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Using Islam for Political Power ,Job

Quotas and US Dollars

Agha Humayun Amin

ISBN-13: 978-1507772157

ISBN-10: 1507772157

L19aircraft@gmail.com

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TEN PHASE HISTORY OF INDO PAK

MUSLIMS

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BY

MAJOR AGHA H AMIN (RETIRED)

I find analysis of the Indo Muslim

history by singling out extremism or

Ahmadis or Mullahs as superficial and a

classic case of losing oneslf in trees

rather than seeing the whole wood or

mosaic of many woods from a classic

vantage point.

I hold the view that much of

responsibility of the present ongoing

Muslim extremism with the so called

educated and feudal classes of Indo Pak

Muslims.

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PHASE ONE

MUSLIMS ATTACK INDIA AND FINALLY

SUBJUGATE MOST OF IT 711 AD TO

1600

Muslims attacks on India start in 711 by

Arabs.A foothold is established in Sindh

and South Punjab then known as

Multan.

Muslim attacks under Turks start from

around 1000 AD first major attacker

being Mahmud of Ghazni and a Muslim

kingdom being established in Lahore

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and later at Delhi by Ghauri general

Aibak in 1206.

Expansion and conquest of India by

Tughlaqs ,various Delhi Sultans and

Mughals till 1605 by Akbar.

Consolidation of Mughal Empire by

Jahangir and Shahjahan.

PHASE TWO

Muslim Primacy is challenged 1670-

1737

The first serious challenge to Muslim

primacy came in person of Sivaji in

1670.Sivaji established a successful blue

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print of military success against Muslim

military power long before Indira

Gandhis so called epic triumph in 1971

in a situation in which the odds were far

higher against him than in 1971.

Without doubt the real reason of the

decline of Mughal Empire was Sivajis

and his successors guerrilla wars from

1670 to 1737 when the Marathas raided

suburbs of Delhi.

Between 1737 and 1761 the Marathas

dominated the Muslim political centre of

Delhi and after 1770 till 1803 it was the

Marathas who controlled Delhi and the

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Muslim primacy in India after 1770 had

ceased to exist.

The Muslims of Delhi were however

saved by the private army of English

East India Company in 1803 , as were

the Muslims of Punjab and Frontier in

1845 and 1849.

PHASE THREE

The Muslims re-discover Islam 1761 to

1857

as their supremacy is challenged and

India is conquered by English East India

Company

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While Aurangzebs enforcement of Islam

was act of a monarch , Maratha

occupation of Delhi and Sikh occupation

of Punjab and Frontier did produce a

significant Islamic political reaction in

intellectual terms as signified by Shah

Waliullah and Syed Ahmad Barelvis

Jihad Movement.

Although Syed Ahmad failed in mortal

terms he established a blue print of Holy

War , since then replicated in various

forms.

PHASE FOUR

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The Muslim centred 1857 Rebellion is

defeated and Muslim Elites are faced

with the European system of democracy

and competitive examinations and their

re-discovery of Islam as a political

weapon -1858-1940

Faced with a system of European

education , and competitive

examinations the Indo Pak Muslim elite

under Syed Ahmad Khan re-discovered

Islam.They lobbied for job quotas

successfully on communal basis

although Syed Ahmad dismissed many

Islamic concepts like Miraj etc.

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Using Islam as a tool of class interests

the Muslim elite lobbied for a separate

political entity which came to be known

as separate electorate based on votes

according to religious divisions,Muslims

voting for Muslims and Hindus voting for

Hindus.

The British found the Muslims a useful

tool in their Roman policy of Divide et

Impera.

PHASE FIVE

The Muslim Elite devise a geographical

slogan known as Pakistan to achieve a

position of unfair advantage in which

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division of India would eliminate non

Muslims from a new Muslim state

Till 1940 the Muslims had no clear

slogan although the British top

bureaucrats notably O Dwyer had

already given the concept of an

autonomous Pakistan like Muslim

province in North west India in 1930s.

At Lahore in 1940 the Muslim solution to

the Indian British Hindu political

problem was devised as Pakistan.

The Congress had already annoyed the

British with non cooperation in the war

effort in 1939 and was punished by the

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British by adopting a favourable view

towards a possible division of India.

PHASE FIVE

PAKISTAN IS CREATED AND THE WEST

WING MUSLIM ELITE STRUGGLES TO

SIDELINE THE MAJORITY EAST WING

MUSLIMS FROM POLITICAL SUPREMACY

BY VIRTUE OF HAVING A

PREPONDERANT POSISTION IN THE

ARMY ,INDUSTRY AND CIVIL SERVICE-

1947-56

The Muslim elite thanks to division of

India gained an unfair advantage in

Industry by occupying the business

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vacuum created by departure of

Hindus , Memons and other Gujrati

castes and Chinioti Punjabis in the

forefront.

These in league with the majority West

wing bureaucrats manoeuvred to create

unfair monopolies known as 21 families

etc.

The West Pakistani politicians used the

mili.tary and civil service and threats of

dissolution of provincial assembly into

making the East Pakistani Bengalis their

55 % majority into surrender to a 50 %

parity level in 1956

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PHASE SIX

PAKISTAN REDUCED TO A WEST WING

DOMINATED STATE AND A PUNJAB

DOMINATED STATE BY ONE UNIT AND

1956 CONSTITUTION WITH THE SAME

STATUS CARRIED FORWARD BY

IMPOSTION OF MARTIAL LAW IN 1958

LASTING TILL 1969

The West Wing politicians used an unfair

majority in military and civil service into

making the Bengalis surrender their

majority in poulation into a parity.This

was not seen as sufficient and still

fearing a progressive government the

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West Wing majority army imposed

martial law in 1958.After 1958 the East

Wing was literally reduced to a colony

by the West Wing.

PHASE SEVEN

THE BENGALIS DISCOVER THAT THEY

WERE FOOLED BY THE UP AND PUNJAB

DOMINATED MUSLIM ELITE IN NAME OF

RELIGION FROM 1906 TILL 1969 AND

DECIDE TO SECEDE

The East Pakistani Bengalis realised

soon after 1947 that they would not be

allowed a political voice.This feeling

intensified after 1969 Martial law was

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parity in votes was replaced by actual

representation as per population.

The result was the 1971 Crisis as a

result of which the country called

Pakistan was divided into Pakistan and

Bangladesh.

PHASE EIGHT

AN ATTEMPT TO REFORM THE SOCIETY

WITH MIXING SOCIALISM AND

POPULISM WITH ISLAM

ZA Bhutto

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a great leader attempted reform by

nationalisation of industry and land

reforms.

He was misled by characters like Hafeez

Pirzada who influenced him into

declaring Ahmadis non Muslims.

His progressive regime was sabotaged

by an unwilling military and civil service

class from within and international

sabotage by US who was angryb with

him because of his role in the oil

embargo of Arabs and his attempts to

pursue a military nuclear programme

PHASE NINE

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ISLAM IS RE-DISCOVERED AS A

POLITICAL TOOL 1977-2001

As a reaction of ZA Bhuttos political

reforms the urban classes in

Lahore,Karachi and Pakistan reacted to

create a psuedo religious centrist

alliance known as PNA demanding an

Islamic system known as Nizam e

Mustafa.

The US aided this political movement.

The Afghan leftist coup of 1978 brought

in the USSR and the USA also picked

Islam as a useful tool of politics and

state craft.

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Pakistan was Islamised to suit the

military junta of Zia then acting as a

political vassal of USA and Saudi Arabia

in the Soviet Afghan war.

The school syllabus was reformed and

Islamic ideas of Jihad projected a

propaganda tool.

After the USSR withdrawal the same

Islamic card was used like a chewing

gum by Pakistans military in Kashmir

and post 1989 Afghan civil war.

PHASE TEN

Islam

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is no longer fashionable and Pakistan

needs to be more secular- September

2001 till todate

Kicked by USA and also given carrots of

US Dollars Pakistans shameless rulers

abandoned Islam as a political tool.As

shamelessly as they had picked it in

1977 !

After 9/11 Pakistans military rulers

decided to abandon ideology at least

outwardly.

The result was Pakistani civil war

between Islamic Extremists and the

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Pakistani state which continues till to

date.

CONCLUSIONS

Islam was used as a political tool by

Muslim elites to achieve their class

interests all along from 1858b till 1901.

This inadvertently and without a design

created Islamic extremism in

Pakistan.While Muslim elites were

fooling Muslim masses in order to

achieve class advantages the Muslim

common man actually started believing

that Pakistan is an Islamic ideological

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state.This however was not the aim of

the Muslim elite.

Jihad was picked as a useful tool by the

Pakistani military for institutional

aims.When under US pressure this

contradiction was exposed Pakistan

became witness of a civil war.

