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Journal of Materials Processing Technology 242 (2017) 6067

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The transfer behavior in centrifugal casting of SiCp /Al composites

K. Wang , Z.M. Zhang, T. Yu, N.J. He, Z.Z. Zhu
College of Materials Science and Engineering of Chongqing University, 174 Shapingba Main Street, Chongqing 400030, China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The centrifugal casting of SiCp /Al composite slurry caused an intense segregation of phases, leading to a
Received 7 July 2016 rened primary (Al) phase and a modied eutectic silicon. A three stages transfer process was deduced
Received in revised form as follows: the relative motion of SiC particles, the segregation of primary phase and the lling of the
17 November 2016
remaining melt. Most of SiC particles and some primary (Al) phases migrated to the external region of
Accepted 17 November 2016
the castings under the centrifugal force, resulting in a particle free zone in the middle zone of the castings
Available online 18 November 2016
and a macrosegregation along the centrifugal force direction.
2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
SiCp /Al composites
Centrifugal casting
Transfer behavior

1. Introduction tant structures, and Huang et al. (Huang et al., 2011) invited a kind
of FGM piston to reduce or eliminate the stress concentrations at
Aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) (Miracle, 2005) are interface layers.
attractive candidates for numerous applications in the aerospace, Rodrguez-Castro et al. have proved that centrifugal casting is
automobile, and military industries for their high strength to one of the most effective methods for the production of particle
weight ratio (Davidson, 1987), enhanced temperature strength reinforced FGMs experimentally (Rodrguez-Castro et al., 2002).
(Tjong and Ma, 1997), and improved wear resistance (Zhang and In the centrifugal casting process, a centrifugal force was applied
Wang, 2007). The properties of particle reinforced aluminum to a mixture of molten metal and SiC particles, and the SiC particles
matrix composites can also be tailored by manipulating parameters were transferred under the centrifugal force for the density differ-
such as reinforcement particle distribution, size, volume fraction, ence between the SiC particles and the molten metal. Finally, small
orientation and matrix microstructure. Al/SiCp rectangular blocks with gradually changing SiC particles
Functionally graded materials (FGMs) have been considered as a along the centrifugal force direction were produced. Huang et al.
kind of advanced composite materials. Miyamoto et al. (Miyamoto (Huang et al., 2011) reported the production of SiCp /Al composite
et al., 1997) described FGMs as a material in which the composi- pistons partially reinforced with SiC particles by centrifugal casting.
tion and structure gradually change, which leads to a corresponding In their works, SiC particles suspended in molten aluminum alloy
change in the properties of the material. The excellent proper- were transferred to the piston head under the centrifugal force, and
ties of FGMs have been shown to be advantageous in applications a piston with a high fraction of SiC particles in the piston head was
where multi-fold functional requirements are demanded. In a typ- obtained.
ical functionally graded Al-SiC metal matrix composites reported Because the transfer behavior of solid-liquid systems in the pro-
by Rodrguez-Castro et al. (Rodrguez-Castro et al., 2002), the frac- cess, which has great effects on the distribution of reinforcements,
tion of SiC particles varies gradually along a certain direction over has not been understand entirely, there were still discrepancies
a macro-scale geometrical dimension, and the elasticity modulus between theoretical predictions and experimental observations.
was gradually changed in a continuous form along the same direc- Watanabe et al. (Watanabe et al., 2002) investigated the particle
tion correspondingly. Gupta et al. (Gupta and Talha, 2015) reviewed size distribution in FGMs rings produced by centrifugal casting.
that FGMs can be also used in the area of designing thermal resis- The transfer behavior of corundum particles in a plaster/corundum
model material can t well with the Stokess law, but they failed
to consider the effects of alloy solidication on the motion behav-
ior of corundum particles. Furthermore, Panda et al. (Panda et al.,
Corresponding author. 2006) applied a one-dimensional transient heat-transfer model
E-mail address: (K. Wang).
0924-0136/ 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
K. Wang et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 242 (2017) 6067 61

