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TCC81FoundationPads.

xls

TCC81FoundationPads.xls
This spreadsheet designs simple pad foundations from input of material properties, dimensions and characteristic loads and
moments. Single columnbasesandcombined double basesarecatered for on separatesheets. This l a t e s t versionemploysthe
recommendations of Eurocode7 anditsNationalAnnex.Forexample, groundbearing pressuredistributionatULSisrectangularrather
thantrapezoidal,andinsteadofenteringapermissiblebearingpressure,valuesfortheshearresistanceangle,kandeffectivecohesion,c'kare
requiredasinput.Forfurtherguidance,pleaserefertoHowtoDesignConcreteStructurestoEurocode2,Chaper6Foundations.

Asthis spreadsheetwas preparedin linewithBS EN1990and BS EN 1997[29], thetraditionalpracticeofallowinga 25%


overloadforwindhasnotbeenincluded.

A diagramisprovidedto illustrate the input dimensions: achart showing scaleplan viewsisprovided tohelp ensuregrosserrors
areavoided.Theefficiencydiagramsareprovidedsothattheusermay gaugehow hardthe baseisworking inrespectofground bearing
pressure,bending and shearin the twoaxestogether witha measure on punching shearcapacity. Ifthe designisinvalid, this chart
shouldhelpidentify theproblem.

Thespreadsheetdoesnotallowforpunchingshearlinksbendingreinforcementis increased to ensure t h a t allowableshear, vRdc is


adequate. The user shouldnote thatpunching shear perimeters can jumpfrombeing foursided to being two or threesided,
leading to unexpectedlylarge increasesinreinforcement forchangesinbasethickness.

TCC81.xlsallows theuser tospecifywhether ornotequations6.10aand6.10bofEN1990maybeemployed. Warningsaregivenif


columns overlap baseedges.

SINGLE!

Suggestions aremade, under the Operating instructions column, fortheoptimum plan sizeof thebase. It is important thatthe
principal usageofthestructure isselectedfrom thecombobox incolumnL.

Thisisusedinthedeterminationofpartialloadfactors,ifEN1990 equations 6.10aand6.10barepermitted.Theusageselected hereis


alsoutilised ontheDOUBLE!sheet.

Wheretwobarspacings aregiven, e.g.14T16@200&325 B2,barsneedtobegroupedmorecloselyinthecentralpartofthebase.

DOUBLE!

In additiontographsshowingplanlayoutandefficiency,thissheet givesmomentdiagrams forthetwoprincipalaxes.Design


moments aretaken atthe edgeofboth column sections Suggestionsaremade, under the Operating instructions column, for the
optimum plansizeofthe baseandeccentricitiesgiventhecolumn offsetsfrom oneanother.

Theusersattentionisdrawntothe fact that the analysisisc intwoorthogonal directions. When column eccentricities arelargein
both directionsthe analysismay not account adequately for local effects (e.g.bottom cantilevermoments ontwo sidesofeach
columnloadsinoppositecornersgivesbottommomentsof0kNm). Insuch cases,itmaybebettertochangetheorientationofthe
base in such a way that eccentricity in one direction is minimal. Warnings about double eccentricities are given when the
distancesbetween columncentrelines exceed15%ofthe relevant basedimensionineachorthogonaldirection.

ComparisonwithFEanalysis suggests thisisreasonablesolong asthe baseisthickand rigid.

Legends!

Thissheetshowsdimensions, axes,cornersandnotation used.

SingleDet!

This sheet shows workingsand isnotnecessarilyintended forprinting outotherthanforcheckingpurposes.



Allowable bearing pressure is taken as an allowable increase inbearing pressure and density of concrete density of excavated
material(i.e.soil)isusedin the calculations. Theprogramassumesthatpadsareembedded todepthHinthesoil.

Design moments are generally those atthe face ofthe column. Both sides of the column are checked for momentin each
direction toensuremaxima areidentified.Reinforcementisenhancementifnecessarytocaterforthemorecriticalof beamandpunching
shear.

Neither crackwidths, factors ofsafety against sliding, nor water tables arecatered for(exceptthattheeffectivecohesion,c'kmaybe
used).Where resultanteccentricitiesareoutside thebaseawarningmessageisgiven;the general status messageisupdatedaswell.

Factorsofsafetyagainstoverturningarechecked(TheequilibriumlimitstateEQUtoEN1990).Warnings arealsogivenattheonset of
anuplift situation.

DoubleDet!

This sheet shows workingsand isnotnecessarilyintended forprinting outotherthanforcheckingpurposes.

ThenotesforSingleDet!abovealsoapply.

Graf!

This sheetcomprisesdatafor graphsfor boththeSINGLE!andDOUBLE!Sheets,

Refs!

This sheet comprises the values for nationally determined parameters thathave been used inthespreadsheet. These data
reflectthevaluesgivenindraftUKNationalAnnexesforEN1990EN1997andEN1992.
Designers should ensure that these data are current when the spreadsheet is used. When using TCC81 for permanent design,
designersarestrongly advisedtoincludeacopyofthissheetwithanydesigncalculations.

Notes!

Thissheetgivesdisclaimersandrevisionhistory.