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SI Units
temperature: C
amount: g-mol
Please read cell comments
AFT-Calc
mass: g
energy: J
An Adiabatic Flame Temperature Calculator for
Combustion of Natural Gas

Please read
Calculations based on combustion of 1 gram-mol
this document. fuel
Document
Fuel
Burner Flame:
CO2, H2O, O2, N2
Oxidant

Enter/Edit values in blue-bordered cells only! Heat loss, J


Like
these

Natural Gas/Fuel Properties Oxidant Properties


Species mol % % O2 in Oxidant
Methane CH4 96.40% Upper limit on % excess oxidant
Ethene C2H4 0.15% Oxidant temperature, C
Ethane C2H6 0.30% Stoichiometric amount of oxidant
Propane C3H8 0.25%
Butanes & higher C4H10 + 0.10% Fuel temperature, C
Hydrogen H2 0.20% Element Balance of Fuel
Carbon monoxide CO 0.15% Element moles mass
Carbon dioxide CO2 0.20% C 0.988 11.866
Water vapor H2O 0.00% H 3.914 3.945
Nitrogen (by diff.) N2 2.25% O 0.006 0.088
N 0.045 0.630
Graphite C 0.0% Sum 4.953 16.529

Thermodynamic Data
Table I. Molar Hform at 25 C Table II. Molar Hreax at 25 C
J/g-mol Reaction to form H2O(g)
CH4 -74,810 2O2 + CH4 CO2 + 2H2O(g)
C2H4 52,467 3O2 + C2H4 2CO2 + 2H2O(g)
C2H6 -84,684 3O2 + C2H6 2CO2 + 3H2O(g)
NG reactant species C3H8 -103,847 5O2 + C3H8 3CO2 + 4H2O(g)
C4H10 -126,148 6O2 + C4H10 4CO2 + 5H2O(g)
H2 0 O2 + H2 H2O(g)
CO -110,529 O2 + CO CO2

Combustion CO2 -393,509 C + O2 CO2


products H2O(g) -241,814
H2O(liq) -285,830 H2O(g) H2O(liq)

Table III. Heat Content Above 25 C, J/g-mol


T, C O2, (g) N2, (g) H2O, (g) CO2, (g)
1000 32371 30595 37719 48624
1100 35977 34009 42222 54347 Heat Cont
1200 39614 37460 46831 60136 110,000
1300 43278 40944 51541 65982 f(x) = 0.0020055915x^2 + 5
1400 46967 44457 56347 71877 100,000
1500 50680 47998 61243 77817
1600 54416 51563 66223 83795 90,000
1700 58174 55150 71282 89808 heat content,
f(x)J/mol
= 0.0042038585x^2 + 3
1800 61954 58756 76414 95851 80,000
2000 69576 66017 86872 108015
70,000
Data from FREED database program. f(x) = 0.0011726951x^2 + 3
f(x) = 0.0012285294x^2 + 3
Excel's Trendline tool used to fit data to quadratic equation. 60,000
Chart equations valid between 900 - 2100 C.
50,000

40,000
Process Design & Simulation
30,000
Link
1000 1200 140
https://plus.google.com/+ChemicalEngineeringAspenTech/posts te
Calc AFT-Calc is a Thermart
Software program. 2013
by Arthur E. Morris.
ture Calculator for Excess Air www.thermart.net

f Natural Gas

ustion of 1 gram-mole of
AFT vs. % Excess Oxidant
2200
Flame: f(x) = -308.5138154314 ln(x) + 1258.7164407551
2100 R = 0.9702695844
CO2, H2O, O2, N2
2000 f(x) = 454.0145766696x^2 - 1283.9126915922x + 2042.2631557013
1900
0 1800

1700
AFT, deg. C
1600
Oxidant Properties
1500
21%
1400
100%
25 1300
9.351 1200
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
25 % excess oxidant

Figure 1. Relationship between the AFT and the % excess oxidant used for combustion.
Chart and table will reconfigure when any blue-cell entry value is changed.
Excel's Trendline tool can be used to give a quadratic equation fit to the results. For x, use %/100.