Islamic Extremism as witnessed today is

result of misuse of Islam as a political

tool by Muslim elite and educated

classes.The Islamic extremists did not

produce this situation but were

produced as a result of this promiscuous

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mixing of political opportunism with

religion.

The Pakistani elite classes including the

so called secular PPP used religion as a

tool to get political mileage , most

notorious of this effort being the

constitutional second ammendment

declaring Ahmadis as non Muslims in

1974.The direct result of this is the

present Ahmadi massacres in Lahore.

The Pakistani military and all politicians

shamelessly used Islam as a political

tool by embarking on a full timer so

called Jihad in Afghanistan,Kashmir

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ect.This includes all Pakistani political

and military regimes from 1977 till 2001

including Benazir Bhutto.

The present political and military crisis

in Pakistan is a direct result of misuse of

religion as a cheap political slogan by

Pakistans so called most educated

Military and Political Classes.

The hard reality is that so called Islamic

extremists have a large number of

sympathisers in Pakistan and are not a

small minority as many in Pakistan

would like the world to believe.

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The final result of this ongoing crisis

may be Pakistans Balkanisation in the

next few years.

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Op Zal Zala (Earthquake). In late

2007, the Mehsuds declared war on the

State of Pakistan and there was an

escalation in the conflict. Forts at

Siplatoi, Ladha, Sararogha and Jandola

were under intense attack. Sararogha

was demolished and the FC platoon

within slaughtered, Siplatoi was holding

out but just barely and Ladha was under

siege with a demoralised force that was

on the verge of surrender. Jandola was

under rocket attack from Spinkai

Razagai. 14 Division was ordered to

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clear road Jandola-Kotkai and to pacify

the area. The Division moved with one

brigade and the divisional reserve

including armour and established

itself in Jandola. It Commenced

operations with a battalion attack on

SpinKai at night, cleared it and captured

the village. Tanks were inserted in the

Tank Zam (river) and they manoeuvred

behind the enemy TTP. The road to

Kotkai including Kotkai was captured in

4 days, a distance of 24 Kms. Total

causalities were 4 on Pakistan army

side and it is assumed about 50 of the

enemy but some bodies were recovered

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of which photos etc are available with

the 14 Division.

The operation will be remembered for

three basic things;

i. Insertion of tanks for the

first time into FATA.


ii. Air Assaullt to relieve

Ladha Fort successfully.


iii. Breaking the invincibility

myth of the Mehsuds and

conducting operation

deep into South

Waziristan, so far not

having been undertaken.

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iv. How to secure line of

communication. Through

heights and ridges.


v. Logistics

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MAJOR GENERAL TARIQ KHAN IN

FRONT OF BAITULLAH MEHSUDS

HOUSE

MAJOR GENERAL TARIQ KHAN-IG

FC- IN FRONT OF BAITULLAH

MEHSUDS DESTROYED HOUSE

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ANNEXURE 1

Pakistani states manipulation of

Pashtuns

Let the pictures speak as the first part

of this summing up of a sad chapter of

history !

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When I started preparing for my first

major bid in Afghanistan " Naghlu-

Kabul" Electric transmission line I went

for pre bid survey on Kabul Lataband

Road.The locals all Pashtuns told us that

they were paid 100 USD per tower for

destroying a pylon in Soviet Afghan War

Extremism is a very Pakistani export to

all neighbouring countries.

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Off course the US was also a monster in

this situation as were the Pakistanis who

were the US vassals.In course of my 8

years in Afghanistan I discovered that

major damage of Afghan war was in

Pashtun belt as it was closer to Pakistan

and it was easier to logistically support

the characters destroying pylons.

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As I travelled north I discovered that the

north was literally undamaged as it was

farther away from Pakistan ! I leave it

for experts in Pashtun history to judge

whether Pashtun area was damaged in

order to keep Pashtuns backward or it

was a coincidence !

It would be wrong to brand a Pashtun as

a born lunatic !

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The greatest poets in the sub continent

starting from Nawab Shefta Khan

Bangash ,Josh Malihabadi Afridi Akhtar

Sheerani and Ahmad Faraz were

Pashtuns !

Indeed the most progressive Afghans

and Pakistanis have been Pashtuns !

Without Aslam Watanjar the indomitable

Paktiawal or without Said Gulabozai the

Saur Revolution may have totally failed

in Afghanistan !

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My dear Zazi lady friend from Khost

smoke the maximum joints and drank

more vodka than any man that I met in

Afghanistan and preferred being

intimate with the curtains open !

It would be correct to term Pashtuns as

victims of geography , of being divided

in two states , being regarded as a

political threat by non Pashtuns in both

Pakistan and Afghanistan ! Being more

adventurous and brave than any race in

the region , thanks to geography ,

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historical circumstances and I hate to

say some racial factors !

The Pashtuns were thus regarded as

cannon fodder by Iranians,

Mughals,Turks ,Sikhs ,British and

Pakistanis and a useful reason to remain

in Afghyanistan by the USA !

When the German Kaiser wanted a

revolt against British in India the only

ones who cameto rise in revolt were

thetribal Pashtuns !

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A Pashtun tribe Afridi is the only tribe in

history where the British Emperor

awarded a Victoria Cross to one cousin

and the German Kaiser the Iron Cross

to the other cousin ! Both fighting in the

same area !

The Mughals imported Iranians against

Pashtuns and were ultimately betrayed

by the Irianians when the Marathas and

Nadir Shah attackedthe Mughals.

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The backbone of Nadir Shahs armys

were the Abdali Pashtuns ! The best

Mughal army soldiers apart from Uzbeks

were Pashtuns !

Yet this race was regarded by fear and

apprehension and throughout history

used to fight proxy wars ! Just because

it was though politically dangerous that

they remained free and grew politically

and economically !

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There is no denying that a Pashtun is

formidable in any role ,be it a leftist

Khalqi or a Taliban ! This is so because

he is brought up to be totally committed

to an idea that he believes in ! This may

be an anthropological or sociological

explanation !

A Safi or a Zadran or a Kharoti is

formidable reagrdless of the fact that he

is Rahmatullah Safi with the ISI or a

Watanjar who was a die hard leftist or a

Gulabozai who was Afghanistans best

Interior Minister and yet polled the

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highest number of votes from Khost in

2005 Elections.

My friend a pro Pakistan Pashtun to the

core heading an ISI sector confessed

that even the best dogs used in dog

fight are bred in Pashtun areas ! It may

be ironically symbolic but true.

My personal observations indicate that

the Pashtuns were regarded as cannon

fodder to be used in Kashmir and

Afghanistan by the Pakistani

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establishment . Thus ironically while the

most progressive section in Afghan

socoety were Pashtun Khalqis without

whom there would have been no leftist

coup in Afghanistan ,the Pashtuns

suffered the most in Afghan war and the

non Pashtuns gained the most ,

politically and economically !

Demography is cruel ! It is devastating

and Pakistans demography is changing !

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Karachi is the largest Pashtun city in the

world and we are at a watershed when

Pashtuns may not be manipulated any

longer the way they have been

manipulated in the past !

As they say the wheel turns in history !

ANNEXURE 2

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Pakistans Strategic Failures

We hold the view that Pakistan has been

a strategic failure despite tactical and

mid level successes.

The reason for this failure lies not in

good or bad luck but consequences of

tangible and precise decisions taken by

key Muslim decision makers ,initially

British Indian subjects and after 1947

Pakistani citizens.

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Reasons for Strategic Failures and

Ineptitudes

Anti Intellectualism
Opportunism overriding substance

and real talent


Ethnic Rivalry and Chauvinism
Violation of merit and parochialism
British policy
Indias multi ethnic character and

clash of egoism complicated by

diversity in religion
System of promotion and

assessment of leaders which

rewards docility ,meekness,

submissiveness and sycophancy

rather than real talent

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Lack of institutional job security in

military as initiated from Liaquat

tenure in 1951 and in civil services

as initiated by Ayub Khan in 1958


Destruction of freedom of thought

and speech as implemented by

Ayub Khan under the Qudratulla

Shahab Gauhar Ayub clique

There are somethings which you write

in life which remain central and classic

to your intellectual progress and you

keep on returning to those thoughts. To

define anti intellectualism I would like to

quote from my book Pakistan Army

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since 1965 , also published as an article

in Defence Journal Karachi in December

2000 :--

There are historical reasons for this

anti-intellectualism. The irony is that

the situation was not remedied after

independence. Education in British India

was aimed at acquiring degrees so that

Indians could become lawyers doctors

or government officials. That they

surely did, in the process of which some

acquired great wealth and also became

political leaders, senior civil servants

and prosperous middle class

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professionals. The intellectual basis of

modern Europes success was the

renaissance, the French Revolution and

the Industrial revolution. During this

period great progress was made in

Europe in political thought, philosophy

and scientific advancement. The Indo-

Pak sub-continent was introduced to

modern thought by the British by virtue

of being colonial subjects of the English

East India Company. Thus research

intellectual activity etc were never

important or of any consequence for the

people of the Indo-Pak. On the other

hand a mad rush towards acquiring rank

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and status, government jobs or political

power by claiming to be champions of

Hindu and Muslim rights plagued the

Indo-Pak Sub-Continent! Once this mad

rush for government patronage and

jobs got an impetus from 1858,

communalism became a major factor in

Indo-Pak politics. This was since at this

time the other parts of the world were

talking about nationalism, socialism and

political liberties. All the intellectual

thrust of Indians was towards

interpreting laws in communal terms!