coupled with an equation for force balance on particles to predict Then, the SiCp /Al composite slurry was poured into the mould via
the particle segregation pattern in centrifugally castings. Ogawa the centrifugal casting method with an angular speed of 800 rpm,
et al. (Ogawa et al., 2006) also researched the formation of graded which corresponds to 54 g centrifugal accelerations (the values of
distribution of two kinds of solid spherical particles within a molten the centrifugal accelerations are given in terms of g, the acceleration
metal under centrifugal force theoretically, and the movement of of gravity). Finally, cylindrical castings were produced, and the cast-
each particle suspended in the molten metal was analyzed con- ings are 150 mm in external diameter, 90 mm in internal diameter
sidering both the relative motion of two kinds of particles and the and 110 mm in length and weigh 2300 g each approximately.
variance viscosity of the melt in the whole process. In these theoret- Samples were sectioned from the cylindrical castings along the
ical researches, solid particles were usually considered as spherical radial direction, and samples used for microstructural observa-
particles with a uniform distribution in molten metals. Heidary tion were taken at different positions of x along the rotational
and Akhlaghi investigated the settling of SiC particles in compos- axis of the cylindrical castings. Microstructure was observed using
ite slurries of aluminum A356/SiC theoretically and experimentally a eld emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, FEI Nova
(Heidary and Akhlaghi, 2011). They researched the effects of par- 400 Nano) after these specimens had been machined, polished and
ticle shape, agglomeration of particles and hindered settling on eroded with Kellers reagent. Quantitative assessment of SiC par-
the settling velocity of SiC particles, and some relevant correction ticle in samples was carried out using the chemical dissolution
factors were induced into Stokess equation to analyze the distribu- method. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was conducted
tion of SiC particles theoretically. A good agreement between the using a NETZCH DTA404PC differential thermal analyzer in the
experimental results and theoretical analysis was obtained, but this temperature range of 25700 C at a constant heating and cool-
motion of SiC particles described in this study was only governed ing rate of 10 C/min. The phases presented in these samples were
by the gravity force. In addition, only the transfer of solid particles determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) on a Rigaku D/max-3c X-ray
suspended in molten alloys was considered in their study. diffractometer (Japan) using Co-Ka1 radiation ( = 1.79021 A ).
The transfer behavior of alloys during casting has also been
emphasized during centrifugal casting, and melt convection usu- 3. Results
ally leads to a macrosegregation in the casting process. Nadella et al.
concluded that the macrosegregation was mainly caused by segre- 3.1. Microstructure of SiCp /Al composites
gation of either solution or phases, which is more inuenced by
convection and shrinkage-induced ows in the semi-solid region Fig. 1 shows the microstructure of SiCp /Al composites fabricated
of the ingot (billet) (Nadella et al., 2008). Balout et al. (Balout et al., by compocasting. Most SiC particles have uniform distribution
2009) studied the macrosegregation phenomena of a zinc alu- in the matrix alloy except for several aggregated SiC particles
minum alloy under centrifugal force. They found that the maximum (Fig. 1(a)). Eutectic Si particles with rod and plate like shape are
segregation zone of the eutectic microstructure through the partly distributed along the grain boundaries of primary (Al) phases or
