atoms and hydrogen molecule determine the proportions de atomi de carbon i de hidrogen din molecul decid
of carbon dioxide and water - products of normal perfect proporiile de dioxid de carbon i de ap produi normali ai
combustion - from the combustion gases discharged arderii perfecte din gazele de ardere evacuate din motor.
from the engine. The existence of molecules in fuels De asemenea, existena n moleculele unor combustibili
(alcohols, vegetable oils, biodiesel) of oxygen atoms is (alcooli, uleiuri vegetale, biodiesel) a unor atomi de oxigen
likely to lead to a more complete combustion, with the este de natur s conduc la o ardere mai complet, cu
evacuation of lower quantities of pollutants such as evacuarea unor cantiti mai reduse de noxe cum ar fi
carbon monoxide and solid particles carbon. monoxidul de carbon i particulele solide de carbon.

4. The ranked inventory of relevant properties of 4. Inventarul ierarhizat al proprietilor relevante ale
alternative liquid fuels combustibililor lichizi alternativi
Prepare an inventory of relevant properties of liquid ntocmirea unui inventar al proprietilor relevante ale
fuels that can be used to power Diesel engines and the combustibililor lichizi ce pot fi folosii pentru alimentarea
ranking of these properties requires a reasoned selection motoarelor Diesel i ierarhizarea acestor proprieti presupune o
of some of the properties, the factors that influence the selectare argumentat a unora dintre proprietile menionate, ca
descriptions above. One such approach involves factori de influen, n descrierile de mai sus. Un asemenea
defining the purpose for which the inventory can be used demers presupune definirea scopului n care acest inventar
and criteria for ranking. poate fi folosit i stabilirea criteriilor de ierarhizare.
Therefore, it is proposed an inventory of properties to Aadar, se propune un inventar al proprietilor care
be assessed when one wishes to use a certain trebuie evaluate atunci cnd se dorete folosirea unui
alternative fuel to power a Diesel engine designed for combustibil alternativ oarecare, la alimentarea unui motor
diesel fuel, in policarburate regime defined by the Diesel construit pentru alimentarea cu motorin, n regim
convenient and rapid possibility of passage from supply de policarburare definit de posibilitatea de trecere comod
with diesel fuel to alternative fuel and vice versa. Criteria i rapid de la alimentarea cu motorin la alimentarea
for determining the hierarchy of these properties, and in alternativ i invers. Criteriile de stabilire a ierarhiei acestor
order, lack of need for special measures to supply proprieti vizeaz, n ordine, lipsa nevoii de msuri speciale
alternative energy to maintain engine performance within pentru alimentarea alternativ, meninerea performanelor
reasonable limits, unaffecting and safety in operation energetice ale motorului n limite rezonabile i neafectarea
and sustainability of the engine. In these circumstances, siguranei n funcionare i a durabilitii motorului. n aceste
the following properties can be considered: condiii, pot considerate urmtoarele proprieti:
1. Fuel homogeneity in the normal fuel supply, both in 1. Omogenitatea combustibilului n condiiile normale de
terms of phase and that of the composition, guarantee alimentare, att sub aspectul fazei ct i sub acela al compoziiei,
the possibility of food-cycle engine; constituie garania posibilitii de alimentare a ciclului motor;
2. Cetane number of fuel indicates, depending on its 2. Cifra cetanic a combustibilului indic, n funcie de
value, a fuel capability of self-ignition engine operation in valoarea ei, capabilitatea unui combustibil de a se autoaprinde
hot and cold engine startup. That allows the use of fuel n funcionarea motorului cald i la pornirea motorului rece.
in the engine warm, but do not start the engine cold, Faptul c un combustibil permite utilizarea n motorul cald, dar
requires the conduct of dual feeding - the supply of oil nu asigur pornirea motorului rece, impune adoptarea
at startup and during heating and fuel switching to conduitei de alimentare dual alimentarea cu motorin la
alternative power supply to achieve normal thermal pornire i pe timpul nclzirii i comutarea alimentrii pe
regime; combustibilul alternativ la atingerea regimului termic normal;
3. Lower calorific value of fuel is a measure of 3. Puterea caloric inferioar a combustibilului este o
chemical potential energy invested in the engine cycle. It msur a energiei poteniale chimice investite n ciclul
is expected that when using a fuel compatible with motor motor. Este de ateptat ca atunci cnd se folosete un
processes, but with a lower calorific value different from combustibil compatibil cu procesele din motor, dar cu o
that of diesel, the difference in calorific value to be putere caloric inferioar diferit de aceea a motorinei,
reflected as a sense of order and size, the power diferena de putere caloric s fie reflectat, ca sens i
developed by the engine; ordin de mrime, la nivelul puterii dezvoltate de motor;
4. Viscosity of fuel has influenced almost all the 4. Viscozitatea combustibilului are influene n aproape
sequences of feeding the working cycle. Most of these toate secvenele alimentrii ciclului motor. Cele mai multe
influences relate to quantities of energy that the engine dintre aceste influene se refer la cantitile de energie pe
consumed in the food. However, the influence of the care motorul le consum n procesul de alimentare. Totui,
viscosity of fuel is one that shapes the forces of influena cea mai important a viscozitii combustibilului este
mechanisms of injection equipment engines in classical aceea care modeleaz forele din mecanismele echipamentului
injection technology because the uncontrolled growth of de injecie la motoarele cu tehnologie de injecie clasic,
forces, manifested in the use of a fuel with higher deoarece creterile necontrolate de fore, manifestate n
viscosity can have devastating effects equipment for cazul folosirii unui combustibil cu viscozitate mai ridicat, pot
sustainability. avea efecte devastatoare pentru durabilitatea echipamentului.
5. The vapor pressure of fuel has relatively hidden 5. Presiunea de vapori a combustibilului are influene
influences and effects over time. Thus, at the use of an relativ ascunse i cu efecte n timp. Astfel, la folosirea
alternative fuel having a vapor pressure higher than that unui combustibil alternativ cu presiune de vapori mai
of diesel fuel, it is possible the emergence of the cavity ridicat dect aceea a motorinei, este posibil apariia

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and destruction, through specific mechanisms of this cavitaiei i distrugerea, prin mecanismele specifice
phenomenon, of the route of the fuel suction from the acestui fenomen, a traseului de aspiraie a combustibilului
pumping equipment. n elementele de pompare din echipament.

5. CONCLUSIONS 5. CONCLUZII
The ranked inventory for relevant properties of liquid Inventarul ierarhizat al proprietilor relevante ale
fuels aimed for Diesel engines policarburation, shown above combustibililor lichizi vizai pentru policarburarea motoarelor
in a deliberately minimal variant, aims to have practical Diesel, prezentat mai sus ntr-o variant voit minimal, i
values. Thus, the experimentors foolhardy, who want to propune s aib valene practice. Astfel, experimentatorii
try to find some empirical ways for policarburation of temerari, care doresc s ncerce gsirea empiric a unor
Diesel engines designed for diesel fuel, can use the variante de policarburare a motoarelor Diesel construite
inventory to determine what properties of the alternative pentru alimentarea cu motorin, pot folosi inventarul pentru a
fuel must be compared with those of diesel fuel and afla ce proprieti ale combustibilului alternativ vizat trebuiesc
which are the risks of using a fuel with significantly comparate cu cele ale motorinei i care sunt riscurile folosirii
different properties. In turn, researchers who aim to find unui combustibil cu proprieti semnificativ diferite. La rndul
new formulas for fuels in view of partial or total lor, cercettorii care i propun gsirea de noi formule de
substitution of diesel fuel, can learn through the entire combustibili pentru substituirea parial sau total a motorinei pot
work, the whole picture of existing conditionings between afla, parcurgnd ntrega lucrare, ntregul tablou al condiionrilor
the searched fuel properties and engines Diesel aimed existente ntre proprietile combustibililor cutai i motoarele
as beneficiary of these fuels. Diesel vizate ca beneficiare ale acestor combustibili.

BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAFIE
1. Aram, C.; Grnwald, B. - Motoare cu ardere intern. 1. Aram, C.; Grnwald, B. - Motoare cu ardere intern.
Procese i caracteristici. Editura Tehnic, Bucureti Procese i caracteristici. Editura Tehnic, Bucureti
1966 1966
2. Bosch, R. - Diesel-engine Management. McGraw-Hill 2. Bosch, R. - Diesel-engine Management. McGraw-Hill
Mechanical Engineering, N.Y., 2003 Mechanical Engineering, N.Y., 2003
3. Vasilescu, C. A. .a. - Corelaiile dintre combustibilul 3. Vasilescu, C. A. .a. - Corelaiile dintre combustibilul
lichid i motorul cu ardere intern. Editura Academiei, lichid i motorul cu ardere intern. Editura Academiei,
Bucureti, 1972 Bucureti, 1972

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VARIANTS TACKLED IN POLYCARBURATION PRACTICE OF DIESEL ENGINES


DESIGNED TO BE FED WITH DIESEL OIL
/
VARIANTE ABORDABILE N PRACTICA POLICARBURRII MOTOARELOR DIESEL
CONSTRUITE PENTRU ALIMENTAREA CU MOTORIN
Dr. Eng. Mircea Adrian Nicolescu
- INMA Bucharest, Romania -

Abstract. The current level of world economy and its Rezumat. Nivelul actual atins de economia mondial i
forecasted growing rates have brought to up-to-date the ritmurile prognozate de cretere a acesteia au adus n
necessity of finding and developing the alternative and actualitate necesitatea gsirii i dezvoltrii unor surse
renewable energy sources. Certainly the relevant also alternative i regenerabile de energie. Bineneles, cutrile
aim the fuels designed to feed the internal combustion vizeaz i combustibilii pentru alimentarea motoarelor cu
engines the most mature and spread sources of ardere intern cele mai mature i cele mai rspndite surse
producing local energy and the first resource which de producere local a energiei i prima resurs readus, de
has been updated is represented by biofuels. This paper fapt, n actualitate este cea a biocarburanilor. Lucrarea
presents a realistic analysis of modalities in which is prezint o analiz realist a modurilor n care este posibil
made possible the biofuels use extent to Diesel engines extinderea folosirii biocarburanilor la alimentarea motoarelor
feeding and this extention rates. Within this context, Diesel i a ritmurilor n care este posibil aceast extindere.
some possible approaches are emphasized related to n acest context, sunt evideniate unele posibile abordri care
the relatively rapid extension of first extraction liquid permit extinderea relativ rapid a folosirii biocarburanilor
biofuels (vegetable oils and alcohols) and on which in lichizi de prim extracie (uleiuri vegetale i alcooli) i asupra
authors opinion the field researches should be crora dup opinia autorului ar trebui s se concentreze
focused. cercetrile de profil.

Keywords: Biofuels, Diesel engine, policarburation Cuvinte cheie: Biocarburani, motor Diesel, policarburare

1. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 1. CONSIDERAII GENERALE


The facts. Use on large-scale growing in the last Starea de fapt. Folosirea, pe scar tot mai larg n ultimul
century, fossil fuels has been and is likely to rise to the secol, a combustibililor fosili a fost i este de natur s
problems of mankind whose conjuctural amplification led ridice n faa omenirii unele probleme a cror amplificare
to crisis situations. One such issue is the awareness that conjuctural a condus la situaii de criz. O astfel de
the pace of alert more consumption of fossil fuels is likely problem este contientizarea faptului c ritmul tot mai alert
to approach the term depletion of existing reserves. al consumului de combustibili fosili este de natur s
Another problem, linked to the accelerated spread of apropie termenul epuizrii rezervelor existente. O alt problem,
vehicles, loading is more accentuated with pollutants legat de rspndirea accelerat a autovehiculelor, este
produced the inherent deviations from ideal combustion ncrcarea tot mai accentuat cu noxe produse inerente
the atmosphere in large urban areas. Finally, changes ale abaterilor de la arderea ideal a atmosferei din marile
in the climate-sensitive land in the last period brought to aglomerri urbane. n fine, schimbrile sensibile nregistrate
the attention of a general product of the normal de clima terestr n ultima perioad au adus n atenia
combustion carbon dioxide whose presence in general un produs principal al arderii normale dioxidul de
increasing concentrations in the atmosphere leads to the carbon a crui prezen n concentraii tot mai mari n atmosfer
well-known greenhouse effect. In the current stage of conduce la binecunoscutul efect de ser. n stadiul actual
technology development, internal combustion engines de dezvoltare a tehnologiilor, motoarele cu ardere intern
are the only energy source that can operate sunt singurele surse de energie care pot funciona independent,
independently in terms of mobility or isolation with a n condiii de mobilitate sau de izolare i cu o eficien
satisfactory efficiency. This favorable feature, which led satisfctoare. Aceast caracteristic favorabil, care a condus
to explosive development of the phenomenon of la dezvoltarea exploziv a fenomenului de motorizare n
dodget-up-ing in human affairs, but is accompanied by activitile umane, este nsoit ns i de aspecte defavorabile
issues that are unfavorable, at least look at the global care, cel puin privite la nivel global, sunt de natur s
level, are likely to create problems and natural creeze probleme i rspunsuri fireti la acestea. Astfel, motoarele
responses to them. Thus, internal combustion engines cu ardere intern consum, n general, combustibili de
consume, generally comes from fossil fuels and provenien fosil i, asociat rspndirii lor explozive,
associated spread their explosive, are responsible for sunt responsabile de ritmurile nalte n care funcionarea
higher rates as their operation is accompanied by lor este nsoit de emisia n atmosfer a cuvenitului
emission in the atmosphere natural produced by burning produs de ardere a carbonului dioxidul de carbon i a
carbon carbon dioxide and some specific compounds unor compui specifici oxizi de azot, fraciuni de
nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbon fractions, soot particles hidrocarburi, particule de funingine etc. care sunt
etc. that are toxic, in varying degrees, for the living. toxice, n diferite grade, pentru mediul viu.
Perspective. Studies relating to the prospects of Perspective. Studii de referin privind perspectivele de
development of mankind require that, in the current dezvoltare a omenirii prevd c, n actuala efervescen
tumult of industrialization, will reach the motor rhythms a industrializrii, motorizarea va atinge ritmuri care vor
that will mean, at least for the next 20 years, doubling nsemna, cel puin pentru urmtorii 20 de ani, dublarea
the number of engines in use in every ten years. In these numrului de motoare aflate n exploatare la fiecare zece
circumstances, it is expected that the fuel consumption ani. n aceste condiii, este de ateptat ca problemele
and pollution is increasingly obvious. consumului de combustibil i polurii s fie tot mai pregnante.
Global response. Human side of issues are referred Rspunsul global. Reaciile societii umane la aspectele

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unfavorable more active lately and consist of well- defavorabile menionate sunt tot mai active n ultimul timp i
directed action in administrative which, normally, constau din aciuni bine dirijate n plan administrativ crora, n
manufacturers of engines and fuels they seek answers mod firesc, productorii de motoare i cei de combustibili le
to technical. Thus, rate increases in the use of oil caut rspunsuri n plan tehnic. Astfel, creterilor de ritm n
resources were opposed to administrative measures folosirea resurselor de petrol li s-au opus msuri administrative
such as limiting global production of crude oil, in the sea cum ar fi limitarea produciei mondiale de iei, n condiiile
of a quota system between its producers in order to cartelrii acesteia ntre marii productori cu scopul de a
increase its price on the specific market and adding crete preul acestuia pe piaa specific i adugarea de
taxes on refined petroleum products in order to sarcini fiscale asupra produselor rafinate din petrol cu
modeling fuel pump-price in line with global scopul modelrii preului combustibililor "la pomp" n acord
consumption limits deemed acceptable. In the technical, cu limitele de consum global considerate acceptabile. n plan
industry producing internal combustion engines tehnic, industria productoare de motoare cu ardere intern a
responded by developing more efficient engines as the rspuns prin dezvoltarea de motoare tot mai performante sub
specific fuel consumption (specific consumption means aspectele consumurilor specifice de combustibil (consumuri
less pollution and fewer emissions per unit of energy specifice mai mici nseamn i emisii poluante mai puine pe
produced) and exhaust gas composition, and chemical unitatea de energie obinut) i compoziiei gazelor evacuate,
industry has intensified efforts to obtain alternative fuels, iar industria chimic i-a intensificat eforturile de obinere de
some promoters of lower pollutant emissions and combustibili alternativi, promotori ai unor emisii poluante mai
possibly derived from renewable sources. reduse i posibil de obinut din surse regenerabile.
Organizational response. Effects of oil crisis episodes Rspunsul organizaional. Efectele episoadelor de criz
in postwar period were always in a re-setting of oil price petrolier din perioada postbelic au constat ntotdeauna ntr-
at higher levels, with damaging consequences on world o reaezare a preului petrolului la niveluri mai ridicate, cu
economic balance and global economic and industrial consecine nefaste asupra echilbrelor economice mondiale i
growth rate of all states. On the background of these ritmurilor de cretere industrial ale tuturor statelor. Pe
consequences in industrialized countries, the family of fundalul acestor consecine, n familia rilor industrializate s-
industrialized countries was born the concept of energy a nscut conceptul de securitate energetic, sub stindardul
security, under the banner of which they were made cruia au fost fcute i parafate aranjamente privind ritmuri
and initialed on the arrangements planned rates of planificate ale extraciei ieiului i evoluii predictibile ale
extraction and oil price developments predictable preurilor de comercializare a acestuia. n acelai timp, cu
marketing it. At the same time, the status of the energy statut de parte n securitatea energetic, a nceput s fie
security has begun to be examined and developed the examinat i s-a dezvoltat conceptul de independen
concept of energy independence. Under the overall energetic. Sub aspect energetic general, acest concept a
energy issue, this concept has generated in each state generat, la nivelul fiecrui stat sau al unor grupuri de state,
or groups of countries, development strategy and strategii de dezvoltare i promovare a unor tehnologii
promotion of technology intensive production of energy intensive de obinere a energiei cum ar fi reactoarele
such as nuclear fission reactors or technologies for nucleare cu fisiune sau a unor tehnologii durabile de
sustainable production energy such as hydroelectric obinere a energiei cum ar fi amenajrile hidroenergetice.
facilities. Under particular aspect, but very important as a Sub aspectul particular, dar foarte important ca pondere, al
share of fuel for heat engines, the concept of energy combustibililor pentru motoarele termice, conceptul de
independence has enabled concerns to produce independen energetic a activat preocupri pentru
alternative fuels. obinerea de combustibili alternativi.

2. GENERIC SOLUTION OF BIOFUELS FOR ENGINES 2. Soluia generic a biocarburanilor pentru motoare
Concern for obtaining and use of alternative fuels for Preocuparea pentru obinerea i folosirea de combustibili
engines is not new. One can even say that the use of alternativi pentru motoare nu este nou. Se poate chiar afirma c
alternative fuels even biofuels is entered in the folosirea combustibililor alternativi chiar a biocombustibililor
genetics of internal combustion engines. Thus, on the este nscris n genetica motoarelor cu ardere intern.
things in historical perspective, we can mention that at Astfel, privind lucrurile din perspectiv istoric, putem meniona
the Universal Exhibition of 1900, in Paris, Rudolf Diesel faptul c, la Expoziia Universal din anul 1900, de la Paris,
himself made a demonstration copy of the engine he nsui Rudolf Diesel a fcut demonstraii cu un exemplar al
invented, operating with peanut oil. Moreover, intuit motorului inventat de el, funcionnd cu ulei de arahide. Mai
problems like today concerns the field of alternative fuel mult, intuind parc problemele i preocuprile legate astzi
engine, Rudolf Diesel stated that in the year 1911, that de domeniul combustibililor alternativi pentru motoare, acelai
The engine can work with vegetable oil and this could Rudolf Diesel afirma, n anul 1911, c Motorul poate funciona
be a considerable aid to countries agriculture, and in cu ulei vegetal i acest lucru ar putea fi un ajutor considerabil
1912 stated that Using vegetable oils in engine power pentru agricultura rilor respective, iar n anul 1912 declara
may be devoid of significance today, but they may c Folosirea uleiurilor vegetale la alimentarea motoarelor
become with time, as important as oil and coal now. poate fi lipsit de importan astzi, dar acestea pot deveni,
Also, in their long period of production, located in the first cu trecerea timpului, la fel de importante cum sunt petrolul i
decades of the last century, many famous series of car crbunele n prezent. De asemenea, n ndelungata lor perioad
Ford "Model T" were equipped with engine designed to de producere, situat n primele decenii ale secolului trecut,
be fueled with ethanol. Other periods of concern for an numeroase serii ale celebrului automobil Ford Model T au
alternative supply of engines have been generated by fost dotate cu motoare concepute s fie alimentate cu etanol.
the "distortion" of history. Thus, during the Second World Alte perioade de preocupri pentru alimentarea alternativ a
War in Germany dominated by sea and unable to motoarelor au fost generate de distorsiuni ale istoriei. Astfel,
award the Caucasian oil area was created a n timpul celui de al doilea rzboi mondial, n Germania
technology for obtaining synthetic petrol by chemical dominat pe mare i incapabil s-i adjudece zona
processing of lignite (concern IG Farben Industrie, petrolier caucazian a fost creat o tehnologie de obinere
1943). Also, according to some reports, in the last a benzinelor sintetice prin prelucrarea chimic a lignitului
months of the war, Japanese contingents that operated (concernul IG Farben Industrie, 1943). De asemenea, potrivit

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in conditions of isolation in Southeast Asia, have flat unor relatri, n ultimele luni ale rzboiului, contigentele japoneze
agony practicing warlike power of Diesel engines ce operau, n condiii de izolare, n Asia de sud-est, i-au
equipped with eucalyptus oil. Unfortunately, the lungit agonia belicoas practicnd alimentarea motoarelor
conditions in which the Japanese surrender and the Diesel din dotare cu ulei de eucalipt. Din pcate, condiiile n
priorities related to effective conclusion as soon as care Japonia a capitulat i prioritile legate de ncheierea
possible hostilities, made possible by the experimental efectiv ct mai rapid a ostilitilor, a fcut ca aspectele cu
value of this practice remain unknown. More recently, eventual valoare experimental din aceast practic s
under pressure from oil crisis orchestrated political rmn necunoscute. Mai recent, sub presiunea crizei
from the beginning of the eighth decade of the last petroliere orchestrat politic de la nceputul celui de-al
century, large building cars companies (General Motors optulea deceniu al secolului trecut, mari firme constructoare
in the U.S., Audi and DaimlerBenz in Europe) made out de autovehicule (General Motors n SUA, Audi i Daimler
with vehicles whose engines were fitted with Benz n Europa) au fcut ncercri cu autovehicule ale cror
equipment specifically designed for injection using motoare au fost dotate cu echipamente de injecie concepute
crude vegetable oils. The results of these tests were special pentru utilizarea uleiurilor vegetale crude.
satisfactory, the only problems related to the occurrence Rezultatele acestor ncercri au fost mulumitoare, singurele
of gums deposits in the injection facilities and in probleme aprute innd de apariia unor depuneri de gume
cylinders. Unfortunately, the relatively rapid removal of n instalaiile de injecie i n interiorul cilindrilor. Din nefericire,
said oil crisis, followed by an unprecedented release of ieirea relativ rapid din criza petrolier menionat, urmat
petroleum resources, has led to the abandonment de o disponibilizare fr precedent a resurselor petroliere, a
ofvisible research in this direction. dus la abandonarea cercetrilor vizibile pe aceast direcie.
Alternative fuels to power internal combustion engines Combustibilii alternativi pentru alimentarea motoarelor cu
have, obviously, do not contain oil intake and to be, in a ardere intern trebuie, evident, s nu conin aport petrolier i
term related to real exhaustion of petroleum resources, s poat fi, ntr-o perspectiv ce ine de termenul real de
produced in sufficient quantities to cover all the current epuizare a resurselor petroliere, produi n cantiti suficiente
rational needs . In these circumstances, if we can obtain pentru acoperirea tuturor nevoilor curente raionale. n aceste condiii,
the abstraction of hydrogen by the decomposition of dac facem abstracie de posibilitatea obinerii de hidrogen
water using solar energy variation that can be prin descompunerea apei folosind energia solar variant ce
disregarded for that use hydrogen to power internal poate fi neglijat pentru c folosirea hidrogenului la alimentarea
combustion engines raises some difficult problems to motoarelor cu ardere intern ridic unele probleme greu de
solve, the only affordable renewable fuels to make rezolvat, singurele resurse regenerabile abordabile n vederea
alternative fuels for engines are those of biological origin. obinerii combustibililor alternativi pentru motoare sunt cele de
Therefore, the solution viable alternative fuel, produced sorginte biologic. Prin urmare, soluia viabil de combustibili
from renewable sources to power internal combustion alternativi, obinui din surse regenerabile, pentru alimentarea
engine is represented by biofuels. This assertion is motoarelor cu ardere intern este reprezentat de biocombustibili.
supported by some achievements which currently are Aceast afirmaie este susinut de unele realizri care, la
already exploited commercially and are in full stage of momentul actual, sunt deja exploatate comercial i se afl n
technological development. Alternative use of biofuels, in plin faz de dezvoltare tehnologic. Alternativa utilizrii biocombustibililor
fact, a sustainable solution for use of internal constituie, n principiu, o soluie durabil pentru utilizarea motoarelor
combustion engines. Thus, the potential reserve of cu ardere intern. Astfel, rezerva potenial de biocombustibili
biofuels is limited in rate of use, but is not exhausted, este limitat ca ritm de utilizare, dar nu este epuizabil, fiind
being regenerated by periodic cycles of life of energy periodic regenerat prin ciclurile de via ale plantelor
plants. Also, the presence of oxygen atoms in complex energetice. De asemenea, prezena unor atomi de oxigen n
molecules of a burning biofuels favors closer to moleculele complexe ale biocombustibililor favorizeaz o ardere
perfection and, in this way, the amount of pollutants from mai aproape de perfeciune a acestora i, pe aceast cale,
combustion gases is lower. Finally, the most important, cantitatea de noxe degajat la ardere este mai redus. n
burning biofuels does not contribute to increasing the fine, aspectul cel mai important, arderea biocombustibililor nu
greenhouse effect as carbon dioxide emitted is formed contribuie la sporirea efectului de ser, deoarece dioxidul de
on the basis of fossil carbon, as with conventional carbon emis nu este format pe baza carbonului fosil, ca n
fuels, but the intake part of participating in the natural cazul combustibililor convenionali, ci prin aportul unei pri
carbon cycle in the atmosphere. din carbonul care particip la ciclul natural al acestuia n atmosfer.

3. REALISTIC APPROACH TO FEEDING DIESEL 3. ABORDAREA REALIST A ALIMENTRII MOTOARELOR


ENGINES WITH BIOFUELS DIESEL CU BIOCOMBUSTIBILI
By spreading and their high rates of use, diesel Prin rspndirea lor i ritmurile ridicate de utilizare, motoarele
engines are responsible for a significant share of total Diesel sunt responsabile de o parte nsemnat din consumul
consumption of fossil fuels of mankind. Therefore, the total de combustibili fosili ai omenirii. Prin urmare, preocuprile
current concerns for promoting biofuels as an alternative actuale pentru promovarea biocombustibililor ca alternativ
supply of Diesel engines are legitimate, especially if de alimentare a motoarelor Diesel sunt legitime, mai ales dac
account is taken of the prospects mentioned by the se ine seama de perspectivele menionate de cretere a numrului
increase in engine operation and a clear trend of de motoare aflate n exploatare i de tendina clar de cretere a
increase in total Diesel engines units new products. ponderii motoarelor Diesel n totalul de uniti nou produse.
The problem of selection of those types of biofuels Problema seleciei acelor categorii de biocombustibili care
that can be considered alternative, viable and applicable pot fi considerate alternative, viabile i aplicabile ntr-un orizont
in a near time horizon, to power diesel engines claim de timp apropiat, pentru alimentarea motoarelor Diesel
establish criteria for choice. The main criteria that can be pretinde stabilirea unor criterii de alegere. Principalele
used for this purpose are: criterii ce pot fi utilizate n acest scop sunt urmtoarele:
availability of raw materials from renewable sources disponibilitatea materiilor prime din surse stabile i
and stable; regenerabile;
availability of mature technologies and cost-effective existena unor tehnologii mature i rentabile de
production; obinere;