This was a Godsend blessing for the

British colonial rulers! They encouraged

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communalism since it divided the

Indians and ensured that they stayed

away from dangerous ideas like war of

liberation against the colonial state or

from socialism or communism. The

British very cleverly introduced

parliamentary institutions, which

enabled the leading Indians to divert

their energy into harmless constitutional

debates!

The fathers of communalism as an idea

in Indian politics were Syed Ahmad

Khan, Lala Lajpat Rai, Gandhi and the

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Jauhar brothers! The British on the

other hand right from 1858 followed a

subtle but brilliant policy, introducing

parliamentary democracy as bait to

divert the energies of the more

prominent Indians! A bait, which

aroused ambition, whether based on

ego, lust for glory, social recognition or

material rewards! Peaceful yet heroic!

Safe yet glorious! The double advantage

of pursuing a prosperous law practice or

business career or wielding feudal

power while at the same time also being

leaders of the subject Indians and the

possible successors of the British

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Viceroys! Parliamentary democracy or

its prospects once the British finally left

India produced two distinct kinds of

reactions, both of which helped the

British and went against the people of

the Indo-Pak Sub-continent! The

leaders of the Hindu majority saw

themselves as successors of the British

Viceroys while the principal leaders of

the Indian Muslims hypothesised that

parliamentary democracy in

independent India would mean Hindu

ascendancy and Muslim subservience or

more correctly all power in the hands of

the Hindu politicians! The Hindu-Muslim

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question in reality was a Hindu-Muslim

leaders clash of ego question! It all

started once the British introduced local

self-government based on elections

from the 1860s and aggravated more

and more as leaders who were Hindu by

accident of birth tried to sideline other

leaders who were Muslim by accident of

birth! Initially leaders from both the

communities talked in terms of high

sounding slogans like Nationalism

Liberty Democracy etc but became

more narrow in approach once their

religion became a psychological

disqualification in being leaders of all

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Indians! The fact that the vast majority

of Indians whether Muslim or Hindu

would remain poor as they were before

1947 and are in the year 2000 was not

important for these men. The Congress

and League were essentially bourgeois

parties with a larger feudal presence in

the league and a larger urban business

presence in the Congress. Both these

parties employed religion as a tool to

further their party agendas, middle

class business class or feudal on the

whole and egoistic at the higher level!

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Nehru was an atheist and a socialist, Mr

Jinnah was a highly Westernised man,

and yet both were great Hindu and

Muslim leaders. Both the parties were

instruments of business professional

and feudal classes to achieve maximum

power and both increasingly divided

Indian society on communal lines simply

because their leaders were essentially

highly egotistical men! The irony of

Indo-Pak history is the fact that modern

Indo-Pak history is a story of clash of

great men like Nehru and Jinnah who

employed religion as a tool simply

because they correctly albeit ironically

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realised that the people of the Indo-Pak

were too naive to understand vague

slogans like liberty or democracy and

could only be galvanised or mobilised by

raising religious slogans! In a more

advanced Indian society Nehru and

Jinnah may have been leaders of all

Indians rather than only Hindu Indians

or Muslim Indians! India, however, was

like Europe around the time of the 30

years war and thus both these great

men were forced by historical

circumstances to be only communal

leaders! Both wanted to be leaders of all

Indians regardless of race or religion,

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but both were forced, thanks to the fire

of religious communalism lit by glorified

agitators or complex and outwardly

impressive hypocrites like Gandhi to be

communal leaders! Nehru was too

sophisticated a man to be a Hindu and

Jinnah was too enlightened a man to be

only a leader of Indian Muslims. It was

a twist of fate that both are today

remembered albeit rightly as leaders of

Hindu or Muslim India.

Thus while the other parts of the world

intellectually as well as materially made

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great progress during the period 1850-

1950 all the energies of the Indians at

all levels were increasingly diverted into

communalism; thereby ensuring that

intellectually as well as materially the

Indo-Pak Sub-Continent remained

backward! History was written as

Muslim or Hindu history, politics was

practised as Hindu or Muslim politics

and while Europe was experimenting

with radical social legislation, all the

energies of Indian constitutionalist were

absorbed in debating representation on

basis of religion! College or University

education was important because it was

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a pre-requisite for government jobs or

to practise in the law courts! Research

teaching and writing were unproductive

jobs since they did not enable a man to

be a deputy collector or barrister or

doctor! It was a mad race made further

mad by frequent outbursts of communal

frenzy, which increased as population

increased during the period 1890-1940.

All this helped the Britishers who had

been traumatically shaken by the Sepoy

Rebellion of 1857 when a largely Hindu

majority army had rebelled under

Muslim leaders! The British were thus

happier playing the role of judges

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resolving Hindu Muslim disputes rather

than performing the more unpleasant

task of facing a combined political

movement of all Indians regardless of

race or religion as in 1857, 1919 or

1922 ! This is the basis of anti-

intellectualism in the Indo-Pak Sub-

continent. It is more true for Pakistan

since the Muslims were educationally

more backward and relatively less true,

yet still true and applicable to India too!

Pakistan and India have produced very

few serious military writers. In Pakistan

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the situation is worse since an unofficial

ban was imposed on military writing by

various military usurpers who ruled the

country for the greater part of its

history. Unfortunately the larger

number of men who joined the officer

corps of both the Indian and Pakistan

Army were from the relatively less

educated or superficially educated

classes of Indo-Pak society. There were

some military writers in Pakistan like

Attiq-ur-Rahman, Fazal Muqeem,

Shaukat Riza and A.I Akram. Attiq-ur-

Rahman wrote well but was more

obsessed with more outward forms of

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military discipline and was more of a

martinet and proper soldier than a

military writer of depth. A man of

impeccable integrity, a man of Honour

and a most cultured and proper soul,

Attique did not have any of the

dynamism or subtlety of a Liddell Hart

or Fuller. He was never remembered as

an inspiring field commander but as a

100 percent proper soldier who was

obsessed with military drill and

haircut.As a retired officer he was

obsessed with Golf Courses which he

rightly regarded as a waste of time and

effort. However, this was where his

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concern ended. He stopped writing after

1990 and thus retired from the armys

intellectual life at a time when the army

needed a serious military writer.

General A.I Akram wrote well but his

books dealt with seventh and eighth

century Arab Wars and had little

relevance as far as practical utility in

terms of modern warfare unit level

tactics or operational strategy was

concerned. General Shaukat Riza

dabbled more with military writing but

his writing lacked depth, broad outlook

and dynamism. He was employed by

Zias military regime to write a heavily

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doctored trilogy on the history of the

Pakistan Army at a time when the man

was semi-senile and sick. The resultant

three books thus lacked depth of

analysis, their only significance being, a

collection of three rudimentary

handbooks which provide basic facts

about order of battle, broad outline

plans and other basic details which

untouchable low caste retired majors

like this scribe cannot ever obtain

access to through normal official

channels available to any researcher in

any civilised country! Major General

Fazal Muqeem Khan stands out as the

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relatively most competent clearheaded

and coherent out of all the above

mentioned gentlemen. His books lacked

strategic vision and a broad outlook but

nevertheless were precise and forthright

without confusing layouts which are

hallmarks of all Shaukat Rizas books.

The unfortunate part about Muqeems

writings was the fact that Muqeem

wrote first as a sycophant serving

general hopeful of getting the next rank

and later as a retired general to please

or at least cover up an all powerful

serving prime minister. The positive

aspect about Muqeems works was the

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fact that Muqeem was generally precise,

correct and exact in analysing a fallen

gladiator, a typical quality of all

successful men, at least in the Indo-Pak

Sub-continent, where a primitive

historical state of civilisation and

political system do not allow

dispassionate, blunt critical and

forthright analysis. This is relatively

more true for Pakistan which has

witnessed military rule or dictatorship in

guise of democracy for the greater part

of its history; I would say, for its entire

history from 1947. Lack of critical

analysis due to dangers of being

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labelled blasphemous is the greatest

tragedy of history writing in all countries

where Muslims live! Perhaps the

reasons can be found in the fact that

Christianity is 500 years older than

Islam and may be in the year 2500 we

in this part of the world will be writing

history the way Europeans are doing in

2000! The problem with history writing

in Islamic countries is lack of tolerance.