cross section corresponded to nal solidication zone, and the at the interfaces between SiC particles and primary (Al) phases
macrosegregation in this alloy was mainly caused by segregation (Fig. 1(b)).
of primary phase on account of its density difference relative to the
liquid. Fu et al. (Fu et al., 2008) claried that the macrosegregation 3.2. Structure of composites castings
behavior of a high speed steel melt was caused by the segregation
of atom clusters during centrifugal casting, and they proved that 3.2.1. Macrostructure
some atom clusters rstly formed in this high speed steel melt, then Fig. 2(a) shows a local cross-section of cylindrical castings,
such atom clusters segregated under the inuence of the centrifu- which was cut along the radial direction of cylindrical castings. The
gal force due to their different density compared with that of the cross-section can be divided into an external reinforced zone, an
melt. The macrosegregation mechanisms during centrifugal casting internal reinforced zone and a particle free zone, and these three
depend on the alloys used in this casting process. different zones contain variant microstructures. The schematic dia-
This paper aims to investigate the transfer behavior of SiCp /Al gram of the cross-section of the sample is depicted in Fig. 2(b).
composite slurry under centrifugal force based on the thermal Samples used for examination were selected from region A in the
properties and microstructural characteristics of castings. This external reinforced zone, region B in the particle free zone and the
study also attempts to clarify the mass transfer mechanisms of the internal reinforced zone respectively.
composite slurry during centrifugal casting.
3.2.2. Microstructure
Fig. 3(ac) shows the microstructures of samples selected from
2. Experimental the external reinforced zone, the particle free zone and the tran-
sition region between these two zones respectively. SiC particles
The raw material used in this study is SiCp /Al composites (alu- in the external reinforced zone have a higher volume fraction and
minum silicon alloy matrix reinforced with 20 vol.% silicon carbide a more uniform distribution comparing with the initial compos-
particle), and the composite slurry was prepared via compocasting ites shown in Fig. 1. The primary (Al) phase in the reinforced
method. The matrix alloy is an Al-Si alloy whose chemical composi- zone is equiaxed, and their average grain size was determined as
tion is 9.24 wt% Si, 0.54 wt% Mg, 0.22 wt% Fe, 0.09 wt% Ti, 0.01 wt% about 33 m. Whereas no SiC particles can be found in the particle
Zn and 0.007 wt% Mn. According to the research of Laurent et al. free zone, and the primary (Al) phase is surrounded by eutec-
(Laurent et al., 1987), the amount of Si present in this alloy helps tic microstructure (Fig. 3 (b)). The non-dendritic primary (Al)
to reduce chemical reactivity with SiC particle. The reinforcement phase located in the particle free zone has an average length of
is commercial SiC of 99.5% purity with a median particle size of 306 m and an average width of 109 m, and the area fraction of
15.8 5.2 m. the primary (Al) phase in this zone was assessed as 50%. From
Centrifugal casting experiments were performed on a vertical Fig. 3(c), the fraction of SiC particle has a sharp transition between
centrifugal casting machine. In this experiment, a cylindrical mould the external reinforced zone and the particle free zone.
made of steel was pre-heated to 500 C, and the SiCp /Al compos- The microstructure shown in Fig. 4 was selected from the inter-
ite slurry was heated to 750 C with a slight mechanical stirring nal reinforced zone of the cylindrical castings. There is also a distinct
to maintain a uniform distribution of SiC particulates in the melt. transition in SiC particles between the internal reinforced zone and
62 K. Wang et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 242 (2017) 6067

