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Unitatea de nvare 1, 2, 3:

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE PC

Introduction:
The present unit focusses on presenting the most important moments in the evolution of
computer. It introduces a specific vocabulary, familiarizes the students with phrasal verbs and
mathematical operations, and tackles with the following tricky words: zero, nought, nil/love,
oh.

Contents:
1.1. significant moments in the history of computers
1.2. key words and phrases: brainchild, to herald, to outline, microelectronics, binary, forerunners, punch cards,
slide rule, matrhematician, to stretch back, to be credited with, to make a breakthrough, to come up
with an idea, to lay down certain principles, courtesy of, to deal with a problem, to make a
decision
1.3. phrasal verbs- generalities;
1.4. mathematical operations, mathematical signs, root, fractional numbers, decimal numbers;
1.5. tricky words: zero, nought, nil/love, oh.
1.6. bibliography

Previous knowledge required:


-general vocabulary on computers;
-basic grammar knowledge;

Objectives:
1. The students should be able to discuss upon the significant moments in the history of
computers
2.The students should be able to understand the meaning of the key words and phrases as well
as to write and pronounce them correctly.
3. The students should be able to translate, from English into Romanian and vieceversa, texts
that focus on the newly introduced vocabulary.
4. The students should be able to understand the formation of phrasal verbs and to bear in
mind examples of such phrasal verbs.
5. The students should be able to deal with mathematical operations, mathematical signs, root,
fractional numbers, decimal numbers;
6. The students should be able to make the distinction among zero, nought, nil/love, oh.

List of necessary equipments:


- computer;

Supplementary bibliography:
English Phrasal Verbs, Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Exercises on Phrasal Verbs, Oxford University press,1991.
Fitikides, T.J., B.A., F.I.L., Common Mistakes in English with Exercises, Longman, 2000.

Time: 9 hours
Topic 1

Brief History of Computers

The modern personal computer is not the brainchild of any one person no single

Eureka! heralded the beginning of its development. Instead its history is a tale of

leaps , bounds and hold-ups stretching back five thousand years to the invention of the

abacus in Mesopotamia. This brief history outlines some of the important people and

events in the evolutionary passage from wooden bead-counter to multimedia

workstation .

1. The mechanical era

In this age of microelectronics , computer components are not only powerful but

also incomprehensibly small its atoms, not inches, that count. But the forerunners of
todays computers were mechanical: they were made of cogs, shafts and sliders large enough
to put together by hand, and were operated not by a keyboard and mouse but with dials and
handles.
The earliest breakthroughs were made by the likes of Leonardo da Vinci, who
designed a simple mechanical calculator in 1500, and William Oughtred, who in the early

1600s came up with the slide rule , a handheld tool for speeding up arithmetic
which was still being used in schools three and a half centuries later. By the 1640s the French
mathematician Blaise Pascal had invented a machine capable of multiplication and division

which was later improved by Gottfried Leibnitz, the same man who is credited with
having laid down the principles of binary the number system using only 0s and 1s that is the

fundamental language spoken by all modern computers. The greatest achievements of

the mechanical era, though, came courtesy of the eccentric British mathematician
and inventor Charles Babbage, whose inventions included the Difference Engine and the

Analytical Engine of 1833. Though he died before it could be constructed, the Analytical

Engine could not only cope with the complex mathematics , but it could be programmed
to deal with various types of problem and make decisions based upon its own results thus
heralding the leap from calculator to real computer. Babbages partner in crime was none

other than Ada Byron aka Lady Lovelace, the daughter of the poet Lord Byron who

is now sometimes described as the first ever computer programmer .


2. Punch cards and vacuum tubes
It wasnt until the end of the nineteenth century that computers actually started to
prove themselves useful. Just before the 1890 census of the US government held a design

contest to find an efficient way of counting the records of its exploding population. It
was won by a German immigrant named Herman Hollerith, whose electric tabulating

machine read data from paper punch cards, saving many years of manual counting and
marking a significant point at which computing became as much to do with data management

as performing calculation . Holleriths ComputingTabulatingRecording Company


went from strength to strength, and in 1924 it merged with a rival to form International
Business Machines IBM which grew into one of the most significant forces in computer
design.
In the meantime the vacuum tube was being developed, from which a new generation
of computers was to grow. The tubes did the same job as mechanical or electrical switches,
but they were capable of switching on and off thousands of times faster, facilitating a whole

new level of computing speed . This technology reached its zenith in machines
designed on both sides of the Atlantic during World War II. The British utilized it in their
powerful code-breaking machine, Colossus, but more significant was the American ENIAC
(Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), developed between 1943 and 1945 to

calculate missile trajectories . Containing nearly 17500 vacuum tubes, ENIAC was the

first multitasking computer, and it could add 5000 numbers or carry out fourteen ten-

digit multiplication per second making him about a hundred times faster than its
closest rival.
While ENIAC was still being built, its designers J. Presper Eckert and John V.

