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Project 1

J.B. Campbell


Annotated Bibliography

Objective 1: Provide leadership to the schools to facilitate the successful infusion of technology.

Dndar, H., & Akayr, M. (2014). Implementing tablet PCs in schools: Students attitudes and

opinions. Computers in Human Behavior, 32, 40-46. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2013.11.020

Research Questions

This study was designed to investigate student attitudes and expectations of using tablet

technology in the classroom. The researchers wanted to determine if there was a significant

difference in tablet usage between student genders. They also wanted to see how computer use

and internet access would influence students opinions of tablet use. Finally, the researchers

were interested in the teachers perspective of the tablet use in comparison to the students


Data Collection

Both qualitative and quantitative data was gathered during the research, including student

surveys, questionnaires, and interviews of teachers and students alike.

Data Analysis

The survey responses were represented as numerical values in order to interpret mean and

standard deviation of specific groups of participants and questions.


After analyzing the information gathered from the surveys, the researchers could not identify any

measureable difference in gender attitudes towards the use of tablets. In addition, since the

surveys showed most students had outside of school access to computers and the internet, a

conclusive analysis of the use of tablets for this purpose was not possible. Teachers and

students did agree that this technology would make learning more efficient. Most students

reported that the tablet was an enjoyable way to study and found the tablets to be a better

alternative for textbooks. While the majority of students reported an increased interest in classes

with the use of tablets, some students reported that the tablets were a distraction to their learning.

Students were not pleased with the restrictions placed on their tablet usage by the school network

administration and felt this limitation hampered their ability for independent exploration using their

tablets. Teachers felt unprepared to make the best use of the tablet technology and requested

continual and in-depth professional development on how to best utilize tablet technology in the


Value of the Articles Content

This research study is another example of how classroom learning through technology can

motivate and encourage both teachers and students alike. Both groups wanted additional

resources that could be used with their tablets. In writing a grant proposal, this article

demonstrates the need for focused professional development for teachers on how to use web-

based applications and tools on a tablet platform. The grant could focus on the funds needed to

buy the appropriate technology for classroom use as well as the funds needed to attract

educational innovators and content experts to design and develop lesson plans using the tablet

platform. Without the proper professional development, teachers will not be supported in their

efforts to make effective use of the technology in their classrooms.

Kay, R. (2014). Exploring the use of web-based learning tools in secondary school classrooms.

Interactive Learning Environments, 22(1), 67-83. doi:10.1080/10494820.2011.641675

Research Questions

The purpose of this study was to determine how web based learning tools (WBLTs) impact

student learning in secondary schools. Specifically, the study wanted to see the perception of

WBLTs from the teacher perspective and the student perspective. The study also wanted to

determine the effect, if any, of WBLTs on student performance with pre and post assessments.

Data Collection

Using surveys and open ended question forms, data was collected on teacher perceptions in the

area of learning quality and engagement of WBLTs, their overall impact, and advice for future

teachers in using WBLTs. Using similar methods, data was also collected to analyze student

perceptions of the effectiveness of WBLTs on their learning as well as their likes and dislikes in

using WBLTs.

Data Analysis

In both cases, survey responses were given numerical scores in order to analyze pertinent data

including the mean and spread of the responses. In order to analyze the pre-assessment and

post-assessment data, multiple t-tests were used to determine what proportion of the sample

population fell within a certain threshold value.


This study concluded that the WBLTs used for this project were of good quality and supported an

increase in student learning and enjoyment of learning. Students also reported that the WBLTs

included in this study helped them to be more engaged in the learning process, but to a lesser

degree than teachers. In addition, not all students were in favor of WBLTs as a learning tool,

preferring a more traditional approach.

Value of the Articles Content

This particular study showcases a real need for a grant proposal for professional development of

teachers in my school building. Each lesson in this study was paired with specific WBLTs that

were interactive and visual appealing. This collaboration of content and instruction requires time

and content knowledge to create, so professional development would be necessary to guide and

help teachers accomplish this goal. In addition, the WBLTs themselves were not designed to

deliver the full content but to provide additional explanation of the specific content areas.

Therefore, specific topics of concentration for using WBLTs would need to be identified using

assessment data and teacher feedback before any professional development could begin.

Keppler, M. K., Weiler, S. S., & Maas, D. D. (2014). Focused ubiquity: A purposeful approach to

providing students with laptops. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 17(4), 278-288.