Fig. 1. Microstructure of the SiCp /Al composites fabricated by compocating (a) at low magnication, (b) at high magnication.

Fig. 2. A local cross-section of cylindrical castings along the radial direction (a) and schematic diagram of the local cross-section for examination (b).

Fig. 3. Microstructure of specimens selected from (a) the external reinforced zone, (b) the particle free zone and (c) the transition zone between the external reinforced zone
and the particle free zone.
K. Wang et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 242 (2017) 6067 63

Fig. 4. Microstructure of samples located in the internal reinforced zone of the casting.

tribution along the boundaries of primary phases, which are similar

to those in a Sr-modied hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy reported by Nasi
et al. (Nasi et al., 2008).

3.3. XRD analysis

The XRD patterns of specimens taken from the reinforced zone

and the particle free zone are presented in Fig. 7(a) and (b). The
diffraction peaks of SiC particles are distinctly shown in Fig. 7(a),
and it is evident from Fig. 7(b) that diffraction peaks of SiC particles
were not detected. This observation also leads to a conclusion that
SiC particles mainly concentrated in the external reinforced zone
of the cylindrical castings. SiO2 can also be detected in this external
reinforced zone, and the SiO2 peaks just come from that the oxi-
Fig. 5. Variation of fraction of SiC particle as the centrifugal radius of the cylindrical dization layer. SiO2 layers have been produced on the surface of the
castings. SiC particles by pre-oxidization to increase their wettability during
the particle free zone (Fig. 4(a)), and macro-porosities and SiC par-
ticle agglomeration can be observed in the internal reinforced zone 3.4. DSC thermal analysis
(Fig. 4(a) and (b)).
The volume fraction of SiC particle along the radial direction of The DSC curves of specimens obtained from the external rein-
the castings is shown in Fig. 5. Column A and column B in Fig. 5 cor- forced zone and the particle free zone of the cylindrical castings are
respond to the regions from where samples used for examination presented in Fig. 8, and two important phenomena can be obtained.
were obtained. The fraction of SiC particle located in the external Firstly, as indicated in Fig. 8(a), the solidus and liquidus tempera-
reinforced zone was determined in the range 3640%, and the frac- tures of the sample taken from the external reinforced zone are
tion of SiC particles in the internal reinforced zone was assessed 552.84 C and 601.43 C. The solidus and liquidus temperatures of
as about 27%. It is clear that the fractions of SiC particle in these the sample taken from the particle free zone are 553.75 C and
two specimens are higher than that in the SiCp /Al composite slurry. 605.25 C (Fig. 8(b)), which are higher than those of the sample
There is no SiC particle in the particle free zone of the casting. taken from the external reinforced zone correspondingly. The dif-
It was analyzed that amount of macro-porosities and SiC par- ference of the solidus and liquidus temperatures between these
ticle agglomeration in the internal reinforced zone came from the two samples may be ascribed to the variance of silicon content in
initial SiCp /Al composites, in which some macro-porosities and SiC these two samples. Secondly, both specimens gave three endother-
particle agglomeration had existed (Shown in Fig. 1(a)). Because mic peaks on their heating cycles. The specimens taken from the
macro-porosities and SiC particle agglomeration usually exhibit external reinforced zone gave two exothermic peaks on their cool-
lower bulk density compared with that of the aluminum alloy melt, ing cycles, while the specimens taken from the particle free zone
they are prone to transfer to the external circumference under the gave three exothermic peaks during the cooling process.
centrifugal force. The statistical result of the distribution of SiC The peaks on the DSC curves indicate phase transformations in
particle shows that these maco-porosities and SiC particle agglom- these specimens during the heating and cooling cycles. The rst
eration in initial SiCp /Al composites slurry transferred towards the endothermic peaks with onsets between 550 and 570 C, could
external circumference under the centrifugal force (Fig. 5). This be attributed to solid solution of Si in Al (), while the second
phenomenon suggested that an intense mass transfer behavior had and the third peaks with onset between 570 and 610 C, could be
happened during this centrifugal casting. linked with the melting of the eutectic phases and primary Al ()
The microstructure of specimens located in the external rein- phase respectively. The rst exothermic peaks may be due to the
forced zone and the particle free zone of the cylindrical castings is solidication of the primary Al () phase, and the second exother-
shown in Fig. 6(a) and (b) respectively. Fig. 6(a) shows that eutectic mic peaks correspond to the solidication of eutectic phases. The
silicon phases with a ne plate shape are distributed around SiC third exothermic peaks in the specimens taken from particle free
particles and primary (Al) phases. While from Fig. 6(b), eutectic zone may be linked with the dissolution of Si in the Al () phase
silicon phases are approximately spherical and have a uniform dis- (Fig. 8(b)).
64 K. Wang et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 242 (2017) 6067

Fig. 6. Microstructure of samples located in (a) the region A and (b) the region B of the casting.

Fig. 7. XRD results of samples located in (a) the region A and (b) the region B of the cylindrical castings.

Fig. 8. DSC heating and cooling curve results of samples taken from (a) the external reiforced zone, (b) the particle free zone of the cylindrical castings.

4. Discussion 2011; Ogawa et al., 2006), and the equation of particle movement
in a viscous liquid can be written as
4.1. Segregation behavior of SiC particles
(p l )GgDp2
The segregation of SiC particles under centrifugal force resulted vp = (1)
in the formation of a external reinforced zone in cylindrical cast-
ings (Fig. 2(a)), and our previous research (Wang et al., 2011) also
reported the segregation phenomenon of SiC particles suspended where G = wg r is the ratio of the centrifugal force to gravity, is
in an aluminum alloy melt under a huge centrifugal force during the angular rate and r is the centrifugal radius. v, , g, Dp and  are
centrifugal casting. The movement of particles in a viscous liquid the velocity, the density, the gravitational acceleration, the particle
under a centrifugal force obeys Stokes law (Heidary and Akhlaghi, diameter and the viscosity of the molten metal, respectively. The
subscript p and l denote the particle and the liquid.
K. Wang et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 242 (2017) 6067 65