Those in power are sacred figures by

virtue of authority and totalitarian

powers. Analysis or forthright analysis is

dangerous in most cases and injudicious

in many! Muqeem may have been an

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excellent historian in West Europe! But

the question is that Muqeem was not

willing to be sidelined or isolated or

persecuted in a society, which does not

tolerate criticism of those in the higher

echelons of power! Thus each of

Muqeems work although relatively

better than others was a condemnation

of the previous regimes military efforts!

Thus in his first book he criticised

Liaquat the first Prime Minister for

incompetence in the Kashmir War while

raising Ayub to the level of a modern

Napoleon. In his second major book

Fazal rightly criticised Ayub for

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structurally weakening the army by

encouraging sycophants and retiring

relatively better officers who were

perceived as likely political threats.

Similarly Muqeems analysis of the 1971

war is reasonably balanced, but

exonerates Mr Bhutto of all blame and

also exonerates the Pakistan Army of

the terrible genocide that it carried out

in East Bengal in 1971. Shaukat

criticises Bhutto since he was Zias

principal political opponent but

exonerates Ayub of all the blunders and

the follies committed in the period

1950-1969!

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A very learned gentleman who I hold in

very high esteem by virtue of being a

close friend of one of my dearest friends

rightly told me to reduce what he called

polemics in the first volume of this

history. A conceptual difference arises

about the use of the word Polemics.

The term has different meaning for

different people and is unfortunately

used in a sweeping manner to dismiss

valid historical criticism! There is no

denying of fact in stating that Polemic

may be an unpleasant figure of speech

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for a professor of English literature or a

criminal error of conduct for a

sycophant or a man of this world. The

fact that polemics i.e. practice of

controversial discussion is something,

which is the essence of all historical

writing, is absolutely undeniable and

incontrovertible. The historian cannot be

a diplomat in order to escape being

branded as one who indulges in

polemics. The historian has to indulge in

controversy because there are no

archives or source material in any

library or records office in this world,

which enable a research scholar to

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understand the innermost depths of

human personality. Every historian who

wants to be loyal to posterity has to be

polemical. History is but another name

of a never-ending controversy! At some

point in time or text all historians enter

the realm of polemics! Its a part of

their craft or calling! I wrote an article

for the Command and Staff College

Quetta about two years ago. It

contained some criticism about the

higher organisation of the Pakistan

Army. The article was surprisingly

published since the Staff College was

headed at that time by one of the most

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upright and intellectually honest

generals of Pakistan Army; a rare

commodity in a sub-continental army

and I would say in any army of the

world. In addition the staff colleges

principal magazines editor at that time

was one of the most dynamic and

boldest colonels, (at least in my humble

opinion), of the army! The colonel editor

who twice risked his career by attacking

the Quetta Police over an entirely

honourable issue in 1979, and by

refusing to supervise Degchas in a

general officers daughters wedding in

early 1987 was being posted out to

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command a tank regiment. Somehow

he managed, or I should say was

instrumental in ensuring that my article

criticising the higher command

organisation be published in the

Citadel magazine. The Editorial

Introduction was, however, written by

another colonel who succeeded him as

the editor and belonged to the majority

go safe calculate a decade ahead take

no risk breed of career officers! The

clever editor exonerated himself of all

that I had said in the article by stating

that the article lacks documentation for

certain controversial assertions. The

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gentlemans point was valid but this is

what historical analysis is all about; i.e.

dealing with controversy in face of fog

and obscurity and lack of

documentation! Who in this world can

find documentary evidence for saying

that many wars that this world fought

were to satisfy egos of Kings, Presidents

or Prime Ministers! That revolutions

killed millions or that countries were

divided simply because one politician

did not want the other to be the

countrys next Prime Minister or

Governor General! So much for

Polemics, bad word for professors,

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careful men, career officers, successful

men! But one of the most essential

tools in historians craft.

Opportunism overriding substance

and real talent

I again want to quote from an article

which I wrote based in two decades of

study and analysis in January 2001 :--

Heroism and realism, bravery or

cowardice are powerful words pregnant

with multiple meanings and thus often

misunderstood in common discussion.

This is not exactly an article but a

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cursory examination of how certain

individuals in various stages of world

history made remarkable achievements

by being Heroic Realistic etc.

The Hero is a man who does not

surrender in face of overwhelming odds

and thus emerges victorious or is

perceived by posterity to have been

morally victorious despite having been

physically destroyed. Khalid Bin Waleed,

Napoleon, Alexander, Churchill etc may

be grouped in the first category and

Joan of Arc, Syed Ahmad Shaheed may

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be grouped in the latter category. All

these men did well and are even today

well known figures in history.

We will first examine the issue in

relation with the fact Whether the hero

had an exact knowledge and sufficient

time to assess decisions that he made

and which ultimately elevated him to

the pedestal of a hero in history! This is

important but very often forgotten or

not understood at all by many. We will

take the Rebels or the Freedom

Fighters of 1857 as an example. All

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existing facts as we know them today

prove that these Rebels never really

understood the real power and potential

of the English East India Company. The

Rebellion began not because of any

deliberately pre-planned conspiracy but

as a series of spontaneous reactions

against a perceived attack on caste and

religion. It was a mechanical reaction

and those who took it felt that

Rebellion was the only option. These

were the common soldiers of the Bengal

Army led by the more hot headed

Ranghar and Hindustani Pathan Muslims

of the Bengal Cavalry. The 3rd Light

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Cavalry rebels. A spontaneous decision,

sparked by court martial of 80 of their

colleagues in a manner that was

perceived as unjust. The execution was

Tactically Brilliant! A rebellion on

Sunday at the evening service time

when the Europeans were most

vulnerable, followed by the seizure of

Delhi! I would say that the decision was

even strategically brilliant since Delhi

was the political heart of India and one

of the strongest fortress cities of India.

The Sepoys so far did exceedingly well!

They proved that they were superior in

terms of Resolution and Intellect to

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many who later planned very Quixotic

schemes executed in all three Indo-Pak

Wars and till the Kargil Affair to date!

Full stop here! The Sepoys never

appreciated the naval potential of

Britain and never understood that a

country who could survive a French

Revolution or armies led by world class

military geniuses could not be defeated

simply by seizure of Delhi! Despite all

this the Meerut Cavalry troopers of 3rd

Light Cavalry took a brilliant decision,

once we keep in mind their knowledge

of the external world, their nominal

education and their subjective life

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experiences! Those men were heroes,

far superior to most post-1857 Muslim

politicians and this includes all who

have been on the scene to date!

An answer was provided by General

Jang Bahadur the military ruler of Nepal

to Sir Colin Campbell in March 1858.

The situation was as following; the

British had almost won the Sepoy

Rebellion and were about to assault

Lucknow which had been in Sepoy

hands since July 1857. Jang Bahadur

had led a Nepali Gurkha army to assist

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the British and his army was part of the

force tasked to assault Lucknow! Jang

Bahadur told Colin Campbell as soon as

he joined him with his army had he not

visited England he would have been

fighting against the British instead of

with them! The readers can now

compare the difference! The Sepoys

were Heroic but they were Heroic

because they unlike Jang Bahadur had

never visited England. Delhi was the

ultimate city for these brave albeit naive

Rohtakis from villages like Kalanaur and

Kanar!

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It appears that the British realised that

the Indians needed to be educated

about the reality of the British Empire.

Warburton records such an incident in

his beautiful Eighteen Years in Khyber.

This was when Warburton arranged a

visit of the Khyber Maliks to Calcutta

and Bombay so that it may widen their

horizon and make them less ambitious

in their plans to fight against Britain.

The exercise it appears was not very

successful since the Khyber Afridis once

again rebelled in 1897! Heroism is good

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but the hero is different from a stock

broker or a banker! His calculations are

in terms of moral values which he

perceives as more sacred than material

gains. The hero lives after his death

while the businessmen dies everyday

despite living much longer than the

hero, but goes on suffering indignities

to gain greater dignity as that great

man Bacon said! I remember an

incident of a great bureaucrat as

narrated by one of his relatives! The old

fox, an ex-ICS and at that time a very

senior man in a political government

that once ruled Pakistan comes home

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and proudly tells his wife Oh dear you

know today what happened! Mr Prime

Minister abused me! Oh dear he uses

the particular word that he used only for

those with whom he is very intimate!