Mauchly joined forces with another key figure , mathematician John von Neumann, to
work on a new machine. What they came up with was EDVAC, the first computer to have a

stored program. This was a real breakthrough : instead of spending hours or even days

turning knobs and pressing buttons to instruct a computer to carry out a particular task.

The commands could be written as numerical code and stored inside the machine. This
made everything much faster, but more significantly it paved the way for the programming

languages of the 1950s which in turn led to the development of modern software.

3. Transistors and microchips

For all its speed, ENIAC highlighted the shortcomings of vacuum tube
technology: it was 150 feet wide, weighed 30 tons, produced so much heat that it regularly
burnt out and guzzled electricity in such quantities that the lights in the neighbouring

towns dimmed each time it was switch on. These problems were soon to be overcome

with the advent of the silicon transistor, which was better that the vacuum tube at

controlling the flow of electricity while being much smaller and generating considerably
less heat. Transistors were invented back in 1920s, but it wasnt until 1954 that reliable

silicon model were manufactured commercially, bringing small, reliable and affordable
computers a significant step closer.

The ensuing years saw the birth of the microchip or chip a single piece of

board containing many transistors . As time went by, chips became increasingly powerful
and ever more tiny until 1971 a company called Intel (Integrated Electronics) released their
4004 chip, the first microprocessor. The 4004 combined 2300 transistors and all the essential
elements of a computer on a single chip, and in the space of a few square inch provided
roughly the same computational power as the 17500 vacuum tubes of ENIAC. These
developments, combined with great advances in programming languages and other
breakthroughs such as the invention of the floppy disk, made it possible to produce smaller
and faster computers which were more flexible and less difficult to use.

4. Computers get personal

Despite all these advances, computers remained in the realm of academics,


governments and big business, and it wasnt until 1975 that a vaguely personal computer
something that individuals could actually afford to buy came onto the market. It arrived in

the form of the MITS Altair 8800, which shipped with an Intel processor and 256 bytes
of memory, around one millionth of the amount found in a decent modern PC. And it wasnt
just in the memory department that the Altair was lacking: it had neither a keyboard nor a
monitor. Instructions were fed in by small switches and results displayed by a pattern of little
red lights great for discos, but not a lot else.
But this was soon to change. In 1977 Stephen Jobs and Steve Wozniak produced the

Apple II, which, with its neat plastic case and video out socket (allowing you to use your
TV as a monitor), was an instant success. While the Altair was primarily of interest to
hobbyist and enthusiasts the Apple II was actually useful for business, and programs began to

appear which could save hours of manual number crunching such as VisiCalc, the

first ever spreadsheet program .

During this time the price of components plummeted , and various bargain
computers started appearing on the market. By the end of 1970s, a variety of machines were
available for a few hundred dollars like the Radio Shack TRS 80, which became
incredibly popular in homes and schools.
5. The PC is born

The next big turning point came in 1981, when IBM released their Personal

Computer the IBM PC which was the blueprint of the modern PC. Though the design
was strong, it was not just the computer that made IBMs new machine so popular: it was the
companys decision to tell the world, in near complete detail, how the PC worked and how it
was built. IBM did this in the hope that other developers would produce extra pieces of

hardware that will be compatible with the PC which they did. However it soon

occurred to these developers that they werent limited to manufacturing add-ons ; they
could produce their own versions of the whole machine and sell them cheaper. This was

possible because IBM only held a patent for the BIOS (basic input/output system), and

because most of the internal components of the PC had been bought off-the-shelf from
other manufactures. Very soon computer companies everywhere where manufacturing their
own copies of the IBM design: they could run all the same programs and data could easily be
moved from one machine to the next. These computers were collectively known as IBM
compatible PCs, but it wasnt long before PC became a generic term used to describe any
computer based on IBMs original.