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the safe storage and handling; nivelul de siguran la stocare i manipulare;


compatibility with existing engines in the current compatibilitatea cu motoarele existente n exploatarea
operation. curent.
Availability of raw materials from stable renewable Disponibilitatea materiilor prime din surse stabile i
sources is a subject in dispute. In the context of regenerabile este un subiect aflat n disput. n contextul
accelerated increases of fuel consumption, the only creterilor accelerate al consumurilor de combustibili,
alternative to using raw materials derived from energy privind numai la alternativa folosirii materiilor prime obinute
crops and to some opinions that forecast a future food din culturi energetice i la unele preri care prognozeaz o
crisis, was launched debate biofuels versus food. If viitoare criz alimentar, a fost lansat dezbaterea
you take into account the potential of intensive biocombustibili contra hran. Dac inem seama de
development of energy crops (which can be obtained by potenialele dezvoltri intensive ale culturilor energetice (care
improving the plants concerned and the improvement of pot fi obinute prin ameliorarea plantelor vizate i
cultivation technologies) and the possible expansion of mbuntirea tehnologiilor de cultivare) i de posibile lrgiri
the global raw materials (use of waste products ale bazei globale de materii prime (folosirea unor deeuri i
household and industrial, use of seaweed cultivation subproduse casnice i industriale, folosirea culturilor de alge
etc.), we can look at the issue further sources of raw etc.), putem privi problema surselor viitoare de materii prime
materials to produce biofuels with reserved optimism. pentru obinerea biocombustibililor cu un optimism rezervat.
As regards the possibilities of obtaining, the current n privina posibilitilor de obinere, la momentul actual exist
technologies are safe and effective for the main first tehnologii sigure i rentabile pentru principalii biocombustibili
generation biofuels. Thus, we have mature technology de prima generaie. Astfel, dispunem de tehnologii mature i
and traditional right to obtain alcohol and "dry" it (the chiar tradiionale pentru obinerea alcoolului etilic i uscarea
release of water to concentrations of at least 95%) and acestuia (eliberarea de ap pn la concentraii de cel puin
for obtaining and purification vegetable oils. Also, in 95 %) i pentru obinerea i purificarea uleiurilor vegetale. De
recent decades have been successfully developed asemenea, n ultimele decenii au fost dezvoltate tehnologii de
technologies to produce biogas and processing succes pentru obinerea de biogaz i pentru prelucrarea
vegetable oils and biodiesel obtained. uleiurilor vegetale i obinerea biodieselului.
The safety storage and handling of biofuels produced Nivelurile de siguran la stocare i manipulare prezentate
are significantly higher than those produced by fossil fuel de biocombustibili sunt net superioare celor prezentate de
counterparts. This claim is based on the fact that biofuels combustibilii fosili omologi. Aceast afirmaie se bazeaz pe
have ignition temperatures equal or higher than their faptul c biocombustibilii au temperaturi de aprindere egale
counterparts, are completely deprived of toxicity and sau mai ridicate dect omologii lor, sunt complet lipsii de
totally biodegradable. toxicitate i total biodegradabili.
Compatibility of biofuels with existing engines in the Compatibilitatea biocombustibililor cu motoarele existente
current operation requires a more nuanced analysis, n exploatarea curent necesit o analiz mai nuanat,
starting from the justification of this criterion. plecnd chiar de la justificarea acestui criteriu.
Indicating a type of biofuel as an alternative option to Indicarea unui tip de biocombustibil ca variant alternativ
supply Diesel engines involves finding solutions to pentru alimentarea motoarelor Diesel presupune gsirea de
several issues. First aspect concerns the access safe soluii pentru mai multe aspecte. Primul aspect vizeaz accesul
and relatively easy for users of biofuel in engines and in sigur i relativ comod al utilizatorilor de motoare la biocombustibilul
this regard included the manufacture, distribution and respectiv i n acest aspect sunt incluse problemele fabricrii,
disposal at levels comparable to those attained in the distribuiei i desfacerii la niveluri comparabile cu cele atinse n
fuel oil. The second aspect involves setting clear any domeniul combustibililor petrolieri. Al doilea aspect presupune
engine changes or additional features to be added, for stabilirea clar a eventualelor modificri ale motoarelor, sau dotrile
the supply of biofuel to be possible and profitable. Point suplimentare ce trebuiesc adugate acestora, pentru ca
out that profitability should confirm a favorable balance alimentarea cu biocombustibil s fie posibil i rentabil. Precizm
between fault of equipment modifications needed and c rentabilitatea trebuie s confirme un bilan favorabil ntre
some benefits (lower costs of fuel and / or maintenance, deranjul modificrilor sau dotrilor necesare i unele beneficii
(cheltuieli mai mici cu combustibilul i/sau ntreinerea, contiina
the entry of consciousness into a current ecological
nscrierii ntr-un curent ecologic etc.). n fine, un al treilea
etc.). Finally, a third aspect, the binding was the practice
aspect, obligatoriu de avut n vedere pn cnd practica
until the use of biofuel in question loses its character of
folosirii biocombustibilului respectiv i pierde caracterul de
novelty and becomes a current matter, is ensuring the noutate i devine una curent, ine de asigurarea posibilitii
possibility of returning to simple supply of fuel oil. de rentoarcere simpl la alimentarea cu combustibili petrolieri.
Basically, this last point lies in ensuring the operation of Practic, acest ultim aspect revine la asigurarea funcionrii
engines in policarburation mode, definite by possibility of motoarelor n regimul de policarburare definit de posibilitatea de
convenient and rapid transition from diesel fuel to supply trecere comod i rapid de la alimentarea cu motorin la
alternative and vice versa. alimentarea alternativ i invers.
Once given these issues, it can switch to compatibility Odat precizate aceste aspecte, se poate trece la
analysis for engines types in service of biofuels that we analiza compatibilitii cu motoarele aflate n serviciu a
have established that there are mature technologies and tipurilor de biocombustibili pentru care am stabilit c exist
cost-effective production. tehnologii mature i rentabile de obinere.
Biodiesel is the only target of biofuels, which Biodieselul este singurul dintre biocombustibilii vizai
currently can replace partially or wholly used to power care, la momentul actual, poate nlocui parial sau
diesel engines Diesel, in conditions of minimum total motorina folosit la alimentarea motoarelor
intervention to them (the replacement of rubber Diesel, n condiii de minim intervenie la acestea
elements with similar, made of a material most (nlocuirea unor elemente din cauciuc cu unele
appropriate) and the possibility of natural similare, fabricate dintr-un material mai adecvat) i cu
policarburation. However, obtaining this biofuel from posibilitatea fireasc de policarburare. Totui,
vegetable oils or fats processing presents a obinerea acestui biocombustibil din uleiuri vegetale
disadvantage relatively complicated, which is sau alte grsimi prezint dezavantajul unei prelucrri
profitable only on a large scale, using ingredients of relativ complicate, care este rentabil numai pe scar

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high-risk environment (methanol and sodium mare i folosete ingrediente cu risc ridicat de mediu
hydroxide). (metanol i hidroxid de sodiu).
Vegetable oils, gums escaped in advance, can be Uleiurile vegetale, degumate n prealabil, pot fi folosite
directly used to power Diesel engines, provided with direct pentru alimentarea motoarelor Diesel, cu condiia
injection equipment specially designed for this fuel. instalrii pe acestea a unor echipamente de injecie special
Obviously, such a practice makes it difficult to conduct concepute pentru acest tip de combustibil. Evident, o astfel
policarburation because return to oil feeding will claim de conduit face dificil practica policarburrii, pentru c
the change of the injection equipment with one revenirea la motorin va reclama schimbarea instalaiei de
designed for diesel oil. You said that at present, some injecie dedicat uleiului cu aceea conceput pentru
limited practices are reported about alternative uses motorin. Trebuie spus c, n prezent, sunt semnalate
of vegetable oils to supply agricultural tractor (United unele practici restrnse de utilizri alternative ale uleiurilor
States, Germany, France), using a technology in vegetale la alimentarea tractoarelor agricole (Statele Unite,
which gums-free oils are heated from the cooling of Germania, Frana), folosind o tehnologie n care uleiurile
degumate sunt nclzite de la agentul de rcire din motor.
the engine. Such practices are somewhat
Astfel de practici sunt ntructva controversate, deoarece
controversial, because heating to about 100 C is not
nclzirea pn la circa 100C nu este de natur s reduc
likely to sufficiently reduce the viscosity of oils and
suficient viscozitatea uleiurilor i creterile de sarcini din
increases the task of injection equipment, due to high echipamentele de injecie, datorate viscozitii mari, provoac
viscosity, often causing damage to them. Also adesea defectarea acestora. De asemenea, trebuie semnalat
reported to be a sporadic partial replacement of diesel o sporadic nlocuire parial a motorinei prin folosirea de
fuel using mixtures gas - crude oil. The relative mixturi motorin ulei vegetal crud. Relativa tcere a mediilor
silence of the scientific specialists in this conduct, in tiinifice de specialitate fa de aceast conduit, n ciuda
spite of some media, is likely to give thought to. unei oarecare mediatizri, este de natur s dea de gndit.
In essence, vegetable oils and biodiesel prepared n esen, uleiurile vegetale i biodieselul preparat din
from them is a variant of total feeding Diesel engines acestea reprezint o variant de alimentare a motoarelor
with biofuels first extraction. Summary description of Diesel numai cu biocombustibili de prim extracie. Descrierea
this behavior is shown in Figure 1. sintetic a acestei conduite este prezentat n figura 1.

Fig. 1 - Posibilitile de alimentare alternativ a motoarelor Diesel numai cu biocombustibili de prim extracie/
Possibilities of alternative feeding of diesel engines using only the first extraction biofuels

Biogas is currently commonly used to power diesel Biogazul este, la momentul actual, folosit frecvent n
engines working in stationary regime and modified to alimentarea unor motoare Diesel exploatate n regim
support this practice. Scale changes to be made a staionar i modificate ca s accepte aceast practic.
Diesel engine to switch to biogas fuel is very high, Anvergura modificrilor care trebuie aduse unui motor
because the whole installation involves the Diesel pentru trecerea la alimentarea cu biogaz este foarte
replacement feeding installation and adding an mare, deoarece presupune nlocuirea ntregii instalaii de
ignition installation. Obviously, such changes may alimentare i adugarea unei instalaii de aprindere.
remove the engine from target practice of Evident, astfel de modificri ndeprteaz motorul vizat de
policarburation as defined above. la practica policarburrii aa cum a fost definit mai sus.
Bioethanol can be targeted as part of diesel fuel Bioetanolul poate fi vizat ca substitut parial al motorinei
substitute, but again, the changes to be made to the dar, din nou, modificrile ce trebuie aduse motorului sunt
engine are important. Thus, ethanol is to move oil importante. Astfel, etanolul este miscibil cu motorina
only little, the vapor pressure is much higher than that numai n mic msur, are presiunea de vapori mult mai
of diesel fuel and acts as an inhibitor of self-ignition. mare dect aceea a motorinei i acioneaz ca un
These issues requires that any dose of ethanol to be inhibitor de autoaprindere. Aceste aspecte oblig ca o
introduced separately in the engine cycle and this eventual doz de etanol s fie introdus separat n
means equipping the engine with an additional ciclul motor i aceasta nseamn dotarea motorului cu o
supply. In these circumstances, obtaining of instalaie suplimentar de alimentare. n aceste condiii,
policarburation regime desired implies, at least, obinerea regimului dorit de policarburare presupune, cel
coupling or uncoupling of the supply and recovery of puin, cuplri sau decuplri ale instalaiei de alimentare

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ethanol on dosage adjustments of injection cu etanol i refacerea unor reglaje privind dozajul
installation. injeciei de motorin.
Besides the practical use of mixtures containing Alturi de practica utilizrii mixturilor coninnd uleiuri
vegetable oils and diesel, use of biogas and bioethanol vegetale i motorin, folosirea biogazului i a bioetanolului
are other possibilities for alternative food Diesel engines reprezint alte posibiliti de alimentare alternativ a
with first extraction biofuels. Such behavior is motoarelor Diesel cu biocombustibili de prim extracie.
synthetical shown in Figure 2. Aceste conduite sunt prezentate sintetic n figura 2.

Fig. 2 - Alte posibiliti de alimentare alternativ a motoarelor Diesel cu biocombustibili de prim extracie/
Other possibilities of alternative feeding of diesel engines using only the first extraction biofuels

The descriptions above show that any possibility of Descrierile de mai sus arat c orice variant de
alternative power Diesel engines require that between alimentare alternativ a motoarelor Diesel impune ca
first production of alternative biofuel and its combustion ntre prima extracie a biocombustibilului alternativ i
in the engine cylinders to intervene, either through arderea acestuia n cilindrii motoarelor s se intervin
processing of biofuel (biodiesel case), or by modifying tehnic, fie prin prelucrarea biocombustibilului (cazul
the engine. biodieselului), fie prin modificarea motorului.

4. Possible "shortcuts" in the practice of feeding Diesel 4. Posibile scurtturi n practica alimentrii
engines with biofuels motoarelor Diesel cu biocombustibili
Exposure above shows the current practice in power Expunerea de mai sus prezint stadiul actual n practica
Diesel engines with biofuels and technical reasons which alimentrii motoarelor Diesel cu biocarburani i motivele
preclude the spread of this practice under the tehnice care se opun rspndirii acestei practici n regim de
policarburation regime. Of course, finding solutions to policarburare. Firete, gsirea unor soluii de simplificare a
simplify the way of first extraction biofuels in the drumului biocombustibililor de la prima extracie la arderea n
cylinders in a combustion engine is an interesting cilindrii unui motor constituie o provocare interesant. Se pune
challenge. But this raises the question: is this possible? ns ntrebarea: este acest lucru posibil? Avansm aici un
Advance here is a possible yes, launching the concept of posibil rspuns afirmativ, lansnd conceptul de condiionare
pre-feeding conditioning of the fuel used for Diesel antealimentare a combustibilului folosit pentru motoarele Diesel.
engines. Schematically, this practice is shown in Figure 3. Schematic, aceast practic este prezentat n figura 3.

Fig. 3 - Condiionarea antealimentare ca variant pentru alimentarea alternativ a motoarelor diesel cu biocombustibili de prim extracie /
Pre-feeding conditioning technology as version for alternative feeding of diesel engines using first extraction biofuels

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Technical intervention alleged that the concept would Intervenia tehnic presupus de acest concept ar urma s
address oil mixtures - oil, vegetable oils or forced se adreseze mixturilor ulei vegetal motorin, uleiurilor vegetale
mixtures of bioethanol - diesel and should spend in a sau unor mixturi forate bioetanol motorin i ar trebui s
conditioning device added by the interface between the se petreac ntr-un dispozitiv de condiionare adugat prin
supply of engine and the injection installation. This nseriere la interfaa dintre instalaia de alimentare a motorului
placement offers the advantage of lack of an intervention i instalaia de injecie a acestuia. Aceast amplasare ofer
on the engine itself and the possibility of convenient avantajul lipsei unei intervenii pe motorul propriuzis i
returning to alternative power, so the policarburation, by posibilitatea revenirii comode de la alimentarea alternativ,
providing an alternative route to bypass the device. deci a policarburrii, prin prevederea unui traseu alternativ de
Generic, conditioning the fuel will have to adjust the ocolire a dispozitivului. Generic, condiionarea combustibilului
parameters of their status so that the behavior of the fuel va trebui s modifice parametrii de stare ai acestuia astfel
to the engine cylinders to be as close to that of diesel. nct comportarea acestuia dup dispozitiv, pn n cilindrii
motorului, s fie ct mai apropiat de aceea a motorinei.

5. Conclusions 5. Concluzii
Issues presented wish to draw attention to the Aspectele prezentate doresc s atrag atenia asupra conceptului
concept of pre-feeding conditioning of fuel in the context de condiionare antealimentare a combustibilului, n contextul
of concerns for promoting biofuels as an alternative to preocuprilor pentru promovarea biocombustibililor ca soluie
power diesel engines. The paper wants an invitation to de alimentare alternativ a motoarelor Diesel. Lucrarea se
researchers attracted by the policarburation of Diesel dorete o invitaie adresat cercettorilor atrai de problemele
engines with biofuels, and in equal measure, potential policarburrii motoarelor Diesel cu biocarburani i, n egal
beneficiaries who believe in the future of these practices and msur, potenialilor beneficiari care cred n viitorul acestor practici
wish to participate in development and their implementation. i doresc s participe la dezvoltarea i implementarea lor.

BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAFIE
1. Aram, C.; Grnwald, B. - Motoare cu ardere intern. 1. Aram, C.; Grnwald, B. - Motoare cu ardere intern.
Procese i caracteristici. Editura Tehnic, Bucureti Procese i caracteristici. Editura Tehnic, Bucureti
1966 1966
2. Nicolescu, M. A. - Incisivitate i precauie n 2. Nicolescu, M. A. - Incisivitate i precauie n
promovarea de combustibili alternativi pentru motoarele promovarea de combustibili alternativi pentru motoarele
cu ardere intern. Sesiunea INMATEH 2006 II, cu ardere intern. Sesiunea INMATEH 2006 II,
Bucureti, mai 2006 Bucureti, mai 2006
3. Nicolescu, M. A. - Biocombustibili pentru alimentarea 3. Nicolescu, M. A. - Biocombustibili pentru alimentarea
motoarelor diesel: clasificare, vocabular, probleme n motoarelor diesel: clasificare, vocabular, probleme n
utilizare. Sesiunea INMATEH 2007 II, Bucureti, utilizare. Sesiunea INMATEH 2007 II, Bucureti,
septembrie 2007 septembrie 2007
4. Roberts, P. Sfritul petrolului. Editura Litera 4. Roberts, P. Sfritul petrolului. Editura Litera
Internaional, Bucureti 2008. Internaional, Bucureti 2008

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INSTALLATION FOR SOLAR DRYING OF SEWAGE SLUDGE


/
INSTALAIE PENTRU USCAREA SOLAR A NMOLULUI DE EPURARE
Dr.Eng. Markus BUX Hohenheim University,Stuttgart, Germany
Prof.Dr.Eng. Adrian MITROI, drd.ing. Liliana CRLAN - USAMV Bucharest
Dr.Eng. Tilo CONRAD, Dr.Eng. Steffen RITTERBUSCH - Thermo-System Industrie&Trocknungstechnik, Germany

Abstract. The research goal is related to solar drying of Rezumat. Scopul este de cercetare legate de solare de uscare a
sewage sludge. Using solar energy allows to reduce nmolului de canalizare. Utilizarea energiei solare pentru a permite
energy consumption from other sources, that represents reducerea consumului de energie din alte surse, care reprezinta
a main ecological advantage. The drying potential un avantaj principal ecologic. De uscare depinde de potenialul
depends on solar direct and diffuse radiation, natural solare directe i difuze de radiaii, potenial natural de uscare a
drying air potential, exothermal process of sludge aerului, exothermal procesul de descompunere a nmolurilor,
decomposition, additional heat from outside. In order to suplimentar de energie termic din afara. Pentru a oferi
provide optimal drying performance, the unit components performane optime de uscare, unitatea de componente sunt
are ordered on account of climate conditions and ordonate pe cont de condiiile climatice i de coninutul de
moisture content. The parameters values are measured umiditate. Parametri sunt valorile msurate i studiat, n aceast
and studied, in this respect: air temperature, inside and privin: temperatura aerului, n interiorul i n afara, umiditatea relativ
outside, relative air humidity, inside and outside, solar a aerului, n interiorul i n afara, radiatiei solare i a nmolurilor
radiation and sludge humidity, as well. de umiditate, de asemenea.

Keywords: instalation for solar drying, sewage sludge, Cuvinte cheie: instalaie pentru uscare solar, nmoluri de
electric mole, ecological advantages epurare, crti electric, avantajele ecologice

1. INTRODUCTION 1. INTRODUCERE
Processing of sewage sludge to their neutralization Procesarea nmolurilor de epurare n vederea
and bring in a form that can be more easily stored, neutralizrii lor i aducerii ntr-o form n care s poat fi
handled, used a gain increasing importance. In different mai uor depozitate, manevrate, utilizate capt o importan
countries on all continents recourse to this process, both tot mai mare. In diferite ari de pe toate continentele se recurge
in places with large number of inhabitants, and in places la aceast procesare, att n localiti cu numr foarte mare de
with low or average number of inhabitants. In May in locuitori, ct i n localiti cu numr mediu sau mic de
many parts of the world this form of processing is locuitori. In mai n multe zone de pe glob aceast form de
already mandatory environmental considerations. prelucrare este deja obligatorie, din considerente ecologice.
According to the regulations of EU countries, but also Potrivit reglementrilor din ri UE, dar i din alte ri,
from other countries, storage of cleaning mud is no longer depozitarea nmolului de epurare nu mai este permis.
permitted. Folosirea nmolului de epurare ca ngrmnt
Using cleaning mud as organic fertilizer in organic n agricultur este din ce n ce mai puin aplicabil,
agriculture is becoming less applicable, inter alia printre altele deoarece nmolul de epurare conine nu numai
because mud cleaning substance contains not only substane utile, ci i cantiti mari de substane nocive, cum
useful but also large amounts of harmful substances sunt metale grele, reziduuri de la medicamente, substane
such as heavy metals, residues from drugs, chemicals chimice cu aplicaii menajere, ageni patogeni .a.
with household applications, pathogens, etc. Arderea nmolului separat mecanic este posibil doar cu
Burning mud is mechanically separated only with susinerea prin arderea unui alt combustibil.
the support of the burning of another fuel. Uscarea convenional a nmolului de epurare este
Conventional drying of mud cleaning is extremely extrem de costisitoare, n special din cauza costurilor altor
expensive, particularly because the cost of other energy surse de energie. Reducerea ct mai accentuat a masei
sources. Further reducing the mass of mud cleaning has nmolului de epurare are efect pozitiv, prin scderea
positive effect, by lowering transport costs. costului transportului.
There are different types of processing plants for Exist diferite tipuri de instalaii de procesare a
cleaning mud, with different efficiency and often with nmolului de epurare, cu eficien diferit i de cele mai
high specific consumption of energy. multe ori cu consumuri specifice mari de energie.
The solar drying of mud cleaning, patented by Procedeul de uscare solar a nmolului de epurare,
Thermo-System allows reducing the weight of the sludge brevetat de Thermo-System, permite reducerea masei de
treatment plant and is characterized by reasonable nmol de epurare i se caracterizeaz prin costuri rezonabile
investment cost, low power consumption and extremely de investiii, consumuri mici de energie i costuri deosebit de
low cost of operation. The plant can process both the reduse de exploatare. In instalaie este posibil prelucrarea att
mud pre-drain and the one nedesecat. a nmolului pre-desecat ct i a celui nedesecat.
Reducing quantity and improving the pretabilitii Reducerea cantitii ca i mbuntirea pretabilitii la depozitare
mud dry storage lead to a reduction of transport and thus a nmolului uscat duc la o diminuare a transportului i prin
reduced emissions, making it an important aceasta la emisii reduse, aceasta constituind un important
environmental advantage. With high energy dry mud can avantaj ecologic. Prin valoarea energetic ridicat a nmolului
be saved in fossil fuel plants, and solar energy is directly uscat poate fi economisit combustibil fosil n centrale, iar
used by the installation. Through the thermal solar dried energia solar este direct utilizat de instalaie. Prin valorificarea
sludge can contribute to reducing CO2 emissions and termic a nmolurilor uscate solar se poate contribui astfel la
global environment. reducerea emisiilor de CO2 i la protecia mediului global.

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2. MATERIAL AND METHOD 2. MATERIAL I METOD


The solar drying of sewage sludge was carried out Instalaia solar de uscare a nmolurilor de epurare a
by Thermo-System company in collaboration with the fost realizat de firma Thermo-System n colaborare cu
Institute of mechanization of agriculture from the Institutul de mecanizarea agriculturii de la Universitatea
University of Hohenheim in Stuttgart Germany. Note that Hohenheim Stuttgart din Germania. De menionat c n
in the same cooperation has been made and are already cadrul aceleiai cooperri au fost realizate i sunt deja n
operating in several countries, with good results, exploatare, n mai multe ri, cu rezultate foarte bune,
installation of solar drying of tobacco plants for solar instalaii solare de uscare a tutunului, instalaii solare de
drying timber. uscare pentru cherestea.
The main components of the plant (fig. 1) are as Principalele componente ale instalaiei (fig.1) sunt: sera
follows: sera with drying rooms, the ventilation system of cu camerele de uscare, sistemul de ventilare, sistemul de
homogenization-aeration of nmolulului, electrical omogenizare-aerare a nmolulului, echipamentele electrice i de
equipment and automation. Additional equipment ensure automatizari. Echipamentele suplimentare asigur desfurarea
the proper conduct of the process of drying in different corect a procesului de uscare n diferite condiii de clim:
climatic conditions: supplementary heating device, a device dispozitiv de nclzire suplimentar, dispozitiv de topire a
for melting snow on the roof. Building a greenhouse that zpezii de pe acoperi. Cldirea de tip ser care face parte
is an integral part of the solar drying frames are made of integrant din instalaia solar de uscare este realizat din
metal with coating of transparent polyethylene film, UV cadre metalice, cu nveliul din folie polietilen transparent,
resistant, or plates of polycarbonate or glass. rezistent la UV, sau din plci de policarbonat, sau din sticl.
Depending on the capacity of sera may have one or In funcie de capacitatea de lucru sera poate avea una sau
more drying chambers. Room drying nedirijat not mai multe camere de uscare. Camera de uscare nu
communicate with the external environment. Front or comunic nedirijat cu mediul exterior. Frontal sau pe peretele
side wall is a register of admission of the air, ordered by lateral se gsete o clapet de admisie a aerului, comandat
the electric device automatically command. On the electric prin dispozitivul automat de comand. Pe peretele
opposite wall are one or more fans repression. For opus se gsesc unul sau mai multe ventilatoare de refulare.
routing and mixing of air from which the drying mud Pentru dirijarea i amestecarea aerului care servete la uscarea
works suspended ceiling fans. nmolului lucreaz ventilatoarele suspendate de plafon.

Fig. 1 - Functional scheme of the solar drying mud cleaning / Schema funcional a instalaiei solare de uscare a nmolului de epurare

Fig. 2 - Mixing machine and return (Patent Thermo-System) / Robotul de amestecare i ntoarcere (Brevet Thermo-System)

The automatically adjusting the interior climate at Sistemul automat de reglare a climatului interior
all times ensure optimal drying capacity. Drying the asigur n orice moment capacitatea optim de uscare.
components are ordered according to climatic Componentele instalaiei de uscare sunt comandate n
conditions, the characteristics of the mud and, where funcie de condiiile climatice, de nsuirile nmolului i, dup
appropriate, the amount of heat removed. To do this, caz, de cantitatea de cldur eliminat. Pentru aceasta, n
depending on the constructive variant, are measured funcie de varianta constructiv, sunt msurate i interpretate
and interpreted the parameters: air temperature (inside / valorile parametrilor: temperatura aerului (interior/exterior), umiditatea
outside), air relative humidity (indoor / outdoor), humidity relativ a aerului (interior/exterior), radiaia solar i umiditatea
and solar radiation mud. The adjustable interior climate nmolului. Sistemul de reglare a climatului interior
control, based on data measured mixing air dryer, air comand, pe baza datelor msurate, amestecarea aerului
exchange rate and the frequency mixing robot turns and n usctor, rata schimbului de aer, precum i frecvena
return. ntoarcerilor robotului de amestecare i ntoarcere.
To increase capacity of the drying and prevent the Pentru creterea capacitii de lucru la uscare i evitarea
formation of mud smell must be turned regularly. This formrii de miros nmolul trebuie s fie ntors regulat. Aceast
task, which would involve high labor and time is taken by sarcin, care ar implica consum mare de munc i de timp, este

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a fully automated robot with integrated mixing and preluat de un robot complet automatizat cu dispozitiv integrat de
return, called the "electric mole". Machine (fig. 2), made amestecare i ntoarcere, numit Crtia electric. Maina (fig. 2),
entirely of stainless steel and plastic reinforced with fabricat n ntregime din oel inoxidabil i material plastic armat cu
glass fibers, are oriented hall drying using ultrasonic fibre de sticl, se orienteaz n hala de uscare cu ajutorul senzorilor
sensors. Scheme of the robot and return mixing is cu ultrasunete. Schema robotului de amestecare i ntoarcere este
shown in Figure 3. The frequency of complete turns is prezentat n figura 3. Frecvena ntoarcerilor este
adjusted automatically by the command depending on adaptat complet automat de ctre sistemul de comand
the climatic conditions and the characteristics of mud n funcie de condiiile climatice i de nsuirile nmolului i
and is optimized with regard to drying, minimizing odors este optimizat n ceea ce privete capacitatea de uscare,
and consumption. minimizarea mirosurilor i consumul de energie.

Fig. 3 - Scheme mixing robot and return. The Charter Electric - Thermo-Patent System /
Schema robotului de amestecare i ntoarcere Crtia electric brevet Thermo-System

By choosing the proper transmission and return, Prin alegerea adecvat a organelor de transmisie i de
electric mole can be adapted to different types of mud. In ntoarcere, crtia electric poate s fie adaptat la diferite tipuri
principle can thus be processed in any different sludge de nmol. In principiu prin aceasta pot fi prelucrate diferite nmoluri
dry weight, and - depending on the characteristics of cu orice coninut de substan uscat i n funcie de nsuirile
processed mud - at a height of filling up to 30 cm. nmolului prelucrat la o nlime de umplere de pn la 30 cm.
Devices and equipment of the plant Aparate i echipamente ale instalaiei
Optimal functioning of the solar drying is provided Funcionarea optim a instalaiei de uscare solar este
by the automation equipment, consisting of a central asigurat de echipamentele de automatizare, constituite dintr-
system and several devices with different functions: un sistem central i mai multe aparate, cu funciuni diferite:
- Sensor temperature and humidity. Sensor for - Senzor de temperatur i umiditate. Senzorul pentru
measuring relative humidity of the air consists of msurarea umiditii relative a aerului const din mai
several bands of woven plastic, treated by a multe benzi esute din material plastic, tratate printr-un
process which acquires special appropriation procedeu special ele capt nsuiri higroscopice. O
higroscopice. A change of length is an effect that modificare a lungimii este un efect care poate fi
can be measured from the outside. When the fiber msurat din exterior. Cnd fibra se afl n echilibru
is balanced against air humidity is not taking any fa de umiditatea aerului nu se produce nici preluare
water or disposal. Length achieved in this case nici cedare de ap. Lungimea atins n acest caz d o
gives a measure of the relative humidity of air. msur a umiditii relative a aerului.
- Solar sensor. With silicon sensor serves to measure - Senzor solar. Senzorul cu siliciu servete la
solar radiation. The sensor transmits a voltage msurarea radiaiei solare. Senzorul transmite o
proportional to the intensity of solar radiation. The tensiune proporional cu intensitatea radiaiei solare.
cell is encapsulated in plastic resistant to weather Celula este capsulat n material plastic rezistent la
and UV. intemperii i la raze UV.
- Wind sensor. Wind sensor used to determine - Senzor eolian. Senzorul eolian servete la determinarea
horizontal wind speed. To exploit the winter all vitezei vntului pe orizontal. Pentru exploatarea pe timp
appliances are equipped with electronically de iarn toate aparatele sunt prevzute cu nclzire
controlled heating to prevent freezing of rolling reglat electronic pentru a mpiedica nghearea
bearings and rotating parts exterior. Principle of rulmenilor i a pieselor exterioare rotative. Principiul de
measurement: OptOut-electronic (disk slit). msurare: opto- electronic (disc cu fant).
- Sensor pluvial. The work is based on measuring the - Senzor pluvial. Principiul de lucru se bazeaz pe msurarea
electrolytic voltage alternatives. Surface sensor electrolitic a tensiunii alternative. Suprafaa senzorului
reacts to rain or snow. Polarity connection and reacioneaz la ploaie sau la zpad. Polaritatea la conectare
sensitivity are adjustable. Prevent additional heating i sensibilitatea sunt reglabile. Inclzirea suplimentar
cover with ice or dew and speeds drying. mpiedic acoperirea cu ghea sau cu rou i accelereaz uscarea.
- The heat. The device is intended to determine the - Contor de caldur. Aparatul este destinat determinrii cantitii
quantity of heat is supplied to a consumer through a de cldur care este furnizat unui consumator printr-
heating circuit. The amount of heat flow is un circuit de nclzire. Cantitatea de cldur se
calculated from the measured volume of hot water calculeaz din debitul volumic msurat de ap cald i
and the temperature difference between the tour din diferena de temperatur dintre tur i retur pe
and return to the heating circuit. The heat from circuitul de nclzire. Contorul de cldur de la Thermo
Thermo - System consists of the following System const din urmtoarele componente: operator
components: arithmetic operator, the temperature aritmetic, senzor de temperatur cu capsul
sensor capsule Submersible debitmetru volume. submers, debitmetru volumic.
- Axial fans. Axial flow fans have volume of 22,000 - Ventilatoare axiale. Ventilatoarele axiale au debit