Ranjeet Singh was a great realist. At

the height of his power a courtier asked

him Sir you should attack the English

East India Companys territory. Ranjeet

replied dismissing his sycophant

advisors I may advance with my army

as far as Aligarh but then the

Englishmen would destroy me. A fine

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assessment by a man who had not been

to any War College or Defence College!

Syed Ahmad Khan was another great

realist! In Bijnor he restrained the

Indians from attacking English civilians

and non-combatants and from joining

the anti-British camp at a time when

the Hindus of Bijnor were in full

rebellion against the English Company!

It was very unheroic and opportunistic

as some may say! But the Syed had his

reasons! Deep inside his heart was a

conviction that the British would win

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and in the long-term the rebellion would

do more harm to the Muslims than

good! The Syed was much condemned

by many Muslims after the rebellion as

an Ibnul Waqt but the Syed atoned for

his unheroic behaviour by establishing

the MAO College Aligarh. Opportunism

is excusable if the end result is positive,

but this unfortunately is not the case in

most scenarios. The Syed is

remembered for his educational

achievements today and not for any

business empire that he left. He would

have been a smaller hero had he died

fighting against the British at Bijnor! He

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had a strategic vision and would have

been an excellent Chief of General Staff

or more had he been alive today in any

Indo-Pak Army!

Now compare the Syed with later

Muslim leaders. He advised the Muslims

to desist from identifying themselves

with Egyptian, Turk or Afghan Muslims

in the period 1878-1898. The Turks

were too far to be of any help to the

Indian Muslims! The Egyptians too

insignificant and again too far and the

Afghans were the worst predators who

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had shamelessly looted the Indian

Muslims during the period 1739-59. This

golden advice was forgotten by

outwardly more educated Muslims in

1920 when the Khilafat Movement was

launched!

Isoruku Yamamoto later famous as

Admiral Yamamoto was another great

realist. He had studied at Yale and

Harvard in between his military career

and understood the limits of US military

effectiveness! He counselled repeatedly

against war with the US but his advice

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was over ruled by the more powerful

Japanese Army and Japan went into a

suicidal war that finally concluded with a

nuclear holocaust at Hiroshima and

Nagasaki.

Clausewitz makes a very fine distinction

between types of courage and boldness

and the level of command! Clausewitz

put the lesson by using a beautiful

example! Clausewitz thus stated If a

young man to show his skill in

horsemanship leaps across a deep cleft,

then he is bold; if he makes the same

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leap pursued by a troop of head

chopping Jannisaries he is only resolute.

But the further off the necessity from

the point of action, the greater the

number of relations intervening which

the mind has to traverse in order to

realize them. As a matter of fact

strategic decision making is more

difficult since the time period is much

greater than in tactical encounters and

a much greater mind is required. This

explains why Military Crosses or

Military Cross Bars failed in East

Pakistan. These men had earned fame

imported from junior positions and did

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not deserve the ranks that they

reached. In the final summing up their

bad luck was the fact that a war broke

out and they were exposed while their

successors since 1971 have been far

more lucky!

In my humble capacity I saw how

perceptions are distorted during the

Gulf war. The seniormost decision

makers in our military thought that it

would be a prolonged affair! I was at

the School of Armour Nowshera. The

Allied attack had not yet commenced

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and this was December 1990. I think it

was Colonel Moin Rauf one of our senior

instructors who said that the Iraqis

would not last for more than a week!

This was at a time when many far more

senior people had totally different

opinion. Moin Rauf I think had been to

Fort Knox for a course and kept his eyes

open. This scribes father who had been

to Fort Belvoir in 1964 said that how

could Iraq defeat USA once it had

miserably failed to defeat Iran in far

more advantageous circumstances in

1980! All this was crystal clear but all

those who were something had

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ridiculous perceptions. Pakistan was

lucky that Ghulam Ishaq Khan saw

things more realistically and restored

some sanity in the higher decision

making echelons!

Unfortunately we have had too many

meteors who came and disappeared but

no great man with the slow solid but

massive presence of a heavenly body in

Clausewitzian terms! This is our

tragedy! Mediocrity which as the saying

brilliantly puts it knows nothing higher

than itself has been institutionalised on

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both sides of the Radcliffe Line! God

help us! An Anglo Saxon westernised

Nadir Shah to spread fire and sword

may not be a remote possibility!

Realism Courage Vision and

Opportunism all have their limits and

uses. We hope that those who at the

moment are sitting on the pinnacles of

power will understand this and will act

in a judicious manner! The tide of

history as Machiavelli says can be

manipulated with if dykes are built in

time ! In case this is not done it

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becomes irreversible and destroys

anything that comes in its way!

Ethnic Rivalry and Chauvinism

Muslim politics was signified by marked

ethnic chauvinism and class distinctions.

Prime parties were Hindustani Party

composed of Muslims from North West

Provinces of Agra and Oudh later known

as UP. The Punjabi Muslim party gained

great prominence after collaboration

with the English East India Company in

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1857 Rebellion . However even in this

case Hindustani party was not far

behind as leading UP Muslims like Syed

Ahmad Khan and Bilgramis etc had

collaborated with the company. Pashtun

Muslims were junior partners as were

Sindhi Muslims. In addition Muslims

from Bihar ,Bombay ,Madras and

Central Provinces were culturally similar

to UP Muslims and considered equal.

Since initially there was no concept of

India sans British majority in population

was not important priority in eyes of the

Muslim elite. Prime measure of a groups

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power or influence was land holdings,

property, official influence or patronage

by virtue of having a government rank

or appointment in military ,civil

service,police or judiciary.

Muslim politics was centered around

acquiring special quotas in government

jobs and in supporting British Empire in

military recruitment in case of external

war or internal war as 1857 or hur

Rebellion Frontier expeditions.

This elite particularly regarded the

majority Bengali Muslims as inferior race

of Dravidian origins right from the start

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once Muslim revival initiated under Syed

Ahmad Khan in 1878.

British policy as prime strategic script

There is absolutely no doubt that British

policy was paramount and constituted

the prime strategic script written for all

Indians Muslim, Hindu or Sikh.

All tales of heroism and freedom

Struggle on part of Indians are largely

romance barring few individuals and

communities like tribal Pashtuns ,Sinhdi

hurs , Bengali extremists like Ras Bihari

Bose , ghadrite Sikhs communists ,etc.


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Notable British strategic successes were

as following :---

1. Indians played by British rules and

were forced to accept British

political system of local

government etc.
2. No Indian agitation movement

from 1857 to 1947 succeeded in

achieving independence .
3. British policy after 1857 at

strategic level divided Indians wit h

religious and class quotas in army

and civil service.


4. Greatest British triumph was

enforcement of system of separate

electorates according to religion

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which practically divided Indians

after 1906.
5. Pakistan particularly at strategic

level was a British creation and

British strategists saw Pakistan as

a subsidiary base against USSR

after 1947.
6. Pakistan became part of the

problem after demise of USSR as it

is now regarded as an anachronism

and oddity in the new global design

of Muslim extremism and US China

rivalry.

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Indias multi ethnic character and

clash of egoism complicated by

diversity in religion

Indias communally pluralistic character

complicated politics as politicians were

limited and marginalized by religious

beliefs .Thus secular men like Jinnah

and even Nehru were forced to operate

within communal/religious frameworks.

System of promotion and assessment

of leaders which rewards docility,

meekness, submissiveness and

sycophancy rather than real talent

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British system of selection of military

and political leaders was based on

loyalty and docility.

While India as a democracy broke away

to an extent from this tradition, Pakistan

by virtue of military take overs or fear

of military take overs remained a victim

of this system of conspiracy against

originality and boldness.

Lack of institutional job security in

military as initiated from Liaquat

tenure in 1951 and in civil services

as initiated by Ayub Khan in 1958

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Pakistani military officers had no job

security after Pakistani premier Liaqat

Ali Kan amended rules creating a

system were any military officer could

be retired or dismissed without

assigning any reason in 1951 in the

aftermath of Pindi Conspiracy case , lack

of job security enjoyed by an officer was

removed.Thus military officers became

glorified clerks of the state and their

only survival lay in extreme sycophancy

and docility .

Pakistani civil servants suffered the

same fate under Ayub Khan once civil

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services rules were degraded to remove

job security that a civil servant enjoyed

under British rules.

Destruction of freedom of thought

and speech as implemented by

Ayub Khan under the Qudratulla

Shahab Altaf Gauhar -Ayub clique

1958 martial law saw removal of all

basic rights and freedom of speech

under Ayub Khans martial law and

notoriously loyal sycophants like

Qudratulla Shahab etc led the crusade

against free speech.