Research Questions

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of laptops in the hands of teachers and

students on instruction and learning at Littleton Public Schools, specifically in the area of student

produced writing, while also looking at how expenditures to implement the LPS program fared

with other similar initiatives. The study wanted to answer three questions: how has the LPS

model influenced learning through technology, how has this model influenced the teachers, and

how cost effective is the LPS model.

Data Collection

A mixed methods design was used to analyze both quantitative and qualitative types of data

generated by interviews, focus group discussions with students and teachers, classroom

observation tool, and a cost analysis formula. The interviews were conducted at the beginning

and halfway points of the semester using key questions to evaluate their experiences with

technology. The observation tool was broken into three sections including use of technology,

content, and pedagogy.

Data Analysis

The scores on this observation tool were then compared to a similar instrument tool (North

Carolina teacher evaluation tool) to determine the effect, if any, on teacher effectiveness as

measured by the teacher evaluation tool. The cost analysis formula took into account the

expenditures of the program per student involved, comparing this value to other per student

expenditures in other similar programs, and to school with no technology implementation



This study concluded that the use of laptops supported students efforts to revise and edit their

work, while simultaneously helping teachers differentiate instruction for students and providing

opportunities for prompt and timely feedback. Teachers also indicated a need for professional

development in the use of the laptops and quick support for technology issues to prevent teacher

frustration. In addition, the laptops provided students with a greater audience for their writings,

leading to an increase in effort by those students. In classrooms where teachers used the

technology most effectively, there was an increase in student engagement, as opposed to those

classrooms where teachers were not using the technology as frequently or effectively.

Value of the Articles Content

This article is a great example of the type of study which could support a grant proposal for new

technology in a school system. The article points out the need for continued professional

development for teachers to best implement the new technology, as well as the positive impact of

technology on student achievement and motivation. In addition, a grant proposal could highlight

the cost savings of a proposal similar to this study for laptop use in an entire school district.

Parr, J. M., & Ward, L. (2011). The teacher's laptop as a hub for learning in the classroom. Journal of

Research on Technology in Education (International Society for Technology in Education), 44(1),


Research Questions

The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the role of school issued teacher laptops

on learning and teaching in the classroom. This part of the study was conducted in the final year

of a four year study about the impact of teacher laptops on teacher confidence, skill, and

professional practice. Three schools in New Zealand were picked from a much larger pool of

candidates for this part of the study. The authors wanted to know how and why teachers used

technology to enrich the learning of their students, how laptops were being used to plan and

develop learning activities, how the laptop was being used during classroom activities, how the

laptop influenced student the student learning experience, and what the learning context for the

school was where the laptops were being used.

Data Collection

The authors spent time in specific teacher classrooms making field notes and observations in

addition to interviews with both students and teachers in each school building.

Data Analysis

The observations and field notes were crosschecked, reviewed daily, and analyzed to identify

similarities and differences between the teachers use of laptops to support their professional



This study demonstrated that even though the laptops were used differently in all three schools,

the use of the laptops was in line with the goals and vision put forth by the school at the beginning

of the technology implementation. Teachers agreed that their laptops were gateway devices to

using other instructional tools within the classroom and allowed them to work anywhere, not just

in their classroom. The use of their laptops to prepare lesson plans and activities had become so

embedded, teachers had to be prompted to consider this as a use of their technology. Clearly,

teachers had learned to use a variety of technologies in conjunction with their laptops to improve

and enrich the typical learning experiences of their students. Special emphasis was also given by

the authors to the school leadership at each school that supported teachers and contributed to

the positive impact this of laptop initiative.

Value of the Articles Content

This article could be used in a grant proposal to provide professional development for teachers to

better use the technology in their classroom. In addition, by providing teachers the same

technology, the professional development could overcome any barriers that might exist from

using different operating systems found on teachers personal laptops. Finally, the support of

administration and a clear vision for the use of the technology within each building contributed to

the success of the program. With this in mind, the grant proposal would need to include the

schools mission plan or goals for implementing technology within a building or classroom, and

how the administration can support the initiative from the front office.

Rogers, G. E. (2007). The perceptions of Indiana high school principals related to Project Lead the

Way. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 44(1), 49-65.

Research Questions

The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of Indiana high school principals on

the effects of implementing the Project Lead the Way curriculum at their schools. The study was

designed to answer two main questions: what effect did PLTW have on the schools, students,

and teachers of these high school principals and if there is any relationship between the

principals personal characteristics, experience, and school demographics that might influence

their perception of the program.