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3 3
m /h and three-phase motors driven by ~ 400 V, volumic de 22.000 m /h i sunt acionate de motoare
with power / 0.94 / 0.59 kW; trifazice ~400 V, cu puterea / 0,94 / 0,59 kW.
- Speed regulator using Thermo - System serves to - Regulatorul de turaie folosit de Thermo System
regulate the speed of the three phase motor with servete la reglarea continu a turaiei a motoarelor
voltage regulation and is especially for fans of wall trifazice cu reglarea tensiunii i este special pentru
and ceiling use. ventilatoarele de perete, respectiv de plafon, utilizate.
- Touch-display the MP 370 offers the user the - Touch-display-ul MP 370 ofer utilizatorului posibiliti de a
possibility to plot the operating conditions, given the reprezenta grafic stri de funcionare, date actuale de proces i
current process and upset a coupled system of deranjamentele unei sistem cuplat de control i de a putea
control and to serve and see the car or comfortable servi i observa confortabil maina sau instalaia care
to be monitored. trebuie supravegheat.
Optional Features Dotri optionale
Automatic clearing of the snow. The device is Automatul de degajare a zpezii. Dispozitivul automat face
automatically glide layer of snow on the roof. Sensors s alunece stratul de zpad de pe acoperi. Senzorii instalai n
installed in the roof and roof deformation measured emit acoperi msoar deformarea acoperiului i emit un semnal ctre
a signal to the central command if strong snow fall a sistemul central de comand dac prin cderi puternice de zpad
certain application of the roof. Central command the apare o anumit solicitare a acoperiului. Sistemul central comand
service of aerotermelor special, supplied with gas, the punerea n funciune a aerotermelor speciale, alimentate cu gaz,
warm air dryer. The heat rises and accumulates in the care nclzesc aerul din usctor. Cldura se ridic i se acumuleaz n
roof area, topind snow on the bottom. This layer of snow zona acoperiului, topind zpada n partea inferioar. Prin aceasta
falls and slide, and aerotermele disconnects. stratul de zpad alunec i cade, iar aerotermele se deconecteaz.
Heating system to the roof gutter. The function is to Sistem de nclzire a jgheabului acoperiului. Sistemul are
protect against freezing of the roof gutter. If during the funciunea de a proteja mpotriva ngherii jgheabul acoperiului.
day the water condensation, the heating of the roof Dac n cursul zilei apare ap de condensare, sistemul de
troughs ensure the scheme automatically, removing water nclzire a jgheaburilor acoperiului asigur, n regim de lucru
condensation. Sensors measure the roof gutter of automat, ndeprtarea apei de condensare. Senzorii din jgheabul
temperature and quantity of water from the roof gutter. A acoperiului msoar temperatura mediului i cantitatea de ap
control device interpreting the data from sensors and din jgheabul acoperiului. Un aparat de control interpreteaz datele
connects banda heating when necessary. de la senzori i conecteaz banda de nclzire atunci cnd este necesar.
Operation function in winter challenge prevents Funciunea Exploatarea pe timp de iarn mpiedic provocarea
excessive loss of heat through intense air and thereby de pierderi exagerate de cldur prin schimbul intens de aer i
prevent abrupt cooling and freezing mud. For this there prin aceasta mpiedic rcirea abrupt i nghearea nmolului. Pentru
is the possibility of adapting the control of microclimate. aceasta exist posibilitatea adaptrii controlului instalaiei asupra
microclimatului.
Operation in winter may occur on the parameters:
Pentru exploatarea pe timp de iarn se poate interveni asupra
temperature limit for lappet ceiling; temperature limit
parametrilor: temperatura limit pentru clapeta de plafon;
indoor and outdoor temperature limit; ventilrii during the
temperatura limit n interior i temperatura limit n exterior;
intermittent regime. By adjusting the duration ventilrii, durata ventilrii n regim intermitent. Prin reglarea duratei ventilrii,
operation winter may be better adapted to the climate exploatarea de iarn poate fi mai bine adaptat difereniat la
differences, for example mild temper and harsh winter, condiiile climatice respective, de exemplu iarn blnd sau
sunny weather or closed. aspr, vreme nsorit sau nchis.
Physical processes in drainage and drying Procesele fizice la uscare i drenare
Reducing the water content of sludge is achieved Reducerea coninutului de ap din nmol se
through the following processes: realizeaz prin urmtoarele procese:
- Draining force of gravity on drainage beds, facilities - Drenarea prin fora de gravitaie pe paturi de drenare, la
for the fluid mud with SU 10-14% SU; instalaii pentru nmol fluid cu SU 1014% SU;
- Evaporation of water from the air dryer, where the - Evaporarea apei n aerul din usctor, caz n care
potential for drying in the dryer depends on the potenialul de uscare n usctor depinde de urmtorii
following factors: direct solar radiation and diffuse, factori: radiaia solar direct i difuz; potenialul de
the potential for natural air drying (ambient air ability to uscare natural al aerului (capacitatea aerului ambiant de a
retrieve moisture) exothermic decomposition prelua umiditate); procesele exoterme de descompunere
processes in the mud (aerobic stabilization later) n nmol (stabilizare ulterioar aerob); cldura introdus
brought additional heat from the outside (optional, eg. suplimentar din afar (opional, de ex. cldur
residual heat from the central compact mixed heating rezidual de la centrale mixte compacte de nclzire i
and electricity production). producere de energie electric).
The drying process can be divided into different Procesul de uscare poate fi mprit n diferite faze de uscare,
stages of drying, depending on the moisture content of the n funcie de coninutul de umiditate al nmolului. In fiecare faz
mud. In each stage of drying different transport de uscare diferitele mecanisme de transport pentru
mechanisms for extracting water are crucial. extragerea apei sunt decisive.
To obtain an optimal drying capacity depending on the Pentru a obine o capacitate optim de uscare n funcie de
humidity mud, these different stages of drying must be umiditatea nmolului, aceste faze diferite de uscare trebuie s
taken into consideration in the settlement. fie luate n consideraie la reglarea instalaiei.
To speed drying are 5 main factors responsible, Pentru viteza de uscare sunt n principal rspunztori 5
which has great importance in the light phase of drying: factori, care posed o importan deosebit n funcie de
the temperature of drying air, air relative humidity, air faza de uscare: temperatura de uscare a aerului; umiditatea
current speed over the subject product drying, the relativ a aerului; viteza curentului de aer de deasupra
characteristics of the product subject to the drying produsului supus uscrii; nsuirile suprafeei produsului
surface; temperature of the product under drying. supus uscrii; temperatura produsului supus uscrii.
The work consists of 3 parts: the filling, drying, Procesul de lucru se compune din 3 pri: umplerea instalaiei,
emptying facility. Filling plant for drying sludge uscarea, golirea instalaiei. Umplerea instalaiei de uscare pentru

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predesecat. At the beginning of a batch of drying mud nmol predesecat. La nceputul unei arje de uscare nmolul
predesecat driver is placed in the dryer. Mud should be predesecat mecanic este introdus n usctor. Nmolul trebuie
free of extraneous matter (stones, etc.) And not contain s fie liber de corpuri strine (pietre etc.) i s nu mai conin ap
water in the form of drops. Entering mud can be done sub form de picturi. Introducerea nmolului se poate face cu:
with charger with cup, with the trailer carrying the knife, ncrctor cu cup, remorc cu transportor cu raclei, ben
ladle tilting or container. In this case are that the basculant sau cu container. In acest caz se are n vedere ca
equipment does not exceed the height of the free drying utilajul s nu depeasc nlimea liber din interiorul camerei
room to avoid damage to the building hall. de uscare, pentru a evita deteriorarea construciei halei.
Empty the drying is done mechanically with a Golirea instalaiei de uscare se face mecanic, cu un
loader or tractor with the front cup. ncrctor sau cu tractorul cu cup frontal.
Installations of solar drying mud of purification, Instalaiile solare de uscare a nmolului de epurare, care au
which were studied are listed in tab. 1. and tab. 2. fost studiate, sunt prezentate n tab. 1 i tab. 2.
Table 1 / Tabelul 1
Installations of solar drying mud cleaning / Instalaii solare de uscare a nmolului de epurare
Palma
) Fssen Ellwangen Essenbach
de Mallorca *
Content initial SU% / Coninut iniial de SU % 27 28 28 27
Content SU% final / Coninut final de SU % 75 75 (max. 95) 70 70
Number of rooms drying / Numr camere de uscare 12 4 2 2
2
Surface drying / Suprafaa de uscare [m ] 20.000 2.000 2.000 750
Special glass 4 Special glass 4 Special glass 4
double plate PC /
Hall coat / Inveli hal mm / sticl mm / sticl mm / sticl
plci duble de PC
special 4 mm special 4 mm special 4 mm
*) Currently the largest installation in the world / n prezent cea mai mare instalaie din lume.

Table 2 / Tabelul 2
Installations of solar drying mud cleaning with predesecare /
Instalaii solare de uscare a nmolului de epurare cu predesecare
St. Julien St. Ay
Content initial SU% / Coninut iniial de SU % 15 17
Content SU% final / Coninut final de SU % 75 60
Number of rooms drying / Numr de camere de uscare 2 2
2 2
Surface drying m / Suprafaa de uscare [m ] 900 480
special glass, 4 mm / sticl film on the double /
Hall coat / Inveli hal
special, 4 mm folie dubl de PE
perforated tape / band perforated tape /
Pressing Device / Dispozitiv de presare
perforat band perforat
automatically by pump / automatically by pump /
Entering mud / Introducerea nmolului
automat, cu pomp automat, cu pomp

3. RESULTS 3. REZULTATE
In Table 3 are indicated maximum fill heights In tabelul 3 sunt indicate nlimile maxime de umplere
depending on the content of SU. n funcie de coninutul de SU.
Filling height depending on the season. Winter Inlimile de umplere depind de anotimp. Iarna se
recommended a reduction in the height of the silt layer to recomand o diminuare a nlimii stratului de nmol,
accelerate the drying process. pentru a accelera procesul de uscare.

Table 3 / Tabelul 3
Height of filling of the solar drying / nalimea de umplere a instalaiei solare de uscare
Maximum height of filling of the solar drying / Inltimea maxim de umplere a instalaiei solare de uscare
Content SU / Coninut Maximum height of filling /
Type of sludge / Tip de nmol
de SU (%) Inlimea maxim de umplere (cm)
1015 1520
Mud predesecat / Nmol predesecat 1520 2025
> 20 2030

Table 4 / Tabelul 4
Maximum height of filling with fluid mud solar plant /
Inlimea maxim de umplere cu nmol fluid a instalaiei solare
Maximum height of filling of the solar / Inlimea maxim de umplere a instalaiei solare
Content SU / Coninut Maximum height of filling /
Type of sludge / Tip de nmol
de SU (%) Inlimea maxim de umplere (cm)
3050
Fluid mud (only to facilities
(calculated coresp. 300500 l / m; effective height
with floor drainage) / Nmol 26
of filling max. 30 cm) / (calculat, coresp. 300 -
fluid (doar la instalaii cu
500 l/m; nlimea efectiv de umplere max. 30 cm)
podea de drenare)
>6 2030

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Solar drying of mud cleaning preseparat, which La uscarea solar a nmolului de epurare preseparat,
initially has a dry weight of 25% reduction in weight is care are un coninut iniial de substan uscat de 25%
5070%. Solar drying of mud cleaning fluid, initially with reducerea masei este de 5070%. La uscarea solar a
a dry weight of 3%, reducing the weight is 9097%. nmolului de epurare fluid, cu un coninut iniial de
Dried mud is neutral in terms of odors, it is substan uscat de 3%, reducerea masei este de 9097%.
biologically stable and can be easily stored or Nmolul uscat este neutru din punct de vedere al
transported. mirosurilor, este stabil biologic i poate fi uor depozitat
By providing process heat using solar energy for sau transportat. Prin asigurarea energiei termice de
drying costs are much lower compared with other drying proces prin folosirea energiei solare costurile pentru
mud cleaning. uscare sunt mult mai reduse n comparaie cu alte
A prerequisite for application of solar drying is that procedee de uscare a nmolului de epurare.
a relatively large area for placement of greenhouses. So O premis pentru aplicarea uscrii solare o constituie
far it has not been an obstacle difficult past. existena unei suprafee relativ mari pentru amplasarea serei.
The characteristics of mud cleaning before Pn n prezent aceasta nu a fost un obstacol greu de trecut.
processing: Insuirile nmolului de epurare nainte de procesare:
- The drying material fluid (variant with floor drainage) - la uscarea materialului fluid (varianta cu podea de
- dry weight 110%; drenare) - coninut de substan uscat 110%
- Drying mud preseparat (variant without floor - la uscarea nmolului preseparat (varianta fr podea
drainage) - dry weight of 1040%. de drenare) - coninut de substan uscat de 1040%.
The base area of the plant is established according Suprafaa de baz a instalaiei se stabilete n funcie
to local conditions, climate, the content of the final SU de condiiile locale, de clim, de coninutul final de SU al
mud of the characteristics of the mud cleaning to be nmolului, de nsuirile principale ale nmolului de epurare
subjected to drying process. If sun drying only, ie without care urmeaz s fie supus procesului de uscare. In cazul uscrii
any heat source, the performance reported above are: exclusiv solare, adic fr alt surs termic, performanele
2
 Qs1 = 6 t/m mud cleaning fluid, the dry weight of raportate la suprafa sunt:
2
26%;  Qs1 = 6 t/m nmol fluid de epurare, cu coninut de
2
 Qs2 = 0.53 t/m mud cleaning preseparat with dry substan uscat de 26 %;
2
weight of 25-30%.  Qs2 = 0,53 t/m nmol de epurare preseparat, cu
In case of use and an additional source of heat, for coninut de substan uscat de 2530 %.
example waste heat from a central facility cogeneration In cazul folosirii i a unei surse suplimentare de energie termic,
2
flow per m base area greatly increases the overall de exemplu a energiei termice reziduale de la o central mixt
2
requirement can be reduced by the surface. de cogenerare, debitul pe m suprafa de baz crete foarte
Height of filling mud cleaning: mult, respectiv pe ansamblu poate fi redus necesarul de suprafa.
- installations for the drying mud fluid: HUF = 2030 Inlimea de umplere cu nmol de epurare:
cm; - la instalaii pentru uscarea nmolului fluid: huf = 2030 cm
- installations for the drying mud predesecat: hup = - la instalaii pentru uscarea nmolului predesecat: hup =
515 cm. 515 cm.
Consumption of electricity: Consumul de energie electric:
- installations for the drying mud fluid: eff = 10 20 - la instalaii pentru uscarea nmolului fluid: Eff = 1020
kWh / t water evaporated (extracted); kWh/t ap evaporat (extras);
- installations for the drying mud predesecat: VET = - la instalaii pentru uscarea nmolului predesecat: Efp =
2030 kWh / t water evaporated (extracted). 2030 kWh/t ap evaporat (extras).
Working consumption: Consum de munc:
- filling the room drying: Cmu = 12 ore-om/arj; - umplerea camerei de uscare: Cmu = 12 ore-om/arj;
- emptying chamber drying: CMG = 0.51 ore-om/arj; - golirea camerei de uscare: CMg = 0,51 ore-om/arj;
- reducing the weight of material subject to drying; - reducerea masei materialului supus uscrii;
- installations for the drying mud fluid: RMf = 9097%; - la instalaii pentru uscarea nmolului fluid: RMf = 9097 %;
- installations for the drying mud predesecat: RMp = - la instalaii pentru uscarea nmolului predesecat: RMp =
5070%. 5070 %.
Depending on the purpose of the drying process, In funcie de scopul principal al uscrii, de tipul de
the type of sludge and cleaning the season, there is a nmol de epurare i de anotimp, se produce i o
stabilization and aerobic ie about 530% of the organic stabilizare aerob i anume circa 530% din substana
substance can be decomposed. organic poate fi descompus.
Using waste heat. Residual heat is taken up by the Utilizarea cldurii reziduale. Cldura rezidual este
register of hot water - heat exchanger. Received preluat prin registrul de ap cald schimbtorul de cldur.
increased heat inside the room temperature drying, and Cldura primit crete temperatura interioar a camerei de
thereby increase the potential for air drying, may uscare i prin aceasta crete potenialul de uscare al aerului,
increase the drying capacity of the plant during respectiv poate crete capacitatea de uscare a instalaiei pe
unfavorable weather conditions. Since the heating in the timpul condiiilor meteo nefavorabile. Deoarece instalaia de
dryer and serves as a system of emergency cooling nclzire n usctor servete i ca sistem de rcire de
system for the heating of the facility at a very high urgen pentru ntreg sistemul de nclzire al instalaiei, la
temperature inside the drying room will be ventilated. o temperatur interioar prea ridicat camera de uscare
This allows a sufficient removal of heat and higher va fi ventilat. Aceasta permite o eliminare suficient a
temperatures outside. cldurii i la temperaturi exterioare mai ridicate.

4. CONCLUSIONS 4. CONCLUZII
Consumption of electricity to facilities for drying Consumul de energie electric la instalaii pentru
mud fluid is eff = 1020 kWh/t water evaporated uscarea nmolului fluid este Eff = 1020 kWh/t ap
(extracted) and the facilities for drying mud pre water evaporat (extras), iar la instalaii pentru uscarea

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eliminated is este VET = 2030 kWh/t water evaporated nmolului predesecat este Efp = 2030 kWh/t ap
(extracted). evaporat (extras).
The work consumption on filling and emptying is Consumul de munc pentru umplere i pentru golire
very low, namely 12 ore.om / melt, respectively 0.51 este foarte redus, i anume 12 ore.om/arj, respectiv
ore.om/arj. 0,51ore.om/arj.
Reducing the weight of material is subjected to Reducerea masei materialului supus uscrii este RMf =
drying RMf = 9097% of installations for drying mud fluid 9097 % la instalaii pentru uscarea nmolului fluid i RMp=5070%
and RMp = 5070% of installations for drying mud pre la instalaii pentru uscarea nmolului predesecat.
water eliminated. Capacitatea propriu-zis de uscare raportat la
Ability itself to drying reported water evaporation evaporarea apei nu depinde de nlimea de umplere. Cu
does not depend on the height of filling. However a lower toate acestea o nlime mai mic conduce la o durat mai mic
height to a shorter duration of drying and the frequent de uscare i prin aceasta schimbri frecvente ale arjelor o
changes of arjelor - a height greater filling extended nlime mai mare de umplere prelungete durata uscrii i
drying period and reduce the number of cycles of drying. reduce numrul de cicluri de uscare.
Drying parameters are decisive for optimizing the Parametrii decisivi pentru uscare sunt optimizai de ctre
control system installation for each situation and climate sistemul de control al instalaiei n funcie de fiecare situaie
of the different humidity mud. Based on current climatic i de valorile diferite ale umiditii nmolului. Pe baza
measured values outside and inside the program valorilor actuale msurate n afara i n interiorul instalaiei
calculates adjustments for optimum air admitted, and the programul calculeaz reglrile optime pentru aerul admis,
air removed, the drying temperature, humidity, air speed respectiv aerul eliminat, temperatura de uscare, umiditatea,
of the product subject to drying and processing intensity viteza aerului de la suprafaa produsului supus uscrii, precum
of the surface mud. i intensitatea prelucrrii la suprafaa nmolului.
By using solar energy, by referencing adjustments Prin folosirea energiei solare, prin corelarea reglrilor
functional components and aggregates using optimized funcionale ale componentelor i prin utilizarea agregatelor
energy energy needs may only represent a small portion optimizate energetic necesarul de energie poate
of the energy consumption of conventional drying reprezenta doar o mic parte din consumul de energie al
facilities. instalaiilor convenionale de uscare.

BIBLIOGRAPHY / BIBLIOGRAFIE
[1]. Bux, M., R. Baumann, 2003 Performance, energy [5]. Bux, M., R. Baumann, N. Starcevic, 2004 Solare
consumption and energetic efficiency analysis of 25 Konventionstrocknung von Klrschlamm. In:
solar sludge dryers. Proceedings of the WEFTEC (Water Abwassertechnik & Gewesserschutz, 13. Aktualisierung. Hrsg.:
Environment Federation) Congress, Alexandria; Wagner, W., C.F. Mller, Heidelberg;
[2]. Mitroi A., 2008 Exemple de utilizare a energiei [6]. Bux, M., R. Baumann, S. Quadt, J. Pinnekamp, W.
solare i a celei eoliene n agricultur. Lucrrile Mhlbauer, 2002 Volume reduction and biological
Simpozionului Energii curate energia verde stabilization of sludge in small sewage plants by solar
alternativ pentru dezvoltarea durabil. Bucureti; drying. Drying Technology 20;
[3]. Bux M., R. Baumann, 2003 Solare [7]. Bux, M., R. Baumann, W. Phillipp, T. Conrad, W.
Klrschlammtrocknung Stand der Technik und Mhlbauer, 2000 A new technology for low temperature
Anwendungsbeispiele. In: Mll-Handbuch Band 3, drying of sewage sludge with solar energy. Proceedings of
Kennzahl 3305, Erich Schmidt Verlag Berlin; WEFTEC Congress, Water Enviroment Federation,
[4]. Bux, M., R. Baumann, 2003 Wirtschaftlichkeit und Anaheim USA.
CO2-Bilanz der solaren Trocknung von mechanisch
entwssertem Klrschlamm. KA Abwasser, Abfall 50, nr. 9.

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THE INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE ORGANIC SUBSTRATUM IN THE


PRODUCTION OF BIOGAS
/
INFLUENA TEMPERATURII I A SUBSTRATULUI ORGANIC N PRODUCIA DE BIOGAZ
Lecturer Ph.D.Eng. Dobre Paul - USAMV Bucharest
Assoc. Prof.Ph.D.Eng. Farca Nicolae - USAMV Bucharest
Student Ggeanu Iuliana - Management Faculty USAMV Bucharest

Abstract: The work temperature of the fermentation Rezumat: Temperatura de lucru a fermentatorului
apparatus influences considerably the production of influeneaz semnificativ producia de biogaz. n funcie de
biogas Depending on the existing temperature at the level temperatura realizat la nivelul mediului de reacie sunt
of the reaction medium some groups of microorganisms stimulate unele grupe de microorganisme, iar altele sunt
are stimulated and other are inhibited (mesophyllic inhibate (bacteriile mezofile solicit o temperatur optim
bacteria need an optimum temperature of around 35C, and situat n jurul valorii de 35C, iar cele termofile solicit o
thermophilic bacteria need an optimum temperature of temperatur optim situat n jurul valorii de 55C)
around 55C). This determinates different decomposing determinnd grade de descompunere a materiei organice
degrees for biodegrading organic matter, the maximum biodegradabile diferite, maximul de biodegradabilitate fiind
biodegrading being reached around the value of 55C. atins n jurul valorii de 55C.
The raw material subjected to the anaerobic fermentation Materia prim supus procesului de fermentare
process represents another important factor of biogas anaerob reprezint un alt factor important al produciei de
production. The quantitative and qualitative influence on biogas biogaz. Influena cantitativ i calitativ asupra produciei
production is determined by the content of biodegrading de biogaz este determinat de coninutul de materie
organic matter in the raw material that is being exposed organic biodegradabil din materialul brut supus aciunii
to the microorganism action, by the C/N ratio, pH, and humidity. microorganismelor, de raportul C/N, de pH, de umiditate.

Keywords: biogas; anaerobe; fermentation; thermophil Cuvinte cheie: biogaz; anaerob; fermentare; termofil

INTRODUCTION INTRODUCERE
The biogas represents the gaseous product resulting from Biogazul reprezint produsul gazos rezultat n urma
the anaerobic fermentation (in the absence of air) of the fermentrii anaerobe (n lipsa oxigenului) a materiei
organic matter from different sources. organice de diferite proveniene.
The anaerobic fermentation allows to obtain energy Fermentarea anaerob permite obinerea de energie
from organic matter (most of the times organic waste) din materii organice (de cele mai multe ori deeuri
which represents regenerating sources of energy, in organice) care reprezint surse de energii regenerabile, n
decentralized places. For agriculture, the production locuri descentralizate. Pentru agricultur, tehnologia de
technology of biogas presents a series of advantages: producere a biogazului prezint o serie de avantaje:
superior usage of agricultures secondary products, of utilizarea superioar a produciei secundare din
zootechnics animal waste, the reduction of odours agricultur, a dejeciilor animale din zootehnie, reducerea
generated by the decomposing of animal waste, easier mirosului generat de descompunerea dejeciilor animale,
storage for organic fertilizer, the assurance of a natural stocarea mai uoar a ngrmntului organic,
liquid fertilizer pretreated by anaerobic fermentation, the asigurarea unui ngrmnt natural lichid, pretratat prin
assurance of cheap electric and thermic energy, the fermentare anaerob, asigurarea de energie electric i
assurance of additional income, etc. termic ieftin, asigurarea de venituri suplimentare, etc.
Biogas (biological gas) is a mixture of gases, Biogazul (gazul biologic) este un amestec de gaze,
constituted mainly of methan 50-80% and carbon dioxide constituit n principal din metan n proporie de 5080% i
28-43%. In the biogas there are other gases, but in dioxid de carbon n proporie de 2843%. n biogaz sunt
much smaller quantity's: H2S, N, CO2, water vapours, prezente i ale gaze, dar n cantiti mult mai mici: H2S, N,
etc. The calorific power of biogas is determined by the CO2,, vapori de ap, etc. Puterea calorific a biogazului
methan content. este determinat de coninutul n metan.
In table 1 there are presented the calorific powers n tabelul 1 sunt prezentate puterile calorifice ale biogazului
0
of biogas for different methan contents at 20 C pentru diferite coninuturi de metan la temperatura de 20C
temperatures and 760 mm Hg atmospheric pressure. i presiunea de 760 mm Hg (coloan de mercur).

Table 1 / Tabel 1
The calorific powers of biogas for different methan contents /
Puterile calorifice ale biogazului pentru diferite coninuturi de metan
Methan content / Coninut de metan, Calorific power at / Puterea calorific la 20C i 760 mm Hg,
[%] [kcal/mc]
50 3955
52 4145
54 4304
56 4463
58 4623
60 4782
62 4942
64 5101

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66 5261
68 5420
70 5579
72 5739
74 5898
76 6058
78 6217
80 6376

It is notable that the maximum calorific power of 6376 Se constat c puterea calorific maxim de 6376
kcal/mc of biogas is registered for a methan content kcal/mc de biogaz se nregistreaz pentru un coninut n
of80%. In application there must be found solutions for metan de 80%. n practic trebuie cutate soluii pentru
maximizing the biogas production and obtaining methan maximizarea produciei de biogaz i obinerea unei
concentrations as high as possible. concentraii n metan ct mai ridicat.
Installation productivity and biogas quality (methan Productivitatea instalaiilor i calitatea (coninutul n
content) are determined by a series of factors, significant metan) biogazului sunt determinate de o serie de factori,
being the reaction medium temperature and the organic semnificativi fiind temperatura mediului de reacie i
substrat (raw material) subject to the anaerobic substratul organic (materia prim) supus procesului de
fermentation process. fermentaie anaerob.
Reaction medium temperature strongly influences Temperatura mediului de reacie influeneaz
the biogas production. From the point of view of the puternic producia de biogaz. Din punct de vedere al
temperature in which the activity is developed, micro temperaturii la care i desfoar activitatea, grupurile de
organism groups that participate at the biogas production microorganisme care particip la producerea biogazului se
are divided in three big categories: mpart n trei mari categorii:
 Criophilic, which develop their activity at  Criofile, care i desfoar activitatea la temperaturi
temperatures between 1224C, specific area for cuprinse ntre 1224C, zon caracteristic fermentrii n
criophilic fermentation; regim criofil;
 Mezophillyc, which develop their activity at  Mezofile, care i desfoar activitatea la temperaturi
temperatures between 2540C, specific area for cuprinse ntre 2540C, zon caracteristic fermentrii n
mezophyllic fermentation; regim mezofil;
 Termophilic, which develop their activity at  Termofile, care i desfoar activitatea la temperaturi
temperatures between 5060C. cuprinse ntre 5060C.
In diagram 1 are presented the thermic characteristic to n figura 1 se prezint diagrama zonelor termice
the three anaerobic fermentation conditions and biogas caracteristice celor trei regimuri de fermentare anaerob i
production correlated with the temperature conditions. producia de biogaz corelat cu regimurile de temperatur.

Figure 1 - The influence of temperature on biogas production / Influena temperaturii asupra produciei de biogaz

For the representation of biogas production it has Pentru reprezentarea produciei de biogaz s-a luat ca
been used as comparison unit the biogas production unitate de comparaie producia de biogaz obinut n
0
obtained using criophilic conditions, at 15C, considered regim criofil, la 15 C, considerat 100%. n cadrul fiecrei
100%. In each thermic zone certain groups of zone termice se dezvolt anumite grupuri de
microorganisms are developed, specific for the microorganisme, specifice domeniului de temperatur al
temperature domanin of the thermic area, having different zonei termice, cu randamente i viteze de reacie diferite,
efficiencies and reaction rates, which determines different ceea ce determin i producii diferite de biogaz.
biogas productions. Temperature mainly influences Temperatura influeneaz n principal viteza de
decomposing rate of the organic matter by various descompunere a materiei organice de ctre diversele
microorganism groups. grupuri de microorganisme.
In table 2 are presented in comparison the n tabelul 2 se prezint comparativ gradul de
decomposing point for organic substance at different descompunere a substanei organice la diferite
temperatures, for the same period of time. The table temperaturi, pentru aceeai perioad de timp. Tabel
highlights the correlation between the decomposing scoate n eviden corelaia dintre gradul de
point (of consuming) for the organic matter and the descompunere (de epuizare) a materiei organice i
temperature. The higher the decomposing point is, the temperatur. Cu ct gradul de descompunere este mai
higher the biogas production is. From here arises that for ridicat, cu att producia de biogaz este mai mare. Rezult

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obtaining the same decomposing point of the organic c pentru a obine acelai grad de descompunere a
matter at different temperatures, the standing time materiei organice la diferite temperaturi, timpul de
(retention) of the matter in the fermentation (digestor) staionare (retenie) a materialului n fermentator (digestor)
must be different: greater when the anaerobic trebuie s fie diferit: mai mare cnd fermentarea anaerob
fermentation is made in the criophilic zone an smaller for se realizeaz n zona criofil i mai mic pentru zona
the termophilic zone, also arising o productivity growth termofil, de unde rezult i o cretere a productivitii
for fermentations that work in the termophilic zone for a fermentatoarelor care lucreaz n zona termofil pentru
given period of time. The retention time correlated with perioada dat de timp. Timpul de retenie corelat cu
the temperature directly dictates the dimensioning of the temperatura dicteaz direct dimensionarea volumelor
fermentation's volumes . Big volumes with big retention fermentatoarelor. Volumele mari cu timp de retenie mare
time require vast land surfaces, large supplementary solicit suprafee de teren mari, cheltuieli suplimentare
expenses that are not to neglect. majore care nu sunt de loc de neglijat.
Table 2 / Tabel 2
Decomposing point of organic matters depending on temperature
Gradul de descompunere a substanelor organice n funcie de temperatur
Nr. crt. Temperature / Temperatura [C] Decomposing point / Gradul de descompunere [%]
1 15 15
2 20 19
3 25 23
4 30 28
5 35 36
6 40 44
7 45 40
8 50 49
9 55 51
10 60 55

Medium and large capacity biogas installation with Instalaiile de biogaz de capacitate medie i mare cu
agricultural character regularly run in mezophyllic caracter agricol funcioneaz de regul n regim mezofil.
conditions. Production expenses for this conditions are Cheltuielile de producie pentru acest regim sunt mai
smaller, but also the productivity is smaller. Very large reduse dar i productivitatea este ceva mai mic. Instalaiile
capacity installations with centralized character run in de capacitate foarte mare cu caracter centralizat
termophilic conditions. The anaerobic fermentation funcioneaz n regim termofil. Fermentarea anaerob n
having those conditions require additional expenses with acest regim solicit cheltuieli suplimentare cu meninerea
0
the meintenance of a high temperature at the digester's temperaturii ridicate la nivelul digestorului (55 C), ns
level (55C), but the production of biogas is maximum, producia de biogaz este maxim, de asemenea calitatea
also the biogas quality is superior to the one obtained biogazului rezultat este superioar celui obinut n cadrul
using the other thermic conditions and justifies the celorlalte regimuri termice i justific cheltuielile
additional expenses. suplimentare.
The raw matter (organic substrate) constitutes the Materia prim (substratul organic) constituie factorul
determining factor in the biogas production. In the anaerobic determinant n producia de biogaz. La procesul de
digestion process participate several groups of bacteria. digestie anaerob particip mai multe grupuri de bacterii:
hydrolytic bacteria, which decompose biodegrading bacterii hidrolitice, care descompun macromoleculele
macromolecules in simpler substances; biodegradabile n substane mai simple;
acidogenic bacteria, which use as substrate simple bacterii acidogene, care utilizeaz ca substrat compuii
organic compound released by hydrolytic bacteria organici simpli eliberai de bacteriile hidrolitice i produc
and produce organic acids in short chain, which acizi organici cu lan scurt, care la rndul lor reprezint
represent the substrate for the next bacteria groups; substratul pentru grupurile urmtoare de bacterii;
acetogenic bacteria, compelled in producing bacterii acetogene, productoare obligate de hidrogen,
hydrogen, wich utilises as substrate products from care utilizeaz ca substrat produsele de la bacterii
acidogenic bacteria giving birth to acetate, hydrogen acidogene dnd natere la acetat, hidrogen i
and carbonic anhidrides. anhidride carbonice;
omoacetogenic bacteria, which synthesises acetate bacterii omoacetogene care sintetizeaz acetat
from carbonic anhidrides and hydrogen; plecnd de la anhidride carbonice i hidrogen;
methanogenic bacteria, differentiated in two groups: a) the bacterii metanogene, difereniate n dou grupe: a)
ones producing methane and carbonic anhidrides from cele care produc metan i anhidride carbonice din acid
acetic acid; b) the ones that produce methane from acetic; b) cele care produc metan plecnd de la
carbonic anhidrides and hydrogen. anhidride carbonice i hidrogen.
The organic substrate must assure a favourable Substratul organic trebuie s asigure mediul prielnic
medium for the development of all the bacteria that dezvoltrii tuturor bacteriilor care particip la producerea
participate at the biogas production, and for that it must biogazului, de aceea trebuie s satisfac urmtoarele
satisfy the next conditions: condiii:
 to contain water in a proportion of 85% or more;  s conin ap n proporie de peste 85%;
 the ph to be neutral to lightly alkaline (ph = 6,87,3);  ph-ul s fie neutru spre uor alcalin (ph = 6,87,3);
 to contain biodegrading organic matter;  s conin materie organic biodegradabil;
 the carbon /nitrogen ratio (C/N) to be situated in the  raportul carbon /azot (C/N) s se situeze ntre limitele
limits of 1525 for the single stage process; and for 1525 la procesul ntr-o singur etap; iar la procesul n
the two stage process: stage I = 1045, stage II = 2030; dou etape: etapa I = 1045, etapa II = 2030;

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 to not contain substances having inhibitor character  s nu conin substane cu caracter inhibitor pentru
for bacteria. bacterii.
For the organic substrate it can be used organic Ca substrat organic se pot utiliza materii organice de
matter from very different sources: vegetal waste from provenien foarte diferit: resturi vegetale provenite din
the principal culture, vegetable growing, fruit growing, cultura mare, legumicultur, pomicultur, silvicultur, resturi
sylviculture, domestic waste, residual water, stable waste, menajere, ape reziduale, gunoi de grajd, dejecii animale
animal and human waste, alimentary industry waste, i umane, deeuri din industria alimentar, culturi
energetic cultures, etc. In table 3 are presented biogas energetice, etc. n tabelul 3 sunt prezentate cantitile de
quantities which can be obtained from organic substrates biogaz ce se pot obine din substraturi organice de
from different sources. proveniene diferite.