6. The rise of Microsoft

When IBM designed the PC they commissioned the young Micro-soft company

(later Microsoft) to provide the all important operating system or OS: the underlying

software that bridges the gap between a computer and the application
software running on it. It was called Micro-soft Disk Operating System MS-DOS and

though it had been developed for IBM, Microsoft shrewdly retained the copyright. As PC
clones began to spring up everywhere, nearly all were installed with MS-DOS, and though
Microsofts founder Bill Gates didnt know it at that time, this was soon to make him the
worlds richest man.
As time went by, it became increasingly difficult for new types of computer to get a

decent foothold in the market . Inexpensive machines like the Commodore 64 were very
popular among home users, but any new system that set out to complete with the PC was

faced with the problem of not being able to run all the software that had written for
use with MS-DOS. Other PC operating systems were proposed by IBM and others, but they
never really got off the ground or failed to gain the popularity of the Microsoft option. The
MS-DOS PC still faced serious competition from established manufactures such as Apple,
however, who introduced LISA and the Macintosh (the Mac) in 1983 and 1984 respectively.
These were the first personal computers to use an operating system with a Graphic User

Interface (GUI), meaning that the user, instead of typing encrypted instructions
into the machine, could run programs and organize files by using a mouse to click on
windows, icons and dropdown menus.
Soon afterwards, Microsoft released their own GUI operating system: a reworking

of MS-DOS called Windows. Many of the features were very similar to those of the

Apple system, and Apple promptly threatened to take Microsoft to court , claiming

they had ripped of their design. In the end, Microsoft agreed to license certain elements

of the Apple design to avoid court proceedings , and they managed to arrange it so that
the features could be used in all future Microsoft programs. But when Windows 2.0 came out

in 1987, Apple thought Microsoft had overstepped the mark and this time actually took

them to court for breach of copyright . Microsoft won the case, in part because of the
previous licensing deal and in part because many of the original ideas for the Apple system
had originally been developed by Xerox for non personal computers. This made it easy for
Gates and Co to say, Well, we may not have invented it, but neither did you

Self-check
Answer the following questions:
1. Who is the inventor of the computer?
2. What invention marks the beginning of computers history?
3. Who were the forerunners of todays computers?
4. What are the earliest breakthroughs?
5. Who laid down the principles of binary?
6. Name the greatest achievements of the mechanical era.
7. Who is considered to be the first computer programmer?
8. When and on what occasion did computers prove to be useful for the first time?
9. What can you say about vacuum tubes?
10. What were the advantages of the silicon transistor over the vacuum tube?
11. Define the microchip.
12. When was the first microprocessor released and by whom?
13. What was the first personal computer? What can you say about it?

Self-check Answers
1. No one can be considered the inventor of the computer because the computer is a tale of
events lasting for about five thousand years.
2. The beginning of computers history is marked by the invention of abacus in
Mesopotamia.
3. The forerunners of todays computer were mechanical, made of cogs, shafts and
sliders and operated with dials and handles.
4. The earliest breakthroughs were the mechanical calculator and the slide rule.
5. The principles of binary were laid down by Gottfried Leibnitz.
6. The greatest achievements of the mechanical era were the Difference Engine and the
Analytical Engine.
7. Ada Byron is considered the first computer programmer.
8. Computers proved to be useful for the first time at the end of the nineteenth century, in
the 1890 census.
9. Vacuum tubes could switch on and off very fast, facilitating a new level of computing
speed.
10. The advantages of the silicon transistor over the vacuum tube were: a better control of
the flow of electricity, a smaller size, a diminished production of heat.
11. The microchip is a single piece of board containing manz transistors.
12. The first microprocessor was released in 1971by Intel.
13. The first personal computer was MITS Altair 8800. It had an Intel processor and 256
bytes of memory. It had neither a keyboard nor a monitor.

Topic 2:

Activities:
1. Try to define brainchild, to outline, binary and microelectronics.





2. Give a synonym of to herald, forerunner, breakthrough.




.

3. Give an antonym of modern, eccentric.


.
.

4. Write down the words pronounced in the audios:

a) ..

b) ..

c) ...

d) ...

5. Write down the English words for:


a) aritmetic (adj.);
b) programator
c) realizare
d) rigla de calcul
e) nmulire;
f) mprire
6. Make up a sentence of your own with: to stretch back, to be credited with, to make
a breakthrough, to come up with an idea, to lay down certain principles, courtesy
of, to deal with a problem, to make a decision.

Answers to Activities:
1. see http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/brainchild
see http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/outline
see http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/binary?show=0&t=1302636580
see http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/microelectronics

2. see http://www.synonym.com/synonyms/herald/
see ancestor
see discovery

3. see http://www.synonym.com/antonym/modern/
see http://www.synonym.com/antonym/eccentric/

4. a) abacus; b) wooden; c) bead-counter; d) multimedia-workstation;

5. arithmetic, programmer, achievement; slide rule; multiplication; division.