Summary of Results
% XS oxidant 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100%
AFT, C 2051 1914 1795 1598 1441 1313 1207

AFT-Calc Operation
The Calculator has two main worksheets, plus one for stored results. Enter data only on
J/g-mol this worksheet, in blue-bordered cells only. Data will be copied into the Calcs workshee
-802,327 Figure 1 summarizes the results. The chart legend shows a quadratic Trendline fit.
-1,323,113
The calculator contains a sample system. Changing any blue-bordered cell value will result in recalculatio
-1,427,776 of all other dependent values. Please read cell comments (cells with red corner), and the document.
-2,043,936
1. Enter the fuel composition in column E, making sure that the value in cell F29 is non-negative. Th
%C (E31) should be 0% (or 100% for graphite combustion).
2. Enter the oxidant properties in range K19:K21 and the heat loss in cell K16. Enter 0 for an
adiabatic calculation. The oxidant temperature range should be between 0 - 100C.
3. Enter the fuel temperature in cell K24, in the range should be between 0 - 100C.
Figure 1 summarizes the results. The chart legend shows a quadratic Trendline fit.
The calculator contains a sample system. Changing any blue-bordered cell value will result in recalculatio
of all other dependent values. Please read cell comments (cells with red corner), and the document.

1. Enter the fuel composition in column E, making sure that the value in cell F29 is non-negative. Th
-2,656,958 %C (E31) should be 0% (or 100% for graphite combustion).
-241,814 2. Enter the oxidant properties in range K19:K21 and the heat loss in cell K16. Enter 0 for an
-282,980 adiabatic calculation. The oxidant temperature range should be between 0 - 100C.
3. Enter the fuel temperature in cell K24, in the range should be between 0 - 100C.
4. Enter the upper limit on the range of calculations of % excess air in cell K20. Seven values will be
-393,510 used in the % available heat calculation, starting at stoichiometric oxidant (0% excess).
5. A complete summary of the available heat results are shown on worksheet Calcs.
6. If desired, you can copy results for several different fuels or oxidant properties to worksheet
-44,020
StoredResults, and chart them. This worksheet has results for pure methane combustion for the
conditions noted in the IH article, plus a chart for other species.
7. Please read the cell comments and documents.

Heat Content of Offgas Species Above 25C


000
f(x) = 0.0020055915x^2 + 53.4328621367x - 6847.3387411164
000

000
ontent,
f(x)J/mol
= 0.0042038585x^2 + 36.6052926736x - 3123.5631055861
000

000
f(x) = 0.0011726951x^2 + 33.6999325847x - 2509.1194199172
f(x) = 0.0012285294x^2 + 31.7667882685x - 2417.0153732532
000

000
O2, (g)
000 Polynomial
(O2, (g))
000
1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
temperature, deg. C
51

2042.2631557013

80% 90% 100%

ombustion.

ts. For x, use %/100.

ults. Enter data only on


o the Calcs worksheet.
uadratic Trendline fit.
lue will result in recalculation
orner), and the document.

l F29 is non-negative. The

16. Enter 0 for an


- 100C.
- 100C.
uadratic Trendline fit.
lue will result in recalculation
orner), and the document.

l F29 is non-negative. The

16. Enter 0 for an


- 100C.
- 100C.
K20. Seven values will be
0% excess).
eet Calcs.
erties to worksheet
e combustion for the
Please read cell comments