Data Collection

The bulk of the research was conducted using a survey sample of Indiana high school principals

who had implemented PLTW in their schools. The survey consisted of five sections, four of which

contained quantitative data over school demographics, principal years of experience, effect of

PLTW on teachers, and effect of PLTW on students. In each of these categories, participants

would rate the effectiveness of the program in different areas on a scale of 1 to 5. The final

category (qualitative) consisted of open responses to questions about the effects of PLTW on

their high school.

Data Analysis

The results of the quantitative categories were analyzed using ANOVA tests to measure the

differences and variations among the group means.


The study concluded that principals perceptions of PLTW on students were very favorable and in

support of the program to increase student motivation and enthusiasm for learning. The same

positive results were seen in teachers motivation and enthusiasm for a relevant curriculum

utilizing industry leading technology and software. The overall effect of PLTW on the schools was

overwhelmingly positive in the eyes of these high school principals, regardless of gender, years of

experience, or other personal characteristics of the principals.

Value of the Articles Content

This particular study highlights the effect a principal can have on the success of a new initiative.

The amount of preparation by teachers to implement the new PLTW curriculum would be a

daunting task, especially without the support of principals within the school building. In addition,

this study demonstrates how a well-designed program utilizing new technology can alter the

perception of the principal of a high school. The results of this case study could alter the

perception of school level personal as to the necessity and value of adding a new technology

based program to our school curriculum. The demonstrated increase in student engagement,

teacher involvement, and overall enthusiasm for the new curriculum and innovations from both

parties could address current academic issues in a school building or system.

Objective 2: Identify and promote awareness of the importance and the role of instructional technology

in the teaching/ learning process.

Bottge, B. A., Toland, M. D., Gassaway, L., Butler, M., Choo, S., Griffen, A. K., & Ma, X. (2015). Impact

of enhanced anchored instruction in inclusive math classrooms. Exceptional Children, 81(2),

158-175. doi:10.1177/0014402914551742

Research Questions

This purpose of this study was to assess any effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on

students. The study looked at both general education students and students with math

disabilities (MD). To summarize, EAI implements technology to anchor knowledge into the

students learning. This study wanted to answer specifically what effects, if any, did EAI

instruction have on the learning of fractions, computation skills, and problem-solving

performances of students in inclusive math classes (those containing students with and without

MD). In addition, the study asked if collaborative instructional strategies moderate the math

performances of students with and without MD.

Data Collection

The study was conducted using 25 math classrooms containing both MD and non-MD students.

Each class was given pre- and post-test, administered immediately before and after instruction to

assess the effects of EAI on fraction computation, problem solving, Iowa Test of Basic Skills

Computation and Problem Solving. Project personnel were trained to conduct observation of

classroom activities and specific teachers were identified during initial observations to determine

which ones employed more supportive collaborative models before analyzing the test data for the


Data Analysis

In each school, one inclusive math class was sampled employing a two-level multilevel model to

determine the effect, if any, of the EAI model on student performance, using pre-test and post-

test data for comparison for level 1. For level 2, the comparison between quality of support,

interaction of EAI model, and student post-test data was examined. For control, corresponding

data was also found in classrooms using only traditional teaching practices (no technology).


Student scores in classes using EAI were higher on the fraction computation test and problem

solving test than those in the control group which used traditional teaching practices. Students

with and without MD both outscored their counterparts in the control group, and the gains by

students with MD using EAI even outpaced the gains of students without MD in the control group.

The second question was answered less conclusively. The practice of co-teaching only

moderated student performances on the fraction computation test, but did not have a significant

difference in the other tested areas. Generally, the practice of special education teachers co-

teaching with the regular math teacher is not the norm due to content barriers. The content

barriers were addressed before this study as both teachers underwent the EAI training, however,

the most observed practice in this study was still a one teach/one assist model.

Value of Articles Content

For my grant proposal, this article focuses in on the effects of using non-text problem scenarios

presented through technology as a way to increase learning in special education students in an

inclusion classroom. My school has a very strong students with disabilities program and many

students are in inclusion classes with the support of special education teachers. This study gives

data to support the gains made by all students when introduced to new topics through thoughtful

lessons using technology (tablets, laptops, etc.). When both teachers are using these tools in the

classroom, the opportunities for impacting student performance increases regardless of the roles

played by both teachers in the room.

Eyyam, R., & Yaratan, H. S. (2014). Impact of use of technology in mathematics lessons on student

achievement and attitudes. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 4, 231-242.