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The subject is sad and volumes can be

written . So I will prefer to quote a brief

analysis of the matter that I carried out

in 2008 titled as death of idealism:--

When we were young our hopes were

high and our imagination knew no

bounds.

Lahore was the centre of brilliant liberal

free thinkers and Government College,

Islamia College and Forman Christian

College had some brilliant professors

and similarly outstanding students.


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Discussion was of international level and

the best philosophers in mankinds

history were quoted and counter

quoted.

There was Pakistan Times that citadel of

Intellectual honesty led by the brilliant

team of Mian Iftikharuddin and

Nawabzada Mazhar Ali Khan.There were

indomitable and heavenly poets like

Faiz,Jalib and Faraz.

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The list is long, Safdar Mir , Burney ,

Tariq Ali,Idris and many more.

Karachi had impregnable and priceless

political activists like Mairaj Mohammad

Khan.

Pakistan had students like Tariq Ali who

worsted and spiked heavy weight US

politicians on the BBC.

The NWFP had its own group of

intellectuals mostly in Peshawar

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,Charasadda and Kohat and when the

Pashtun combines Pashtun individualism

with the ideals of French Revolution and

Russian revolution he is simply

invincible.

Balochistan had indomitable and proce

less jewels like Ataullah Mengal,Khair

Baksh Marri,Bizenjo , Nawab Akbar

Bugti and Gul Khan Naseer.

Sindh had ZAB who was matcless and

GM Syed who was factional but

nevertheless brilliant.
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It was a galaxy of giants.

And then a dark age begain in

1958.With sycophants and darbaris like

Qudratullah Shahab and Altaf

Gauhar.Takent and individualism was

destroyed.The civil servants were

stripped of their immunity from

arbitrary dismissal by Ayub

Khan.Pakistans generals and their

darbari civil servants destroyed

talent.The process was accelerated in

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1977 and refined in 1999 to the highest

pitch.

Punjab was the worst hit.Being the

major province it became a prime target

for intellectual castration,intellectual

slavery and economic

manipulation.Today it is a sorry

example of a paid press , leaders whose

only distinction is that they are dirty

rich and eat paya and all similar

nonsense.Court with the generals and

talk about democracy after throwing

their workers in blast furnaces.

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Balochistan is a war zone and no Baloch

worth his salt wants to have anything o

do with the thekedars of pakistan sitting

in Islamabad and Pindi in civvies and

uniform.

Sindh is divided and factionalised with a

sharp urban rural divide,multiplying

poverty and the danger of

Talibanisation.

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The NWFO is in shatters with corrupt

politicians, with or without beards and

moving towards a new geopolitical

arrangement.

The Northern Areas are fast moving

towards a new geopolitical arrangement

and the two choices of being in a

Chinese sphere of influence or a US

base for a future guerrilla war against

China.

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Kashmir is condemned to be destroyed

either by natural calamities or by a final

Indo Pak war.

All roads lead to chaos and doom.

Idealism started dying in 1958 and its

death was geared up between 1977 and

1988 and perfected by a cheap social

climber in between 1999 and 2008.

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145

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146

Muslim Separatism began in UP as a

competition of Muslims against Hindus

for government jobs.

Hindus were seen as a political threat to

Muslims as Muslims could not compete

with Hindus in competitive examinations

for government jobs.

Muslim League in essence was created

as a political platform of loyal Muslims

wo wanted British support in state jobs

and political influence. Although created

at Dacca in Bengal it was immediately

hijacked by UP Muslims and its

headquarters shifted to UP.

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At Lucknow in 1916 UP Muslims and

Jinnah did not hesitate a second in

arbitrarily sacrificing Muslim majority in

Bengal from 52.6 % to 40 % and in

Punjab from 54.8 to 50 % !

The following diagrams show the

progress of this jaundiced process of

creating an unfair advantage:--

1858 to 1947

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149

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150

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151

At a non representative Muslim League

session at Lucknow in UP with 400 out

of 433 attendees from Lucknow Mr

Jinnah as president of the session

reduces Muslim majorities as below :--

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Province Actual Muslim

Muslim representatio

Population n of seats in

IN % counsuls as

agreed at

Lucknow Pact

of 1916
Bengal 52.6 40
Bihar and 10.5 25

Orissa
Bombay 20.4 33.3
Central 4.3 15

Provinces
Madras 6.5 15
Punjab 54.8 50
UP 14 30
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The pact severely divided Muslims:--

Sir Mohammad Safi leader of

Punjabi Muslims disassociated

Punjab Muslim League from Central

body.
Prominent Muslim leaders Sir Abdul

Rahim and Chaudry Nawab Din

refused to sign it.


Even Chaudry Khaliq Uz Zaman a

prominent albeit blunt UP Muslim

leader described it in is book

Pathway to Pakistan (page 37) as

seeds of partition of India were laid

at Lucknow and this led to Pakistan

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loosing large portions of Bengal

and the Punjab at partition.


Bengali Muslims remained

extremely politically unstable till

1947 and were forced to form

unstable coalition ministries with

Hindu parties .
Punjab Muslims were only saved by

forming Unionist Party but Muslim

League became a non entity in

Punjab thanks to Lucknow Pact and

was destined to remain so till

Britishers saved it in 1940 once Mr

Jinnah agreed to support British

war effort in Second World War.

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Contrary to prevalent propaganda

in Pakistan neither the Congress

nor the Indus never accepted

Indian Muslims as a separate

nation at Lucknow Pact of 1916 !

In sum Lucknow Pact was a strategic

blunder of magnanimous proportions .

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156

Flawed and vague mechanics of

partition was a great failure of Muslim

leadership .

Rather than agreeing to a simple

formula that princely states join

Pakistan or India based on majority of

their subjects religious composition Mr

Jinnah insisted on ideas that states with

majority Hindu population like Junagadh

,Bikaner ,Hyderabad etc join Pakistan

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.This illogical stance weakened Pakistans

cause in case of Kasmir state were

majority population was Muslims but its

ruler joined India.

Mr Jinnah had developed differences

with last British viceroy Mountbatten.In

this situation in order to retain greater

control the ideal was to appoint a

Pakistani army chief who would listen to

Mr Jinnah . however Mr Jinnah

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appointed a Britisher, as well as army

number two and at the critical moment

the British acting chief refused to obey

Mr Jinnahs orders to move Pakistan

army into Kashmir.

Mr Jinnah and his hand picked premier

inducted Malik Ghulam Mohammad a

wily ex bureaucrat into Pakistani cabinet

,thus vindicating his mistrust in

politicians. Knowing Mr Jinnahs

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character it is difficult to imagine that

Liquat could have inducted the man on

his own.In addition Liaquat inducted

ministers like Gurmani , Abdul Qayyum

Khan who had just jumped the band

wagon !

This man later played a most negative

role in destroying Pakistans democracy .

Thus by virtue of a flawed

administrative decision a virus was

institutionally injected in Pakistans body

politics.

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161

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Entire strategy of Pakistans creation was

based around a Gujrati-Bombay-UP

Punjabi alliance of convenience.

A simple sketch below shows main

players:--

1. Majority population of East Bengal

now is seen as an anachronism and

appendix.At the ulterior level they

are regarded as a greater threat

now than Hindus as they could

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threaten the UP-Punjabi-Bombay

hold on Pakistans political scene !

It was fashionable to label Bengalis

as erratic , a special attack on

Fazlul haq , or as decadent , an

attack on Suharwardy or as volatile

! That their majority was reduced

at Lucknow in 1916 was no longer

the case ? So what to do ? This

was the real reason why Pakistans

constitution was delayed till 1956 ,

way paved for actual pre martial

law destruction of Pakistans

democracy in 1954 ! And finally

way paved for martial law in 1958 !

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All these were strategic losses but

class and ethnicity was paramount.


2. In the division of partition spoils

industry left by Hindus went to

Bombay mercantile classes , main

financiers of Muslim League ,

Punjabs most fertile canal irrigated

lands to refugees from East Punjab

which was an unproductive and

barren area. All loans of Punjabs

landlords written off ! Prime urban

properties of Hindus and Sikhs

were occupied by local refugees

i.e those who are not actually

refugees but pose as refugees !

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3. A huge vacuum in civil service

almost wholly filled by Punjabis

and UPites.
4. By 1948 we have a state whose

political control is with a bunch of

politicians and bureaucrats in

Karachi and Pindi. Ministry of

Defence , my paternal grandfather

was an assistant secretary had one

to Pindi as was the army

headquarters !
5. British officers and civil servants

play lead role in an ingenious

scheme to use tribal Pashtuns as

cannon fodder to win huge tracts of

lands in Kashmir .Unfortunately or

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fortunately (!) this plan too failed

because of incompetent strategic

failures of Pakistans leadership.