The density of SiC particles is larger than that of the molten specimens located in the particle free zone is 605.25 C, which is
matrix alloy in this investigation, so the SiC particles segregated higher than that in the external reinforced zone (601.43 C). Disso-
toward the external circumference of the cylindrical castings lution of Si in the Al () phase can also be discerned distinctly from
during centrifugal casting. In this process, a high centrifugal accel- the third exothermic peak shown in Fig. 8(b), which means that
eration and a high mould temperature led to a long freezing time there is a higher Si content in the sample located in the particle
of the matrix alloy, so that the SiC particles in the composite free zone than that in the sample located in the reinforced zone. A
slurry almost segregated greatly. Subsequently, a particle free zone maximum segregation zone of the eutectic Si was found in a nal
(shown in Figs. 5 and 7) and a sharp transition between the exter- solidication zone, i.e. the particle free zone in the cross section of
nal reinforced zone and the free particle zone (shown in Fig. 3(c)) the casting.
came into being. The sharp transition between the external rein- For Al/SiCp composites, it should be noted that the change of sil-
forced zone and the free particle zone is similar to the result of Rajan icon content in this slurry may also be caused by chemical reactions
et al. (Rajan et al., 2010), which is attributed the presence of large in this Al/SiCp slurry. Laurent et al. (Laurent et al., 1987) pointed that
number of eutectic liquid in matrix alloy. It can be indicated that harmful reaction product aluminum carbide (Al4C3) at the Al/SiC
long freezing time is helpful for the segregation of SiC particles. interface comes from the dissolution of SiC by liquid aluminum,
Another major observation from Fig. 2(a) is that there is an which can be described as Eq(1).
internal reinforced zone in the cylindrical castings, and the vol-
3SiC(s) + 4Al(l) = 3Al4 C3(s) + 3Si(inlAl) (2)
ume fraction of SiC particles in the internal reinforced zone was
determined as 27% (Fig. 5), which is larger than the average vol- Obviously, this reaction can result in an increasing of silicon con-
ume fraction of SiC particle in the initial composite slurry. It can be tent in alloys accompanying the occurrence of Al4 C3 . As shown in
seen from Fig. 4 that SiC particles located in the internal reinforced Fig. 7(a), XRD pattern reveals that in addition to SiC, Si and Al, the
zone almost aggregated together, and there are some gaps among phase SiO2 in the reinforced zone was detected, but no Al4 C3 was
these particles. These aggregated SiC particles can be considered as detected in this XRD pattern. The reason may be explained by the
a unit, which has smaller density comparing with the melt. There- detection limit of the diffract meter. However, M. Rodrguez-Reyes
fore, these aggregated SiC particles migrated towards the internal et al. (Rodrguez-Reyes et al., 2006) also referred that the presence
circumference of the cylindrical casting according to Eq. (1). In addi- of SiO2 in the Al-Mg-Si/SiCp system has a benecial effect since it
tion, the internal circumference of the casting had a quick cooling prevents or retards the development of Al4 C3 phase. Considering
due to the air ventilation, which led to a quick increase in viscosity the relative high silicon content in the matrix alloy and the pres-
and a fast solidication rate of melt. As a result, some SiC particles ence of SiO2 on the surface of SiC particles, it can be derivated that
aggregated in the internal circumference of the cylindrical castings. the formation of Al4 C3 phase by means of Eq. (2) can be retarded
in a certain degree. Obviously, not the chemical reaction but the
4.2. Segregation behavior of the matrix alloy segregation of the matrix alloy caused the changes of silicon con-
tent in the samples. The transfer behavior of primary (Al) phase
The transfer of the SiCp /Al composite slurry also involve the in the matrix alloy during centrifugal casting was governed by
macrosegregation of the matrix alloy for the relative movement Stokes law (Heidary and Akhlaghi, 2011; Ogawa et al., 2006). Pro-
of primary phase in the matrix alloy compared to the remaining precipitated (Al) phases became the spontaneous outer particles
liquid alloy during casting. Considering the abrupt increase in the in this matrix alloy during the centrifugal casting, which may have
viscosity of the slurries near the melting point of the matrix alloy, a relative movement with the remaining melt under centrifugal
Heidary and Akhlaghi (Heidary and Akhlaghi, 2011) assumed that force for their density difference. Although the density difference
the settling of SiC particles under gravity ceased at this tempera- between the primary (Al) phase and the remaining melt is not
ture. Comparatively, the centrifugal acceleration reached up to 54g large in this investigation, the huge centrifugal acceleration can
in this investigation, which is much larger than the gravity accel- still transfer primary (Al) phases with bigger density towards the
eration. It can be presumed that the SiC particles can still move, external circumference of the casting. From Fig. 3, the amount of
even after the matrix alloy began to solidify. Previous experimen- eutectic phases in the particle free zone is much larger than that
tal also proved that a semi-solid slurry with a high solid fraction in the reinforced zone. It was analyzed that the silicon contents
of 5560% still subjected to a macrosegregation along a certain of samples located in the external reinforced zone and the parti-
direction during a thixotropic casting process owing to a relative cle free zone are different, which can be attributed to the relative
movement of solid phase with remaining liquid phase (Wang et al., movement between the remaining melt with a high Si content and
2005). From the DSC results (Fig. 8), the liquidus temperature of the primary (Al) phases with a low Si content. Primary phase seg-