6. The history of this wine streches back 100 years.


He is credited with having invented the steam engine.
They made an increadibly breakthrough!
My friend came up with a rather strange idea.
My teacher laid down certain principles.
Ive got that book courtesy of her uncle.
I cant deal with this problem!
It is hard for me to make a decision in this matter!

Topic 3

Activities:
1. Translate into Romanian:
Websters Dictionary defines "computer" as any programmable electronic device that can store,
retrieve, and process data. The basic idea of computing develops in the 1200s when a Moslem cleric
proposes solving problems with a series of written procedures.
As early as the 1640s mechanical calculators are manufactured for sale. Records exist of earlier
machines, but Blaise Pascal invents the first commercial calculator, a hand powered adding machine.
Although attempts to multiply mechanically were made by Gottfried Liebnitz in the 1670s the first
true multiplying calculator appears in Germany shortly before the American Revolution.
In 1801 a Frenchman, Joseph-Marie Jacquard builds a loom that weaves by reading punched holes
stored on small sheets of hardwood. These plates are then inserted into the loom which reads
(retrieves) the pattern and creates (process) the weave. Powered by water, this "machine" came 140
years before the development of the modern computer. Shortly after the first mass-produced calculator
(1820), Charles Babbage begins his lifelong quest for a programmable machine. Although Babbage
was a poor communicator and record-keeper, his difference engine is sufficiently developed by 1842
that Ada Lovelace uses it to mechanically translate a short written work. She is generally regarded as
the first programmer. Twelve years later George Boole, while professor of Mathematics at Cork
University, writes An Investigation of the Laws of Thought (1854), and is generally recognized as the
father of computer science.
The 1890 census is tabulated on punch cards similar to the ones used 90 years earlier to create
weaves. Developed by Herman Hollerith of MIT, the system uses electric power(non-mechanical).
The Hollerith Tabulating Company is a forerunner of todays IBM.
Just prior to the introduction of Holleriths machine the first printing calculator is introduced. In
1892 William Burroughs, a sickly ex-teller, introduces a commercially successful printing calculator.
Although hand-powered, Burroughs quickly introduces an electronic model.
In 1925, unaware of the work of Charles Babbage, Vannevar Bush of MIT builds a machine he
calls the differential analyzer. Using a set of gears and shafts, much like Babbage, the machine can
handle simple calculus problems, but accuracy is a problem.
The period from 1935 through 1952 gets murky with claims and counterclaims of who invents
what and when. Part of the problem lies in the international situation that makes much of the research
secret. Other problems include poor record-keeping, deception and lack of definition.
In 1935, Konrad Zuse, a German construction engineer, builds a mechanical calculator to handle
the math involved in his profession. Shortly after completion, Zuse starts on a programmable
electronic device which he completes in 1938.
John Vincent Atanasoff begins work on a digital computer in 1936 in the basement of the Physics
building on the campus of Iowa State. A graduate student, Clifford (John) Berry assists. The "ABC" is
designed to solve linear equations common in physics. It displays some early features of later
computers including electronic calculations. He shows it to others in 1939 and leaves the patent
application with attorneys for the school when he leaves for a job in Washington during World War
Unimpressed, the school never files and ABC is cannibalized by studen.
The Enigma, a complex mechanical encoder is used by the Germans and they believe it to be
unbreakable. Several people involved, most notably Alan Turing, conceive machines to handle the
problem, but none are technically feasible. Turing proposes a "Universal Machine" capable of
"computing" any algorithm in 1937. That same year George Steblitz creates his Model K(itchen), a
conglomeration of otherwise useless and leftover material, to solve complex calculations. He improves
the design while working at Bell Labs and on September 11, 1940, Steblitz uses a teletype machine at
Dartmouth College in New Hampshire to transmit a problem to his Complex Number Calculator in
New York and receives the results. It is the first example of a network.
First in Poland, and later in Great Britain and the United States, the Enigma code is broken.
Information gained by this shortens the war. To break the code, the British, led by Touring, build the
Colossus Mark I. The existence of this machine is a closely guarded secret of the British Government
until 1970. The United States Navy, aided to some extent by the British, builds a machine capable of
breaking not only the German code but the Japanese code as well.
(http://goldenink.com/computersandnetworks.shtml)
2. Translate into English:
Dei sistemele de calcul au o istorie bogat, majoritatea descoperirilor i facilitilor care au
condus la construirea PC-ului dateaz din ultimii 50 de ani.
n 1951, John Mauchly i John Eckert construiesc primul calculator comercial- UNIVAC I.
Acesta este prezentat la televiziunea naional american n ziua alegerilor din 1952. Pe msura
primirii rezultatelor competiiei prezideniale americane, salariaii firmei Remington Rand,
productoarea calculatorului UNIVAC I, introduceau rezultatele n calculatorul care era programat s
anticipeze ctigtorul pe baza rezultatelor pariale. UNIVAC a anticipat corect rezultatele i astfel a
ctigat imediat credibilitatea publicului american.
ncepnd cu UNIVAC i alte calculatoare similare, dezvoltarea sistemelor decalcul comerciale
a cuprins patru etape distincte, numite generaii. Astzi ne aflm la grania celei de-a cincea.
Generaia tuburilor cu vid (1942-1956)
Calculatoarele din prima generaie, cum a fost UNIVAC, prelucrau datele utiliznd
tehnologiile tuburilor cu vid, experimentate pentru sistemele ABC, ENIAC i EDVAC. Aceste
calculatoare erau numite sisteme mainframe (cadrul principal), datorit scheletului de metal utilizat
pentru susinerea tuburilor cu vid. Dac s-ar utiliza i astzi tehnologia tuburilor cu vid, un sistem
mainframe modern ar avea dimensiunile unui zgrie-nori.
Stocarea datelor n calculatoarele din prima generaie se realiza pe tamburi metalici.
Programele stocate erau scrise n limbaj-main, adic n secvene de 0 i 1 care reflectau
direct contribuiile lui George Boole. Fiecare productor crea propriul su limbaj-main.
Ctre sfritul anului 1944, John von Neumann, membru al proiectului Manhattan care a creat
bomba atomic i consultant al multor lucrri tiinifice n timpul rzboiului, a vizat proiectul ENIAC.
n urma discuiilor avute, von Neumann a conceput o tehnic de stocare a programelor i a scris
lucrarea ,,Prima schi raport despre EDVAC, care descria structura unui calculator digital.
Calculatorul conceput de von Neumann coninea cinci pri:
- o unitate de intrare asemntoare unei tastaturi ce permitea introducerea informaiilor n
calculator;
- o zon de memorie pentru stocarea programelor i datelor;
- o unitate aritmetic pentru efectuarea calculelor;
- o unitate de control care realiza transferul instruciunilor programului i a datelor ntre
memorie i unitatea aritmetic;
- un dispozitiv de ieire, cum ar fi o imprimant.
Lucrarea unui von Neumann a fost publicat pe scar larg i a schimbat definitiv modul de
proiectare al calculatoarelor. (Aproape toate calculatoarele construite dup ENIAC au fost calculatoare
von Neumann).
Grace Hopper, care a lucrat n anii 40 la calculatorul MARK, a realizat n 1952 primul
compilator- un program care traduce limbajul de programare n limbaj-main. Compilatoarele au
schimbat modul de programare, permind programatorilor s introduc numere i litere n locul
secvenelor de 0 i 1.