Table 3 / Tabel 3
Biogas quantities resulted from different organic matters and methane content
Cantitile de biogaz rezultate din diverse materii organice i coninutul n metan
Resulted biogas / Methane content /
Organic matter / Materia organic Biogaz rezultat Coninut de metan
[l/kg S.U.] [%]
Wheat straws / Paie de gru 363 78,5
Barley straws / Paie de orz 380 -
Rice straws / Paie de orez 360 -
Rape straws / Paie de rapi 200 -
Lucerne / Lucern 460 77,7
Grass / Iarb 415 84,0
Linseed stalk / Tulpini de in 360 -
Hemp stalk / Tulpini de cnep 360 -
Hemp stalk / Frunze verzi de copac 210 - 294 58,0
Dried tree leaves / Frunze uscate de copac 260 58,0
Corn silage / Siloz de porumb 318 83,0
Corn cob / Coceni porumb 359 83,0
Molasses / Melas 285 -
Beet leaves / Frunze de sfecl 500 84,0
Liquid bird waste / Dejecii lichide de psri 223 69,0
Cow waste / Dejecii de bovine 260 - 310 55,0
Horse waste / Dejecii de cabaline 200 - 300 -
Sheep waste / Dejecii de ovine 90 - 310 65,0
Pig waste / Dejecii de porcine 300 - 550 69,0
Stable waste / Gunoi de grajd 175 - 280 -
City mud / Nmol orenesc 200 - 370 -
Water hyacinth / Zambila de ap 375 -

Figures 2 and 3 graphically presents the quantity of n figurile 2 i 3 se prezint grafic cantitatea de biogaz
3 3
biogas m /ton expressed in what can be obtained from exprimat n m /ton ce se poate obine din diferite
various organic substrates. . substraturi organice.

Figure 2 / Figura 2
Biogas production rezulted from verdure and waste /
3
Producia de biogaz rezultat din verdeuri i dejecii, m /ton

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It has been found that practically it can be used a Se constat c practic se poate folosi o gam foarte
very large scale of organic substrates for obtaining variat de substraturi organice pentru obinerea de biogaz,
biogas, only that the production and quality differ from a numai c producia i calitatea difer de la o categorie la
category to another. In the same organic substrate, the alta. n cadrul aceluiai substrat organic cantitatea de biogaz
biogas quantity is also influenced by the mincing point of este influenat i de gradul de mrunire a materiei prime.
the raw matter. The mincing determines the growth of Mrunirea determin creterea suprafeei substratului,
the substrate's surface, respectively the surface for respectiv suprafaa de aciune a bacteriilor i implicit
bacteria action and implicitly the growth of productivity productivitatea instalaiei de producere a biogazului. Acest
for the biogas producing installation. This is exemplified lucru este exemplificat cu datele din tabelul 4 pentru paiele
by the data from table 4 for wheat straws. . de gru.

Figure 3 / Figura 3
3
Biogas production from din reziduum / Producia de biogaz obinut din reziduuri , m /ton

Table 4 / Tabel 4
Biogas production and quality dependence upon the organic matters mincing point
Dependena produciei i a calitii biogazului de gradul de mrunire a materiei organice
Resulted biogas / Methane content /
Raw matter / Materia prim Biogaz rezultat Coninut de metan
[l/kg S.U] [%]
Minced wheat straws at 3 cm /
363 80,2
Paie de gru mrunite la 3 cm
Minced wheat straws at 0,2 cm /
423 81,3
Paie de gru mrunite la 0,2 cm

It has been found that for minced straws at 0,2 cm it is Se constat c pentru paiele mrunite la 0,2 cm se
obtained not only the maximum production, but also the obine att producia maxim de biogaz ct i calitatea cea
best quality for the resulted biogas. mai bun a biogazului rezultat.
At the organization of the feeding system for the La ntocmirea reetelor de alimentare a instalaiilor de
biogas installations will be kept in mind the necessity of biogaz se va ine seama de necesitatea respectrii raportului
respecting the C/N ratio, which must be placed between C/N, care trebuie s se ncadreze n limitele de 1525.
the limits of 1525. Bacteria development that have as Dezvoltarea bacteriilor care au ca principal constituent
principal constituent proteins, is conditioned by the proteinele, este condiionat de coninutul n azot al
nitrogen content of the raw matter in the mentioned ratio materiei prime n proporia menionat fa de coninutul
compared with the carbon content. In table 5 are de carbon. n tabelul 5 sunt prezentate unele substraturi
presented some organic substrate and the C/N ratio. organice i raportul C/N.

Table 5 / Tabel 5
Carbon and nitrogen content and C/N ratio for some raw matters used for obtaining biogas
Coninutul n carbon i azot i raportul C/N la unele materii prime utilizate pentru obinerea de biogaz
Carbon content / Nitrogen content /
Organic substrat / C/N ratio /
Coninut de carbon Coninut de azot
Substratul organic Raportul C/N
[%] [%]
Wheat staws / Paie de gru 46 0,53 87
Barley straws / Paie de ovz 42 0,75 56

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Rice straws / Paie de orez 42 0,63 67


Diverse herbs / Ierburi diverse 15 0,6 25
Lucerne / Lucern 48 2,6 18
Tree leaves / Frunze de copaci 41 1,0 41
Potatoe stalk / Tulpini de cartofi 40 1,2 22
Soy bean stalk / Tulpini de soia 41 1,3 32
Chiken waste / Dejecii de gin 45 3,0 15
Pig waste / Dejecii de porc 7,8 0,65 13
Horse waste / Dejecii de cal 10 0,42 24
Sheep waste / Dejecii de ovine 16 0,55 29
Cow waste / Dejecii de bovine 7,3 0,29 25

From the table is found that for establishing actual Din tabel rezult c pentru stabilirea reetelor concrete
networks of mixtures to obtain biogas different matters de amestecuri pentru obinerea de biogaz se pot combina
can be combined, but in very well combined quantities, diferite materii prime, dar n cantiti bine determinate, nct
assuring an optimum C/N ratio. . s se asigure un raport C/N optim.

CONCLUSIONS CONCLUZII
1. Anaerobic fermentation is characterized by three 1. Fermentaia anaerob este caracterizat de trei zone
thermic zones: termice:
 Criophilic zone extent between 1224C,  Zona criofil cuprins ntre 1224C, caracteristic
characteristic to the criophilic fermentation; fermentrii n regim criofil;
 Mezophyllic zone extent between 2540C,  Zona mezofil cuprins ntre 2540C, caracteristic
characteristic to the mezophyllic fermentation; fermentrii n regim mezofil;
 Termophilic zone extent between 506C,  Zona termofil cuprins ntre 5060C, caracteristic
characteristic to the termophilic fermentation. fermentrii n regim termofil.
2. Thermic conditions determine the decomposing point 2. Regimului termic determin gradul de descompunere a
of the organic matter and implicitly the biogas materiei organice i implicit productivitatea instalaiilor de
installations productivity. biogaz
3. For the production of biogas can be used raw matters 3. Pentru producerea de biogaz se pot utiliza materii prime
very variated from: energetic cultures, secondary foarte variate din categoria culturilor energetice, producii
agricultural productions, agricultural sylvicultural, agricole secundare, deeuri agricole, silvice, industriale,
industrial waste, animal growing waste, used waters, etc. dejecii din zootehnie, ape uzate, etc. de regul combinate
usually combined in precise recepies. sub form de reete concrete.
4. At the forming of the alimentation system for the 4. La ntocmirea reetelor de alimentare a instalaiilor de
biogas installations will be kept in mind the necessity of biogaz se va ine seama de necesitatea respectrii
respecting the C/N ratio, that has to be placed between raportului C/N, care trebuie s se ncadreze n limitele
15 25 limits. 1525.
5. The mincing point of the raw matter influences directly 5. Gradul de mrunire al materiei prime influeneaz direct
the production and quality of biogas. producia i calitatea biogazului.
6. For the development in the best conditions of the 6. Pentru desfurarea n bune condiii a fermentaiei
anaerobic fermentation raw matters water content has anaerobe coninutul de ap al materiei prime trebuie s fie
to be more than 85%. mai mare de 85%.

BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAFIE
1. Buthe A., Ansorge-Schumacher W., Hartmeier W. 1 1. Buthe A., Ansorge-Schumacher W., Hartmeier W. 1 st
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Biotransformation of the VAAM and the German of the VAAM and the German Society for Fat Science.
Society for Fat Science. March 2003, Greifswald, March 2003, Greifswald, Germany.
Germany. 2. Dossat V., Comber D., Marty A. Enzyme and Microb,
2. Dossat V., Comber D., Marty A. Enzyme and Tech. 1999.
Microb, Tech. 1999. 3. Shimada Z., Watanabe T., Samukawa A., Sugihara A.,
3. Shimada Z., Watanabe T., Samukawa A., Sugihara A., Noda H., Fucuda Z. JAOCS 1999, PG. 76-77.
Noda H., Fucuda Z. JAOCS 1999, PG. 76-77. 4. X X X Instalaii recuperare biogaz.
4. X X X Biogas recovery installations. 5. X X X - Biogazul.
5. X X X - Biogas. 6. X X X Biocarburanii n Romnia. Bucureti, 2004.
6. X X X Biocarburants in Romnia. Bucarest, 2004. 7. X X X Producerea i utilizarea biogazului pentru
7. X X X Biogas production and usage for obtaining obinerea de energie, 2006.
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8. X X X Tehnium magazine, ediie special, 1974.

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CONSTRUCTIVE TYPES OF ADAPTORS FOR THE RAW VEGETABLE OIL USED AT DIESEL
MOTORS
/
TIPURI CONSTRUCTIVE DE ADAPTOARE PENTRU UTILIZAREA ULEIULUI VEGETAL CRUD
LA MOTOARELE DIESEL
Lecturer Ph.D.Eng. Dobre Paul - USAMV Bucharest
Assoc. Prof.Ph.D.Eng. Farca Nicolae - USAMV Bucharest
Student Ggeanu Iuliana - Management Faculty USAMV Bucharest

Abstract: The present work describes the main Rezumat Lucrarea i propune cunoaterea principalelor
constructive types of adaptors which allow Diesel motors tipuri constructive de adaptoare care permit funcionarea
to run with raw vegetable oil as fuel. motoarelor Diesel cu ulei vegetal crud ca i combustibil.
The adaptors used at this time use different Adaptoarele folosite n prezent se deosebesc prin
methods in what concerns the heating of the vegetable modul de nclzire a uleiului vegetal i prin modul de
oil and also the way of commuting from diesel fuel to oil. comutare de pe motorin pe ulei.
- According to the type of heating, the adaptors can be - Dup modul de nclzire se pot clasifica n: adaptoare la
classified in: adaptors where the oil heating is made by care nclzirea uleiului se realizeaz cu ajutorul agentului
the thermal agent from the motors cooling system; adaptors termic din sistemul de rcire al motorului; adaptoare la
where the heating is made using electrical resistances. care nclzirea se realizeaz cu rezistene electrice.
- According to the manner of commuting, the adaptors can - Dup modul de comutare adaptoarele pot fi: cu comutare
have: manual commuting, and automatic commuting when the manual i cu comutare automat la atingerea temperaturii
optimum work temperature is reached. Emphasis should be optime de lucru. Trebuie subliniat c uleiul vegetal brut
placed on the fact that the raw vegetable oil constitutes a constituie un combustibil regenerabil, relativ uor de
renewable fuel, relatively easy to produce in ones own produs n ferma proprie, ceea ce conduce i spre
farm, which also leads to the energetic independence of independena energetic a fermelor vegetale, implicit
the vegetable farms, and implicitly to the possibility of a posibiliti sporite de cretere a produciei vegetale fr
vegetable production growth without additional expense, by cheltuieli suplimentare, prin realizarea lucrrilor mecanice
doing the mechanical works at the optimum time. la momentul optim.

Keywords: adaptor, vegetable oil, commuting, thermal Cuvinte cheie: adaptor; ulei vegetal; comutare; agent
agent, electrical resistance termic; rezistene electrice

Raw vegetable oil constitutes an excellent fuel for Uleiul vegetal crud constituie un combustibil excelent
Diesel motors, especially for the ones that equip tractors pentru motoarele Diesel, n special pentru cele care
and agricultural machines. It is a regenerating fuel, echipeaz tractoarele i mainile agricole. Este un combustibil
relatively easy to produce in ones own farm, which leads regenerabil, relativ uor de produs n ferma proprie, ceea ce
to the energetic independency of vegetable farms, conduce spre independena energetic a fermelor vegetale,
implicitly to bigger possibilities to increase vegetable implicit posibiliti sporite de cretere a produciei vegetale
production without additional expenses, by accomplishing fr cheltuieli suplimentare, prin realizarea lucrrilor
mechanical works at an optimum moment, without mecanice la momentul optim, neexistnd ntrzieri n
delays in realizing the works caused by Diesel oil lack, executarea lucrrilor din cauza lipsei de motorin, respectiv
respectively by lack of resources for acquiring it. Costs a resurselor pentru achiziionarea acesteia. Preul de cost al
price for vegetable oil is lower in comparison with the uleiului vegetal este mai redus n comparaie cu cel al
one of Diesel oil, having the possibility to be substantially motorinei, cu posibiliti de reducere substanial a acestuia
reduced if it is produced in ones own agricultural unit or dac se produce n unitatea agricol proprie din producie
by purchasing, with full usage of secondary products proprie sau din achiziii, cu valorificarea integral a produselor
(groats, barms, peels). In the case of using the secundare (roturi, drojdii, coji). n cazul utilizrii uleiului vegetal
vegetable oil as fuel for Diesel motors, pollution rate is a drept combustibil la motoarele Diesel, gradul de poluare este
lot smaller in comparison with classic fuel, practically the mult mai redus comparativ cu utilizarea combustibilului clasic,
sulphur compound are missing. practic compuii sulfului lipsesc.
Thanks to the presence of oxygen in the vegetable Datorit prezenei oxigenului n molecula de uleiul
oils molecule, combustion in the motors cylinders is vegetal, combustia n cilindrii motorului se realizeaz cu
realized with black forming in small quantities. formare de funingine n cantiti mult diminuate.
In table 1 are pointed up the principal qualitative n tabelul 1 sunt evideniai principalii indici calitativi ai
index for Diesel oil and vegetable oils. Analyzing the motorinei i ai uleiurilor vegetale. Analiznd datele din tabel
data from the table it is stated that the heating power of se constat c puterea calorific a uleiului vegetal este
the vegetable oil is close to the one of classic fuel, apropiat de cea a combustibilului clasic, de unde rezult
resulting a fuel consumption/hectare with insignificant un consum de combustibil/ha cu diferene nesemnificative
difference between Diesel fuel and raw vegetable oil. ntre motorin i uleiul vegetal crud.

Table 1
Main qualitative index forDiesel oil and vegetable oil / Principalii indici calitativi ai motorinei i uleiurilor vegetale
Density at / Viscidity at / Cetane Inflamability
Heating power /
Fuel type / Densitate la Vscozitate la number / point / Punct de
Putere calorific
Tip carburant 15C 40C Cifr inflamabilitate
[kJ/kg] 3
[g/cm [
2
[mm /s] cetanic [C]

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Diesel oil / Motorin 42325 0,832 2,00-4,50 49,2 62


Rape oil / Ulei rapi 37700 0,885 46,00 45,3 153
Sunflower oil / Ulei floarea
38525 0,910 45,00 40,3 195
soarelui
Corn oil / Ulei porumb 37800 0,906 41,00 41,0 236
Soy bean oil / Ulei de soia 39252 0,901 40,00 40,8 205

In exchange, the viscidity is bigger to up to 10 times n schimb vscozitatea uleiului este mai ridicata dect
than the one of Diesel oil, with negative effects regarding a motorinei de circa 10 ori, cu efecte negative privind
filtration and dispersal of fuel in the cylinders, also the filtrarea i dispersarea combustibilului n cilindrii, de
inflammability point is higher, influencing negatively the asemenea punctul de inflamabilitate este mai ridicat,
motor starting. influennd negativ pornirea motorului.
Viscidity correction can be made using a convertor Corectarea vscozitii uleiului se poate realiza cu ajutorul
(adaptor) equipped with a preheater, which rises oils unui convertor (adaptor) prevzut cu prenclzitor, care ridic
temperature at 7080C, when the oils parameters are temperatura uleiului la 7080C, cnd parametrii uleiului sunt
close to those of Diesel oil and when on the Diesel motors apropiai de cei ai motorinei i cnd cilindrii motorului Diesel
cylinders must be fed with fuel. trebuie alimentai cu combustibil.
The high inflammability point of vegetable oil imposes Punctul de inflamabilitate ridicat al uleiului vegetal
the starting of the motor using Diesel oil, and after heating impune pornirea motorului pe motorin, iar dup nclzirea
the oil at 7080C it is passed on vegetable oil. uleiului la 7080C se trece pe ulei vegetal.
Adaptors used practically are distinguished by the Adaptoarele utilizate n practic se deosebesc prin
vegetable oil way of heating and by the way of modul de nclzire a uleiului vegetal i prin modul de
commutation from diesel oil to vegetable oil. comutare de pe motorin pe ulei.
According to the heating way it can be classified in: Dup modul de nclzire se pot clasifica n:
 Adaptoars heated using hot water, which use the  Adaptoare nclzite cu ap cald, care utilizeaz
thermic energy from the cooling system of the motor energia termic din sistemul de rcire al motorului prin
using a heat changer. In diagram 1 is shown the sketch intermediul unui schimbtor de cldur. n figura 1 este
of a device used for preheating vegetable oil (heat redat schema unui dispozitiv de prenclzire a uleiului
changer) using hot water. vegetal (schimbtor de cldur) cu ap cald.

Figure 1 - Vegetable oil preheater using hot water / Prenclzitor de ulei vegetal cu ap cald

 Adaptoars electrically heated, which use the  Adaptoare nclzite electric, care utilizeaz
thermic energy from elements with electric energia termic furnizat de elemente cu
resistances. In diagram 2 is presented the sketch rezistene electrice. n figura 2 se prezint
of a vegetable oil preheated equipped with schema unui prenclzitor de ulei prevzut cu
electric elements. Electric oil heating is an elemente electrice. nclzirea electric a uleiului
efficient technical solution even at the cold motor este o soluie tehnic eficient chiar i la pornirea
starting and working, with the possibility to i funcionarea motorului la rece, cu posibilitatea
maintain the temperature under control, small de meninere sub control a temperaturii, gabaritul
dimensions, simple and easy assembling, low este redus, montare simpl i uoar, pre de cost
cost. redus.

Figure 2 - Vegetable oil preheator equipped with electric elements / Prenclzitor de ulei vegetal cu elemente electrice
1. entrance connector / racord intrare; 2. exit connector / racord ieire; 3. ventilation screw / urub aerisire; B1,B2 - heating electric elements / B1,B2 -
elemente electrice de nclzire; Tm1- comand thermostat / Tm1- termostat de comand; Tm2 protection thermostat / Tm2 termostat de protecie

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According to the commutation way it can be classified in: Dup modul de comutare se pot clasifica n:
 adaptors with manual commutation;  adaptoare cu comutare manual;
 adaptors with automatic commutation.  adaptoare cu comutare automat.
Adaptors with automatic commutation can have: Adaptoarele cu comutare automat la rndul lor pot fi:
 electronic command (through some electronic components  cu comand electronic (prin intermediul unor componente
assembled as a command modulus); electronice asamblate sub forma unui modul de comand);
 electromagnetic command (through some  cu comand electromagnetic (prin intermediul unor
electromagnetic relays). relee electromagnetice.
1. Adaptors with manual commutation and oil heating 1. Adaptor cu comutare manual i nclzirea uleiului cu apa
using hot water from the motors cooling system diagram cald din sistemul de rcire al motorului figura 3. Acest tip
3. This type of adaptor allows the starting of the Diesel oil de adaptor permite pornirea motorului pe motorin i
motor and the commutation through a double faucet with comutarea pe ulei prin intermediul unui robinet dublu cu trei
three ways. For the oil heating there is incorporated a heat ci. Pentru nclzirea uleiului are ncorporat un schimbtor de
switch connected to the motors cooling system. The cldur racordat la sistemul de rcire al motorului. Lichidul de
cooling liquid and the vegetable oil circulates in counter- rcire i uleiul vegetal circul n contracurent. Temperatura
current. The oils optimum work temperature is realized optim de lucru a uleiului se realizeaz cnd temperatura
when the motors cooling liquid temperature reaches a lichidului de rcire al motorului ajunge n jurul valorii de 70
0 0
value of 70-80 C. Until it reaches that temperature , the 80 C. Pn se ajunge la aceast temperatur motorul trebuie
motor has to work using Diesel oil. Although it is a simple s funcioneze pe motorin. Dei este un adaptor simplu,
adaptor, it commutes relatively hard and needs a relatively comutarea este relativ greoaie i necesit o perioad de timp
big period of time to reach the optimum temperature for relativ mare pentru atingerea temperaturii optime de comutare
commutation on oil. Also, for its assembling it is necessary pe ulei. Totodat pentru instalarea lui sunt necesare modificri
to make modifications both to the motors supplying att ale sistemul de alimentare al motorului ct i ale
system and to the cooling system. sistemului de rcire.

Figure 3 - General sketch for manual commutation adaptor and oil heating using hot water /
Schema general a adaptorului cu comutare manual i nclzirea uleiului cu ap cald
RM Diesel oil tank; RU vegetable oil tank; PRU oil preheator; R commutation faucet; PA supplying pump; FG and FF fuel filters;
PI injection pump; I injectors / RM rezervor motorin; RU rezervor ulei vegetal; PRU prenclzitor ulei; R robinet de comutare; PA
pomp alimentare; FG i FF filtre de combustibil; PI pomp injecie; I injectoare

2. Adaptors with manual commutation and electric 2. Adaptor cu comutare manual i nclzirea electric a
oil heating - diagram 4. The commutation is identical uleiului - figura 4. Comutarea este identic cu primul caz, dar
with the first case, but the oil heating is made in a shorter nclzirea uleiului se realizeaz ntr-un timp mult mai scurt i nu
time and motor cooling system modifications are not mai sunt necesare modificri ale sistemului de rcire al
necessary. The electrical heating is a efficient technical motorului. nclzire electric este o soluie tehnic eficient
solution both for motors cold starting and working , chiar i la pornirea i funcionarea motorului la rece, asigurnd
assuring the possibility to maintain temperature under posibilitatea de meninere sub control a temperaturii, a unui
control, small size, simple and easy assembling, low cost. gabarit redus, o montare simpl i uoar, un pre de cost redus.

Figure 4 - General sketch for manual commutation adaptor and electric oil heating / Schema general a adaptorului cu comutare
manual i nclzirea electric a uleiului.
RM Diesel oil tank; RU vegetable oil tank; PRU oil preheator; R commutation faucet; PA supplying pump; FG and FF fuel filters;
PI injection pump; I injectors / RM rezervor motorin; RU rezervor ulei vegetal; PRU prenclzitor ulei; R robinet de comutare; PA
pomp alimentare; FG i FF filtre de combustibil; PI pomp injecie; I injectoare

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3. Adaptors with automatic cummutation and oil 3. Adaptor cu comutare automat i nclzirea uleiului
heating using hot water. For this type of adaptors, the cu ap cald. La acest adaptor comutarea de pe motorin
motor commutation from diesel oil is made automaticly, pe ulei se realizeaz automat, prin intermediul unui
0 0
throuh a thermostat, when the oil reaches a 70-80 C termostat, cnd uleiul ajunge la temperatura de 70 80 C.
temperature. The oil heating drawbacks are maintained as Se menin inconvenientele legate de nclzirea uleiului ca i
in the first case. n primul caz.
4. Adaptors with automatic commutation and electric 4. Adaptor cu comutare automat i nclzirea electric
oil heating. In diagram 5 is presented the general a uleiului. n figura 5 se prezint schema hidraulic
hydraulic sketch for the adaptor, and in diagram 6 is general a adaptorului, iar n figura 6 se prezint schema
presented the general electric sketch. It is superior to other electric general. Este superior celorlalte tipuri de
types of adaptors, combining automatic commutation adaptoare, mbinnd comutarea automat asistat de un
assists by a thermostat, with rapid oil heating using electric termostat, cu nclzirea rapid a uleiului cu elemente
elements. The automatic commutation can be realized electrice. Comutarea automat poate s fie realizat cu
using electronic or electromagnetic components, through componente electronice sau electromagnetice, prin
electro valves. intermediul electrovalvelor.

Figure 5 - General hydraulic sketch for the adaptor with automatic commutation and electric oil heating /
Schema hidraulic general a adaptorului cu comutare automat i nclzirea electric a uleiului
RM Diesel oil tank; RU oil tank; EVTU and EVRU oil turn-return electrovalves; EVTM and EVRM Diesel oil turn-return electro valves ; I2 manual
commutation; PRU vegetable oil preheator / RM rezervor motorin; RU rezervor ulei; EVTU i EVRU electrovalve tur-retur ulei; EVTM i
EVRM - electrovalve tur-retur motorin; I2 comutator manual; PRU prenclzitor ulei vegetal

Figure 6 - General electric sketch for the electromagnetic adaptor with automatic commutation and electric oil heating /
Schema electric general a adaptorului electromagnetic cu comutare automat i nclzirea electric a uleiului
R1, R2, R3 electromagnetic relays; Tm1 command thermostat ; Tm2 protection thermostat; B1 and B2 electric heating elements; EVTU and EVRU
oil turn-return electrovalves; EVTM i EVRM - Diesel oil turn-return electrovalves; I2 manual commutator on Diesel oil / R1, R2, R3 relee
electromagnetice; Tm1 termostat de comand; Tm2 termostat de protecie; B1 i B2 elemente de nclzire electrice; EVTU i EVRU electrovalve tur-retur ulei;
EVTM i EVRM - electrovalve tur-retur motorin; I2 comutator manual pe motorin

No matter the adaptors type, the motors supplying Indiferent de tipul adaptorului, instalaia de alimentare a
installation must have a supplementary tank for vegetable motorului trebuie s fie prevzut cu un rezervor suplimentar
oil. Usually the motors Diesel oil tank becomes an oil tank, pentru uleiul vegetal. De regul rezervorul de motorin din
and the supplementary, of smaller capacity (5-10 liters) dotarea motorului devine rezervor de ulei, iar cel suplimentar,
becomes a Diesel oil tank, that being necessary only for de capacitate mai mic (510l) devine rezervor de motorin,
the engine start and its working until the oil is heated, also aceasta fiind necesar numai la pornirea motorului i
for eliminating the oil from the system before the engine funcionarea acestuia pn se nclzete uleiul, de asemenea
stops. la splarea sistemului de ulei nainte de oprirea motorului.
To reduce thermic losses, the preheator is assembled Pentru reducerea pierderilor termice prenclzitorul se monteaz
as near as possible to the system supplying pump. ct mai aproape de pompa de alimentare a sistemului.
All the types of adaptors used so that the Diesel Toate tipurile de adaptoare utilizate pentru funcionarea

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motor will work using vegetable oil need oil elimination motorului Diesel cu ulei vegetal necesit splarea de ulei
before the engine stops for a longer period of time (that nainte de oprirea motorului pentru o perioad mai mare de
allows the engine to cool). This implies that with 1015 timp (care permite rcirea motorului). Acest lucru presupune
minutes before stopping the engine, the installation has to ca nainte de oprirea motorului cu 1015 min. instalaia s fie
be manually passed on diesel oil supplying to permit the trecut manual pe alimentarea cu motorin pentru a permite
system flush of oil and its charging with Diesel oil to allow splarea sistemului de ulei i ncrcarea cu motorin pentru a
an easy start of the engine. permite o nou pornire uoar a motorului.