Fig. 9. Transfer mechanism of SiCp /Al-Si composites during centrifugal casting. I) Motion of SiC particles, II) Segregation of primary phase and III) Filling of the remaining
66 K. Wang et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 242 (2017) 6067

regated to the external circumference under centrifugal force, and primary phase at the reinforced zone (Fig. 9(II)). In the third stage,
the interdendritic melt was correspondingly pushed to ll the zones the primary (Al) phase precipitated gradually from the particle
of solidication shrinkage, which further increased the eutectic free zone with the further decrease of temperature, and remaining
concentration in the particle free zone. melt was forced to ll the zones of the solidication shrinkage and
Thixotropy as a time-dependent shear thinning property also thermal contraction, where corresponded to the free particle zone
played a key role in the casting process. Lou et al. pointed that of the casting (Fig. 9(III)).
the viscosity of semisolid alloy depends on a number of parame- Besides the SiC particles can accumulate in a local zone under
ters, including shear rate, shear time and the temperature of the centrifugal force, the macrosegregation of the matrix alloy usu-
semisolid alloy (Lou et al., 1992). Heidary et al. presented that vis- ally happens under the centrifugal force, which can change the
cosity got lower by increasing the amounts of shear rate owing to distribution of chemical compositions along a certain direction,
its thixotropic behavior (Sohrabi Baba Heidary and Akhlaghi, 2010). subsequently result in a macrosegregation in the centrifugal force
Heidary et al. suggested that up to two orders of magnitude differ- direction of the casting.
ence in the viscosity of the slurries due to high shear rates and
breakdown of SiC agglomerations (Heidary and Akhlagh, 2013).
5. Conclusions
Based on the experimental conclusions, the relatively migration of
SiC phases, primary phase and remaining melt during centrifugal
1) The transfer behavior of SiCp /Al composite slurry during cen-
casting caused a violent shearing force within the SiCp/Al com-
trifugal casting obeys the Stokes law. A great segregation of SiC
posite slurry, which promoted an excellent thixotropic behavior.
particles can produce a reinforced zone with a high fraction of
Hence, the excellent thixotropic behavior conversely resulted in a
SiC particles and a particle free zone without SiC particles.
violent macrosegregation including the SiC particles, phases and
2) Intense transfer of phases in the SiCp /Al composite slurry in
alloying elements. The morphology of the ne eutectic Si in the
semisolid state during centrifugal casting leads to a macrosegre-
particle free zone gave extra information on the transfer behav-
gation for the transfer of primary phase along centrifugal force
ior of the matrix alloy during solidication (shown in Fig. 6). On the
one hand, there was a strong convection between the primary (Al)
3) The transfer process of SiCp /Al composite slurry during cen-
phase and the remaining melt, which promoted the solute diffusion
trifugal casting can be divided into three stages as follows: the
of silicon in the remaining melt. On the other hand, the remaining
transfer of SiC particle, the segregation of primary phase and the
melt with high silicon solution transferred to the particle free zone,
lling of remaining melt to the last solidication zone.
and high silicon content increased the constitutional undercool-
ing condition greatly so that more silicon nuclei obtained during
eutectic solidication. Finally, short rod-shaped eutectic silicon was Acknowledgements
obtained (shown in Fig. 6(b)).
This work was supported nancially by the Fundamental
4.3. Mass transfer mechanism Research Funds for the Central Universities (CDJZR 12240056) and
by the Fundamental Research Program of Chongqing in China (No.
Based on the above, the melt and solid particle system went cstc2013jcyjA50014).
through an intense transfer during the whole process, leading to
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