Research Questions

This study is looking to find a link between educational technology and the learning experiences

and possibly student success in a mathematics classroom. The study is asking what the effect of

using education technology in mathematics lessons has on student achievement. In addition, the

study wants to know the attitude of the students towards math instruction when educational

technology is used. The study is limited due to its small sample size, where all students attend

the same school.

Data Collection

A quasiexperimental design was used to select heterogeneous groups of students from an entire

grade level. Two different groups of students (experimental and control) of equal sample size

were selected at random from five classes. All groups were given a pre-test and post-test after

instruction. The experimental group and the control group were given all materials for the

mathematics lessons, with the experimental group receiving instructional technology for use and

the control group receiving no technology. Student attitudes towards technology were measured

by a two-factor educational technology perception scale which was only completed by the

experimental group.

Data Analysis

An analysis of covariance was used on the students pre- and post-test results to answer the

question of the effect of educational technology on student achievement. Any gains from pre-test

to post-test were compared to previous term scores in order to compare the experimental and

control groups. The student responses on the educational technology survey were also analyzed

by equating responses to a three point scale and finding the mean score for each category.


As expected, the use of educational technology in mathematics lessons did have a measureable

increase in the success of students on post-test assessments compared with those students who

did not use educational technology. However, a more meaningful conclusion was reached in

regards to the second research question. Even though students were not sure if educational

technology would actually improve their performance, they were positive that they preferred to be

in a class that used educational technology.

Value of Articles Content

The last conclusion of this studys research I believe is one of the most vital pieces of information

in this study. One of the bigger issues in education is how to engage students in the learning

process in todays technological world. By exposing these students to educational technology,

they saw an immediate difference in student attitudes. Students want to be taught using

technology when applicable, even if they are not comfortable with all aspects of that technology.

These effects may only be short term, but any change from disinterest to engagement in the

classroom is a positive outcome. Teachers need to be able to facilitate one engaging lesson

using technology after another, but this takes planning and developing time that cannot be

accomplished in a one hour professional development course.

Grundmeyer, T. (2014). Adopting technology: Using student qualitative data and Gartner's Hype

Cycle. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 2(1), 207-216. Retrieved from

Research Questions

The purpose of this study is to determine how technology experiences at the high school level

have affected the next wave of college freshman. This study is asking for the perceptions of

college freshman on their 1:1 laptop experiences and their college readiness. In addition, the

researcher wants to know the perceptions of these students on the uses of technology for

instructional purposes by their high school teachers.

Data Collection

A small group of fifteen students in their first-year of college were interviewed for this qualitative

study. These students had all been in a 1:1 laptop program in high school for a minimum of two

years. The research methods included purposive sampling, open-ended interview questions, as

well as systematic and concurrent data collection procedures.

Data Analysis

The researcher reviewed interview transcripts looking for information that was relevant to the

study, occurred regularly among interview participants, and could be separated into consistent

categories. These interviews were coded and cross referenced between categories looking for

similarities within the data. Finally, the results were compiled together with one another until

common themes emerged.


The researcher points out the use of Gartners Hype Cycle in helping school leaders invest in the

correct instructional technology based on its usability within the school. Since none of the

research questions for this study addressed the Hype Cycle, these particular findings are not

included in my summary. However, the student interviews did yield information concerning

student attitudes about using laptops in high school. Student responses provided the following

conclusions concerning technology initiatives: initiatives need to be well timed and be supported,

they need to have clear goals and measureable outcomes, and they must include effective

training for teachers prior to using the technology in the classroom.

Value of Articles Content

This article looks at an often forgotten group of students in research studies. The students with

the most experience and knowledge of the effectiveness of our teaching methods have already

left the building. This study analyzes feedback from college students about best practices in the

high school setting. These students can answer freely and give an honest assessment unlike

students in the building who may perceive that we are looking for a specific answer. This article

highlights the same needs we keep discussing in our class for more timely and effective

professional development of the new technology in our schools. Any grant proposal addressing

the learning of students needs to first focus on the teacher learning required to have the greatest

impact on the learning of the students. As evidenced in this study, teachers need more time to

learn and prepare to use the technology we have available.

Kyu Yon, L. (2011). What does the tablet PC mean to you? A phenomenological research. Innovations In

Education & Teaching International, 48(3), 323-333. doi:10.1080/14703297.2011.593708

Research Questions

This study examines teachers who are currently using tablet personal computers (PC) in their

teaching practice. The study attempts to answer what live experiences a teacher has while using

a tablet PC to teach a course. In addition, based on teacher perceptions, the study tries to

determine the eventual implications for educational use of the tablet PC.