Topic 4

I. Phrasal verbs = a verb + a particle (a preposition or an adverb)

Examples:
Verb Particle Meaning Example
break down to become mentally or physically ill After hearing the bad news,
because of an unpleasant experience his cousin broke down.
call in to visit a place or person for a short While visiting London, we
time, usually while you are going called in Sophia.
somewhere else
come off to happen successfully or as planned Congratulations! Your plan
has come off!
cut down to eat or drink less of a particular They cut down the price for
thing, to diminish prices, etc. bread last year.
get over to begin to feel better after an My friend tries to get over
experience that has made you unhappy the argument she had with
her boss.
give in yield, cease to resist You should never give in!
go under to fail financially They are poor now because
their business went under.
keep away to prevent someone/something from His grandmother told us to
doing something keep away from the fire.
look into to examine a situation, a problem I admit I have been rather
busy lately, but I am going
to look into this matter till
is not too late.
make for to go in the direction of a place When I met Tom, he was
making for home.
pass out to faint Seeing the snake, the old
woman passed out.
pull over to drive a car to the side of the road I fell sick, pull over for a
moment, please!
put up to build a structure My grandfather is busy
now: he is pulling up a
wall.
run out to use all of something so that there is We ran out of sugar when
none left we had guests.
set up to start a company They set up this company
when they were not married.
take on to employ someone They took her on, though
she was not qualified for
that job.
turn out to happen in a particular way, to have It turned out that they were
a particular result wrong.