CONCLUSIONS CONCLUZII
1. Using raw vegetable oils in 100% ratio as biofuel for 1. Utilizarea uleiurilor vegetale brute n proporie de 100%
thermic motors with ignition by compression (Diesel) is ca biocombustibili la motoarele termice cu aprindere prin
possible only if the engine is additionally equipped with an comprimare (Diesel), este posibil numai dac motorul
adaptor which allows the commutation from Diesel oil to este dotat suplimentar cu un adaptor care s permit
vegetable oil and also to correct the oils viscidity. comutarea de pe motorin pe ulei i totodat s corecteze
2. The correction for the oils viscidity is made by heating it vscozitatea uleiului.
at 70-80C temperatures. 2. Corectarea vscozitii uleiului se realizeaz prin
3. The oil heating can be made electrically or using hot nclzirea acestuia la temperatura de 7080C.
water from the motors cooling system. 3. nclzirea uleiului se poate face electric sau cu apa cald
4. Electric oil heating is the recommended technical provenit din sistemul de rcire al motorului.
solution thanks to its efficiency even at cold motor starting 4. nclzire electric a uleiului este soluia tehnic recomandat
and working, of maintaining temperature under control, of datorit eficienei la pornirea i funcionarea motorului chiar i
low size and easy assembling, low cost. la rece, a meninerii sub control a temperaturii, a gabaritului
5. The commutation from diesel oil to vegetable oil can be redus i a montrii uoare, a preului de cost redus.
made manually, with adequate facets, or automatically, 5. Comutarea alimentrii de pe motorin pe ulei vegetal se
with electrovalves controlled by electronic or poate realiza manual, cu robinete adecvate sau automat,
electromagnetic devices, recommended being the cu electrovalve controlate de dispozitive electronice sau
automatic commutation, which is more comfortable and electromagnetice, recomandat fiind comutarea automat
easy. care este mai comod i mai sigur.
6. For the Diesel engine to work 100% with vegetable oil, 6. Pentru funcionarea cu ulei vegetal 100% a motorului
the supplying system must be equiped with an additional Diesel, sistemul de alimentare trebuie dotat cu un rezervor
oil tank. suplimentar de ulei.
7. The assembling of the preheator and of the 7. Montarea prenclzitorului i a comutatorului se va face
commutation will be made in the proximity of the injection n imediata apropiere a pompei de injecie pentru evitarea
pump to avoid thermic losses. pierderilor termice.
8. For a good supplying system functioning and an easy 8. Pentru buna funcionare a sistemului de alimentare i pornirea
engine start, it is imposed that the oil system is flushed uoar a motorului, se impune splarea sistemului de ulei nainte
before the engine is stopped for a long period of time and de oprirea motorului pentru o perioad mai mare de timp i
its filling with Diesel oil. ncrcarea lui cu motorin.

BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAFIE
1. Burnete N. Researches regarding the recicling of used 1. Burnete N. Cercetri privind reciclarea uleiurilor alimentare
alimentary by using them as fuel for motors with ingnition uzate prin utilizarea lor ca i combustibili la motoarele cu
by compresion. Science Politics and Scientometry aprindere prin comprimare. Revista de Politica tiinei i
Magazine. Special edition , 2005. Scientometrie. Numr special, 2005.
2. Dobre P. Adaptor for the functioning of Diesel motors 2. Dobre P. Adaptor pentru funcionarea motoarelor
with raw vegetable oil. Patent demand 2009. Diesel cu ulei vegetal crud. Cerere brevet 2009.
3. Kusdiana D., Saka S.- Fuel 80, 693/2001. 3. Kusdiana D., Saka S.- Fuel 80, 693/2001.
4. Lawton M. D., Ackrell L. F. - Operating internal 4. Oren L. K., Talking R. - System and method for fueling
Combustion engines with plant oil. Brevet de invenie, Diesel engines with vegetable oil. Brevet de invenie,
ianuarie 2006. U.S.A. martie 2007. U.S. A.
5. Oren L. K., Talking R. - System and method for fueling 5. Lawton M. D., Ackrell L. F. - Operating internal
Diesel engines with vegetable oil. Brevet de invenie, Combustion engines with plant oil. Brevet de invenie,
martie 2007. U.S. A. ianuarie 2006. U.S.A.
6. Roca R i colab. The Formulating and testing of an 6. Roca R i colab. Formularea i ncercarea unui
oxygenated biodiesel fuel for the supply of motors with combustibil oxigenat de tip biodiesel pentru alimentarea
ingnition by compresion. Grant 2004 motoarelor cu aprindere prin comprimare. Grant 2004;
7. X X X - Biocarburanii n Romnia. 7. X X X - Biocarburanii n Romnia.

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EOLIAN POWER GENERATION FOR AGRICULTURAL INSTALLATIONS IN REMOTE AREAS


/
GENERAREA ENERGIEI EOLIENE PENTRU INSTALATII AGRICOLE N ZONE IZOLATE
Eng. Drago TNASE Politehnica University Bucureti (Romnia)
Eng. PhD student Andreea BORITU Politehnica University Bucureti (Romnia)
Eng. PhD student Camelia NICULI Transilvania University Braov (Romnia)
Eng. PhD student Andrei BENCZE Transilvania University Braov (Romnia)
Prof. Dr. Eng. Ioan CANDEA Transilvania University Braov (Romnia)

Abstract: This paper is presenting a new concept of Aeolian Rezumat: Lucrarea prezint un nou concept de turbin
Wind Turbine with one vertical axis and three blades with eolian cu ax vertical cu trei pale cu inciden variabil
continuous variation of the incidence angle. This turbine can be utilizat pentru obinerea energiei mecanice sau electrice n
used to obtain mechanical energy and electric energy in remote zonele izolate unde nu exist infrastructura necesar.
areas or in areas without necessary infrastructure. The Energia generat poate fi utilizat pentru punerea n
generated energy can be used to power different types of funciune a instalaiilor agricole de diferite tipuri ct i pentru
agricultural installations and for farms electrical supply. The necesarul electric al fermelor. Producerea energiei este total
power generation is completely pollution free. Selection of the nepoluant. Alegerea tipului constructiv se bazeaz pe o
constructive model is based on a comparative analysis of the analiz comparat a tipurilor existente (cu ax orizontal i ax
actual types (with vertical and horizontal axis). Knowing the vertical). Cunoscnd puterea necesar se calculeaz
required output, one can make the dimensioning of the turbine, dimensiunile turbinei, se aleg profilele aerodinamice ale
choose the airfoils for the blades and can calculate the palelor i se calculeaz randamentul aerodinamic i mecanic.
aerodynamic and mechanic efficiencies. Also, for calculations, is Deasemenea se analizeaz teoretic influena direciei,
analyzed theoretically the influence of the winds parameters. intensitatea i profilul vntului, date necesare n calcul.

Keywords: Aeolian Wind Turbine, profile, wind, energy, Cuvinte cheie: turbina eoliana, profil, vnt, energie, putere
power, efficiencies necesara, randament.

1. INTRODUCTION. BRIEF HISTORIC 1. INTRODUCERE. SCURT ISTORIC


The issue of ensuring energy for the human society is Problematica asigurrii resurselor energetice ale societii
of utmost importance to increase the quality of life. A major omeneti este de maxim importan pentru cresterea calitii
source of potential energy is the Sun, irradiated power on vieii. O surs major de energie potenial este Soarele, puterea
11 11
Earth is at 10 million KW, of which about 22% serves to iradiat pe Pmnt fiind de 10 milioane KW, din care circa
evaporation of ground water, one part (about 0.2%) is 22% servete la evaporarea apelor terestre, o parte (circa 0.2%)
translated in the form of wind energy, aeolian energy. regsindu-se sub form de energie a vnturilor, energie eolian.
It can be said that wind is a source of energy virtually Se poate spune c vntul este o surs practic inepuizabil,
infinite, non-polluting, available at planetary scale, free nepoluant, disponibil la scar planetar, gratuit (nu cere
(does not require a process of extraction), but has an un proces de extracie), dar cu un caracter neregulat,
irregular character, low concentration per area unit. concentraie mic pe unitatea de suprafa.
For Romania, specialized studies show a good Pentru Romania, studiile de specialitate arat un
potential of aeolian energy. potenialul energetic eolian bun.
Wind energy was an energy source that was Energia vntului a fost o surs energetic care a fost
permanently used by the human society. permanent utilizat de societatea uman.
In the interest of this paper, we find historical sources n domeniul de interes al prezentei lucrri, gsim n
in the first use of wind turbines with 200 years BC in sursele istorice utilizarea primelor turbine de vnt cu 200
Persia, these being used for pumping water or grinding de ani .e.n. n Persia, acestea fiind folosite la pomparea
grains. apei sau la mcinatul grului.
In Romania, documentary sources mention the use of n Romania, surse documentare menioneaz
wind energy in Dobrogea in 1585. At the beginning of the utilizarea energiei eoliene n Dobrogea la 1585. La
th
20 century, in Tulcea County were working 437 wind nceputul secolului XX, n judeul Tulcea funcionau 437
mills, over 900 in Dobrogea and in Moldavia over 300. The mori de vnt, iar n Dobrogea peste 900, n Moldova circa
scale of the expansion of these facilities was not too high 300. Amploarea extinderii acestor instalaii nu a fost prea
because of the use of traditional water mill. mare din cauza tradiiei n utilizarea morii de ap.

2. WIND. FEATURES AND ENERGY POTENTIAL 2. VNTUL. CARACTERISTICI I POTENIAL ENERGETIC


As a weather phenomenon, the wind is a Vntul, ca fenomen meteorologic, este o consecina a
consequence of the relationship between temperature and relaiei dintre temperatur i presiune. Razele solare
pressure. Solar rays cross the atmosphere, heating the land strbat atmosfera, nclzesc suprafaa terestr i de aici
surface and further the atmospheric air by: radiation, aerul atmosferic prin: radiaie, conductibilitate molecular,
molecular conductivity, turbulence, convection currents, and turbulena, cureni de convecie, i advecie. Ca urmare,
advection. As a result, warm air is found in lower layers of aerul cald se gsete n straturile inferioare ale troposferei,
the troposphere, at contact area with the land surface. la zona de contact cu suprafa terestr.
In altitude, the temperature decreases by 0.6 1C n altitudine temperatura scade cu 0,61C la 100
on 100 m. On the land surface, there is an uneven m. Pe suprafaa terestr exist o distribuie inegal a
distribution of solar radiation, which causes an uneven radiaiei solare, ceea ce determin o nclzire neuniform,
distribution of heating, leading to an uneven distribution of ce duce la o neuniformitate n distribuia presiunii
atmospheric pressure and thus the emergence of wind. atmosferice i deci la apariia vntului.
The rotation movement of Earth is the cause of Micarea de rotaie a Pmntului determin apariia
inertial forces: centrifugal and Coriolis. Centrifugal forces unor fore de inerie: centrifug i Coriolis. Fora centrifug

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have a negligible effect on air currents, but Coriolis forces are un efect neglijabil asupra curentilor de aer, dar fora
cause significant deviations of wind direction from the Coriolis determin abateri importante ale direciei vntului
direction determined by the horizontal gradient of de la direcia determinat de gradientul orizontal al
atmospheric pressure. presiunii atmosferice.
Interesting features that are related to the wind are: Caracteristicile care intereseaz legate de vnt
direction, speed, duration, structure. The structure of wind sunt: direcia, viteza, durata, structura. Structura vntului
refers to the air current character: laminar, turbulent or se refer la caracterul curentului de aer: laminar, turbulent
gust. The quality of a location depends on the wind sau n rafal. Calitatea unui amplasament depinde de
potential [1]. potenialul su eolian [1].
Wind installations are converting only a part of the Instalaiile eoliene nu convertesc dect o parte din
wind energy flow. The degree of conversion (efficiency), is fluxul energetic al vntului. Gradul de conversie
expressed by the power coefficient Cp defined in equation (randamentul), se exprim cu ajutorul coeficientului de
1. putere Cp definit n relaia 1.

PT (v ) = Cp (v ) A v 3
1 (1)
2
3
where: A-active transverse area of aeolian installation ; unde: A-aria transversal activ a instalaiei eoliene; v /2-
3
v /2- total wind energy density flux. densitatea fluxului de energie a vntului.
It is necessary to study the persistence of the wind, Este necesar studierea persistenei vntului, a
the maximum periods of calm, their distribution during the duratei maxime a perioadelor de calm, repartiia acestora
year correlated with energy consumption, to allow sizing of pe parcursul anului corelat cu consumul de energie, pentru a
energy storage system. permite dimensionarea sistemelor energetice de stocare.
Efficient use of aeolian installations requires that they Utilizarea eficient a instalaiilor eoliene impune ca
should have large dimensions, with powers which often acestea s fie de dimensiuni mari cu puteri ce urc adesea
can climb on the MW order. In areas with good wind la ordinul MW. Potenialele tehnice pentru zone cu
energy potential, the technical potential is in the range 0.5 potenial eolian bun sunt cuprinse n intervalul 0,5 1,5
2 2
- 1.5 W/m . W/m .

3. AERODYNAMICS NOTIONS 3. NOIUNI DE AERODINAMIC


Aerodynamic forces acting on a body placed in a Forele aerodinamice ce acioneaz asupra unui corp
stream of air speed V upstream the obstacle is equivalent plasat ntr-un curent de aer de vitez V n amonte de
to an resultant Fa and a moment M. The force Fa can be obstacol sunt echivalente cu o rezultant Fa i un moment
decomposed by two directions: one perpendicular to the M. Fora Fa se poate descompune dup dou direcii: una
current direction (lift force Fz) and one on a direction perpendicular pe direcia curentului (portana Fz)si una
parallel with the current (drag Fx) as in figure 1. paralel cu direcia curentului (rezistena Fx) ca n figura 1.

Fig. 1 - Aerodynamic forces acting on a body / Fore aerodinamice ce acioneaz asupra unui corp

In calculations are used dimensionless coefficients (lift n calcule se utilizeaz marimile adimensionale
coefficient, drag coefficient and moment coefficient), as (coeficientul de portan, coeficientul de rezisten i
presented in relation 2: coeficientul de moment), prezentate n relaia 2:
Fz Fx M
Cz = Cx = Cm = (2)
1 1 1
V 2 A V 2 A V2 Al
2 2 2
where A is the maximum projection of a body on a plane unde A este suprafaa maxim a proieciei corpului pe un
perpendicular to the direction of current, and l is a plan perpendicular pe direcia curentului, iar l este o
characteristic length. lungime caracteristic.
Some airfoils are determined by theoretical means Unele profile aerodinamice se determin pe cale
and others by experimental ways. teoretic, iar altele pe cale experimental.

4. AEOLIAN INSTALLATIONS. CONSTRUCTIVE AND 4. INSTALAII EOLIENE. CONSIDERENTE CONSTRUCTIVE


TECHNOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS I TEHNOLOGICE
The technical level of aeolian machines is given by Nivelul tehnic al eolienelor este dat de valoarea de
their use value that is arising from all the characteristics ntrebuinare care rezult din ansamblul caracteristicilor i
and technical performances [3]. performaelor tehnice [3].
The two main qualities that are required of such Principalele dou calitai care se cer unor astfel de
installations are simplicity and robustness. Requirement for instalaii sunt simplitatea i robusteea. Cerina de
simplicity permits obtaining minimum costs of investment simplitate permite obinerea unor costuri de investiie i
and operating at a high reliability. Robustness of the wind exploatare minime la o fiabilitate ridicat. Robusteea

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machines is connected to the working conditions, taking masinilor eoliene se leag de condiiile n care lucreaz,
into account that they are subject to all sorts of weather. avnd n vedere c sunt supuse la intemperii de tot felul.
Turbines with horizontal shaft have the following advantages: Turbinele cu ax orizontal au urmtoarele avantaje: nu
no need of start devices, high power coefficient, regulating necesit dispozitive de demarare, coeficient de putere
power and speed is made by modifying the blades step, but mare, reglarea puterii i a turaiei se face prin modificarea
the execution technology of the blades is complicated, the pasului palelor, dar tehnologia de execuie a palelor este
conversion equipment is placed at the upper end of the tower complicat, echipamentul de conversie este plasat la
and guidance devices are necessary. captul turnului i sunt necesare dispozitive de orientare.
Turbines with vertical shaft. The main feature of the Turbine cu ax vertical. Caracteristica principal a acestor
wind machine is a cyclical variation of the angle of maini eoliene este variaia ciclic a unghiului de inciden.
incidence. From current studies emerge the following Din studiile realizate apar avantajele urmatoare: tehnologia
advantages: technology for blade execution is relatively de execuie a palelor este relativ simpl, echipamentul de
simple, the conversion equipment is placed at ground conversie este plasat la nivelul solului, nu necesit
level, do not require guidance devices. Disadvantages: dispozitive de orientare. Dezavantaje: necesit dispozitive
requires starting devices, smaller power coefficient, de demarare, coeficient de putere mai mic, pot s apar
dangerous oscillation may appear at blades. oscilaii periculoase la pale.
On machines with variable incidence, the rotating La mainile cu incidena variabil momentul motor se
motor moment is produced, generally, under the action of produce, n general, sub aciunea componentei tangeniale
the tangential aerodynamic forces. This is increasingly a forelor aerodinamice. Aceasta este cu att mai mare cu
higher as the aerodynamic qualities of the blade are better. ct calitile aerodinamice ale palei sunt mai bune.
For a wind machine to operate with optimum angle of Pentru ca o main eolian s funcioneze cu unghiul
incidence, it is necessary that the incidence angle is de inciden optim, trebuie ca unghiul de inciden sa fie
always controlled and adjusted to the optimum by controlat i ajustat mereu la valoarea optim prin
continuous blade orientation. orientarea continu a palelor.
Aeolian machines with vertical shaft can be: with Mainile eoliene cu ax vertical pot fi cu incidena
controlled incidence, with articulated blades and uncontrolled controlat, cu pale pivotante i cu inciden necontrolat,
incidence, with fixed or mobile blades. cu pale fixe sau mobile.
Wind turbines with controlled incidence: the incidence Turbine eoliene cu incidena controlat: controlul incidenei
control is realized by convenient orientation of the blade. se face prin orientarea convenabil a palei. Este dificil de
Difficult to realize. realizat.
According to resulted movement, the machines with Conform micrii rezultate, mainile cu inciden
controlled incidence can be: controlat pot fi :
a) Aeolians turbines with rotating blades: blades are a) Turbine eoliene cu pale rotative: palele se rotesc
rotating continuously in the same sense around their own continuu n acelai sens n jurul axei acestora i n jurul
axis, around the rotor axis. Roles of leading and trailing edge of axei rotorului. Rolurile de bord de atac i de fug ale palei
the blade are reversed regularly every half rotation and the se inverseaz periodic, la fiecare jumatte de rotaie iar
blade airfoil is generally fusiform, pointed at both ends, the axis profilul palelor este n general fusiform, ascuit la ambele
of rotation of the blade which coincides with the center of capete, axa de rotaie a palei care coincide cu axa
gravity axis is being located at the middle of the chord. centrului de greutate fiind situat la mijlocul coardei.
b) Aeolians turbines with orientable blades: the leading b) Turbina eolian cu pale orientabile: rolul bordurilor de
edge and trailing edge of the airfoil remains the same atac i de fug al profilului palei rmane acelai, indiferent
regardless of the operation regime. Generally, the de regimul de funcionare. n general, amplitudinea
magnitude of angles of rotation of the blade relative to the unghiurilor de pivotare al palelor fa de bratele de
supporting arms is limited, some constructive variants this susinere este limitat; la unele variante constructive
rotation is not limited, because the blade to be able to sit aceast pivotare nu se limiteaz, pentru ca palele s se
on direction regardless of wind direction, when the rotor is poat aeza n drapel indiferent de direcia vntului, cnd
at rest in order reduce aerodynamic drag of the rotor and rotorul este n repaus, cu scopul de a reduce rezistena
the engine rotation moment is equal to 0 (in case of aerodinamic a rotorului i momentul motor sa fie egal cu
excessive wind speeds). 0 (n cazul vitezelor de vnt excesive).
Wind turbines with uncontrolled incidence (incidence Turbine eoliene cu incidena necontrolat (unghiul de
angle is not controlled to be maintained in certain optimal inciden nu este controlat pentru a fi meninut n anumite
functioning limits). It has fixed blades mounted on the rigid limite optime de funcionare). Are palele fixe, montate rigid
support. pe suportul de susinere.
To further reduce the bending requirements, the Pentru a reduce i mai mult solicitrile de ncovoiere,
longitudinal section of the blades can be taken curve, se poate adopta n seciunea longitudinal a palelor o
which leads to tension stress only. In this case, the blade form curb, astfel pala este solicitat numai la ntindere.
may have a much larger scale; the blade stiffness should n acest caz, pala poate avea o anvergur mult mai mare,
provide only enough support to maintain the shape when iar rigiditatea palei trebuie s asigure doar pstrarea
not moving. formei n repaus.

5. CALCULATION AND DESIGN OF NEW AEOLIAN 5. CALCULUL I PROIECTAREA UNEI NOI INSTALAII
INSTALLATIONS WITH VERTICAL SHAFT EOLIENE CU AX VERTICAL
The chosen constructive solution: wind turbine with Soluia constructiv aleas: turbina eolian cu ax
vertical shaft with 3 straight blades, with orientation vertical cu 3 pale drepte, ce se orienteaz n funcie de
dependent on wind direction (figure 2). direcia vntului (figura 2).

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Fig. 2 - Designed aeolian turbine (top view) / Turbina eolian proiectat (vedere de sus)

Calculation of aerodynamic forces Calculul fortelor aerodinamice


For calculation of aerodynamic lift and drag on the n calculul portanei i a rezistenei aerodinamice
chosen airfoil is necessary to know the coefficients Cz and pe profilul ales este necesar s se cunoasc coeficienii Cz
Cx. Experimental data from figure 3 is used. i Cx. Se folosesc date experimentale din figura 3.

2.5

1.5

0.5

0
0 15 30 45 60 75 90
(grade)

Cz Cx

Figure 3 - Cz and Cx function of incidence / Cz i Cx funcie de inciden

In formula 4 are introduced the aerodynamic lift and Coeficienii de portan i de rezisten la naintare din
drag coefficients taken from figure 3: figura 3 se introduc n formula 4:

P = Cz V 2 S R = Cx V 2 S (4)
2 2
Due to the fact that a complete rotation of the wind Datorit faptului c la o rotaie complet a eolienei,
o o
turbine, a blade rotate around its axis by only 180 , the o pal se rotete n jurul propriei axe cu doar 180 , bordul
leading and trailing edge are reversed periodically. This de atac i bordul de fug se inverseaz periodic. Acest
implies the need for an elliptical airfoil, with maximum lucru implic necesitatea unui profil eliptic, cu grosimea de
thickness of 6% of chord. 6% din coard.

Fig. 4 Designed aeolian turbine (blades position and isometric view) /


Turbina eolian proiectat (poziia palelor i vedere isometric)

Input data: Date de intrare:


r = 3m length of the arm of the blade, r = 3m lungimea braului unei pale,
L = 2.5m - length of a blade, L = 2.5m lungimea unei pale,
c = 1m - chord blade airfoil. c = 1m coarda profilului palei.
Output: Average total moment Mm = 309,6 Nm Date de iesire: Momentul mediu total Mm=309.6 Nm

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Figure 5 - Moment given by 1st, 2nd and 3rd blade and the resulting Total moment for 1 full rotation/
Momentul dat de pala 1, 2 i 3 i momentul resultant Total pentru o rotaie complet

The power developed at the shaft Calculul puterii dezvoltate la ax


For turbines with vertical shaft, the axis of rotation is Pentru turbinele cu ax vertical, axa de rotaie este
perpendicular to wind direction. An estimate of the perpendicular pe direcia vntului. O estimare a
coefficient of maximum power can be done using a method coeficientului de putere maxim se poate face utiliznd o
inspired by the global model Betz from horizontal axis metod global inspirat de modelul Betz de la turbinele
turbines [2]. cu ax orizontal [2].
For the wind turbine with the chosen input data is Pentru turbina cu datele de intrare alese s-a
obtained a maximum power Pmax = 522,7 W in the obinut o putere maxim Pmax= 522.7 W, n condiiile n
conditions in which the infinite speed is 6 m/s. care viteza vntului este de 6 m/s.

Efficiency Calculation Calculul randamentului


Aerodynamic efficiency of the plant expresses the Randamentul aerodinamic al instalaiei eoliene
quantity of energy taken from the wind. It may be exprim cantitata de energie preluat de aceasta de la vnt.
expressed by the ratio between wind kinetic power and Se exprim prin raportul dintre puterea cinetic a vntului
power taken by the aeolian turbine. For the calculation it i puterea preluat de eoliana. n calcul se poate rezuma
can be summarized as the ratio between upstream air la raportul dintre viteza curentului de aer, n aval faa de
speed and downstream airspeed. rotorul eolian, i viteza curentului de aer n amonte de rotor.
Mechanical efficiency is calculated as the ratio Randamentul mecanic se calculeaz ca fiind raportul
between the dynamic power of the aeolian plant and the dintre puterea dinamic a instalaiei eoliene i puterea
used power of the consumer. consumat de consumator.
When calculating the total efficiency, the n calculul radamentului total se iau n considerare
aerodynamic, mechanical, bearings, gears and consumer randamentul aerodinamic, mecanic, al lagarelor, al
efficiencies are taken into account, as in equation 5. angrenajelor i al consumatorului, ca n relaia 5:
total = aerodinamic mecanic lagare angrenaje pompa = 35% (5)
For chosen dimensions, the total moment at the ax Pentru dimensiunile alese se face o analiz a
and the output power of wind installation, are analyzed as momentului total la axul instalaiei eoliene i al puterii,
depending on wind speed (figure 6). funcie de viteza vntului (figura 6).

1000 3000
Moment la ax [Nm]

2500
Putere la ax [W]

800
2000
600
1500
400 1000
200 500
0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
Viteza vantului [m/s] Viteza vantului [m/s]
Figure 6 - Total Moment and Power vs. wind speed / Momentul i puterea funcie de viteza vntului

6. CONCLUSIONS 6. CONCLUZII
Depending on the particular power consumer, wind n functie de consumatorul de putere ales, eoliana
turbine has the advantage of start without exterior means are avantajul de a porni singur nc de la o vitez a
at low wind speeds. It can be observed a total efficiency big vntului foarte mic. Se observ i un randament total
enough, due to the blade orientation after wind direction. relativ mare, datorat orientrii palelor dup direcia vntului.
As a final conclusion one can say that this Drept o concluzie final se poate spune c aceast
constructive solution of a wind turbine installation with a solutie constructiv, a unei instalaii eoliene cu ax vertical,
vertical shaft is indicated for areas where wind speed is este indicat zonelor unde viteza vntului este mic i unde
low and where is necessary a big force couple, in remote este necesar un cuplu de fore mare, n zonele izolate unde nu
areas where the required infrastructure is not available. exist infrastructur necesar.

BIBLIOGRAPHY / BIBLIOGRAFIE
[1]. Burton T., Wind Energy Handbook. John Wiley and [3]. Sorensen B., Renewable energy. Elsevier Academics
Sons Inc., 2001; Press, 2004.
[2]. Ilie V. i altii, Utilizarea energiei vntului. Editura
Tehnic, 1987;

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POSSIBILITIES OF USING SOLID BIOMASS, AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY FOR


REDUCING POLLUTION SOIL AND WATER
/
POSIBILITI DE UTILIZARE A BIOMASEI SOLIDE, AGRICOLE I FORESTIERE PENTRU
REDUCEREA POLURII SOLULUI I APEI
ing. Danciu Aurel, dr. ing. Vldu Valentin, ing. Voicea Iulian, ing. Postelnicu Elena
- INMA Bucharest, Romania -

Abstract. Following the analysis of potential biomass Rezumat. n urma analizei potenialului de biomas
(estimated at 15 million tons) of agricultural and solid (apreciat la 15 milioane tone) solid agricol i forestier
forest (equivalent to 6 million tons of oil) could be (echivalent cu 6 milioane tone de petrol) s-a putut trage
concluded that Romania has sufficient biomass to concluzia c Romnia dispune de suficient biomas
produce pellets at a industrial raw material being generally pentru obinerea de pelei la un nivel industrial, materia prim
scrap agricultural (ca. 63%) and forestry. fiind n general resturi agricole (cca. 63%) i forestiere.
Exploitation and rational use of their energy Exploatarea i utilizarea raional a acestora n
production, give the premises needed to cover a producerea de energie, confer premizele necesare acoperirii
significant part of energy needs necessary domestic and unei pri semnificative a nevoilor energetice necesare
industrial needs, especially in rural areas. nevoilor casnice i industriale, n special n zonele rurale.

Keywords: biomass, pellets, energy, potential Cuvinte cheie: biomas, pelei, energie, potenial

1. ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION - LEGISLATION AND 1. PROTECIA MEDIULUI - LEGISLAIE I MODUL DE


METHOD FOR THEREOF IMPLEMENTING IMPLEMENTARE AL ACESTEIA
Pollution is a problem of all time, but especially for Poluarea este o problem a tuturor timpurilor, dar
our times as the magnitude and severity of polluting mai ales a timpurilor noastre pentru ca amploarea i
processes, scientific and technical achievements of gravitatea proceselor poluante, realizrile tiinifice i tehnice
modern man has allowed the development pollution risks ale omului modern au permis dezvoltarea riscurilor polurii
and therefore it is vital to establish very stringent i n consecin este vital stabilirea unor msuri deosebit
measures to prevent and combat environmental de severe pentru prevenirea i combaterea degradrii
degradation with the three components - air, water, soil. mediului cu cele trei componente aer, ap, sol.
Introduction idea of environmental protection has led to Introducerea ideii de protecie a mediului a condus la
the emergence restrictive legislation in this regard and to apariia de acte normative restrictive din acest punct de
punish their violation. vedere i totodat la pedepsirea nclcrii acestora.
By mechanical processing of wood that produces Prin prelucrarea mecanic a lemnului rezult ca deeu
industrial waste in the form of sawdust, shavings, wood industrial n form de rumegus, tala, fina de lemn cca. 15 %
flour approx. 15% of timber cut. A basic problem now is din masa lemnoas tiat. O problem de baz actual este
organic sawdust storage, recovery, treatment and reuse of depozitarea ecologic a rumeguului, recuperarea, tratarea
industrial scale. i refolosirea lui pe scar industrial.
The degree of recovery of waste in Romania is very Gradul de valorificare a deeurilor n Romnia este
low, around 4%, ie 10 times lower compared to western foarte redus, de aproximativ 4%, adic de 10 ori mai mic
European countries. comparativ cu rile Europei Occidentale.
Wood industry is one of the most polluting, but to Industria lemnului nu este una dintre cele mai poluante, dar
some extent has an impact on environmental factors (air, ntr-o oarecare msur are un impact asupra factorilor de mediu
water, soil). Recovery of waste results in the production of (aer, ap, sol). Valorificarea deeurilor rezultate n procesul de
wood to rest industries amounts to a percentage of 83.6%, producie n industria lemnului fa de restul ramurilor
that percentage drops, unfortunately, by the occurrence of industriale se ridic la un procent de 83,6%, procent care
small producers whose concern for the recovery of waste scade, din pcate, ca urmare a apariiei micilor productori a cror
is low. preocupare pentru valorificarea deeurilor este sczut.
In order to recovery of agricultural and forestry n vederea valorificrii deeurilor agricole i forestiere, dar n
waste, but especially for depollution areas affected by this special, pentru depoluarea zonelor afectate de acest tip de
type of residue, which can be achieved through a process reziduu, care poate fi realizat printr-un proces de colectare a
of collection of this product and transform them into fuel acestor produi secundari i transformarea lor n combustibil
(pellets, agripelei or lighters). (pelei, agripelei sau brichete).
Forestry and agricultural wastes (derived from wood Deeurile forestiere i agricole (rezultate din exploatarea
or harvesting agricultural products) can be transformed by lemnului sau din recoltarea produselor agricole) pot fi transformate,
a technological process (mincing, drying, compaction and printr-un proces tehnologic (tocare, uscare, rafinare i
refining (peletizare or briquetting), in pellets, or lighters compactare (peletizare sau brichetare), n pelei, agripelei sau
agripelei combustible products which may be used for brichete combustibile, produse care pot fi folosite n scopuri
energy purposes. In this way, is made as a use upper energetice. n acest fel, se realizeaz att o utilizare
forest and agricultural waste, nature protection and superioar a deeurilor forestiere i agricole, ct i
pollution of these products. protejarea naturii de poluarea cu aceste produse secundare.

