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AM 317

MECHANICS LAB

EXP 3
BENDING STRESS IN A BEAM

Test performed: November 4, 2016


Report Submitted: November 4, 2016

By
Louis Larios
GROUP 4

Abstract
Bending stresses on the beam can cause a beam to fail. These bending stresses are caused
by moments in the beam that are in turn caused by loads and beam end conditions. Some
loads can be point, distributed, and moments. Beam end conditions include a combination
of fixed, pinned or roller, end and beam end displacement. This report compares the
experimentally determined stresses in a beam with those predicted from the simple theory
(Euler-Bernoulli Beam Theory). Compare the location of the neutral axis by hand
calculation using the centroid equation and the experimentally determined from the strain
data. Obtain strain measurements from strain gauges and to investigate the distribution of
stress in a beam. In this lab we obtained the bending stresses in a beam at different
locations using strain gauges. The Stresses measured were plotted against their position to
obtain the experimental neutral axis and slope. The error between the experimental and
theoretical neutral axis and slope was 2% and 32% respectively.

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Introduction
This report compares the experimentally determined stresses in a beam with those predicted from the
simple theory (Euler-Bernoulli Beam Theory). Compare the location of the neutral axis by hand
calculation using the centroid equation and the experimentally determined from the strain data. Obtain
strain measurements from strain gauges and to investigate the distribution of stress in a beam. In this
lab we obtained the bending stresses in a beam at different locations using strain gauges. The Stresses
measured were plotted against their position to obtain the experimental neutral axis and slope. The
error between the experimental and theoretical neutral axis and slope was 2% and 32% respectively.
Theory

The equations above are from the lab manual.

Test Procedure
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1. We Measured the dimensions of the T-beam
2. We determined the safe load based on the provided allowable stress
3. We measured the positions of the gauges
4. We calculated the bending stress and strain for a load of 100N
5. We measured the strain values for 6 load cases (including a zero load case)

Results
Tables below show the experimental data collected and theoretical calculated values.
Table III Average Stress data MPa
Theoretical

Gauge Gauge
No. Position (mm) 100N
1 38.1 -108
2,3 30.1 -75
4,5 15.1 -13
6,7 6.4 22
8,9 0 49

Table V Zero-Adjusted Strain


Data
100 200 300 400 500
1 -113 -242 -371 -492 -628
2 -76 -163 -249 -332 -423
3 -76 -164 -249 -332 -421
4 -12 -25 -39 -53 -68
5 -10 -23 -35 -47 -59
6 25 53 79 104 130
7 22 48 77 101 131
8 52 112 167 221 280
9 49 107 166 219 282

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Table VI Average Stress data


MPa
Guage
Guage Position
No. (mm) 100 200 300 400 500
1 38.1 -83 -177 -271 -360 -459
2,3 30.1 -56 -120 -182 -243 -308
4,5 15.1 -8 -18 -27 -37 -46
6,7 6.4 17 37 57 75 95
8,9 0 37 80 122 161 205

Neutr Slope of
al Line
Axis (mm/MPa
(mm) )
12.04
Experimental 7 -0.3199
11.85
Theoretical 4 -0.2427
Percentage
Error 2% 32%
Fig 2 Shows the Gauge Position VS Stress for the 5 load cases.

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Figure 2 - Guage Position (mm) Vs Stress (MPa)

f(x) = - 0.06xf(x)
+ 12.03 f(x)+=12.02
= - 0.07x - 0.1xf(x)
+ 12.07 f(x)
= - 0.15x += - 0.32x + 12.05
12.07
R = 1 R = 1 R = 1 R = 1 R = 1
35
P=100N Linear (P=100N ) P=200N Lin
30

25

20
P=300N
Guage Position (mm) Linear (P=300N) P=400N Lin

15

10

P=500N Linear (P=500N) 5

0
-500 -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100

Stress (MPa)

Fig 3 Shows the Gauge Position VS Stress for the experimental and theoretical 100N load case.

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Figure 3 - Guage Position (mm) Vs Stress (Mpa)
Experimental and Theoretical for a 100N load

f(x)+=11.85
f(x) = - 0.24x - 0.32x + 12.05
35

P= 100N Experimental 30
Linear (P= 100N Experimental) P=

25

20
Guage Position (mm)

15

Linear (P=100N Theoretical) 10

0
-120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20

Stress (MPa)

Figure 4 shows the linearity of the Loading Vs Stress induced at Gauge 1.

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Figure 4 - Load (N) Vs Stress (MPa)

f(x) = - 1.07x + 11.63


R = 1

Load (N) Gauge 1 Linear (Gauge 1)

-500 -450 -400 -350 -300 -250 -200 -150

Stress (MPa)

Discussion and Conclusions


In this lab we obtained the bending stresses in a beam at different locations using strain gauges. The
Stresses measured were plotted against their position to obtain the experimental neutral axis and slope,
see figure 2 or 3. The error between the experimental and theoretical neutral axis and slope was 2% and
32% respectively. The trend lines for all slopes on figure 2 have an R-squared value of at least greater
than 0.99 showing they are all linear. The Linearity of the load-deformation is linear as shown in figure
4.

References
AM317 Lab Manuals. (2016, September 16). Retrieved from http://www.csun.edu/engineering-
computer-science/civil-engineering-construction-management/mechanics-laboratory
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Mechanical hysteresis, accessed 9/17/2016,
http://www.nikhef.nl/~h73/kn1c/praktikum/phywe/LEP/Experim/1_2_03.pdf
Aslam Kassimali, Structural Analysis, 5th edition, Cengage Learning, 2014
Hibbeler, R.C., Statics and Strength of Materials, 4th edition, Pearson, 2013.
Popov, E.P., Introduction to Mechanics of Solids, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, 1998.
Stevens, Karl K., Statics and Strength of Materials, Prentice Hall, 1987.

Appendix
Hand Calculations

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