Activity:
Fill in the blanks using the appropriate phrasal verbs given below. Note that some of them
may not be used at all whereas there are cases when there can be used two particles with the
same verb.

back up; key in; log in (on); log off (out); hack into; pick up; print out; scroll up/ down; zoom
in/out

1. My friend is very slow at .. data.


2. When he goes abroad, he always his e-mails from cyber cafs.
3. If you want to see the details in pictures, you can . .
4. It took her two hours to her thesis.
5. You should .. when you leave the computer unattended.
6. I was very upset when I realized that someone has my computer.
7. He to the bottom of the page and then .. to the top of it.
8. You should . to this new website.
9. You must find the ..of the data you lost!

Answer to Activity:
1. keying in; 2. pick up; 3. zoom in; 4. print out; 5. log off/out; 6. hacked into; 7. scrolled down;
scrolled up; 8. log in/ on; 9. back up.

Topic 5
Mathematical operations, mathematical signs, root, fractional numbers, decimal numbers.

+ addition
- subtraction
x multiplication
: division
x the square root of x
the cube root of x
4
the fourth root of x
6
the sixth root of x
9
the ninth root of x
4 four over five (4 is the nominator; 5 is the denominator)
5
1 one third
3
7 seven - twenty-first;
21
3 one and three fourths (quarters)
14
2+3=5 two plus three equals five
53=2 five minus three equals two
2x3=6 two multiplied by/by three equals six
6:2=3 six divided by two equals three
42 = 16 four square is sixteen
43 = 64 four cube is sixty four
24 = 16 two to the fourth power
integral of sixteen;
16

integral between limits x and y


x< x less than y
x> x greater than y
xy x equal to or less than y
x y x equal to or greater than y
x x not equal to y
x x identical to y
x~ x similar to y
x x approximately equals y
sin x [sain eks]
cos x [kousain eks]
tan x tangent x
f (x) function of x
AB AB parallel to CD
0.003 oh/nought point 003
0.25 oh point two five
5.89 five point eight nine
2031 twenty degrees thirty one minutes

Activity: Listen to the audios and write down the respective mathematical operations.

1. ..................................................

2. ..................................................

3. ..................................................

4. .................................................

5. .................................................

6. .................................................

7. .................................................

8. .................................................

9. .................................................

10. .................................................

11. .................................................

12. .................................................

13. .................................................
14. .................................................

15. .................................................

16. .................................................

17. .................................................

18. .................................................

19. .................................................

20. .................................................

21. .................................................

22. .................................................

23. .................................................

24. .................................................

25. .................................................

26. .................................................

27. .................................................

28. .................................................

29. .................................................

30. .................................................

31. .................................................

32. .................................................

33. .................................................
Answer to Activity:
12 + 25 = 37
257 + 349 =606
98 - 89 = 9
3576 473 =3103
3 x 7 = 21
74 x 23 = 1702
58 : 2 = 29
96 : 3 = 32
9 = 3
3
16 = 2.51
4
64 =1,021
6
100 = 1,018
4= 16
93 = 729
154 =50625
215 = 32768
20
3
2
50 52
123 34
a b
CD
sin 30 = 0.5
cos 45 = 0. 7
tan 45 = 1
0.34
8.79
92.345
6720
5967
90
30
=3

25
= 0.5
50

2
= 0.16
12

Topic 6

Pay attention to the difference among: zero, nought, nil/love, oh:


Word: Usage:
zero -temperatures;
-linguistics;
- to refer to somebody who is a nonentity;
- in linguistics.
nought -in mathematics;
-grades;
nil - in scores in team games;
love - in tennis scores;
oh -telephone numbers;
-years;
-hours;

Activity:
Fill in the blanks with zero, nought, nil, love, oh as appropriate:

1. The score was five to .. (5/0) and that was only due to Hagi.
2. .is a mathematical element that when added to another number yields the same
number.
3. The noun sheep has a .. plural.
4. She was born in nineteen .. nine.(1909)
5. She told him he was an absolute . for her, which was not very nice.
6. Her phone number is three seven ... four two. (370 42)
7. I told them to meet at thirteen four. (13. 04)

Answer to activity:
1.Nil; 2. Nought; 3. Zero; 4. Oh; 5. Zero; 6. Oh; 7. Oh.