Data Collection

This study uses Heiderggerian phenomenology which uses both descriptive and interpretative

analysis to address the experiences and opinions of the teachers using tablet PCs. The

researcher must be an active interpreter of educational application during the research process

as well. Participants in the study had to provide a written application, submit to one-on-one

interviews, classroom observations, and participate in discussion board postings. The researcher

compiled all of the participants provided data together with observational studies of the classroom

and reflexive journaling about the process.

Data Analysis

In order to identify common themes from the interview data, the researcher was required to

collect, analyze, and interpret data simultaneously using the notion of hermeneutic

phenomenology. Interviews were converted to transcripts which could be analyzed for recurrent

themes. Once these 12 themes had emerged, the themes were then compared to observation

notes and discussion threads for refinement. Draft findings were shared with the study

participants to evaluate the interpretations of their individual views on tablet PCs.


Four major themes emerged from the data analysis. More and more teachers are transferring

their lecture notes to a digital format, although most participants agreed that a digital format did

not make them more efficient in some areas. The handwriting feature of a tablet was a second

major theme for these teachers, as this feels more natural to many of the participants than typing

out their notes. Third, these teachers did experience frustration with technology in the beginning,

and many still find it difficult to adopt. Finally, the majority of the teachers in the study simply

enjoyed working with their tablets, but much of this had to do with previous knowledge.

Value of Articles Content

This particular study once again identifies some of the barriers for teachers using technology in

their instruction. These teachers did not have enough time to create lessons for everything they

wanted to do in the classroom with their tablet PCs. At the same time, these teachers make use

of the technology they have on hand, even to the point that their tablet PCs become a part of their

teaching on a daily basis. A grant proposal could identify the barrier these teachers had with time

to prepare content and address this need using professional development designed to make

more efficient use of their tablets for instruction, but also include ways and strategies to get

tablets into the hands of students.

Pritchett, C. C., Wohleb, E. C., & Pritchett, C. G. (2013). Educators' perceived importance of web 2.0

technology applications.Techtrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 57(2),

33-38. doi:10.1007/s11528-013-0643-3

Research Questions

This study wants to investigate the perceived importance of online technology applications by

education professionals. In particular, the study attempts to answer how important education

professionals feel interactive online technology applications are and to what extent this view is

different or shared amongst different sub groups of certified educators. Finally, this study wants

to determine if any differences in perception could be attributed to the demographics for the


Data Collection

A quantitative survey instrument was developed to gather demographic information and data

concerning perception of Web 2.0 applications from certified education professionals. Additional

technology training and professional development in the area of implementing Web 2.0 tools was

provided to schools and school systems that returned surveys on an individualized basis.

Data Analysis

Descriptive statistics including an analysis of variance and correlation procedures were used to

examine the data from the surveys. There were 842 surveys returned from seven school

systems in one state in the southeastern United States.


According to the survey data, certified education professionals felt strongly about the importance

of virtual learning networks, video sharing, and online event scheduling. The least important tools

in the survey included social bookmarks, social networks, and music. There was no significant

difference in the perceived level of importance for Web 2.0 applications between any of the sub

groups and the entire group of professional certified educators, however, administrators, media

specialists, and female participants had a higher overall score for perceived importance.

Participants with a higher certification level as well as business educators also reported a higher

overall score for perceived importance. In addition, those participants in a city school system

indicated a greater importance on Web 2.0 applications than those participants in county schools


Value of Articles Content

This study looked at several online applications that teachers use to improve the quality of their

students learning. However, not all applications are useful in their current form. Many of the

unimportant tools could become a vital instructional resource if developed properly. A grant

proposal could address the different types of online applications available to teachers, offering

content specific uses for five of these applications over a one week period. At the end of one

week, teachers would not only have a useful learning experience of creating new lessons using

the applications, but would also have a better idea of what types of applications will work best in

their classroom.

Objective 3: Discuss state and federal laws and programs as they relate to school instructional

technology programs and their funding.

James, L., Pate, J., Leech, D., Martin, E., Brockmeier, L., & Dees, E. (2011). Resource allocation

patterns and student achievement. International Journal of Educational Leadership

Preparation, 6(4), n4.