Calculator created Fuel


by Burner
A. E. Morris
Thermart Software Oxidant
www.thermart.net
Do not edit/enter values in any cells!
Legend
Values Entered on MainEntry
Natural Gas/Fuel Properties
Species Cp Mol. mass Vol % Mass, g Mass % Hcomb
Methane CH4 36 16.04 96.40% 15.47 93.56% -773,443
Ethene C2H4 43 28.05 0.15% 0.04 0.25% -1,985
Ethane C2H6 54 30.07 0.30% 0.09 0.55% -4,283
Propane C3H8 75 44.10 0.25% 0.11 0.67% -5,110
Butanes & higher C4H10 + 103 58.12 0.10% 0.06 0.35% -2,657
Hydrogen H2 29 2.02 0.20% 0.00 0.02% -484
Carbon monoxide CO 30 28.01 0.15% 0.04 0.25% -424
Carbon dioxide CO2 38 44.01 0.20% 0.09 0.53% 0
Water vapor H2O 33.6 18.02 0.00% 0.00 0.00% 0
Nitrogen (by diff.) N2 29.1 28.01 2.25% 0.63 3.81% 0
Graphite C 10 12.01 0.00% 0.00 0.00% 0
O2 29.4 32.00 ---
Hcomb of Fuel, kJ/g-mol -788,386
Molecular mass of NG 16.53

moles mass
CO2 produced by combustion 0.986 43.39
H2O produced by combustion 1.957 35.26
Stoich. O2 required for combustion 1.965 62.86

Table IV. Heat content eq'n. parameters, J/g-mol = A + BT + CT2


N2, 900 - 2100C O2, 900 - 2100C
A B C A B C
-2420 31.77 1.229E-03 -2510 33.70 1.173E-03

H2O(g), 900 - 2100C CO2, 900 - 2100C


A B C A B C
-3120 36.61 4.204E-03 -6850 53.43 2.006E-03
AFT Heat loss, J 0
Oxidant temperature, C 25
Fuel temperature, C 25
Calculational Strategy 3
1
2 1
1 1
1 1 at 25C 2
Hcomb
1 2 1
2 1. Bring reactants
Step 1 to 25C.
1 2. Burn fuel at 25C. Cell I20
Step Values for Quadratic Formula
Step 3. Heat products to AFT.
Step 4. Sum of all heats = 0. M47:S47
(HT-H25 of reactants + HT-H25 of products + Hloss + Hcomb) = 0
Step 5. Calculate AFT using quadratic formula (M52:S52).
Quadratic Formula based on: aX2 + bX + c = 0

b b 4ac
X
2a
Flame:
CO2, H2O, O2, N2

values in any cells! Material Balance Calculations


Vol. % O2 in oxidant gas 21.00%
% XS oxidant 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0%

Combustion products 2.968


Stoichiometric oxidant 9.35
Stoichiometric oxidant inerts 7.39
Oxidant gas required 9.35 10.29 11.22 13.09 14.96
Excess oxidant 0.00 0.94 1.87 3.74 5.61
%O2 in offgas 0.00% 1.74% 3.21% 5.57% 7.38%
Offgas amount 10.355 11.290 12.225 14.095 15.966
Dry stack gas amount 8.398 9.333 10.268 12.138 14.009
%O2 in dry offgas 0.00% 2.10% 3.82% 6.47% 8.41%
Oxidant mass 269.79 296.77 323.75 377.71 431.67
Oxidant/Fuel mass ratio 16.32 17.95 19.59 22.85 26.11

Offgas H2O 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0


Amount, Offgas CO2 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
g-mol Offgas N2 7.41 8.15 8.89 10.36 11.84
Offgas O2 0.00 0.20 0.39 0.79 1.18

Offgas H2O 18.9% 17.3% 16.0% 13.9% 12.3%


Composition, Offgas CO2 9.5% 8.8% 8.1% 7.0% 6.2%
vol. % Offgas N2 71.6% 72.2% 72.7% 73.5% 74.2%
Offgas O2 0.0% 1.7% 3.2% 5.6% 7.4%