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Mr Jinnah and veteran Bombay business

magnate Adamji

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There is one extremely important event

which has generally been ignored by

most historians .

This was a conference held between

30th October and 4th November.

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Brigadier Akbar Khan the military man

incharge of the raiders operations had

returned to Pindi after a visit to the

frontline at Srinagar.

The tribesmen had not yet been

repulsed and were planning infiltration

operations with the aim of capturing

Srinagar airfield.

Akbar Khans analysis about the

operational solution to the problem of

tribesmens inability to attack well

entrenched Indian infantry, supported

by aircraft and artillery was to provide

the tribesmen with armoured cars.

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Major Masud from 11 Cavalry stationed

at Rawalpindi volunteered to take his

own squadrons armoured cars

to Srinagar, on his own initiative,

without informing any superior

headquarter.

Akbar Khan states in his book Raiders

in Kashmir that Major Masud said that

the armoured cars would go without

official permission, at his own risk and

that the men would be in civilian

clothes.

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This fact is proved by two independent

authorities who were not from armoured

corps and thus had no ulterior

motivation or desire to project 11

Cavalry.

One was General Akbar who was

present at the conference and the other

was Brigadier Amjad Ali Khan Chaudhry

who was a gunner, and was also present

at the same conference.

Akbar states that as the conference was

coming to an end Raja Ghazanfar Ali

Khan a Muslim League leader

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and Central Government Minister

entered the room.

Brigadier Sher Khan who was the

Director Military Operations had also

joined the discussion.

This, Raja Ghazanfar (despite being

from a so-called martial area) was

horrified about the armoured cars

proposal, and according to both Akbar

Khan and Amjad Chaudhry opposed the

idea.

He was supported by Brigadier Sher

(Lion) Khan! Both the Minister and the

Lion Hearted brigadier feared that such

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a step would lead to an open war

between Pakistan and India. Amjad

Chaudhry states that one of the

participants at this conference a Muslim

League minister Raja Ghazanfar Ali

Khan even voiced an apprehension

that the unruly tribesmen may get

unruly and damage the Maharajas

palace at Srinagar ! Thus in the end

Akbar Khan who was not directly in

charge of the operations of tribesmen

was overruled by a pacifist Minister

more keen to enjoy ministerial perks

and a paper tiger brigadier wearing the

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mask of the high-sounding appointment

of Director Military Operations!

Mr Jinnah and Pakistan Armys first

British Commander in Chief Messervy

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Acting C in C Gracey

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Pakistani failure to select correct timing

of ceasefire in 1947-48 Kashmir war

was a major strategic failure of

Pakistans leadership.

It appears tat little tout was iven to tis

matter.

Thus Pakistan ended accepting a

ceasefire only after its military position

was most disadvantageous.

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Jinnah and Liaquat developed serious

differences over differences between

Liaquats wife and Jinnahs sister over

seniority precedence in December 1947

and this seriously affected coordination

and smooth functioning of the

government.

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Liaquat Ali Khan was a miserable failure

in constitution making .

Liaquat Ali Khan was a miserable failure

in Kashmir war.

Objectives Resolution was an attempt to

gain cheap popularity by paying lip

service to Islam.

It was a vaguely worded resolution

declaring that Sovereignty belonged to

Allah only ! This means that Liaquat

preferred a vague view of sovereignty

not linked with tangible constitutional

facts !

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The law has been twisted and

misinterpreted by forces of

obscurantism and extremism since its

creation in 1949.

A Cardinal strategic failure whose

responsibility rests with all Pakistani

leaders from Jinnah , Liaquat , Ghulam

Mohammad,Nazimuddin etc.

Main issue which delayed constitution

making was fear of Bengali political

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domination . No West Pakistani politician

wanted to accept Bengalis 54 %

majority which had been destroyed in

1916 at Lucknow Pact.They regarded

Bengalis as a genetically inferior

race.Bengalis were finally coerced and

forced with army actively involved to

finally renounce their majority and

agree to parity in 1956 constitution.

This delayed constitution making by 9

years leading to unstable governments

and finally martial law of 1958 which

laid foundations of Pakistans future civil

wars in Balochistan and Pakistans

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breakup and division into two states in

1971.

Denial of ethnic existence of Sindi

,Balochi, Pashtuns and grouping all

nationalities under a single giant

province known as West Pakistan was a

serious strategic failure . This led to an

insurgency in Baluchistan from 1958 to

1969 , from 1973 to 1976 and even the

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present insurgency in Baluchistan from

2002 till to date.

Pakistan army chief Ayub Khan was the

central culprit in this exercise which

occurred in 1955-56.

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Although Mr Jinnah initiated Benali

recruitment in army in 1947-48 , Ayub

Khan stopped this process after

1951.Thus there were only 3 Bengali

infantry units in 1965.

This seriously affected East Bengal and

the Pakistani military came to be

regarded as an occupying force in all

provinces outside Punjabi districts.

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Ayub Khans constitution of 1962 again

denied due representation to East

Pakistan and directly contributed to

breakup of Pakistan in 1971.

Indirect system of elections contributed

to massive political and financial

corruption and severely weakened

democratic institutions.

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Fruits of massive US aid were sabotaged

by creating a class of robber industrial

barons who made massive profits in sort

spans and paid minimum taxes to the

state.

Foundations of Pakistans economy of

tax evasion were thus laid in 1960s and

have continued with devastatingly

negatively and massively accumulating

results till todate.

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1962 when China attacked India was

the right time to settle disputes with

India however Ayub Khan lost his nerve

and simply disappeared on a vacation in

the mountains.

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195

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Ayub Khans inept handling of Pakistans

Operation grand Slam offensive at

Akhnur was a major strategic failure of

Pakistani military.

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Pakistan was in a decisive opposition to

sever Indian strategic line of

communication in Ravi Sutlej Corridor

and impose a major strategic defeat in

war on India.

Pakistani failure occurred at operational

level as its offensive failed because of

faulty operational organization and inept

operational doctrine .

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Ayub Khan initiated a rapprochement

with USSR after 1965 War.

USSR supplied about 100 tanks and

helicopters to Pakistan.

Pakistani officers were sent on tank

warfare courses to Kiev ,Kharkov and

Aviation School at Tiflis .

However Ayub Khans successor Yahya

Khan reversed this process.

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This resulted in far closer USSR Indian

cooperation and Pakistans most

humiliating military defeat and breakup

of the country .

Pakistan Army failed to conceive a clear

cut strategy about Pakistan Armys

counter offensive to save East Pakistan .

This resulted in Pakistans breakup and

defeat in December 1971.

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Indian Armys Western Command Chief

general Candeth on record admitted in

his book Western Front in 1971 that if

Pakistan had launched a pre emptive

attack on India before October 1971 , all

Indian plans to attack East Pakistan

would have been thrown to the winds.

This failure dated from 1951 and

persisted till 1971 . It was a major and

purely military strategic failure of

Pakistani state.

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Pakistan Armys major failure to cause

severe dislocation to Indians occurred in

Pakistans 1 Corps area were Pakistan

failed to take advantage of its central

position in Shakargarh Bulge and to

credibly threaten and dislocate Indians

with its superior armour resources.

Major general Fazal Muqeem and

Shaukat Riza in their books tried to

white wash this failure.

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however this failure was pointed out in

hamood ur Rehman commission report.

In an interview with this Pakistan Armys

Major general N.U.K Babar also

highlighted this failure as below:---

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In 1973 Mr Z.A Bhutto was instrumental

in creation of a law which declared a

sect known as Ahmaddiya as non

Muslims.

This was a strategic failure as it

strengthened forces of Islamic

extremism in Pakistan.

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The origins of failure to construct

hydel power dams date from military

usurper Zias era.

Today this issue is Pakistans gravest

economic issue.More serious and

treatenin for Pakistans economy than

even terrorism or Indian threat.

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Massive tax evasion is Pakistans most

serious strategic threat.Failure to

implement tis can lead to severe

instability and even demise of Pakistani

state.The issue has achieved very

serious implications since 1977.Tax as

share of gross domestic product as

declined from 18 % to 9 % in last 15

years.

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Mr Bhuttos dissolution of NAP-JUI

coalition governments in Balochistan

and NWFP in 1973 was a serious

strategic failure ,Particularly in

Balochistan this event contributed to

Baloch alienation with Pakistani state

which since 2002 as assumed form of an

existential threat both to the Baloch and

to the Pakistani state.

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Appointment of an unknown

professionally pathetic non entity to

rank of army chief by Mr Z.A Bhutto was

a major strategic failure of Pakistani

history.