Research Questions

This study seeks to answer the following two questions: Which of the seven predictor variables

(teacher salary, instruction, pupil services, improvement of instructional services, media services,

technology, or other spending) can be included in an equation for predicting student

achievement? Does the resultant equation from a subset of variables predict student

achievement? In doing so, the study is asking whether or not school systems are spending

money on items that will increase student achievement as measured by test data.

Data Collection

All test data was retrieved from the Georgia Department of Education web site. System financial

information was retrieved from the Georgia Department of Education Financial Review Office.

Data Analysis

A one-way analysis of variance, Mahalanobis Distance, and forward multiple regression analysis

on the seven independent variables (system level spending) and four dependent variables (test

data from CRCT and GHSGT) from 180 school systems over two years in the state of Georgia.

The forward regression analysis looked at the influence of the independent variables on student

achievement. An analysis of variance was run on the eighth grade CRCT Mathematics and

Reading test results as well as on the eleventh grade GHSGT Mathematics and English test



According to this study, the only independent variable that had a significant positive effect on any

of the student achievement variables was teacher salaries and benefits. In addition, monies

spent on improvement of instructional services (professional development) had a negative effect

on student achievement. This could be due to the traditional professional development model of

a one-time workshop with little to no follow-up experiences. This study only looked at financial

data of a school system to predict student achievement, however, the results emphasize the

importance of school systems allocating resources in the proper areas in order to impact student


Value of Articles Content

With school system budgets constantly being cut, decisions must be made on how best to spend

funds within the county. This article makes the case for cutting funds from professional

development in order to increase teacher pay and benefits in order to attract and retain the best

quality teachers. But if professional development monies are allocated elsewhere, how will

teachers receive the training that they need to become better educators. This is where the grant

proposal comes in. A grant could provide the funds needed to conduct professional development

at a system level for one or two initiatives a year. This professional development would be

focused on specific content and would not be crowded out by numerous other professional

development opportunities throughout the year due to the budget restraints.

Overbaugh, R., & Lu, R. (2008). The impact of a NCLB-EETT funded professional development program

on teacher self-efficacy and resultant implementation. Journal of Research on Technology in

Education (International Society for Technology in Education), 41(1), 43-61.

Research Questions

This study is looking at the effects of a particular professional development program on the self-

efficacy of participants in learning and implementing technology into the classroom. In particular,

the study wants to know if the professional development program sponsored by the Enhancing

Education Through Technology (EETT) program increased self-efficacy for technology integration

in the classroom for participating teachers and if the differential effects of the program on the

participants were due to any demographic factors.

Data Collection

A quantitative design method was used with three stages: pre-, post-, and follow-up. Qualitative

data was collected through interviews with program participants. All program participants were

required to complete a pre-training course survey, a post-training survey, and a follow-up survey

several months after completing the training.

Data Analysis

Survey data was analyzed using an analysis of variance test and the demographic variables

differential effects were investigated using a multiple regression technique followed by a one-way

analysis of covariance. The transcripts of the interviews were analyzed to establish categories,

themes, and patterns from the responses of the participants. The transcripts were also coded

and reviewed by both researchers.


As expected, participants in this program experienced an increase in confidence concerning

implementing technology into their classrooms after going through this optional training.

However, of particular note, the data suggests that teachers feel more confident in their ability to

produce higher level learning strategies, such as problem-based learning or technology learning

communities, for their students after receiving this training. The only demographic information of

the participants in this study that had a significant impact on the self-efficacy of teachers was

previous participation in an online training module.

Value of Articles Content

This particular training was not a one hour workshop but rather a six week series of online

education courses. The lessons learned by teachers increased their confidence in teaching using

technology as well as their desire to create and utilize technology more often. I believe that this is

a direct result of the length of time spent in professional development to address specific

technology needs in the classroom. Funding for this professional development program was

awarded to the Consortium for Interactive Instruction from the EETT program which was

established by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Although my grant proposal is not the type

to receive such a large federal grant, the same ideas implemented by this group in their program

could be utilized in my smaller scale version. Additionally, there are other state and federal funds

available for this type of professional development for teachers.

Objective 4: Identify professional organizations and publications that focus on instructional technology,

administration, and media.

Jones, W. S., & Dexter, S. (2014). How teachers learn: the roles of formal, informal, and independent

learning. Educational Technology Research & Development, 62(3), 367-384.


Research Questions

This study wants to see how different types of teacher professional learning can be combined and

supported by technology to create a better teacher learning experience. The study will examine

the perceptions of teachers on formal, informal, and independent modes of learning in regards to

their own professional development.