Heat Balance Calculations


% XS oxidant 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0%
A -6106 -6106 -6106 -6106 -6106
Offgas H2O B 71.65 71.65 71.65 71.65 71.65
C 8.227E-03 8.227E-03 8.227E-03 8.227E-03 8.227E-03
A -6768 -6768 -6768 -6768 -6768
Offgas CO2 B 52.79 52.79 52.79 52.79 52.79
C 1.982E-03 1.982E-03 1.982E-03 1.982E-03 1.982E-03
A -17932 -19720 -21508 -25083 -28659
Offgas N2 B 235.41 258.88 282.35 329.29 376.23
C 9.107E-03 1.001E-02 1.092E-02 1.274E-02 1.455E-02
A 0 -493 -986 -1972 -2957
Offgas O2 B 0 6.62 13.24 26.47 39.71
C 0 2.303E-04 4.607E-04 9.214E-04 1.382E-03

c -819192 -821472 -823753 -828314 -832876


Values for Quadratic Formula b 359.85 389.94 420.02 480.20 540.37
a 0 2.045E-02 2.159E-02 2.387E-02 2.615E-02
HT-H25 for oxidant & fuel 0 0 0 0 0

AFT 2051 1914 1795 1598 1441


bX + c = 0
alculations

80.0% 100%

16.83 18.70
7.48 9.35
8.81% 9.97%
17.836 19.706
15.879 17.749
9.89% 11.06%
485.63 539.58
29.38 32.64

2.0 2.0
1.0 1.0
13.32 14.80
1.57 1.96

11.0% 9.9%
5.5% 5.0%
74.7% 75.1%
8.8% 10.0%

tions
80.0% 100.0%
-6106 -6106
71.65 71.65
8.227E-03 8.227E-03
-6768 -6768
52.79 52.79
1.982E-03 1.982E-03
-32234 -35810
423.17 470.11
1.637E-02 1.819E-02
-3943 -4929
52.94 66.18
1.843E-03 2.303E-03

-837437 -841998
600.55 660.73
2.842E-02 3.070E-02
0 0

1313 1207
Vol. % O2 in oxidant gas 21.00%
Desired %O2 in comb. flame 0.00%

Combustion products 2.968


Stoichiometric oxidant 9.35
Stoichiometric oxidant inerts 7.39
Excess oxidant 0.00
% stoichiometric oxidant gas 100.0%
% excess oxidant gas 0.00%
Required oxidant 9.35
Combustion water 1.957
Stack gas volume 10.355
Dry stack gas volume 8.398
%O2 in dry stack gas 0.00%

Oxidant mass #REF!


Ox/NG mass ratio #REF!
1.25% 2.50% 3.75% 5.00%

Calculator
#1

0.66 1.40 2.25 3.24


107.0% 115.0% 124.1% 134.6%
7.01% 14.96% 24.07% 34.60%
10.01 10.75 11.60 12.59

11.010 11.754 12.606 13.591


9.053 9.797 10.649 11.634
1.52% 3.00% 4.44% 5.84%

280.30 301.14 325.00 352.59


#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Results of Sample Calculations

AFT vs. % Excess Oxidant for CH4 Combustion


2200

2100

2000 f(x) = 454.6899588877x^2 - 1284.6932480283x + 2052.2071579021

1900

1800

1700
AFT, deg. C
1600

1500

1400

1300

1200
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
% excess oxidant
Figure 1. Relationship between the AFT and % excess oxidant for article example.
As noted in article text, AFT = 1608C with 40% excess oxygen. Air enters at 38C and methane at 20C.
Excel's Trendline tool can be used to give a quadratic equation fit to the results. For x, use %/100.

Summary of Results--Methane Text Example


% XS oxidant 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100%
AFT, C 2061 1924 1805 1608 1451 1323 1217

Theoretical vs. Equilibrium AFT


2200

2100 Theo
rC
2000 Theo
rCH4
1900

1800

1700
AFT, deg. C
1600

1500

1400

1300
1700
AFT, deg. C
1600

1500

1400

1300

1200
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
% excess oxidant

Figure 3. Comparison between theoretical (solid lines) and equilibrium (dashed lines) AFT for combustion
Notice the increasing deviation between the two versions above about 1650C.
The difference is caused by increasing thermal disproportion of H 2O and CO2 at elevated temperatures (s