While Mr Bhutto paid the price with his

head ,Pakistan and whole region is

paying a very high price of Zias

adventurist policies as practiced in

Afghanistan since 1978.

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Interestingly Zia was not recommended

by the army and was not in run for the

appointment but was selected out of the

blue by Mr Z.A Bhutto with a severe

misconception that Zia was docile and

politically no threat to a civilian regime.

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Zia contrary to western perceptions was

not a Jihadist but a religious man who

was using religion as a faade to hide a

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shabby personality handicapped with a

humble background.

When a western analyst states that the

military usurper Zia was determined to

deter the USSR from reaching the warm

water ports of Arabian Sea and Indian

Ocean, this is good romance in style of

James Bond but not serious history.

Three crucial factors forced General

Zia , a man who had usurped power

illegally on 5 July 1977 and was known

to be a man with US connections since

1950s.

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Zia had played a key role in suppressing

the PLO in Jordan as Pakistani military

attach in Jordan.

The first factor was that Zia military

junta was politically isolated and

financially broke and needed

international aid and support.

The second factor was that Zia military

junta needed internal political support in

Pakistan and the easiest way of

mustering some was to use Islam.

The third factor was that since 1947 the

Punjabi-Urdu elite dominating Pakistan

had regarded Pashtuns as a threat and

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the Pashtun belts secessionist or

autonomist tendencies were regarded as

a threat by this Pakistani ethnic mafia.

Initially the Punjabi-Urdu establishment

elite regarded the Bengalis as the

greatest threat to their unfair political

economic and military dominance of

Pakistan.

After Bengalis were removed from the

political-strategic scene because of

creation of Bangladesh , this ethnic elite

viewed Pashtuns as a major threat.

Between 1974 and 1977 Balochistan

and NWFP provinces saw a high

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intensity insurgency in the former and

low intensity insurgency in the latter.

These three factors were crucial in

propelling the Zia junta to use Soviet

invasion of Afghanistan as a golden tool

to gain political and moral legitimacy

and financial support from the west and

the rich arab states of Gulf and Saudi

Arabia.

Pashtuns were used as cannon fodder

by the military junta as proxies in

Afghan war and thus the seeds of

religious extremism were planted in

Pakistan .

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Foreign policy and all security and

defence matters in Pakistan became the

preserve of Pakistani military which

continues till to date !

Since Afghan war was a gold mine for

Pakistans fatherless military elite they

wanted it to continue for as long as

possible.The strategic objective of

Pakistani generals was to stay in power

and that required the Afghan war gold

mine to yield US Dollars.

Thus while the Afghan war was fought

for a twisted political goal , the wagers

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of the game had their own personal

agendas the region got radicalized.

The US policy makers of that time failed

strategically in not outmanoeuvring

Pakistans greedy generals and being

taken for a ride by them.

Reagan with no intellectual caliber and

depth bit the Pakistani generals bait and

generals who used to sell eggs to

survive became the personal

benefactors of the USAs greatest covert

operations aid program.

The policy was a failure as ultimately

the Islamists became a Frankensteins

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monster and started regarding its

original fathers the Pakistani military as

un Islamic and impure .

Today the Islamists are a major

existential threat to Pakistani state.

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In the Zia era Pakistani military started

relying on a class of urban business men

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, Sharif family who combined business

with extreme financial corruption.

As a result Pakistani politics degraded

into a dirty money making game .

Today Pakistan is facing an existential

treat because of highly corrupt breed of

money making politicians like Sharifs

and Zardari.

Initiation of such characters in

Pakisatans politics was a severe

strategic failure of Pakistani military

under Zia , Beg , Asif Nawaz,Kakar and

Musharraf regime.

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Benazir Bhutto in 1988 adopted a policy

of total opportunism discarding the

liberal and secular ethos of ZA Bhuttos

PPP.This was a major strategic failure of

PPP and the PPP has since 1988.

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The right time for Pakistani military to

steer a change of posture regarding

Islamist non regular proxies was

November 2001.

However Musharraf remained double

minded and secretly continued

supporting Afghan Taliban wile clamping

down on smaller militant groups.

This was Pakistan Armys strategic

failure as Pakistani military was still

branded as a traitor to the cause of

Islamists.

Furthermore the process introduced a

strategic confusion of principle which

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since then has irrevocably worked

against Pakistan.

In the decade since 2001 Islamists have

become a serious existential threat for

Pakistani state and one can safely

assume that Musharrafs double game

was Pakistans strategic failure.

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In all probability some officer who

attended a military course in China

came up with the idea of demographic

change in Pakistans Baluchistan and

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Musharraf tried to implement this

starting early 2001.

Balochistans demography is fragile as

far as its Baloch population is concerned

When Musharrafs initiated mega

projects like gwadar Port and Kachhi

Canal in Baluchistan in all probability

the aim was to transform Baluchistans

demography.

Baloch population perceived this threat

accurately and reacted with a low

intensity armed insurrection.

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It appears that while Baluchistan

insurrection is indigenous Baloch are

getting international support from

various state actors like

Indians,Oman,US who view a Chinese

presence in Balochistan as a long term

strategic threat.

Most of the Baloch grievances are

legitimate and the Punjabi-Urdu-Pashtun

establishment of Pakistan actually looks

down upon them and regards them as

aborigines or as lesser species.

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Pakistani duplicity with NATO landed

Pakistan into more problems than it

solved and was thus a bad strategic

decision.

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True that Pakistani military supported

vast bulk of Taliban in Afghanistan , the

sad part and hard reality is that all

Islamic extremists will unite at some

stage and destroy the Pakistani state as

it exists today.

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Musharrafs white washing all sins of

Pakistani politicians known as NRO was

a decisive strategic failure of the

Pakistani state .

In the process Musharraf

institutionalized corruption as a

legitimate system and Pakistani military

almost irrevocably lost any remaining

moral credibility that it enjoyed inside

Pakistan.

Pakistani military may find it difficult to

recover from this strategic defeat in the

long run.

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In 2008 Pakistani military lost a good

chance to destroy FATA rebels .

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Pakistan Army was in a position to

destroy the TTP but Pakistani chief Kiani

a man of indecisive nature failed.

It stands as a major strategic failure of

Pakistani military.

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In 2007 Pakistani military under Kiani

and Pasha initiated a lift and kill policy

in Baluchistan.

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This policy was a strategic failure since

it reinforced Baloch resolve to fight

rather than dampen it.

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How to sum it up .

Pakistans most serious challenges are

neither India , nor terrorism but :---

1. Energy generation
2. Tax Collection

Pakistani state needs to abandon the

following :--

1. Islam as a tool of strategy and

policy.
2. Ethnic chauvinism, like regarding

any of Pakistans ethnicities as

inferior.
3. Abandon the idea that only

Punjabis are entitled to make

money while others should act as

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military proxies, colonial subjects,

and lesser citizens.

In simple terms Pakistan can survive

only if: ---

1. Abandons Islam as a strategic or

military tool.
2. Abandons confrontation with

India.
3. Overcomes its two critical issues

(a) Energy (b) Tax evasion.


4. Reforms its administrative

structure creating smaller

provinces, more self sufficient,

self contained.

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5. Pakistani state whoever runs it

ensures that development funds

reach the right people.


6. Forget about its neighbors

specially Afghanistan as a source

of strategic depth.
7. Abandon duplicity as a strategy

in foreign policy.

All these are hard challenges.

Pakistanis must realize that Pakistan

was not inevitable .

It was created by British strategic

design , survived with US largesse ,later

supplemented by Chinese and Arab

money.

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Pakistan s mafia style political and

military Dons must understand that

today major part of worlds stake holders

are perplexed about what to do with

Pakistan and Pakistan since 1991 has

been a problem rather than a solution !

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While British strategy makers and policy

wizards painstakingly visualized a

Muslim strategic subsidiary base in

Indias North West to act as tactical

garbage collector against USSR , today

worlds think tanks , policy makers and

most powerful statesman spend

sleepless nights worrying over Pakistan ,

a garrison state gone rogu !

An unwritten question of profound

scholar Dr Ishtiaq when he wrote his

magnum bonum Pakistan-garrison state

was , how can an imperialist creation

gone wrong , be corrected ?

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Or is there only a harsh Stalinist

solution to Pakistan , a strategic

anachronism par excellence !

Pakistans political and military Dons

must not take solace in the fact that its

nukes can act as strategic umbrellas for

corruption and massive fraud and tax

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evasion ! What is unprecedented can

also finally be practiced in strategy !

Above all that states cannot survive

forever on foreign states largesse .

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One day a state must stand on its own

feet or be ready to cease to exist ?????

The party cannot go on forever ????

One day even Nawaz Sharif , Zardari

and Pakistani military will have to

pay ?????

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