Data Collection

Two middle schools were selected inside a very large school district serving 60,000 students.

These schools were selected intentionally because of their history of being strong technology

schools. Focus groups were formed from the math and science teachers at both schools, and six

focus group interviews were conducted. The main questions of the interview focused on how

teachers learned about integrating technology, what type of technology support they received,

how did they share information, and what kinds of constraints they had in their work.

Data Analysis

The focus of this study was on teacher opportunities to learn, generate ideas, and share. This

particular theme identified in the focus group transcripts was then broken down into formal

professional development (PD), teacher initiated learning with colleagues, and independent

teacher learning. The transcripts of the focus groups were then coded and analyzed.

Then the use of technology in each of these three settings was also categorized. Then the focus

groups transcripts were coded again using the NVIVO software application and the resulting

report was analyzed.


Most teachers found their formal PD sessions to be informative, but restrictive in their application

to the classroom. For this reason, teachers greatly valued their time to work in professional

learning communities (PLC) within content areas. The informal learning that takes place through

email and face-to-face conversations is better served to address specific questions on a need-to-

know, spur of the moment basis. Given the time needed for research, teachers commented that

their independent learning was highly efficient and allowed for personal ideas to be brought to the

classroom. These ideas could require technical support from someone with outside expertise, so

the formal PD certainly has a role to play in teacher learning.

Value of Articles Content

This article supports my grant proposal by once again highlighting the need for a more focused

approach to professional development that is on-going and content specific. The teachers in

these schools are used to working with technology but still need help in integrating it into the

classroom in specific ways, not general ones. In addition, some of their best learning time was

not spent in a meeting session, but on their own time exploring and learning for themselves. This

is hard to do unless an administration is on board with a plan to provide teachers with PLC time to

work collaboratively or individually on these types of integration strategies. As for Objective 4,

although not specifically stated, independent learning of teachers takes place through many

professional organizations. For math teachers, we often use Mathematics Teacher as a resource

for ideas as well as the National Council for the Teaching of Mathematics (NCTM) website. This

article also highlights professional learning communities within a building, but these do not have

to be limited by physical space with the proliferation of technology within schools today.

Furthermore, the journal which contains this article is one of many research journals for how to

implement technology specifically into classrooms and what is needed to support that effort.

Objective 5: Describe and discuss effective instructional technology management and supervision

techniques in educational settings.

Erdoan, M., Kurun, E., man, G. T., Saltan, F., Gk, A., & Yildiz, . (2010). A qualitative study on

classroom management and classroom discipline problems, reasons, and solutions: A case of

information technologies class. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 10(2), 881-891.

Research Questions

This study is looking at the problems faced in an information technology classroom to determine

possible solutions for these issues. The study has four questions including what classroom

management problems are experienced, what discipline problems are witnessed, what are the

reasons for these problems and what are some possible solutions.

Data Collection

A qualitative research method was used in the design of this study. Family members, teachers,

and administrators were interviewed in similar manners by the researchers. The purpose of the

interviews was to identify problems with classroom management and discipline issues as well as

propose reasons and solutions to these problems. Demographic information was also collected

during the interview process.

Data Analysis

The analysis process was similar to other qualitative studies mentioned here. Transcripts of the

interviews were cross-referenced, coded and divided into themes. Then, a random selection of

interviews underwent the same procedure by independent coders to examine consistency.

Finally, the prevalent codes and themes were analyzed and interpreted by the researchers.


After reviewing the data, the main problems with classroom management were lack of student

motivation, rule and routine breaking, and lack of infrastructure to support the class goals. The

main discipline problems seen were misbehaviors related to being off-task and not engaged in

the lesson. The possible reasons behind the problems were attributed to the nature of the course

curriculum, crowded classroom, lack of software, and several other classroom management

issues of the teacher. The proposed solutions to these problems were increasing teacher content

knowledge, revising the curriculum of the course, developing activities to increase student

motivation, and updating software to eliminate inappropriate computer use.

Value of Articles Content

Many of the issues seen in this study are due to poor classroom management by the teacher.