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2. DETERMINE CHARACTERISTICS TERMO PHYSICO- 2. DETERMINAREA CARACTERISTICILOR TERMO-FIZICO-


CHEMICAL ON TYPE SOLID BIOMASS AGRICULTURE CHIMICE PE TIPURI DE BIOMAS SOLID AGRICOL I
AND FORESTRY FORESTIER
2.1. Physical and chemical characteristics on types of 2.1. Caracteristici fizice i chimice pe tipuri de
biomass solid agricultural and forestry biomas solid agricol i forestier
Biomass expressed total agricultural crop production Biomasa exprim totalitatea produciei agricole vegetale
that can be converted into different forms of energy. care poate fi convertit n diferite forme de energie. Producia
Agricultural production consists of primary production and agricol este format din producia principal i din producia
secondary. secundar.
Main production plant is converted into energy Producia agricol vegetal principal este transformat n
bioalimentar and vegetable production is the main energie bioalimentar iar producia agricol vegetal
secondary source of biomass that can be converted into secundar constituie principala surs de biomas care
the right heat. poate fi transformat de regul n energie termic.
Under EU law, biomass is the biodegradable fraction Conform legislaiei UE, biomasa reprezint fracia
of products and waste from agriculture and forestry biodegradabil a produselor i deeurilor din agricultur, domeniul
industries related, and the biodegradable fraction of forestier i industriile conexe acestora, precum i fracia
municipal waste and industrial. biodegradabil din deeurile municipale i cele industriale.
Chemical composition of the biomass is: Compoziia chimic principal a biomasei este:
 lignin (C40H44O6) = 1530%;  lignin (C40H44O6) = 1530%;
 cellulose (C6H10O5) = 4045%  celuloz (C6H10O5) = 4045%;
 hemi-cellulose = 2035%.  hemi-celuloz = 2035%.
Limits of variation of the three principal components Limitele de variaie a celor trei componente principale sunt
are determined by the species. Long cellulose polymers are determinate de specie. Polimerii celulozei lungi sunt folosii de
used by plants to build the plant fibers that give strength ctre plante pentru a construi fibrele care confer plantei
and build plant fibers that give strength and lignin acts as a soliditate iar lignina acioneaz ca un liant ce ine fibrele de
binder which keeps linked cellulose fibers. To manufacture celuloz legate. Pentru fabricarea peleilor coninutul de lignin
the pellets of lignin should be higher. For a high calorific trebuie s fie ct mai mare. Pentru o putere calorific ridicat
necessary reports O/C and H/C should be as small. este necesar ca rapoartele O/C i H/C s fie ct mai mici.
The main agricultural products side can be Principalele produse agricole secundare care pot fi
transformed into heat is: transformate n energie termic sunt:
- scum of straw and cereal grain (wheat, rye, barley, - paiele i pleava de cereale pioase (gru, secar, orz,
orzoic, rice and oats); orzoic, orez i ovz);
- stems and stalk umb; - tulpinile i ciocli de porumb;
- strains of sunflower and rapeseed; - tulpinile de floarea soarelui i de rapi;
- haulm soybeans, peas and beans; - vrejii de soia, mazre i fasole;
- cords vine; - corzile de vi de vie;
- branches of fruit trees. - crengile de pomi fructiferi.
The physical characteristics of solid fuels derived Caracteristicile fizice ale combustibililor solizi
from biomass are: obinui din biomas sunt urmtoarele:
- size and shape;  dimensiunile i forma;
- moisture;  coninutul de umiditate;
- calorific power;  puterea calorific;
- bulk density;  densitatea n vrac;
- ash content;  coninutul de cenu;
- grain;  granulaia;
- abrasion resistance;  rezistena la abraziune;
- melting temperature of ash.  temperatura de topire a cenuii.
Chemical characteristics of solid fuels derived from Caracteristicile chimice ale combustibililor solizi
biomass are: obinui din biomas sunt urmtoarele:
- contents of C; - coninutul de C;
- contents of O; - coninutul de O;
- contents of H; - coninutul de H;
- contents of N; - coninutul de N;
- contents of S; - coninutul de S;
- contents of Cl; - coninutul de Cl;
- contents of K; - coninutul de K;
- contents of Na; - coninutul de Na;
- contents of Mg; - coninutul de Mg;
- contents of Ca; - coninutul de Ca;
- contents of volatile substance; - coninutul de substane volatile;
- content of heavy metals. - coninutul de metale grele.
Calorific value of biomass is related to its chemical Puterea calorific a biomasei este corelat cu compoziia
composition. Thus calorific value increases with chimic a acesteia. Astfel puterea calorific crete odat cu creterea
increasing lignin content. Cellulose has a lower calorific coninutului de lignin. Celuloza are o putere calorific mai mic
than because of high lignin oxidation. The hydrocarbons dect lignina datorit gradului mare de oxidare. Coninutul de
also increased calorific value of biomass. hidrocarburi crete de asemenea puterea calorific a biomasei.
Table 1 are presented calorific values for primary n tabelul 1 sunt prezentate valorile puterii calorifice pentru
solid biomass fuels: principali combustibili solizi din biomas.

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Table 1 - Calorific values of key solid fuels from biomass /


Puterea calorific a principalilor combustibili solizi din biomas
Calorific values dry / Puterea
Nr.
Fuel Type / Tipul de combustibil calorific substan uscat
crt.
[MJ/kg]
1. Wheat straw / Paie de gru 18,3
2. Barley straw / Paie de orz 18,0
3. Rice straw / Paie de orez 15,2
4. Cob (strains) / Coceni de porumb (tulpini) 16,2
5. Corn-cob / Ciocli 17,4
6. Sunflower stalks (bete) / Tulpini de floarea soarelui (bee) 21,8
7. Peel of sunflower seeds / Coji semine de floarea soarelui 16,2
8. Haulm soybean / Vreji de soia 18,1
9. Shoots of vines (7% moisture) / Coarde de vi de vie (umiditate 7%) 16,5
10. Branches of fruit trees (7% moisture) / Crengi de pomi fructiferi (umidit. 7%) 15,2
11. Strains of alfalfa / Tulpini de lucern 18,4
12. Wood fire / Lemn de foc 15,5
13. Pellets of sawdust or brighete / Pelete sau brighete de rumegu 17,1
14. Charcoal / Mangal 31,8
15. Waste plant (stems, leaves, rinds) / Deseuri vegetale (tulpini, frunze, coji) 12,6

Analyzing the data presented shows that the Din analiza datelor prezentate rezult c puterea calorific
calorific value is obtained for large strains of sunflower cea mai mare se obine pentru tulpinile de floarea soarelui
(Table 1). Calorific power values of solid fuels from (tab. nr.1). Puterea calorific a combustibililor solizi din
biomass is much smaller than the classic fuel (calorific biomas este mult mai mic dect a combustibililor clasici
value of diesel fuel averaged 42.34 [MJ / kg]. (puterea calorific medie a motorinei 42,34 [MJ / kg].
Moisture content is an important feature influencing Coninutul de umiditate este o caracteristic fizic important
the physical preservation of biomass burning and the care influeneaz pstrarea biomasei, procesul de ardere i
calorific value. In Table 2 are presented humidity at puterea calorific. n tabelul nr.2 sunt prezentate umiditile la
harvest for major solid fuels derived from biomass. recoltare pentru principali combustibili solizi obinui din biomas.

Table 2 - Moisture at harvest of the main types of biomass / Umiditatea la recoltare a principalilor tipuri de biomas
Nr. Humidity / Umiditatea
Fuel Type / Tipul de combustibil
crt. (%)
1. Straw and chaff of cereal grains / Paie i pleav de cereale pioase 1520
2. Sunflower stalks / Tulpini de floarea soarelui 1820
3. Stalks and leaves of maize / Coceni i frunze de porumb 4050
4. Corn cobs / Ciocli de porumb 45
5. Haulm soybean / Vreji de soia 1619
6. Rope vine / Corzi de vi de vie 25
7. Leaves and parcel of sugar beet / Frunze i colete de sfecl de zahr 7080
8. Branches of fruit trees / Crengi de pomi fructiferi 2228

Conversion of biomass into heat by burning impose Transformarea biomasei n energie termic prin ardere
fuel moisture values as follows: impune anumite valori ale umiditii combustibilului dup cum urmeaz:
- maximum humidity of biomass for combustion in - umiditatea maxim a biomasei pentru ardere n
combustion plants classical: 25%; instalaii de ardere clasice: 25%;
- maximum humidity for biomass combustion - umiditatea maxim a biomasei pentru ardere n
installations burning special: 60%; instalaii de ardere speciale: 60%;
- optimum moisture biomass for combustion: 710%; - umiditatea optim a biomasei pentru ardere: 710%;
- maximum humidity for biomass gasification: 35%; - umiditatea maxim a biomasei pentru gazeificare: 35%;
- maximum humidity biomass for processing into pellets - umiditatea maxim a biomasei pentru transformare n
or brighete: 10%. pelei sau brighete: 10%.
Analyzing data on the moisture that use the Din analiza datelor privind valorile umiditii rezult c
combustion of biomass is necessary to dry it. High pentru utilizarea prin ardere a biomasei este necesar uscarea
humidity during biomass burning affect adversely the acesteia. Umiditile ridicate ale biomasei din timpul arderii
status of technical combustion plant. influeneaz negativ starea tehnic a instalaiei de ardere.
Ocean density for solid fuels from biomass and to Pentru a mrii densitatea combustibililor solizi din biomas
allow automation of the combustion process is currently i pentru a permite automatizarea procesului de ardere n prezent
used in the conversion of biomass pellets or lighters. se folosete transformarea biomasei n pelei sau brichete.
Peleii are obtained by mrunirea sawdust, chip, peel Peleii se obin prin mrunirea rumeguului, achilor, crengilor
or branches of the tree and pressing tocturii produced by sau cojilor de copac i presara tocturii obinute printr-o matri.
a mold. The heat resulting from friction nmoaie lignin that Cldura rezultat n urma frecrii nmoaie lignina care prin rcire
binds the cooling dust produced from biomass. As there is leag praful obinut din biomas. Deoarece nu se folosete nici
no cement used to manufacture pellets, is very important un liant pentru fabricarea peleilor, foarte important este coninutul
in lignin content of biomass used. Thus the composition of n lignin al biomasei utilizate. Astfel din compoziia
the pellets should not miss waste resinous. peleilor nu trebuie s lipseasc deeurile de rinoase.

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2.2. Determination of thermal characteristics - physical 2.2. Determinarea caracteristicilor termo fizico
- chemical types of biomass chimice pe tipuri de biomas
 moisture biomass pellets and agripeleilor, which was  umiditatea biomasei, peleilor i agripeleilor, care s-a
conducted using a drying stove (fig. 1), the thermostat at efectuat folosind o etuv (fig.1) termostatat, la temperatura
a temperature of 105C, weighing the material balance de 105C, cnt rind materialele la balana analitic (fig.
analysis (fig. 2) with accuracy of 0.1 mg before and after 2) avnd precizia de 0,1 mg, nainte i dup uscare).
drying). Humidity average forest biomass analyzed was Umiditatea medie a biomasei forestiere analizate a fost
approximately 16%, while agricultural biomass has a de aproximativ 16 %, n timp ce biomasa agricol a avut
moisture content averaged approximately 22%. o umiditate medie de aproximativ 22 %.

Fig.1 Drying stove used to determine moisture materials /


Etuv folosit pentru determinarea umiditii materialelor

a) b) c
Fig. 2 Aspects of time weighing the evidence to determine calorific value and moisture /
Aspecte din timpul cntririi probelor n vederea determinrii puterii calorifice i a umiditii

 volatile substance content, which led to pulling out a  coninutul de substane volatile, care s-a determinat
certain quantity of a sample from drying stove, which extrgnd o anumit cantitate dintr-o prob din etuv,
was introduced in a metallic crucible and weighed and then care s-a introdus ntr-un creuzet metalic i s-a cntrit iar
placed in burning oven of Figure 2 at a temperature of apoi s-a introdus n cuptorul de calcinare fig 2 la temperatura
600C, leaving it for 30 minutes (or until the release of de 600 C, lsndu-se timp de 30 de minute (sau pn la
the volatile). After completing the process of pyrolysis, degajarea complet a volatilelor). Dup terminarea procesului
is the crucible removed from the oven with some gloves de piroliz, creuzetul este scos din cuptor cu ajutorul unor
and a pair of tongs, cover with lid and weighed again to mnui i a unui clete, se acoper cu capacul i se cntrete
determine the quantity of volatile released (by din nou, pentru determinarea cantitii de volatile degajate
difference). Volatile content was calculated as follows: (prin diferen). Coninutul de volatile au fost calculate astfel:

Masa initiala - Masa finala


Continut volatile in baza uscata = 100 [%] ,
Masa initiala
Volatile content in dry matter = (Initial mass - final mass) / Initial mass x 100 [%],

where: the initial mass and final mass as the weighed unde: masa iniial i masa final fiind cele cntrite nainte
before and after the pyrolysis i dup efectuarea procesului de piroliz;

100 - Umiditatea
Continut volatile in baza umeda = Continut volatile in baza uscata [%],
100
Volatile content in the wet = Volatile content in the dry x (100 - humidity) [%],

Fig. 3 - Determination of the volatile substance and content of inert / Determinarea coninutului de substane volatile i a coninutului de inerte

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 inert content was determined by pulling a certain amount  coninutul de inerte s-a determinat extrgnd o anumit
of a sample from drying stove, which was introduced in a cantitate dintr-o prob din etuv, care s-a introdus ntr-un
metallic crucible was weighed with the analytical balance creuzet metalic, s-a cntrit cu balana analitic i s-a
and undergo a process of combustion, the temperature supus unui proces de combustie, la temperatura de lucru
at 1100C during the working time to 60 min. After the la 1100C, timpul de timp de lucru la 60 min. Dup ce
sample burned completely, the crucible was removed proba a ars complet, creuzetul a fost scos din cuptor i
from the oven and weighed; cntrit;
 fixed carbon content, was determined by difference:  coninutul de carbon fix, a fost determinat prin diferen:
Fixed carbon = 100 - (Humidity + Volatile + Incombustible Carbon fix = 100 (Umiditate + Volatile + Necombustibile;
Volatile matter content of inert under dry and fixed Coninutul de materii volatile, de inerte n baza
carbon content in [%], the types of agricultural and forest uscat, precum i coninutul de carbon fix n [%], pe tipuri de
biomass determined by difference calculated in question biomas agricol i forestier determinate respectiv
are presented in Table. 3. calculat prin diferen sunt prezentate n tabelul nr. 3.

Table 3 - Volatile matter content of the inert solids and the fixed carbon / Coninutul de materii volatile, de inerte n baza uscat i de carbon fix
Volatile content in the dry / Inert content in the dry / The fixed carbon /
Type of biomass / Tipul
Coninut volatile n baza Coninut inerte n baza Coninutul de carbon fix
biomasei
uscat [%] uscat [%] [%]
Agricultural / Agricol 73,08 2,7 16,83
Forestry / Forestier 81,18 1,1 14,47

 lower calorific value was performed using the bomb  puterea calorific inferioar s-a efectuat folosind bomba
calorimetric Cal k 2 (Figure 4) and consisted of: balance calorimetric Cal 2 k (figura 4) i a constat n: calibrarea
calibration, weighing empty capsule and material with balanei, cntrirea capsulei goale i cu material cu
analytical balance with accuracy of 0.1 mg of setting balana analitic avnd precizia de 0,1 mg, setarea
parameters (weight, no. proof) to show results and parametrilor de lucru (mas, nr. probei), afiarea
cooling bomb. rezultatelor i rcirea bombei.
Calorific value of pellets and the material from which Puterea calorific a peleilor i a materialului din care
they were produced (collected in the various stages of au fost fabricai acetia (colectat din diferitele faze ale fluxului
technological flow) had the following: tehnologic) a avut urmtoarele valori:
- for pellets in beech + pine (moisture 4.42%): 17.863 - pentru peleii din brad + fag (umiditate 4,42 %):
[MJ / kg]; 17,863 [MJ / kg];
- for pellets of oak + pine (moisture 4.55%): 17.513 - pentru peleii din stejar + brad (umiditate 4,55%):
[MJ / kg]; 17,513 [MJ / kg];
- for agripelei (11.87% moisture): 15.809 [MJ / kg]; - pentru agripelei (umiditate 11,87%): 15,809 [MJ/kg];
- for sorted sawdust dry milled (moisture 6.5%): 16.837 - pentru rumegu uscat sortat mcinat (umiditate 6,5%):
[MJ / kg]; 16,837 [MJ / kg];
- for dry sawdust sorted which wasn't milled (moisture - pentru rumegu uscat sortat nemcinat (umiditate 5,2%):
5.2%): 16.744 [MJ / kg]; 16,744 [MJ / kg];
- for wet pine sawdust from storage (moisture 37.2%): - pentru rumegu umed de brad din depozit (umiditate
12.058 [MJ / kg]. 37,2%): 12,058 [MJ / kg].

a) b)
Fig. 3 Aspects of the determination of calorific / Aspecte din timpul determinrii puterii calorifice
a) entering parameters / introducerea parametrilor; b) showing results / afiarea rezultatelor

Gaseous products of combustion are: O2, N2, CO2 si Produii gazoi ai arderii sunt: O2, N2, CO2 si SO2.
SO2. Experimental results are presented on synthetic Rezultatele experimentale sunt prezentate sintetic pe
forest biomass types in Table. 4. tipuri de biomas forestier n tabelul nr. 4.

Table 4 - Experimental results on the types of forest biomass / Rezultate experimentale pe tipuri de biomas forestier
Species / Specia C [%] H [%] O [%] N [%]
Oak / Stejar 48,9 5,9 43,1 2,1
Beech / Fag 48,5 6,3 45,3 -
Ash / Frasin 49,4 6,1 44,5 -
Poplar / Plop 49,7 6,3 44,0 -
Tei / Tei 49,4 6.9 43,1 0,6
Fir / Brad 49,9 6,4 43,7 -

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These elements are part of the main constituents of Aceste elemente fac parte att din principalii
wood and namely: constitueni ai lemnului i anume:
 pulp: 5055%;  celuloz: 5055%;
 lignin: 2030%;  lignin: 2030%;
 hemipulp: 2530%.  hemiceluloz: 2530%.
and in the secondary such as: ct i din cei secundari cum ar fi:
 resines: 15%;  rini: 15%;
 mineral substances: 0,21,2%.  substane minerale: 0,21,2%.
 tannin, coloring matters, etc.  tanin, materii colorante, etc.
In addition to the main constituents, listed, which are n afar de constituenii principali, enumerai, ce
organic in nature, enter into the composition of wood and sunt de natur organic, n compoziia lemnului intr i
mineral that forms in the combustion ash. substane minerale care n urma arderii formeaz cenua.
Mineral substances, which represents 0.21.2% by Substanele minerale, care reprezint 0,21,2% din
weight of dry wood are: greutatea lemnului uscat, sunt:
 potassium: 1025%;  potasiu: 1025%;
 sodium: 15%;  sodiu: 15%;
 calcium: 2045%;  calciu: 2045%;
 magnesium: 315%;  magneziu: 315%;
 manganese oxide: 18%;  oxid de mangan: 18%;
 iron oxide: 14%;  oxid de fier: 14%;
 silicon dioxide: 13%;  bioxid de siliciu: 13%;
 phosphoric acid: 210%.  acid fosforic: 210%.
Different species composition of wood ash is nearly Compoziia cenuii diferitelor specii lemnoase este
homogeneous and is characterized on average by the aproape omogen i se caracterizeaz n medie prin
following dates: 35% CaO, 16% Na2O + K2O, 7% MgO, datele urmtoare: 35% CaO, 16% Na2O + K2O, 7% MgO,
5% MnO, 3% Fe2O3, 3% Al2O3, 20% CO2, 5% SO3, 4% 5% MnO, 3% Fe2O3, 3% Al2O3, 20% CO2, 5% SO3, 4%
P2O5, 2% SiO2. P2O5, 2% SiO2.
Ash wood shows through the harder they fuse, and Cenua lemnului se evideniaz prin caracterul ei greu fuzibil,
that does not melt even in the hot parts of the outbreak. i c, nu se topete nici mcar n poriunile cele mai fierbini ale
Quantity ash wood depends on species (table no. 5) but focarului. Cantitatea de cenu depinde de specia lemnoas
found that it varies depending on the tree of origin, age, (tabel 5) dar s-a constatat c ea variaz n funcie de partea
the local conditions of growth. The largest quantity of the arborelui din care provine, de vrsta lui, de condiiile locale
resulting shell and leaf. de cretere. Cantitatea cea mai mare rezult din coaj i frunze.

Table 5 - The ash content of wood / Coninutul de cenu a lemnului


Species / Specia Ashes / Cenu [%]
Pin / Pin 0,39
Beech / Fag 0,17
Oak / Stejar 0,51
Birch / Mesteacn 0,39

Calorific values is influenced by rhe wood specie Puterea calorific este influenat de specia i
and humidity (table no. 6). umiditatea lemnului (tabelul nr. 6).

Table 6 - Calorific values of wood at humidity of 40% and 10% /


Puterea calorific a lemnului la umiditatea de 40% i 10%
Wood humitidy / Umiditatea lemnului Calorific values / Puterea calorific
40 % 11600 kJ/ kg
10% 16709 kJ/kg

In Table. 7 presents the composition and n tabelul nr. 7 se prezint compoziia i principalele
physicochemical characteristics of agricultural biomass caracteristici fizico-chimice ale eantioanelor de biomas
samples analyzed. agricol analizat.

Table 7 - Physico-chemical characteristics on types of agricultural biomass /


Caracteristici fizico-chimice pe tipuri de biomas agricol
Corn stalk / Corn cob / Remains of flax and
Nr. Straw /
Features / Caracteristici Tulpin de Ciocli de hemp / Resturi de in i
crt. Paie
porumb porumb cnep
C mc 50 50 50 51
Chemical composition in relation to
H mc 6,2 6,2 6,2 6,1
1. fuel mass / Compoziia chimic
N mc 0,6 0,6 0,6 0,9
raportat la masa [%]
O mc 43,1 43,1 43,1 41,9
2. Ash from the anhydrous / Cenu la starea anhidr 2,7 1,8 2,3 2,1
3. Total sulfur / Sulf total 0,09 0,09 0,09 0,09
4. High calorific / Putere calorific superioar [KJ/kg] 20,036 20,036 20,036 20,444
5. Lower calorific / Putere calorific inferioar / [KJ/kg] 15,932 15,932 15,932 16,434

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CONCLUSIONS CONCLUZII
Following the analysis of potential biomass n urma analizei potenialului de biomas (apreciat
(estimated at 15 million tons) solid agricultural and la 15 milioane tone) solid agricol i forestier
forestry (equivalent to 6 million tons of oil) could be (echivalent cu 6 mil. t petrol) s-a putut trage concluzia c
concluded that Romania has sufficient biomass to Romnia dispune de suficient biomas pentru obinerea
produce pellets at a industrial raw material being de pelei la un nivel industrial, materia prim fiind n
generally scrap agricultural (ca. 63%) and forestry. general resturi agricole (cca. 63%) i forestiere.
Exploitation and rational use of their energy Exploatarea i utilizarea raional a acestora n
production, give the premises needed to cover a producerea de energie, confer premizele necesare acoperirii
significant energy needs necessary domestic and unei pri semnificative a nevoilor energetice necesare
industrial needs, especially in rural areas. nevoilor casnice i industriale, n special n zonele rurale.
Chemical composition of the biomass consists of: Compoziia chimic principal a biomasei este
lignin (C40H44O6) in the proportion of 1530%; cellulose format din: lignin (C40H44O6) n proporie de 1530%;
(C6H10O5) in the proportion of 4045%; hemi-cellulose in celuloz (C6H10O5) n proporie de 4045%; hemi-celuloz n
the proportion of 2035%. Limits of variation of the three proporie de 2035%. Limitele de variaie a celor trei
principal components are determined by the species. To componente principale sunt determinate de specie.
manufacture pellets lignin content should be higher. For a Pentru fabricarea peleilor coninutul de lignin trebuie s
high calorific necessary reports O / C and H / C is the fie ct mai mare. Pentru o putere calorific ridicat este
lowest. necesar ca rapoartele O/C i H/C s fie ct mai mici.
Calorific value of pellets and the material from which Puterea calorific a peleilor i a materialului din care
they were produced (collected in the various stages of au fost fabricai acetia (colectat din diferitele faze ale
technological flow) ranged from 12.058 to 17.863 MJ / kg, fluxului tehnologic) a variat ntre 12,058 i 17,863 MJ/kg,
the largest recorded at the lower calorific value between cea mai mare diferen nregistrat la puterea calorific
peleii of sawdust and agripelei is only 15 MJ / kg inferioar ntre peleii din rumegu i agripelei fiind de
(compared to 17 MJ / kg as pellets of sawdust are) ie numai 15 MJ/kg (fa de 17 MJ/kg ct are pelete din
9.7% lower. rumegu) adic cu 9,7% mai mic.
In general, can be used the same equipment n general, pot fi folosite aceleai utilaje pentru
peletizarea straw and sawdust, but should be given to the peletizarea paielor i a rumeguului, dar trebuie acordat
following features straw containing less lignin (15% vs. atenie urmtoarelor particulariti: paiele conin mai
25% sawdust), resulting in greater force of friction puin lignin (15% fa de 25% n rumegu), rezultnd
peletizarea the straw. fore mai mari de frecare la peletizarea paielor.
Burning agripeleilor is somewhat difficult because Arderea agripeleilor este ceva mai dificil din cauza
outbreaks zgurificrii blockages sacks and smoke. zgurificrii focarelor i a nfundrii courilor de fum.
Environmental pollution is higher, because the ash Poluarea mediului este mai mare, deoarece coninutul de
content is 5% (compared to 0.5% if sawdust) and nitrogen cenu este de 5% (fa de 0,5% n cazul rumeguului)
content, sulfur, chlorine and potassium were higher due iar coninuturile de azot, sulf, clor i potasiu sunt mai mari
to the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and datorit folosirii ngrmintelor chimice, a pesticidelor i
herbicides. erbicidelor.

BIBLIOGRAPHY / BIBLIOGRAFIE
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CONSILIUL UNIUNII EUROPENE 16 ianuarie 2007; resurse de biomas solid agricol i forestier la nivel
[3]. Concluziile Preediniei, Consiliul European 7775/06, naional, regional i zonal Referat INMA Bucureti,
24 martie 2006; 2007;
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All, Bucuresti, 2003 echipamentelor pentru prelucrarea biomasei agricole i
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[10]. HOTRRE nr. 856 din 16 august 2002 privind http://www. cceei.energ.pub.ro - Strategia energetic 2007-2020;
evidena gestiunii deeurilor i pentru aprobarea listei http://www.anre.ro - Surse regenerabile de energie;
cuprinznd deeurile, inclusiv deeurile periculoase; http://www.cnr-cmr.ro Consiliul mondial al Energiei.

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CFD STUDY REGARDING THE MAXIMUM TORQUE VARIATION WITH WIND SPEED, ON A
SAVONIUS TYPE TURBINE
/
STUDIU CFD PRIVIND VARIAIA CUPLULUI MAXIM CU VITEZA VNTULUI, LA O
INSTALAIE EOLIAN TIP SAVONIUS
1 1
Ph.D.eng. Edmond MAICAN , Ph.D.eng. Sorin-tefan BIRI ,
2
Ph.D.eng. Valentin VLDU ,
1
eng. Bianca DAVID, Ph.D.eng. Mihai BAYER ,
1
POLITEHNICAUniversity of Bucharest
2
Institutul Naional de Cercetare-Dezvoltare pentru Maini i Instalaii destinate Agriculturii
i Industriei Alimentare INMA Bucureti

Abstract: Savonius wind turbines can be used as Rezumat: Instalaiile eoliene tip Savonius pot
viable energy sources for relatively small stock farms or reprezenta surse viabile de energie pentru ferme
for other consumers, placed in those areas of the agrozootehnice de dimensiuni relativ reduse sau pentru
country with small to medium wind speeds. Many ali consumatori individuali, localizai n zone ale rii n
studies have shown that the maximum torque care vntul atinge intensiti mici i medii. Studiile arat
developed by these type of turbines corresponds with c aceste turbine dezvolt un cuplu maxim la unghiuri
de atac de 110120, indiferent de gradul de
0 0
angles of attack placed between 110 and 120 ,
regardless of the buckets gap spacing or wind speed. suprapunere al cupelor sau de viteza vntului.
This paper takes advantage of the Ansys CFX n aceast lucrare se utilizeaz programul ANSYS
(computational fluid dynamics software), which was CFX de analiz a dinamicii fluidelor, pentru a determina
used to find the wind speed-turbines maximum torque curba de variaie a momentului maxim produs de
graph. The simulation is based on a pseudo- turbin n raport cu viteza vntului. Simularea are la
bidimensional parametric model, which was developed baz un model pseudo-2D, realizat cu programul de
in SolidWorks. The paper gives proof of the usefulness modelare parametrizat SolidWorks. Articolul demonstreaz
and advantages of the CFD analysis in accurate utilitatea i avantajele analizei CFD n determinarea
predictions of the turbines loading and performance. comportrii i performanelor instalaiilor eoliene.

Keywords: fluid dynamics, CFD, wind turbine, Cuvinte cheie: dinamica fluidelor, CFD, turbina
Savonius, Ansys CFX. eoliana, Savonius, Ansys CFX.

INTRODUCTION INTRODUCERE
The permanent scientific concern over global Semnalele tot mai dese trase de comunitatea
climate change, as well as the aggressive goals for tiinific n privina schimbrilor climatice precum i
renewable power deployment in response to strong susinerea public i politic pentru identificarea unor
public and political support for clean energy, have surse energetice nepoluante, au contribuit n ultimii ani la
fuelled in the last years a remarkable rapid dezvoltarea i implementarea susinut a tehnologiilor de
development and implementation of green energy producere a energiei verzi. Se urmrete permanent
technologies. The aim is to reduce this kind of power reducerea costurilor care nsoesc aceste tehnologii,
generation cost in order to make it competitive on the astfel nct ele s devin competitive pe piaa energetic.
energy market. In this respect, wind power generation ntruct vntul reprezint una dintre cele mai abundente
systems prove to be suitable, as wind is one of the surse nepoluante de energie, instalaiile eoliene se
most abundant pollution free sources. One way to cut ncadreaz pe deplin n limitrile impuse de criteriul
costs supposes to permanently improve the existing financiar. O metod de a diminua costurile const i n
designs, by means of modern specialized software, optimizarea proiectelor existente prin intermediul unor
which has the ability to simulate more realistically then programe specializate de calcul, care au abilitatea de a
ever the structure of the turbulent flow. Computational furniza rezultate extrem de veridice n ceea ce privete
fluid dynamics (CFD) provides a cost-effective and structura curgerilor turbulente. Dinamica fluidelor
accurate alternative to scale testing, offering the asistat de calculator (CFD) reprezint o alternativ
possibility to perform quick variations on the simulation. avantajoas comparativ cu testarea pe modele
Judicious interconnection between the computing experimentale, oferind posibilitatea de a modifica rapid
resources and factors with high impact on simulation condiiile de simulare. Coordonarea resursele de calcul
process (such as the chosen turbulence model, grid cu factorii care influeneaz timpul de simulare (modelul
refinement, type of simulation - 2D or 3D, similitude matematic, tipul simulrii - 2D sau 3D, fineea gridului,
criteria used in scaled simulations etc.) can lead to very criteriile de similitudine etc.) pot conduce la rezultate de
reliable and trusty results. ncredere.