Abstract:
The present unit has delt with the most significant stages in tehe volution of PCs. It has
highlighted the vocabulary connected to this topic. At the same time, it has focused on phrasal
verbs, mathematical operations and the following tricky words: zero, nought, nil/love, oh.

FINAL TESTS
I) Say whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):
1. EDVAC was the first computer that had a stored program.
2. Bill Gates was the founder of IBM.
3. IBM was created in 1924.
4. Charles Babbage is called the first computer programmer.
5. One can say that todays computer is the creation of several persons along many years.
6. MS-DOS was developed by IBM.
7. ENIAC was a code-breaking machine.
8. Computer was invented as early as 1500.
9. Macs are more popular systems than PCs.
10. The first microprocessor was released in 1971 by Intel.

Example: 1. EDVAC was the first computer that had a stored program. (T)
II) Underline the right definition according to the text:

to guzzle
a) to drink; b) to produce; c) to consume; d) to improve;

to dim
a) to brighten; b) to reduce; c) to increase; d) to maximize;

advent
a) assessment; b) appearance; c) aspiration; d) assault;

ensuing
a) preceding; b) luminous; c) ever-changing; d) following;

realm
a) kingdom; b) attention; c) domain; d) sight;

to plummet
a) to rise; b) to drop; c) to change; d) to maintain;

blueprint
a) spark; b) cause; c) incipit; d) design;

underlying
a) amazing; b) genuine; c) basic; d) improved;

to rip off
a) to improve; b) to use; c) to comment upon; d) to steal;

to breach
a) to break; b) to destroy; c) to diminish; d) to interrupt;

upheaval
a) success; b) disagreement; c) revolution; d) problem.

Example: to guzzle
a) to drink; b) to produce; c) to consume; d) to improve;

III) Fill in the blanks with the correspondimg words from the text:

1. A .. is a piece of stiff paper that contains digital information


represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions, now almost an
obsolete recording medium. (2 words)
2. Colossus, a code-breaking machine during World War II, used . ....., i.e.
devices used to amplify, switch, otherwise modify, or create an electrical signal by controlling
the movement of electrons in a low-pressure space. (2 words)
3. . was the result of the merging between Holleriths Computing Tabulating
Recording Company with its rival in 1924
4. A .. incorporates most or all of the functions of a computer's central processing
unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit.
5. . is the world's largest semiconductor chip maker, the inventor of the x86 series
of microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers
6. is an American multinational corporation that designs and markets consumer
electronics, computer software, and personal computers. The company's best-known hardware
products include the Macintosh computers, the iPod, the iPhone and the iPad.
7. A .. is any general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and original sales
price make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end
user with no intervening computer operator. (abbreviation)
8. In IBM PC Compatible computers, the .. is a de facto standard defining a
firmware interface, the first code run by a PC when powered on. (abbreviation)
9. was was the main operating system for IBM PC compatible personal
computers during the 1980s to the mid 1990s, until it was gradually superseded by operating
systems offering a graphical user interface (GUI), in particular by various generations of the
Microsoft Windows operating system.
10. Microsoft is a series of software operating systems and graphical user
interfaces produced by Microsoft in November 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to
the growing interest in graphical user interfaces.
11. . is a famous video game company.
12. ... is one of the most prominent examples of free software.
13. In the present, Windows is the dominant PC .. ... (2 words)

Example:
1. A PUNCH CARD.. is a piece of stiff paper that contains digital
information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions, now
almost an obsolete recording medium. (2 words)

IV) a) Give the verbs corresponding to the following nouns: addition, subtraction,
multiplication, division.

b) Give the nouns of the following adjectives: high, thick, long, wide, deep, broad.

c) Translate into English using mathematical operations and dimensions:

1. Dac mpari aceste numere vei obine rezultatul corect.

2. nti aduni i apoi scazi.

3. Ar trebui s msori lungimea acestui fir.

4. nlimea acestui munte este de 4 000 de metri.

5. Adncimea acestui lac este de 30 de metri.


6. Strada are o lime de 2 metri.

7. Grosimea sticlei este de 3 milimetri.

Example:
a) Addition- to add;
b) high- height;
c) If we dividethese numbers, you will get the correct result.

Bibliography:

Alexander, L. G., Right Word, Wrong Word, Longman, 1996.