These are issues separate from the technology issues in my opinion, but the solution to some of

the issues may be realized through technology. The problems experienced in this setting mirror

many of the difficulties faced in todays high school classroom. Students do not feel involved in

the learning experience for many reasons and therefore exhibit behaviors that are

counterproductive to learning. Teachers do not always have the time or ability to create engaging

lessons using technology for students without help from outside the classroom. One of the

conclusions from this study was increasing student devices in the classroom in order to diminish

non-engaged time. In addition, creating lessons utilizing the technology on hand is a task that is

best addressed through professional development with professionals who have expertise in this

content area. A grant proposal could use this article to illustrate how students are not properly

engaged in learning even with the technology right in front of them unless the teacher can use the

available technology to grab their attention. Teachers need assistance in learning how to do this,

thus the need for professional development in this area.

Sorensen, B. J., Shepherd, C. E., & Range, B. G. (2013). Implications for educational leaders as they

consider technology development. Planning & Changing, 44(1/2), 73-86.

Research Questions

This study is focused on the technology assistants within a school system or school building. In

particular, the study wants to identify who assists others in technology integration for curricular

purposes. In addition, the study wants to answer how formal and informal technology assistants

get hired as well as how they stay current in their roles within the school or school system.

Data Collection

Two data collection instruments were used in this study. Participants were asked to complete an

identification questionnaire and a professional background survey. The survey had both forced-

choice questions and open-ended questions.

Data Analysis

The quantitative data collected was coded and analyzed using a descriptive statistics package.

The answers to the open-ended questions were coded and re-coded, as well as categorized into

themes by researchers.


Most of the respondents to the survey identified themselves as teachers who assisted others with

technology support. More than half of those surveyed responded that they had volunteered for

their positions while another 20% were appointed by their administration to the role. The majority

of those surveyed did not have any technical degrees but rather had gained their knowledge

through professional development. Participants in this study reported that they stay current in

their field through advanced degrees, professional development, and even trial and error

experimentation. For principals, the research suggests that greater attention needs to be given to

effective professional development that increases teachers technological expertise.

Value of Articles Content

As this article points out, many of the technology leaders in our school are in that position by

accident. Very few teachers have had the technical training to be considered experts in the use of

instructional technology for classroom use. However, many teachers have become leaders by

being innovators in their own classrooms with technology and are willing to share their

experiences with others. This article makes suggestions of how principals can help focus these

creative people and assist those who are behind the curve. New professional development

should be focused and on-going. The professional development needs to be teacher driven to

address teacher needs and have a long-range plan of implementation and practice. The results

of the professional development need to be evaluated in order to determine their effectiveness

over time. These are all conclusions from this article and should form the basis of the rationale

behind content specific professional development in a grant proposal.

Objective 6: Develop a proposal and budget for technology funding.

McAlpine, L., & Gandell, T. (2003). Teaching improvement grants: what they tell us about professors

instructional choices for the use of technology in higher education. British Journal of Educational

Technology, 34(3), 281-293. doi:10.1111/1467-8535.00327

Research Questions

The purpose of this study is to analyze teacher improvement grants to determine how technology

is being used in education. This study will investigate which innovative proposals are introducing

instructional technology, if this technology proposal emphasizes higher learning strategies, if the

technology promotes student-centered learning, and what patterns of change where seen over a

six year period in these three areas.

Data Collection

Data was collected from the abstracts of award-winning proposals of the Teaching and Learning

Innovation Fund from 1994 through 1999. Research assistants then sorted the abstracts into

those involving instructional technology and those that did not.

Data Analysis

Each technology proposal was coded by cognitive domain and further coded by learning strategy

employed. Abstracts were also categorized by the level of learning expected, either lower level or

higher level. The proposals were grouped into two-year segments in order to increase sample

size and frequencies of levels of learning and learning strategies were tallied to determine trends

or patterns.


Over the six-year period, the proposals that included instructional use of technology increased

from 67% to 90%. The awarded proposals also had higher levels of learning than those

proposals which were not funded. In addition, the awarded proposals had a focus on active

learning of students using student-centered activities as opposed to static strategies. Finally,

there is a trend over the six year period of award winning proposals becoming focused on higher

levels of learning using active learning strategies that are student-centered and technologically


Value of Articles Content

Although the information in this article is somewhat dated, there is still value in its findings

concerning my grant proposal. This article focused on the proposals which received awards for

innovation and use of technology in instruction. In addition, the vast majority of the award-

winning proposals involved active learning strategies as well as opportunities for students to use

higher level learning skills. In my grant proposal, I need to include the same kinds of experiences

for both teachers and by proxy, for their students. By incorporating the use of technology and

their applications into professional development, I can increase the level of learning for teachers.

By designing and modeling these experiences for teachers, they can then return to the classroom

and do the same for their students.