MODEL DESCRIPTION DESCRIEREA MODELULUI


The physical model Modelul fizic
The Savonius rotor prepared for experimentations Simularea de fa are la baz rotorul Savonius
by Sandia Laboratories and used in the present utilizat n experimentrile efectuate de laboratoarele
simulation had the following main geometrical Sandia, cu urmtorii parametri constructivi (fig. 1):
parameters (fig. 1): number of buckets: 2; rotor height numrul de cupe: 2; nlimea rotorului (H): 1 m;
(H): 1 m; bucket diameter (d): 0.5 m; gap spacing (s/d): diametrul cupei (d): 0,5 m; suprapunerea cupelor (s/d):
0.2. 0,2.

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Vol. 27, No.1 /2009 LUCRRI TIINIFICE (INMATEH)

Figure 1 - Geometrical parameters of the rotor / Parametrii geometrici ai rotorului

This configuration was tested at nominal Aceast configuraie a fost testat la viteze
freestream velocities of 728 m/s (for a length scale of nominale ale vntului cuprinse ntre 7 i 28 m/s (pentru
1 m, which is nominally the diameter of the turbine). o scar de lungime de 1 m). Se urmrete calcularea
Experimentations supose to find the static torque momentului static maxim, generat cnd rotorul este
0 0
produced when the rotor is locked at 115 relative to the blocat la 115 n raport cu direcia vntului (fig.1).
flow (fig. 1). Then, static torque coefficients Cq (eq. 1) Ulterior, se calculeaz coeficientul momentului static Cq
will be calculated and plotted as a function of wind (ec.1) i se reprezint grafic variaia acestuia cu viteza
speed. vntului.
Q Q
Cq = (1) Cq = (1)
q R AS q R AS
In this equation, the parameters are: Q static torque Parametrii utilizai n acest ecuaie sunt: Q cuplul
(Nm); R rotor radius of rotation (R = 0.4512 m); As static (Nm); R raza rotorului (R = 0,4512 m); Asaria
2 2
turbine swept area (As=0.9023 m ); q freestream mturat de rotor (As=0,9023 m ); qpresiunea
dynamic pressure. This pressure is calculated by dinamic a curentului de aer. Aceasta se calculeaz
means of the following formula: conform relaiei urmtoare:
q = 0.5 v2 (2) q = 0.5 v2 (2)
3 3
where: - freestream density ( = 1.185 kg/m ) Unde: - densitatea aerului ( = 1,185 kg/m )
v - freestream velocity. v - viteza vntului.
So, formula (1) becomes: Aadar, formula (1) devine:
Q Q
C q = 4.146 (3) C q = 4.146 (3)
v2 v2

The CFD Model Modelul CFD


The CFD model replicate the physical one at a Modelul CFD reproduce modelul fizic la scara 1:1. De
scale of 1:1. There are also placed walls at the same asemenea modelul include perei plasai la aceeai distan
distances like the walls of the wind tunnel. However, ca i n cazul tunelului de vnt din experimentrile reale.
related hardware like rotors frame, fixing cables, stand, Exist ns i elemente care nu au fost incluse n model
was not modeled as there are no data regarding the (cadrul rotorului, cablurile de fixare), ntruct nu au existat
exact placement and dimensions of these components. date suficiente privind dimensiunile i poziia acestora.
A commercial CFD software (ANSYS CFX) which Programul comercial utilizat (ANSYS CFX) dispune
comprises various viscosity turbulence models was de numeroi algoritmi de modelare a curgerii turbulente. n
used. In the RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) abordarea RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes),
equations, the Reynolds stress tensor is: tensorul efortului unitar este determinat cu relaia:
2 v v j 2 v v j
v i' v 'j = k ij t i + (4) v i' v 'j = k ij t i + (4)
3 xi xi 3 xi xi

In this equation, the prime denotes the variable part n aceast ecuaie, apostroful denot componenta
of the speed, and the overline is the averaged value. variabil a vitezei, valoarea medie fiind evideniat prin
The isotropic part of the tensor is 2k/3, where k is the supraliniere. Termenul izotropic al tensorului este 2k/3,
turbulent kinetic energy. The anisotropic part is a unde k reprezint energia cinetic turbulent. Termenul
function of the turbulent kinetic viscosity t and the anizotropic depinde inclusiv de viscozitatea cinematic
mean strain rate tensor. v t.
In the k- model, t depends on the turbulent n modelul k-, vt depinde de disiparea energiei
energy dissipation and the turbulent kinetic energy k. turbulente i de energia cinetic turbulent k. Dei
Even it is characterized by robustness and reasonable este caracterizat de robustee i de o acuratee
accuracy, when faced with non-equilibrium boundary rezonabil, atunci cnd apar probleme de neechilibru n
layers this model tends to predict too late the onset of stratul de separaie acest model tinde s prevad prea

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separation and to under-predict the amount of trziu i s subevalueze cantitativ fenomenul de


separation. This can result in an optimistic machine separaie. Se poate ajunge astfel la o evaluare prea
performance prediction. optimist a performanelor instalaiei.
In the k- model of Wilcox (2002) t is calculated n modelul k- (Wilcox, 2002), t se calculeaz n
as a function of the turbulence frequency and funcie de frecvena turbulenelor i de energia
turbulence kinetic energy k. This model is well behaved cinetic turbulent k. Modelul este adecvat pentru zonele de
in the near-wall regions, where low Reynolds number curgere din apropierea pereilor, unde nu sunt necesare
corrections are not required. On the other hand, it is corecii ale valorilor numrului lui Reynolds. Este sensibil
sensitive to the freestream values of . ns la turbulenele din zonele de curgere liber.
Being one of the most effective, the Shear Stress Modelul SST (Shear Stress Transport) al lui Menter
Transport (SST) model of Menter (1994) activates the (1994) este unul dintre cele mai eficiente, datorit
k- model in the near-wall region, and the k- model in faptului c activeaz modelul k- n zonele din
the outer wake region and in free shear layers. apropierea pereilor i k- pentru zonele (turbulente sau
Moreover, the definition of eddy viscosity is modified to nu) de curgere liber. Mai mult dect att, n definirea
account for the transport of the principal turbulent shear stress. viscozitii turbulente intr i efortul unitar turbulent principal.
Because of its accurate predictions of the onset n aceast analiz s-a utilizat modelul turbulent
and the amount of flow separation under adverse SST datorit acurateii cu care poate anticipa apariia
pressure gradients, the SST turbulence model was fenomenului de separare a curgerii si amploarea
used for the present computations. The inflation acestuia. Ca urmare a faptului c intervin fore portante,
process is highly recommended in simulations involving fore rezistente i cderi importante de presiune, n
lift, drag or pressure drop in the model. By means of discretizarea modelului s-a utilizat procedeul de inflaie
inflation, finite elements were generated starting from (generarea elementelor finite prin expandarea lor
the blade surface towards the fluid. As a result, the grid dinspre suprafaele solide ctre fluid), obinndu-se o
near the turbines walls has a smaller grid length scale scar mic de lungime a gridului pe o direcie
in the direction perpendicular to the wall (fig. 2). perpendicular pe turbin (fig. 2).
For a good resolution of the solution it is important Pentru o rezoluie bun a rezultatului, trebuie ca n
to have at least 10 nodes in the boundary layer. stratul limit s existe minim 10 noduri. De aceea, s-a
Inflation was applied with the condition to have a y+ impus ca numrul y+ s nu depeasc 2. Distana
number below 2. The dimensionless wall distance y+, adimensional y+, msurat pornind de la perete, este
which indicates the fineness of the grid near walls, is o msur a fineii gridului n apropierea pereilor i se
based on the distance y from the wall to the first node determin pe baza distanei y dintre perete i primul
and the shear stress : nod i efortul unitar :
y y y y
y + = v = (5) y + = v = (5)

a) b)
Figure 2 - (a) 2D grid; (b) detail at the tip of the rotor / (a) Reea 2D; (b) detaliu la vrful rotorului

The size of the energy containing eddies is Pentru a specifica mrimea vortexurilor purttoare
specified by means of integral length scale. In the de energie se utilizeaz scara integral de lungime. n
absence of experimental reports, it is recommended to absena unor rapoarte experimentale, se recomand s
use a length scale based on the size of the object over se utilizeze o scar de lungime raportat la mrimea
which flow is moving. Taking into consideration other obiectului peste care are loc curgerea. Lund n
estimated values mentioned in similar problems and considerare estimri din studii similare (Garg, 2002), s-
examples (Garg, 2002), it was assumed to be 5% of the a admis o valoare de 5% din diametrul ariei mturate
swept area diameter, which leads to a rounded value of de rotor, ceea ce se traduce printr-o valoare de
4.5 cm. aproximativ 4,5 cm.
The residence time for the fluid in the domain was Scara maxim de timp a fost asimilat perioadei de
chosen as the maximum simulation timescale. The CFD reziden a fluidului n domeniul studiat. Modulul de
solver will start with a conservative time scale that rezolvare CFD va ncepe cu o scar de timp conservativ
gradually increases towards the fluid residence time as care va crete gradual pn la valoarea maxim, n timp ce
the residuals decrease. valorile reziduale semnificnd precizia de calcul descresc.

SIMULATION SIMULAREA
The simulation was performed on an Intel Core 2 Simularea s-a realizat pe un sistem dotat cu
CPU, with 1.66 GHz and 1.0 GB of RAM. In order to procesor Intel Core 2 CPU la o frecven de 1,66 MHz
establish a very good degree of convergence of the i cu 1.0 GB memorie RAM. Pentru o bun precizie de

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solution, a tight target Root Mean Square (RMS) of 5e- calcul i convergen a soluiei, s-a adoptat o valoare
6 was established. The CFD software calculates the rezidual medie limit (RMS - Root Mean Square) de
RMS residual by taking all of the residuals throughout 5e-6. Programul calculeaz valoarea RMS ca rdcin
the domain, squaring them, taking the mean, and then ptrat din media ptratelor valorilor reziduale de pe
taking the square root of the mean. ntreg domeniul studiat.
Even the solver uses a robust formulation that Dei algoritmul programului poate accelera
allows accelerated convergence with relatively large convergena chiar i prin folosirea unor valori mari ale
timesteps, in case of 2 wind speeds (13, respectively 28 pailor de timp, n cazul a dou viteze ale vntului (13
m/s), the resulting convergence behavior was bouncy. i 28 m/s) convergena a avut un caracter instabil, astfel
Up to 3 simulation for each of them were made, with nct a fost necesar efectuarea a cte 3 simulri
higher grid densities (fig. 2a), variations of timescales pentru fiecare caz, cu densiti ale gridului din ce n ce
and of the RMS residuals (up to 1e-5), until a smooth mai fine (fig. 2a), variaii ale scrii de timp i ale valorii
numerical stability was obtained. For all of them the limit RMS (pn la 1e-5). De fiecare dat timpul de
calculation time and number of iterations were calcul i numrul de iteraii au fost semnificativ mai mari
significantly longer than in the other cases. Figure 3 dect pentru celelalte viteze. Figura 3 prezint
shows velocity gradient around and in close proximity to gradientul vitezelor n jurul i n vecintatea pereilor
the rotors walls, for 7m/s wind speed. rotorului, la o vitez a vntului de 7m/s.
Based on the computed torque, equation 3 was Pe baza cuplului calculat de program, s-a utilizat
used to calculate the torque coefficient. Table 1 ecuaia 3 pentru a determina coeficientul momentului
presents the computed results for each wind speed the static. Tabelul 1 prezint aceste rezultate pentru
simulation was performed for. diverse viteze ale vntului.

Figure 3 - Velocity gradient around the rotor / Gradientul vitezelor n jurul rotorului

Table 1 - Computed Cq vs. wind speed Tabelul 1 - Valorile Cq n funcie de vitez


Nr. Wind speed Torque Nr. Viteza vntului Moment
Cq Cq
crt. (m/s) (Nm) crt. (m/s) (Nm)
1. 7 1.382 0.1169 1. 7 1.382 0.1169
2. 10 2.914 0.1208 2. 10 2.914 0.1208
3. 13 5.011 0.1229 3. 13 5.011 0.1229
4. 16 7.690 0.1245 4. 16 7.690 0.1245
5. 19 10.958 0.1259 5. 19 10.958 0.1259
6. 22 14.816 0.1269 6. 22 14.816 0.1269
7. 25 19.273 0.1278 7. 25 19.273 0.1278
8. 28 24.326 0.1286 8. 28 24.326 0.1286

Figures 4 and 5 show the graphical representations Dup cum se observ din figurile 4 i 5 (realizate
of data from table 1. As it was expected, static torque pe baza valorilor din tabelul 1), momentul static are o
has a permanent ascending trend with wind speed. tendin ascendent cu viteza vntului, ceea ce era de
However, the static torque coefficient will hit a ateptat. Pe de alt parte, coeficientul de moment tinde
maximum and then its value is expected to decrease. . s ating un palier, dup care valoarea acestuia va scade.

30.0 0.1300

0.1280
25.0

0.1260
20.0

0.1240
Q (Nm)

Cq

15.0
0.1220

10.0
0.1200

5.0
0.1180

0.0 0.1160
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Wind speed (m/s) Wind speed (m/s)

Figure 4 - Static torque at an angle of attack Figure 5 - Representation of the static torque coefficient vs.
of 1150 vs. wind speed / Variaia cuplului static la unghiul de wind speed / Variaia coeficientului momentuluistatic cu viteza
atac de 115 cu viteza vntului vntului

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In order to find the trend curves for static torque and Pentru a trasa curbele de regresie pentru cuplul
torque coefficient, there were used a power equation, static i coeficientul de moment static, s-au determinat dou
respectively a 4-th degree polynomial one: ecuaii: o ecuaie putere, respectiv o polinomial de gradul 4:
Q = 0.0249 v2.067 (6) Q = 0.0249 v2.067 (6)

Cq = 11 . 45 10 8 v 4 + 9 .41 10 6 v 3 Cq = 11 . 45 10 8 v 4 + 9 . 41 10 6 v 3
(7) (7)
4 3
2 .93 10 v + 4 . 457 10 v + 0 .097
2

2 . 93 10 4 v 2 + 4 . 457 10 3 v + 0 . 097
The tare torque in Sandia experimentations was of Momentul rezistent datorat frecrilor din lagre a
the order of 0.68 Nm. Supposing that the turbine stays fost, n cazul experimentrilor Sandia, de 0,68 Nm.
0
at an angle of attack of 115 , it is now possible to Presupunnd c unghiul de atac al rotorului este de
0
predict the starting wind speed under no load regime. 115 , se poate calcula viteza de pornire n absena
Equation 6 becomes: ncrcrii. Ecuaia 6 devine:
0.0249 v2.067 0.68 = 0 (8) 0.0249 v2.067 0.68 = 0 (8)
After solving it, it is found that the starting wind speed is de unde rezult c viteza de autopornire este v=4.95
v=4.95 m/s, which is extremely close to the effective m/s, valoare foarte apropiat de cele tipice, determinate
values. pentru acest tip de turbine.
The derivative of equation 7 is: Derivata ecuaiei 7 este:
7 6
C q' = 4 . 58 10 7 v 3 + 28 . 23 10 6 v 2 C q' = 4 . 58 10 v 3 + 28 . 23 10 v 2
(9) 4 3
(9)
5 . 85 10 4 v + 4 . 457 10 3 5 . 85 10 v + 4 . 457 10
The solution of this equation for C q' = 0 is Soluia acesteia pentru C q' = 0 este v=29,4 m/s i
v=29.4 m/s, which represents the wind speed reprezint acea vitez a vntului pentru care
0
corresponding to the maximum static torque coefficient, coeficientul momentului static la un unghi de 115 este
0 maxim. Este ns evident faptul c aceast valoare se
for an angle of attack of 115 . It is however obvious that
this value is far away from normal wind speeds and afl mult n afara domeniului vitezelor de exploatare i
feasible turbine designs. proiectare a turbinelor.

CONCLUSIONS CONCLUZII
The Savonius type wind turbines are drag-based Momentul de rotaie care pune n micare
devices, which mean they rotate due to the difference instalaiile de tip Savonius apare ca urmare a diferenei
between the velocity of the air impinging on the blade dintre viteza aerului care mpinge asupra unei cupe i
and the velocity immediately downwind of the blade. viteza curentului de aer aflat imediat n spatele cupei.
The air-flow around the blades is turbulent, so inflation Curgerea din jurul turbinei este turbulent, astfel nct
is necessary during the meshing process for boundary se impune generarea elementelor finite n stratul limit
layer resolution. de separaie prin utilizarea inflaiei.
With a tare torque of 0.68 Nm, the calculated Considernd un moment rezistent n lagre de 0,68 Nm,
starting wind speed is v=4.95 m/s, which is extremely s-a calculat viteza de autopornire v=4,95 m/s, foarte
close to the effective values. apropiat de cele tipice, corespunztoare acest tip de turbin.
Computed static torque has a permanent ascending Momentul static are o tendin ascendent cu
trend with wind speed, while the static torque coefficient viteza vntului, n timp ce coeficientul Cq va atinge un
will hit a maximum when wind speed will reach 29.4 palier pentru o vitez a vntului de 29,4 m/s, dup care
m/s, and then its value is expected to decrease. valoarea acestuia se va reduce.

REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAFIE
[1]. Blackwell, B.F., R.E. Sheldahl, L.V., Feltz, 1977. [7]. Blackwell, B.F., R.E. Sheldahl, L.V., Feltz, 1977.
Wind Tunnel Performance Data for Two- and Three- Wind Tunnel Performance Data for Two- and Three-
Bucket Savonius Rotors. Sandia Laboratories, Bucket Savonius Rotors. Sandia Laboratories,
Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87115. Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87115.
[2]. Ferreira, C.S., G., Bussel, G., Kuik, 2007. 2D CFD [8]. Ferreira, C.S., G., Bussel, G., Kuik, 2007. 2D CFD
simulation of dynamic stall on a vertical axis wind simulation of dynamic stall on a vertical axis wind
turbine: verification and validation with PIV turbine: verification and validation with PIV
th th
measurements. In: 45 AIAA Aerospace Sciences measurements. In: 45 AIAA Aerospace Sciences
Meeting and Exhibit. Reno, Nevada, 8-11 January Meeting and Exhibit. Reno, Nevada, 8-11 January
2007. 2007.
[3]. Garg, V.K., 2002. Low-Pressure Turbine Separation [9]. Garg, V.K., 2002. Low-Pressure Turbine Separation
Control Comparison with Experimental Data. Control Comparison with Experimental Data.
NASA/CR-2002-211689. NASA/CR-2002-211689.
[4]. Johnson, G.L., 2001. Wind Energy Systems [10]. Johnson, G.L., 2001. Wind Energy Systems
(Electronic Edition). Manhattan KS. (Electronic Edition). Manhattan KS.
[5]. Menter, F.R., 1994. Two-Equation Eddy-Viscosity [11]. Menter, F.R., 1994. Two-Equation Eddy-Viscosity
Turbulence models for Engineering Applications. AIAA Turbulence models for Engineering Applications. AIAA
J., 26: 1299-1310. J., 26: 1299-1310.
[6]. Wilcox, D.C., 2002. Turbulence Modeling for CFD. [12]. Wilcox, D.C., 2002. Turbulence Modeling for CFD.
DCW Industries, 2nd Edn. ISBN-10: 192872910X. DCW Industries, 2nd Edn. ISBN-10: 192872910X.
ISBN-13: 9781928729105. ISBN-13: 9781928729105.

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SOILS MAPPING INFORMATION SYSTEM


/
SISTEM INFORMAIONAL PENTRU CARTAREA SOLURILOR
Dr. eng. V. Muraru, dr. eng. I. Pirn, math. P. Crdei, dr. eng. C. Ionel-Muraru, student T. Ticu
- INMA Bucharest, Romania -

Abstract. In the present paper there is presented a Rezumat. n prezenta lucrare este prezentat o metod
modern method of mapping the properties of agricultural modern de cartare a proprietilor solurilor agricole cu
soils using mobile sensor platform and NIR ajutorul platformei mobile cu senzori i a spectrofotometrului NIR,
spectrophotometer, the latest generation of technology, tehnologie de ultim generaie furnizat de Veris. Realizarea
provided by Veris. Making maps of soil properties is hrilor cu proprietile solului se realizeaz pe baza datelor
carried out based on data collected in real time from colectate n timp real din sol, pe baz de spectrofotometrie i
ground, based on spectrophotometry and geo-spatial a coordonatelor geospaiale furnizate de Sistemul de
coordinates, provided by the Global Positioning System Poziionare Global (GPS). Proprietile solului cartate cu
(GPS). The soil properties accurately mapped within a precizie n interiorul unui cmp constituie o provocare att
field is a challenge for scientists in the field, and for pentru oamenii de tiin din domeniu, ct i pentru fermierii
farmers using precision agriculture, also. Using active care utilizeaz agricultura de precizie. Utilizarea senzorilor
sensors for soil variability in order to define its variability, activi pentru sol n scopul conturrii variabilitii acestuia,
together with laboratory calibrations lead to improved mpreun cu calibrrile de laborator conduc la mbuntirea
accuracy of the maps of soil constituents. On-the-go soil preciziei hrilor constituenilor solului. Tehnologia activ de
technology can be categorized as: electrical / cartare a solului poate fi clasificat ca: electric / electromagnetic,
electromagnetic, optical / radiometric, electro-chemical, optic / radiometric, electro-chimic, mecanic, acustic i
mechanical, acoustic and pneumatic. Currently, worldwide pneumatic. n prezent, pe plan mondial exista politici
there are public policy action that involves measurements publice de aciune care implic msurtori ale solului. Una
of the soil. One of them refers to the identification dintre acestea se refer la precizia identificrii nivelurilor
accuracy isolating carbon levels in soil and hence the izolrilor de carbon n sol i de aici necesitatea reducerii
need to reduce atmospheric carbon by increasing the carbonului atmosferic prin creterea cantitii de carbon
amount of carbon stored in soil. This would entail working stocat n sol. Acest lucru ar presupune colaborarea cu
with farmers to determine the amount of carbon in their fermierii pentru determinarea cantitii de carbon din solurile
soils, requiring accurate measurements to verify the lor, necesitnd msurtori precise pentru verificarea cantitii
amount of carbon stored. Measurements made to de carbon stocate. Msurtorile realizate pentru determinarea
determine changes in levels of carbon from soil is modificrilor la nivelurile de carbon din sol sunt dificile,
difficult, because increasing the amount of carbon deoarece, creterea cantitii de carbon probabil (presupus)
probable (expected) is small relative to the amount of este mic relativ la cantitatea de variabilitate a carbonului din
carbon variability within many fields. While farmers may interiorul multor cmpuri. n timp ce fermierii sunt ngrijorai n
be anxious to collect payments for sequestering C, privina costurilor pentru izolarea carbonului i a emisiilor de
nitrous oxide emissions from excess nitrogen applied in oxid de azot provenite din fertilizrile excesive cu azot ale
crop production make agriculture a significant contributor culturilor, agricultura devine un important furnizor de emisii de
of greenhouse gas emissions. gaze cu efect de ser.

Key words: mapping, soil, spectrophotometer, GPS, soil Cuvinte cheie: cartare, sol, spectrofotometru, GPS, harta
properties maps proprietilor solului

INTRODUCTION INTRODUCERE
Mapping represents action tracking on field and Cartarea reprezint aciunea de urmrire pe teren i
transposition through conventional signs and colors, on transpunere prin semne i culori convenionale, pe hri
topographic maps of the spread and characteristics of topografice a rspndirii i a caracterelor diferitelor
various elements in nature (rocks, geological formations, elemente din natur (roci, formaiuni geologice, ape,
water, soils, etc.). soluri, etc.).
The soil properties accurately mapped within a field Proprietile solului cartate cu precizie n interiorul unui cmp
is a challenge for scientists in the field, and for farmers constituie o provocare att pentru oamenii de tiin din domeniu,
using precision agriculture, also. ct i pentru fermierii care utilizeaz agricultura de precizie.
Using active sensors for soil variability in order to Utilizarea senzorilor activi pentru sol n scopul conturrii
define its variability, together with laboratory calibrations variabilitii acestuia, mpreun cu calibrrile de laborator
lead to improve accuracy of the maps of soil constituents. conduc la mbuntirea preciziei hrilor constituenilor solului.
The active mapping technology of soil can be Tehnologia activ de cartare a solului poate fi
classified as: electrical / electromagnetic, optical / radiometric, clasificat ca: electric/electromagnetic, optic / radiometric,
electro-chemical, mechanical, acoustic and pneumatic. electro-chimic, mecanic, acustic i pneumatic.
Scientific studies developed in country and abroad Cercetrile tiinifice elaborate att n ar ct i n
have relieved the fundamental role of the soil functions in strintate au reliefat rolul fundamental al solului prin
modification of biodiversity, climate change, environmental funciile acestuia n: modificarea biodiversitii, schimbrile
protection, promotion and development of agriculture as climatice, protecia mediului nconjurtor, promovarea i
a conservative form of sustainable agriculture, economic dezvoltarea agriculturii conservative ca forma a agriculturii
development and prosperity of society. durabile, dezvoltarea economica i prosperitatea societii.
Soil function of environmental protection is very Funcia solului de protecie a mediului nconjurtor este
complex, depending on stability, quality and nature of the deosebit de complex, depinznd de stabilitatea, calitatea i
macro and microporous soil system. natura sistemului macro i microporos al solului.
The porous system of the soil is controlling transport Sistemul poros al solului este cel care controleaz

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processes of solutions to the plant, through reticular procesele de transport al soluiilor spre plant prin masa
mass to groundwater, or surface waters, and which radicular, spre freatic, sau spre apele de suprafa, i
absorbed toxic chemical components, makes this act as care, absorbind componenii chimici toxici, face ca acest
a buffer and filtering. mediu s acioneze ca un sistem tampon i de filtrare.
Therefore, permanent monitoring of the soil quality De aceea, monitorizarea permanent a strii de calitate a
state at farm level, adjustment of chemical fertilizers and solului, la nivelul fermei, regularizarea consumului de
correct application of all technological components of ngrminte chimice i aplicarea corecta a tuturor
farming systems for growing plants are absolutely componentelor tehnologice ale sistemelor agricole de
necessary. cultivare a plantelor sunt absolut necesare.
To obtain high yields and good quality, a great Pentru obinerea recoltelor mari i de bun calitate, o
importance have chemical fertilizers, which complete the importan deosebit au ngrmintele chimice care
supply of soil nutrients, necessary substances for normal completeaz rezerva de substane nutritive ale solului, substane
growth and development of plants. necesare pentru creterea i dezvoltarea normal a plantelor.
In order to rational application of fertilizer, agricultural n vederea aplicrii raionale a ngrmintelor,
chemistry consider that one of its important tasks consist agrochimia consider c una din sarcinile ei importante
in determination of soil nutrients, soil analysis and const n determinarea substanele nutritive din sol, analiza
especially determining their needs. solurilor i mai ales stabilirea necesarului acestora.
Supply of available nutrients from the soil is not Rezerva de substane nutritive accesibile din sol nu
represents a stable size, it depends on numerous factors reprezint o mrime stabil, aceasta depinznd de numeroi
such as soil type, geological origin, soil texture and factori, ca de exemplu: tipul de sol, originea geologic,
structure, the biological, climate, etc. textura i structura solului, aciunea biologic, clima, etc.
Therefore, accurate determination of the need of Ca urmare, stabilirea corect a necesarului de
chemical fertilizers is done, taking into account all these ngrminte chimice se face innd seama de toi aceti
factors. factori.
Efficiency of using chemical fertilizer depends not Eficiena folosirii ngrmintelor chimice depinde nu
only on soil composition, and the particularities of culture numai de compoziia solului, dar i de particularitile de
nutrition, also. nutriie ale culturii.
Between the chemical composition of soil and ntre compoziia chimic a solului i compoziia
chemical composition of plants there is a close chimic a plantelor exist o legtur strns i acest
relationship and this reflects one of the basic principles of lucru reflect unul dintre principiile de baz ale biologiei,
biology, that of unity between body and environment in acela al unitii dintre organism i mediul n care triete.
which he lives. Methods used until now have managed to Metodele de analiz utilizate pn in prezent au reuit s
accentuate in plants almost all of the chemical elements pun n eviden n plante aproape toate elementele
of Mendeleevs table. chimice ale tabelului lui Mendeleev.
Assessment of productive capacity, choosing the Evaluarea capacitii productive, alegerea celui mai
most appropriate way to use the land, and cultivation potrivit mod de folosin a terenului, ca i a tehnologiilor
technology based on scientific bases and in relation to de cultivare fundamentate pe baze tiinifice i n raport
the degree of accessibility, contribute to the conservation cu gradul de pretabilitate sau favorabilitate, contribuie la
and sustainable productivity, and thus to increase the creterea i conservarea durabil a productivitii, i
resilience capacity the most sensitive and fragile soils, so astfel la sporirea capacitii de rezilien a celor mai
that improved technological systems have positive sensibile i fragile soluri, aa nct, sistemele tehnologice
synergistic effect. mbuntite au efect sinergic pozitiv.

