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Paleontologythestudyofthehistoryoflifeanditsmeaning.

Afourdimensionalscience
(threespatialdimensionsplustime)

Aneclecticfieldthatdrawsonmanyotherdisciplines,includinggeology,developmental
biology,physicsandchemistry

Paleontologistsfocusonextinctorganisms,butalsostudypresentdayonestoo

Fossilsarepreservedremainsoforganismsfromtheremotepast
Thefossilrecordincludesfossils(bothdiscoveredandundiscovered)andtheirspatiotemporal
andgeologicalcontext

mamora=marble

lapid.inamimalibus=stonesinanimals

Scholarsinthe1500sdidntcorrectlyinterpretfossilsasremainsofoncelivingcreatures
because:
Notnecessary:adequatesolutionsexisted(i.e.,magicalitemsofsupernaturalorigin)
Preservation:oftenfragmentary,damaged,ortransformedchemically
Familiarity:manyancientfossilshavenomoderncounterparts(easyvs.difficult
fossils)
Position:foundembeddedinrock,foundfarfromwhereexpected(e.g.,marine
fossilsonmountaintops;mangrovedepositsindesert)

Becomingafossil:Inordertomaximizeyourchances,
Havesomehard/refractorypartinyourbody
Occurinadepositionalenvironment
Beburiedrapidlyandremainso
Beburiedinastabletectonicsetting

Fossilsarefoundinareaswheresedimentaryrocksareexposedorencounteredinexcavationor
drillingeveninthedeepsea!

Sedimentaryrockspreservefossils.
Layeredrocksformedbyerosion(chemicalormechanical)ofotherrocks
Erosion>transport>deposition>lithification

ModesofFossilization:

Taphonomyreferstothestudyofprocessesincludingthedecay,burialandpreservation
oforganismsinthefossilrecord.
Roots:taphos=burial,nomos=law
Permineralizationvoidswithinahardpart(e.g.,bone)becomeinfilledwithamineral

MoldsandCasts
Externalmold:impressionofoutsideofstructure
Internalmold:infillingofvoidinsideofstructure

[FromLastClassReview]
Chemicalfossilsdistinctivebyproductspecifictocertaingroupsofanimals

AllofthistakingplaceonplanetEarth

Earthseriesofconcentriclayers
Crust,Mantle,Coredifferintheircompositions

3kindsofrocksigneous,metamorphous,sedimentary
Sedimentaryformedbyerosionofnotonlyothersedimentarybutalsometamorphic
Strategictoolsforrelativedating
**Superpositionyoungerontopofolder
Originalhorizontalitybedsaredepositedinahorizontalorientation
Lateralcontinuityrocksdepositedoverbroadspatialareassuchthattheyextend
laterally
Faunalsuccession
Crosscuttingrelationships

DeepTime+Uniformitarianism
UniformitarianismpastchangesintheEarthsystemcouldarisefromthesame
processesoperatingtoday,butactingoverimmensetimescales.Thepresentisthekeyto
thepast.

DeterminingtheAgeofFossils
Radiometricdatingigneousrocks

SamemethodcanbeusedtodetermineageoftheEarth(455Ga)

TheGeologicalTimescale

Phanerozoiccharacterizedbyabundantfossilrecord
Paleozoic,Mesozoic,Cesozoic

TheGreatChainofBeingideathatyoucanarrangelivingcreaturesonasinglelinearsequence
fromhightolow;camewithittheideathatorganizationisinherentlystatic(staysthesame)

Linnaeusproducedahierarchicalschemeofplantsandanimals
Homology:Correspondenceofpartsbetweendifferentkindsofcreatures

Biologicalevolutionisthechangeintheattributesoforganismsovertime;summarizedas
descentwithmodification

Perceivedbyavarietyofdifferentmechanisms,onebeingnaturalselection(accountsfor
bothevolutionarychangeandadaptation)

Notallevolutionarychangearosefromnaturalselection.

Prerequisitesfornaturalselection:
Individualsmustreproduce
Theoffspringmustresembletheirparents
Variationofpopulationdifferentmembersofthepopulationdifferfromone
another
Differentialsurvivalandreproduction

ContinentalDrift:WegenersEvidence

Dinosaurswereadiscoveryof19thCenturyscience
RichardOwencoinedthetermhomology

Features:welldevelopedsacralregion(wherehipsjoinbackbone)
Dinosaurorigin

Divisionsofdinosaurtreeoflife:Ornithiscianandsaurischian(lizarddinosaursincludesbirds
lol)

Dinosaursbelongtoagroupcalledarchosauria(rulingreptiles)
Archosaurfeatures

Largeanimalsthatarentactuallydinosaurs,forexamplemosasaurs,pelycosaurs(mammal
relatives),pterosaurs,mammoths&mastodons(relativesofmoderndayelephants)

Dinosaurclassification(characteristics)

OrnithopodsBirdfeet;jawjointandwhereitliesontheaxisofthejaw

Sauropodomorphalargedinosaurs

Largedinosaursandtheirstructuralchanges/differences
Graviportalweightcarrying
Differentsizecreatureshavedifferentsizebones,duetothebasicrulesofscaling
Largeranimalshavethickerbones

TheropodsBeastfoot;mostarecarnivorous

Dinosaurmetabolismwhethertheywerewarmorcoldblooded
Warmbloodedhomeothermicendothermy(ex.Birdsandmammals)

Dinosaurshavemammallikepredatorpreyratios:notasmuchofthem,lotsandlotsofprey
LivedinpolarregionsduringtheMesozoic
Growthratestheyhavegrowthratesthataremoresimilartowarmbloodedcreatures
thancoldbloodedcreatures
Contradictoryevidencetheydonthaveturbinateboneslikemanyothermammals;

Insulation
Earlybirdslikearchaeopteryxhasbirdandreptilelikefeatures

Thedinosaurrenaissancebirdsaredinosaurs

Whetherornotflightevolvedfromthetreesdownorthegroundup

Massextinctioneventssharpdeclinesindiversity
EndPermianespeciallydevastating
EndTriassicopenedwayfordinosaurs

EndCretaceous(66Ma)

IrridiumrareonEarthbutfoundonmeteorites