Summary of Results--Methane
% XS oxidant 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0%
AFT, C 1954 1872 1772 1676 1588 1508 1436
CO 0.911% 0.265% 0.087% 0.030% 0.011% 0.004% 0.002%
CO2 8.5% 8.4% 7.9% 7.4% 7.0% 6.5% 6.2%
N 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000%
N2 70.9% 71.8% 72.4% 72.9% 73.3% 73.7% 74.0%
N2O 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000%
NO 0.199% 0.319% 0.336% 0.308% 0.267% 0.224% 0.185%
O 0.021% 0.024% 0.016% 0.009% 0.005% 0.003% 0.001%
O2 0.5% 1.7% 3.0% 4.3% 5.4% 6.4% 7.3%
H2 0.368% 0.107% 0.037% 0.014% 0.006% 0.002% 0.001%
H2O 18.4% 17.1% 15.9% 14.9% 13.9% 13.1% 12.3%
OH 0.294% 0.282% 0.202% 0.133% 0.085% 0.053% 0.034%

Summary of Results--Graphite
% XS oxidant 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%
AFT, C 2027 1952 1852 1748 1651 1562 1482
CO 2.23% 0.889% 0.326% 0.116% 0.042% 0.016% 0.006%
CO2 18.5% 18.1% 17.1% 16.0% 15.0% 14.0% 13.1%
N 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
N2 77.9% 78.4% 78.6% 78.7% 78.8% 78.8% 78.9%
N2O 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
NO 0.35% 0.45% 0.45% 0.41% 0.35% 0.29% 0.23%
O 0.047% 0.046% 0.030% 0.017% 0.009% 0.004% 0.002%
O2 0.92% 2.10% 3.42% 4.69% 5.84% 6.86% 7.76%
Please read

AFT vs. % Excess Oxidant for Different Fuels


WordPad 2400
Document
CH
2200 4
C2
H6
2000

1800
AFT, deg. C

1600

1400

1200
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100
% excess oxidant
Figure 2. Relationship between the theoretical AFT and % excess oxidant for differ
methane at 20C. Oxidant and fuel enter at 25C.
Summary of Results--Methane
% XS oxidant 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0%
AFT, C 2053 1916 1797 1599 1442

Summary of Results--Ethane
% XS oxidant 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0%
AFT, C 2106 1964 1840 1636 1473

Summary of Results--Propane
% XS oxidant 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0%
AFT, C 2119 1975 1850 1644 1480
Theo
rC Summary of Results--Graphite
Theo % XS oxidant 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0%
rCH4 AFT, C 2185 2024 1886 1662 1488

Summary of Results--Hydrogen
% XS oxidant 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0%
AFT, C 2247 2112 1992 1789 1624

Summary of Results--Carbon Monoxide


% XS oxidant 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0%
AFT, C 2384 2248 2127 1922 1754
0% 90% 100%
Process Design & Simulation

d lines) AFT for combustion of CH 4 and C(graphite). Link

at elevated temperatures (see data below).


https://plus.google.com/+ChemicalEngineeringAspenTech/posts

70.0% 80.0% 90.0%


1370 1310 1256
0.001% 0.000% 0.000%
5.8% 5.5% 5.2%
0.000% 0.000% 0.000%
74.3% 74.6% 74.8%
0.000% 0.000% 0.000%
0.151% 0.122% 0.099%
0.001% 0.000% 0.000%
8.1% 8.8% 9.4%
0.000% 0.000% 0.000%
11.6% 11.0% 10.5%
0.021% 0.013% 0.009%

70% 80% 90%


1410 1344 1285
0.002% 0.001% 0.000%
12.4% 11.7% 11.1%
0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
78.9% 78.9% 78.9%
0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
0.19% 0.15% 0.12%
0.001% 0.001% 0.000%
8.55% 9.26% 9.89%
ferent Fuels

CH
4
C2
H6

70% 80% 90% 100%

d % excess oxidant for different fuels.

80.0% 100%
1313 1207

80.0% 100%
1341 1232

80.0% 100%
1347 1237

80.0% 100%
1348 1233

--Hydrogen
80.0% 100%
1488 1373

--Carbon Monoxide
80.0% 100%
1615 1496
ngineeringAspenTech/posts