INFORMATION SYSTEM AND MEASUREMENT THROUGH SISTEM INFORMAIONAL I DE MSURARE PRIN


SATELLITE FOR AGRICULTURAL SOILS MAPPING SATELIT PENTRU CARTAREA SOLURILOR AGRICOLE
Spectrophotometry Spectrofotometria
Spectrophotometry is an optical method of analysis Spectrofotometria este o metod optic de analiz
used in qualitative analysis and quantitative material utilizat att n analize calitative, ct i cantitative a
known or unknown, pure or impure state, falling into the materialelor cunoscute sau necunoscute, n stare pur sau
category of methods for mapping the agricultural soils of impur, ncadrndu-se n categoria metodelor de cartare
last generation. Using measurements taken can a solurilor agricole de ultim generaie. Prin msurtorile
determine the presence or absence of various elements efectuate se poate stabili prezena sau absena diferitelor
or functional groups, and the quantity in which they are elemente sau grupri funcionale, precum i cantitatea n
subject to material analysis. care acestea se gsesc n materialul supus analizei.
Data derived through the spectroscopic measurement is Datele rezultate prin msurare spectroscopic sunt
in the form of a graphical representation of energy absorbed sub forma unei reprezentri grafice a energiei absorbite sau
or emitted, depending on the position of the electromagnetic emise, n funcie de poziia din spectrul electromagnetic.
spectrum. This chart is called the spectrum. Aceast diagram poart numele de spectru.
Spectrometers are being used in commercial Spectrofotometrele sunt utilizate astzi n
agriculture today in milling, forage, meat processing and agricultura comercial: n morrit, furaje, procesarea
more. But using them to measure soil properties is crnii, etc., dar utilizarea acestora pentru msurarea
relatively new. proprietilor solului este relativ nou.
Researchers in laboratory settings have found Cercettorii au gsit n urma analizelor de laborator msurtori
visible and near-infrared reflectance (VIS-NIR) measurements ale reflexiei luminii n spectrul vizibil i n infrarou apropiat
of soil samples correlate to important soil properties such (VIS-NIR) ale eantioanelor de sol, care au fost puse n corelaie
as carbon and nitrogen. cu importante proprieti ale solului, precum carbonul i azotul.
Spectrophotometers move these measurements out to Spectrofotometrele efectueaz aceste msurtori n
the field, providing a platform for research into soil cmp, oferind o platform de cercetare pentru proprietile
properties as they vary within a field. solului, aa cum variaz acestea n interiorul unui cmp.
Someday, technology like this may be used to Spectrofotometria poate fi utilizat pentru a completa sau

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augment or replace traditional lab analyses for other soil nlocui analizele de laborator tradiionale i pentru ali
constituents. All these possibilities require soil research - constitueni ai solului, toate acestea necesitnd cercetri
made possible with tools like the Veris VIS-NIR de sol, posibile cu instrumente performante, precum
Spectrophotometer. spectrofotometrul VIS-NIR.
When light hits soil, molecules react - they vibrate. Cnd lumina lovete moleculele de sol acestea reacioneaz
This vibration absorbs some of the light -how much light prin vibraii, absorbind o parte din lumina. Cantitatea de lumin
is either absorbed or reflected depends on whats in the absorbit sau reflectat depinde de ce se afl n sol. Solurile cu
soil. Soil with strong C-H, N-H, and O-H bonds absorb legturi puternice de C-H, N-H i O-H absorb mai multa lumina,
more light, which is why wet soil or soil with high organic motiv pentru care solurile umede sau cele cu un grad ridicat
matter looks darker, even to the naked eye. de materie organic arat mai ntunecat, chiar i privite cu ochiul liber.
Spectral data, especially in the near-infrared, is Datele spectrale, n special cele in infrarou apropiat sunt
even more powerful. The reflectance signature of a chiar mai puternice. Indicarea semnelor de transpunere a reflexiei
spectrum can be used to measure carbon, nitrogen and unui spectru poate fi folosit pentru msurarea cantitii de
water content of soil, and relate to some soil chemical carbon, azot i a coninutului de ap din sol, ct i a unor
properties as well. proprieti chimice ale solului.
Precision measurement of the quantity of carbon Msurarea cu precizie a cantitii de carbon poate
may be an additional source of income for farmers. constitui o surs suplimentar de venituri pentru fermieri.

Architecture of information system and measurement Arhitectura sistemului informaional i de msurare


through satellite prin satelit
During soil properties mapping can be used an n procesul cartrii proprietilor solului poate fi utilizat
information system which consists mainly of: un sistem informaional care este alctuit in principal din:
- Geostationary satellites - Satelii geostaionari;
- Global Positioning System - GPS or Differential - Sistem de Poziionare Global - GPS sau Sistem de
Global Positioning System - DGPS (correct Poziionare Global Diferenial - DGPS (corecteaz
inaccuracies induced by the GPS system); inexactitile induse de sistemul GPS);
- Laptop for recording and processing data collected - Laptop pentru inregistrarea i procesarea datelor colectate
from the field and for maps of soil properties; din cmp i pentru realizarea hrilor cu proprietile solului;
- Mobile Sensor Platform and NIR Spectrophotometru: - Platform mobil pentru senzori i spectrofomometru NIR:
Temperature sensor  Senzor de temperatur;
Optical sensor  Senzor optic;
Coulters electrodes for electrical conductivity.  Cuite pentru conductivitate electrica.
- Software for processing data collected from field; - Soft pentru procesarea datelor colectate din cmp;
- Geographical Information System - GIS (AutoCAD - Sistem pentru Informatii Geografice GIS (AutoCAD
Civil 3D, ArcGIS, Google Earth); Civil 3D, ArcGIS, Google Earth);
- Software for modeling and simulation of nutrient - Software de modelare si simulare a necesarului de
requirements (virtual maps with nutrients). nutrieni (hri virtuale cu nutrieni).
Figure 1 shows the architecture of information n figura 1 se prezint arhitectura sistemului
system for soils properties mapping. informaional pentru cartarea proprietilor solului.

Fig. 1 - Architecture of information system and measuring through satellite /


Arhitectura sistemului informaional i de msurare prin satelit

Agricultural soils mapping technology - Veris Tehnologia de cartare a solurilor agricole Veris
Veris Technologies Inc., USA have been developed Veris Technologies, Inc., USA a dezvoltat un
a spectrophotometer for measurements in the soil. An on- spectrofotometru pentru msurtori n sol. Cu brzdarul
the-go shank collects VIS-NIR measurements at a discrete activ se colecteaz msurtori la adncime mic, n
depth as it traverses across a field. The on-the-go shank mod continuu. Brzdarul colecteaz msurtori VIS-NIR
collects VIS-NIR measurements (4502200 mm) through a (4502200 mm) printr-o fereastr cu safire eantionate
sapphire window pressed directly against the soil, at a rate of direct de pe sol, la o rat de 20 de spectre /secund cu
20 spectra per second with a an eight nm resolution. o rezoluie de 8 nm.
The shank is equipped with six coulter electrodes, Echipamentul efectueaz i msurtori ale conductivitii
electrice a solului (CE), dispunnd de 6 electrozi de cuit
which measure soil EC at 030 cm and 090 cm arrays.
care msoar CE a solului n serii de 030 cm i 090 cm.

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Fig. 2. Senzor optic / Optical sensor

At the heart of the VIS-NIR system is the optical In partea centrala a sistemului VIS-NIR se afl
shoe - the soil-engaging part of the shank. sabotul optic, pies ce face legtura dintre sol i brzdar
On the bottom of the shoe is a nitrite-hardened wear In partea de jos a sabotului se afl o talp rigid ce
plate containing a sapphire window. Inside the intricately conine o fereastr cu safire. n interior se afla un tub
machined housing is a tungsten halogen bulb that halogen wolfram care lumineaz solul printr-o fereastr
illuminates the soil through the window, and an optic that i un ochi (optic) - receptor care direcioneaz lumina
directs reflected light into a fiber-optic cable for reflectat spre un cablu cu fibre optice pentru transmisie
transmission to the spectrometer. ctre spectrometru.
In front there is a fluted coulter which slices through n fa se afl un cuit care taie resturile vegetale,
field residue and cuts a slit in the soil, followed by the realiznd o brazd, fiind urmat de sabotul cu senzorul
shoe with optical sensor. optic.

Fig. 3 - Echipamentul VIS-NIR n timpul lucrului / Fig. 4 - Detaliu brzdar cu senzor optic /
VIS-NIR shank during work Detail shank with optical sensor

Veris spectrophotometer collecting VIS-NIR Spectrofotometrul Veris realizeaz msurtori de


measurements at a discrete depth as it traverses across absorban ale solului n timp ce este tractat pe cmp.
a field. Also, the device can be set as stationary mode in De asemenea, aparatul poate fi setat n modul staionar n
the laboratory for measurements of samples of absorbers laborator pentru realizarea msurrilor de absorban
(the samples). ale eantioanelor (mostrelor).
Method of determining the properties of soil Metoda determinrii proprietilor componentelor
components using NIRS spectrophotometric method solului cu ajutorul spectrofotometrului NIRS are la baz
based on infrared spectroscopy. metoda spectroscopiei n infrarou.

Fig. 5 - System diagram / Diagrama sistemului

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The Veris NIR spectrophotometer is controlled by a Spectrofotometrul Veris NIR este controlat de un
PC-based operating system, which ensure instrument sistem de operare pe baz de PC, care asigur controlul
control, data-recording, and data standardization instrumentului, nregistrarea datelor i funciile de baza
functions. pentru procesarea datelor.
The principal date registered: Date principale nregistrate:
- Soil reflectance measurements in a wide - Msurtori are reflectantei solului intr-un spectru
range; larg;
- Content carbon measurements by - Coninut de carbon prin interpretare msurtori
spectral interpretation. spectrale.
The auxiliary data recorded: Datele auxiliare nregistrate:
- Electrical Conductivity Shallow (EC_SH); - Conductivitatea Electric Superficial;
- Electrical Conductivity Deep (EC_DP); - Conductivitate Electric de Adncime;
- Soil Temperature. - Temperatura solului.

Fig. 6 - Soil electrical conductivity (EC) coulter- electrod / Cuite pentru msurarea conductivitii electrice a solului

Fig. 7 - Soil maps - soil carbon content / Hri de sol - coninutul de carbon din sol

CONCLUSIONS CONCLUZII
- Precision agriculture gives place to a new - Agricultura de precizie face loc unei noi metodologii
methodology (which is targeted by a new agricultural (aceasta intete ctre un nou sistem agricol) care
system) may be one of the keys to sustainable agriculture; poate fi una din cheile agriculturii durabile;
- Favorable development opportunities for precision - Oportunitile favorabile dezvoltrii agriculturii de
agriculture: precizie:
 ability to understand the complexity of  capacitatea de a nelege complexitatea
farming systems - a systemic and holistic sistemelor agricole o abordare sistemic i
approach, through precision measurements holistic prin msurtori de precizie a
of soil composition; compoziiei solului;
 ability to monitoring the phenomena and  capacitatea de a monitoriza fenomenele i sistemele
systems - computer - controlled data acquisition; - calculator achiziionarea controlat a datelor;
 achievements in IT filed: hardware, software and  realizrile in domeniul tehnicii de calcul: hardware,
databases allow this approach; software i baze de date permit aceast abordare;
 improvements of interpretations and methods of  mbuntiri ale interpretrilor i metodelor de
calculation: statistical modeling, simulation; calcul: statistic, modelare, simulare;
 through soil mapping is opening the way of  prin cartarea solului se deschide calea sistemelor
decision support systems for agriculture, suport de decizie pentru agricultur bazate pe
based on data collected from the field; date culese din teren;
 modern measurements based on  msurtorile moderne bazate pe
spectrophotometry make their appearance spectrofotometrie i fac apariia i n
in agriculture; agricultur;
 analysis of soil properties and the role of  analiza proprietilor solului i rolul elementelor
the nutrients elements for crop growth and nutritive pentru creterea i dezvoltarea
agricultural development, are key factors in culturilor agricole sunt factori determinani n
developing a sustainable agriculture; dezvoltarea unei agriculturi durabile;

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 analysis of fertilizers for agriculture and their  analiza ngrmintelor pentru agricultur i
regulate administration will be the basic cadrul reglementat al administrrii lor va fi
element in the development of precision elementul de baz n elaborarea metodelor
agriculture methods in the mapping and agriculturii de precizie in cartarea si distribuirea
distribution of soil nutrients needed; nutrienilor necesari solului;
 the information system for agricultural soils  sistemul informaional de cartare a solului
mapping open the way to researches, as deschide calea cercetrilor, ca pe baza
base of soil absorbance measurements can msurtorilor de absorban a solului s se
determinate other elements of interest in poat determina alte elemente de interes in
soil composition; compoziia solului;
 through mapping, the system may contribute to  prin cartare, sistemul poate contribui la
reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. reducerea emisiei de gaze cu efect de sera.

BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAFIE
[1]. E.D. Lund, G. Kweon, C. R. Maxton, P. E. [1]. E.D. Lund, G. Kweon, C. R. Maxton, P. E. Drummond,
Drummond, Soil carbon and nitrogen mapping: How Soil carbon and nitrogen mapping: How these relate to
these relate to new markets and public policy new markets and public policy
[2]. http://www.veristech.com [2]. http://www.veristech.com

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SOME INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENT FIELD WORK FOR TRACTOR GUIDANCE SYSTEM


AND SEEDER USING GPS NAVIGATION
/
INVESTIGAII PRIVIND CMPUL DE LUCRU EFICIENT PENTRU SISTEMUL DE GHIDARE A
UNUI TRACTOR I SEMNTOARE FOLOSIND NAVIGAIA GPS

Atanas Atanasov*, Keiichi Inoue**, Valentin Vldut***


*University of Rousse, 8 Studentska Str., 7017 Rousse, Bulgaria
**National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region
Lowland Crop Rotation Research Team, Hitsujigaoka 1 Toyohira-ku, 062-8555 Sapporo, Japan
***National Research - Development Institute for Machines and Installations Designed
to Agriculture and Food Industry

Abstract: Some problems of investigation of tractor Rezumat: In lucrare se prezint cteva probleme de
guidance system and seeder of precision farming using investigare a sistemului de conducere a tractorului i de
GPS are discussed. A tractor guidance system is semnat n sistemul agriculturii de precizie folosind GPS. Se
developed to support the operator to control the tractor dezvolt sistemul de ghidare pentru a sprijinii operatorul s
trucking the target line in the field for plowing, fertilizing, controleze tractorul n efectuarea operaiilor de arat, fertilizat,
pesticide spraying, sowing, harvesting, manuring ,etc. In stropit cu pesticide, semnat, recoltat, aplicat ngrminte,
the system, an alternative integration solution basing on etc. n cadrul sistemului s-a dezvoltat o soluie de integrare
nd
standard 2 Kalman Filter (KF) [1] algorism was alternativ pe baza celui de al doilea standard - Filtrul Kalman
developed. The system not only estimate more accurate (KF). Sistemul estimeaz nu numai datele timpului real cu
real-time data, but also strengthens the state predicting mult acuratee, dar ntrete i funcia de predicie, lund n
function, considering the delay of the driving operation. considerare ntrzierea operaiei de condus. Au fost efectuate
The experimental investigations were carried out in investigaii suplimentare n domeniile experimentale ale
experimental fields of National Agriculture Research Centrului Naional de Cercetare Agricol pentru Regiunea
Center for Hokkaido Region in Japan. A semi-crawler Hokkaido, Japonia. S-a folosit un tractor cu semi-enile
tractor KUBOTA.M90-PC FQ1BMAL, 90PS (66kW) by KUBOTA M 90 - PC FQ1BMAL, 90 PS (66KW) cu aparat de
seeder with work width 2,56 m was used. The method of semnat la o adncime de lucru de 2,50 m. Metoda
field experiment includes the next basic steps: experimentului n cmp include urmtoarele etape de baz:
measurement the point coordinate of 4 corners of the msurarea coordonatei de poziie n cele 4 coluri ale
field, introduction work width of the work machine, terenului, introducerea adncimii de lucru a mainii, distana
distance between the GPS - work machine, outline of the dintre GPS main, conturarea terenului, desfurarea
field, a work course. In consequence of the field lucrului. n consecin, dup experiment se calculeaz i se
experiment is competed and evaluated offset error of the evalueaz o eroare de deviaie a liniei traseului proiectat
design trace line for RTK and DGPS. pentru RTK i DGPS.

Keywords: GPS, Guidance, Navigation, Filtering, Tractor, Cuvintele cheie: GPS, ghidare, navigare, filtrare, tractor,
Seeder, Kalman filter semntoare, filtru Kalman.

INTRODUCTION INTRODUCERE
Adaptation and integration to the open and dynamic Adaptarea i integrarea ntr-o pia european dinamic
European market is one of the greatest challenges for i deschis este una dintre cele mai mari provocri
Bulgaria as new member of the European Union. pentru Bulgaria ca non-membru al Uniunii Europene.
A long-year experiment in the agricultural Un experiment de un an n producia apicol factori
production, favorable nature factors, rich relief, climate climatici favorabili, un relief bogat, diversitatea climatului,
diversity, the lack of serious pollutants are preconditions lipsa poluanilor severi sunt pre-condiii pentru o
for successful development of agriculture in the country. dezvoltare cu succes a agriculturii n ar.
Notwithstanding the good preconditions, during the last Chiar dac nu negm pre-condiiile favorabile, n
years there have been observed also some disturbing ultimii ani au fost totui observate unele tendine
tendencies. stnjenitoare.
The continuous depopulating in the rural regions and Depopularea continu din regiunile rurale i vrsta
olden population in these places, the lack of necessary naintat a populaiei din aceste zone, lipsa de specialiti
enough specialists leads to curtly increasing of the need of a dus la creterea acut a necesitii de muncitori
laboring workers for an unit cultivated area, which turns out agricoli pentru o zon unitar cultivat care are o
to make a substantial influence on the quality of the influen substanial asupra calitii operaiilor agricole
executed agricultural operations. executate.
The problems of similar kind there can be observed Probleme de acelai gen pot fi observate i n
on the Japanese island Hokkaido. The execution of the insula Japonez Hohhaido. Executarea operaiilor
agricultural operations for a short time interval in an agricole pentru un interval scurt de timp intr-un moment
appropriate moment it is difficult due to the changing corespunztor este dificil datorit condiiilor meteoorologice
meteorological conditions on the island. Thus leading to schimbtoarede pe insul. De aceea, muli fermieri sunt
that reason many farmers are obliged to work for a obligai s lucreze pentru o perioad mai lung de timp
longer time in the proper moment. ntr-un moment potrivit.
The high grade of the mechanized processes of the Gradul nalt al proceselor mecanizate la scar
large scale areas, the lack of enough specialists are mare, lipsa specialitilor sunt probleme care duc la

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problems, leading to the search of new decisions, such as cutarea unor noi decizii, cum ar fi dezvoltarea i
the developments and application of IT technologies for aplicarea de tehnologii IT pentru execuia de precizie i
precision execution and management of the mechanized managementul proceselor mecanizate, cum ar fi
processes, such as the development of simulation models, dezvoltarea modelelor de simulare, a produselor pe baz
web-based products and etc. web, etc.
In accordance to the needs of the farmers, during n conformitate cu cerinele fermierilor, n timpul
the recent years an object of investigation of the ultimilor ani, un obiect de investigare a agriculturii de
precision agriculture in Japan is the application and the precizie n Japonia este reprezentat de aplicarea i
implementation of GPS guidance systems in the implementarea sistemelor de ghidare GPS pentru
agricultural machines. By the implementation of these mainile agricole. Prin implementare acestor sisteme,
systems, the conduction of processes such as, tillage, procese ca lucratul pmntului, fertilizarea, semnatul i
fertilizing, sowing, and harvesting which have been recoltarea sunt efectuate cu precizie [2] i eficient. De
worked out precisely and effectively [2]. The working asemenea, datele de lucru pot fi strnse mai uor i mai
data can also be collected more simply and precisely for precis prin analiza post-economic sau o alt analiz
post economic or other useful analysis. A leading role in util. Un rol cheie n investigarea acestor sisteme ca
the investigation of these systems as integrating DGPS DGPS de integrare i senzor Gyro 3D n sistemul de
and 3D Gyro sensor in tractor guidance system for ghidare a tractorului pentru agricultura de precizie [3] l
precision farming [3] has the department of Agricultural are departamentul de maini Agricole de la Centrul
Machinery from the National Agricultural Research Naional de Cercetare-Regiunea Hokkaido - cu
Center Region Hokkaido with a leader Ph.D. Keiichi conductorul su - Dr. ing. Keichi Inone. Sub conducerea
Inoue. Under his leadership we made mutual acestuia, noi am fcut investigaii experimentale comune
experimental investigations with GPS guidance systems cu sistemele de ghidare GPS i semntoarea pe
and seeder on the territory of the Institute. This paper teritoriul institutului. Aceast lucrare a fost focalizat pe
was focus on the performance evaluation of tractor evaluarea performanei sistemului de ghidare prin
guidance system by integrating DGPS and Gyro sensor integrarea DGPS i a senzorului Gyro n muncile agricole
in farm working and evaluated accuracy by comparing i acurateea evaluat prin compararea cu rezultate de
with RTK positioning results. poziionare RTK.

MATERIAL AND METHOD MATERIAL I METOD


Analysis of the problem is based on investigation of Analiza problemei se bazeaz pe investigarea
tractor guidance system of precision farming using sistemului de ghidare a tractorului pentru agricultura de
GPS. precizie folosind GPS.
The experimental investigations were carried out in Au fost efectuate investigaii suplimentare n dou cmpuri
2 experimental fields of National Agriculture Research experimentale ale Centrului Naional de Cercetare pentru
Center for Hokkaido Region. A semi-crawler tractor Regiunea Hokkaido. Un tractor cu semi-enile RUBOTA M
KUBOTA.M90-PC FQ1BMAL, 90PS (60kW) by seeder 90 -PC FQ1B MAL, 90 PS (60KW) a fost folosit mpreun cu
with work width 2,56 m was used Fig.1. semntoarea lucrnd la o adncime de lucru de 2,56m (Fig.1).
The tractor equipment includes: hardware Echipamentul tractorului include: configuraia hardware
configuration - highly precise GPS (RTK-GPS, SR530 - GPS de mare precizie (RTK-GPS SR 530, fcut de
made in Leica Company, precision 2cm), DG14 receiver Leica Company, de 2 cm de precizie) dispozitiv de
of THALES Corporation and 3 axis Gyros (VSAS-2GM) recepie DG 14 - Corporaia THALES i senzorul Gyro pe
of Tokimec Corporation Fig.3., GPS antennas, notebook 3 axe (VSAS-2GM) al Corporaiei Tokimec, Fig.2, antene
computers; software configuration system software GPS, computere notebook; configuraie software -sistem
GEOSURF SIZE1000 Fig.2. System software software GEOSURF MRIMEA 1000 Fig. 3. Sistemul
(GEOSURF SIZE 1000) was installed in the notebook Software (GEOSURF MRIMEA 1000) a fost instalat n
computer. There are three parts in the software: data calculatorul notebook. Exist trei pri ale software-ului:
recording, data estimation and graphic user interface nregistrarea datelor, estimarea datelor i interfa
(GUI). grafic a utilizatorului (GUI).
Figure 4 shows the flow-chat of the software. The Figura 4 arat schema procesului tehnologic a software-
method of field experiment includes the next basic steps: ului. Metoda experimentrilot n cmp include urmtorii pai
data recording as measurement the point coordinate of 4 de baz: nregistrarea datelor ca i msurarea coordonatei de
corners of the field, introduction work width of the work poziie a celor 4 coluri ale terenului, introducerea adncimii
machine, distance between the GPS - work machine, de lucru a mainii, distana dintre GPS -maina lucrat, forma
work form of the field, a work course. Data estimation terenului, cursul lucrrilor. Estimarea datelor a constat n
was to complete data integrating and filtering, various integrarea i filtrarea datelor complete, calcularea
data calculation, such as KF solution, position diferitelor date, cum ar fi soluia KF, estimarea poziiei,
estimation, navigation data estimation, and farm data estimarea datelor de navigare i a fost inclus i
designing was also included. The coordination system is proiectarea datelor agricole. Sistemul de coordonare este
used Universal Transverse Mercator system (UTM) utilizat n coordonarea sistemului Universal Transverse
coordination or Japan coordination. Figure 5 shows the Mercator (UTM) sau n coordonarea Japoniei. Fig. 5
method of pass planning on the field using system arat metoda de planificare a trecerilor pe teren folosind
software GEOSURF SIZE1000. sistemul software GEOSURF SIZE 1000.
Kalman Filter (KF) solution is the core and basic Soluia Kalman Filter (KF) este partea central i de
part in the system. High accuracy real-time vehicle baz a sistemului. Pentru a ndeplini scopul sistemului
position, velocity, heading angle are necessary to sunt necesare a mare acuratee a poziiei vehiculului n
accomplish the purpose of the system. There are three timp real ca i viteza i unghiul de naintare a acestuia. n
steps in KF solution: 1) Initial alignment, 2) KF Processing, soluia KF exist 3 pai: 1) Alinierea iniial; 2) Procesarea
3) Results Judgment [3]. EXCEL and UTM for data KF; 3) Judecarea rezultatelor [3]. Au fost utilizate:
analysis were used. programele EXCEL i UTM pentru analizarea datelor.

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Figure 1 - Tractor KUBOTA.M90-PC FQ1BMAL, 90PS (66kW) /


Tractor KUBOTA M 90 - PC FQ1 MAL, 90 CP (66KW)

Direction bar

Guidance line

Pitch Roll angle


Offset second after
Offset present time

Attitude Velocity

Figure 2 - GUI of software of guidance system / GUI al software-ului sistemului de ghidare

Figure 3 - Standard guidance system hardware construction /


Construcia hardware a sistemul de ghidare standard

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Fig. 4 - Flow-chat of the software of guidance system / Diagrama software-ului sistemului de ghidare

Figure 5 - Charts of the field using system software GEOSURF SIZE1000 /


Grafice ale cmpului utiliznd sistemul software GEOSURF SIZE1000 /

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION REZULTATE I DISCUII


An important index for effectiveness in using GPS Un indicator important pentru eficiena utilizrii sistemului
tractor guidance system is the determination offset error de ghidare a tractorului prin GPS este determinarea erorii de
between tractor track and designed line in the farm. deviere dintre traseul tractorului i linia proiectat n ferm.
Some results from the done experimental work are Unele rezultate sunt artate n fig. 6 i fig. 7, fig. 8 i
shown on Fig.6, Fig.7, Fig.8, and Fig.9. fig. 9.
Analysing according to the shown on Fig.6 and Fig.7, so this Analiznd n conformitate cu cele artate n Fig. 6 i
has been ascertained that the average values of the estimated Fig. 7 s-a dovedit c valorile medii ale erorilor estimate la
errors at RTK and DG14-GSP are between -0, 5119 m and 1, RTK i DG 14 -GPS sunt cuprinse ntre 0,5119 i
99307 m, as in the less small values can be surveyed at RTK. 1,99307m, avnd n vedere c RTK poate supraveghea
The difference in the achieved errors is comperative in the valorile mai mici. Diferena dintre erorile respective este
two cases, as the big declinations in the beginning of the turnings comparativ n cele dou cazuri pentru c abaterile mari
probably are deserved to the inadvertence of the operator while se datoreaz probabil inadvertenelor svrite de
doing the navigation on the designed line in the farm. operator.
For a difference from the results, obtained in field Ca o diferen fa de rezultatele obinute n cmpul
13, not alike in field 16 the average values of the 13, valorile medii din cmpul 16, ale erorilor estimate
estimated errors are of less values, as at RTK is sunt mai mici, pentru c RTK este 0.277701m,n timp ce
0,277701 m, the while at DG14-GPS is -0,1658 m, with la DG 14-GPS este de 0.1658m, cu mare acuratee
high accuracy for the last. From the results of the pentru cel din urm. Din rezultatele experimentului s-a
experiment, it was shown that combining more accurate artat c, combinnd datele de poziionare mai precise
real-time positioning data and prediction information, the n timp real i informaia de predicie, sistemul ar putea fi
system could be more reliable and efficient. mai fiabil i mai eficient.
160

140

120

100
Latitude(m)

80

60

40

20

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

-20
Longitude(m )

Figure 6 -The track of the tractor on the field 13 and design line of driving / Urma tractorului pe terenul 13 i linia de conducere proiectat

RTK DG

2,5 3
2
2
1,5
1
O ffs e t e r r o r (m )

O ffs e t e r r o r(m )

1
0,5 0
0 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
-1
-20 -0,5 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
-2
-1
-3
-1,5
-2 -4
RTK Y (m) RTK Y (m)
Figure 7 -Offset error for RTK and DGPS on the field 13 / Eroare de deviere pentru RTK i DGPS pe terenul 13

RTK DG

120 120

100 100

80
Latitude (m)

80
Latitude (m)

60 60

40 40

20 20

0 0
-35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0
Longitude (m) Longitude (m)
Figure 8 - The track of the tractor on the field 16 and design line of driving / Urma tractorului pe terenul 16 i linia proiectat pentru condus

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RTK DG

1
1,5
0,5
1
O ffs e t e r ro r(m )

Offset error(m )
0,5
0 20 40 60 80 100
0 -0,5

-0,5 0 20 40 60 80 100 -1

-1 -1,5

-1,5 -2

-2 -2,5

RTK Y(m) RTK Y(m)

Figure 9 - Offset error for RTK and DGPS on the field 16 / Eroarea de deviere pentru RTK i DGPS pe terenul 16

CONCLUSIONS CONCLUZII
The field experiment results demonstrate that by Rezultatele experimentelor de cmp demonstreaz
using KF the GPS system DG14 3D Gyro sensor (3DM- c prin folosirea sistemelor GPS i KF senzorul Gyro 3D
GX1) could provide more precise continuous position DG 14 ar pute furniza date de poziie continue mai precise
data and high accuracy between tractor track and i de mare acuratee ntre calea tractorului i linia
designed line in the farm. proiectat n form.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS RECUNOATERI
Author Atanas Atanasov would acknowledge Dr. Autorul Atanas Atanasov ar dori s recunoasc
Keiichi Inoue for discussing and help on the GPS ajutorul oferit de Dr. Keiichi Inoue n problema sistemelor
guidance systems questions. de ghidare GPS.
Author Atanas Atanasov would also like to Autorul Atanas Atanasov ar dori s recunoasc
acknowledge JSPS for postdoctoral fellowship and JSPS pentru bursa postdoctoral i sprijinul pentru
support for specialization in National Agricultural specializarea n Centrul Naional de Cercetare Agricol-
Research Center Region Hokkaido Regiunea Hokkaido.

REFERENCE REFERINE
[1.] Kalman, R, E. (1960): A New Approach to Linear [1] Kalman, R, E. (1960): "O nou abordare pentru
and Predication Problems. Transaction of the ASME- problemele liniare i de anticipare" Transaction of the ASME
Journal of Basic Engineering, pp33-45, March, 1960. - Journal of Basic Engineering, pag. 33-45, Martie 1960.
[2.] Shibusawa, S. (2002): Precision farming approaches [2] Shibusawa, S. (2002): "Abordri ale agriculturii de precizie
to small-farm agriculture. Agro-Chemicals Report Vol. II, pentru agricultura din fermele mici" Agro-Chemicals
No. 4, Japan, October - December 2002. Report Vol. II, Nr. 4, Japonia, Octombrie-Decembrie 2002.
[3.] Yun Zhang, Kazuhiro Nii, Masayuki Uchiyama, Keiich [3] Yun Zhang, Kazuhiro Nii, Masayuki Uchiyama, Keiich
Inoue, Integrating DGPS and 3D Gyro sensor in Tractor Inoue, Integrarea DGPS i a senzorului giroscopic 3D n sistemul
Guidance System for Precision Farming. de Ghidare a Tractorului pentru Agricultura de Precizie".

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INFLUENCE OF AUTOMATION OF THE CONDITIONED EQUIPMENTS OVER THE WHEAT


MILLING PROCESS
/
INFLUENA AUTOMATIZRII ECHIPAMENTELOR DE CONDIIONAT ASUPRA PROCESULUI
DE MCINAT GRUL
Dr.Eng. Professor, Gheorghe Brtucu
- Transilvania University of Braov -

Abstract: In the paper is emphasized the importance of the Rezumat: n lucrare se evideniaz importana preciziei
hydro - thermal conditioning accuracy of the wheat before condiionrii hidro-termice a grului nainte de mcinare
milling about the ultimate result of this proces