Hayakawa, S.I, The Penguin Guide to Synonyms and Related Words, Penguin Books, 1994.
Shelly, Gary B., Cashman, Thomas J., Vermaat, Misty E., Discovering Computers:
Fundamentals, Fourth Edition, 2008, USA;
Thomson, A.J., Martinet, A.V., A practical Engllish Grammar, Oxford University Press,
2000. (for Chapter 36: Numerals, dates, and weights and measures and Chapter 38: Phrasal
Verbs)
Turton, ND, Heaton, JB, Dictionary of Common Errrors, Longman, 1996.
Wurster, Christian, Computers: Antrated History, Taschen (see
http://www.amazon.com/Computers-Illustrated-History-Christian-
Wurster/dp/3822812935#reader_3822812935)

Connection with the next unit:


After having acquired the basic knowledge about the history of computers, we can proced by
defining computers and preesenting their components.
Unitatea de nvare 5, 6, 7, 8:

DEFINING COMPUTERS. THE COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER

Introduction:
The present unit focuses on both defining computers and enlarging upon the components of a
computer. It introduces a specific vocabulary, familiarizes the students with the phrasal verb
to lay and tackles with the following tricky words: salary, wage, pay, remuneration, fee,
stipend and honorarium.

Contents:
1.1. the definition of computers and the components of a computer
1.2. key words and phrases: hardware, input/output device, system unit, storage, software, opearating system,
utility program, application software, information processing cycle, programmer, Web browser, the installing
process, to run a program, to enter data into a computer, to retouch a photograph, to carry aut an instruction, to
complete an assignment.
1.3. the phrasal verb to lay;
1.4. tricky words: salary, wage, pay, remuneration, fee, stipend and honorarium.
1.5. bibliography

Previous knowledge required:


-general vocabulary on computers;
-basic grammar knowledge;

Objectives:
1. The students should be able to define computers and to discuss upon the components of a
computer.
2.The students should be able to understand the meaning of the key words and phrases as well
as to write and pronounce them correctly.
3. The students should be able to translate, from English into Romanian and vieceversa, texts
that focus on the newly introduced vocabulary.
4. The students should be able to understand and use the phrasal verb to lay as well as to
use it in sentences of their own.
5. The students should be able to make the distinction among salary, wage, pay,
remuneration, fee, stipend and honorarium.

List of necessary equipments:


- computer;

Supplementary bibliography:
English Phrasal Verbs, Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Exercises on Phrasal Verbs, Oxford University press,1991.
Fitikides, T.J., B.A., F.I.L., Common Mistakes in English with exercises, Longman, 2000.

Time: 12 hours
Topic 1

DEFINING COMPUTERS. THE COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER

Computers are everywhere: at work, at school, and at home. They are a primary
means of local and global communication for billions of people. Employees correspond with
clients, students with classmates and teachers, and family with friends and other family
members.
Through computers, society has instant access to information from around the globe.

Local and national news, weather reports, spots scores , airlines schedules ,

telephone directories , maps and directions, job listings, credit reports, and countless
forms of educational material always are accessible. From the computer, you can make a
telephone call, meet new friends, share photographs and videos, relate opinions, shop, book

flights , file taxes, or take a course .


In the workplace, employees use computers to create correspondence such as e-mail

messages, memos, and letters; calculate payroll ; track inventory ; generate

invoices . Some applications such as automotive design and weather forecasting

use computers to perform complex mathematical calculations. At school, teachers use


computers to assist with classroom instruction. Students use computers to complete

assignments and research.

People also spend hours of leisure time using a computer. They play games,
listen to music or radio broadcasts, watch or compose videos and movies, read books and

magazines, share stories, research genealogy , retouch photographs, and plan vacations.

Many people believe that computers literacy is vital to success. Computer


literacy involves having a knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses.
A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored
in its own memory that can accept data, process the data according to specified rules, produce
results and store the results for future use.
Computers process data into information. Data is a collection of unprocessed items,

which can include text, numbers, images, audio , and video . Information conveys
meanings and is useful to people.

The Components of a Computer


A. A computer contains many electric, electronic, and mechanical components known

as hardware . These components include input devices, output devices, a system unit,
storage devices, and communication devices.
An input device is any hardware component that allows you to enter data and

instructions into a computer. Six widely used input devices are the keyboard , mouse

, microphone , scanner , digital camera and PC video camera .


A computer keyboard contains keys you press to enter data into the computer. A
mouse is a small handheld device. With a mouse, you control movement of a small symbol on
the screen, called the pointer, and you make selections from the screen.
A microphone allows a user to speak into the computer. A scanner converts printed
material (such as text and pictures) into a form the computer can use.

With a digital camera , you take pictures and then transfer the photographed
images to the computer or printer instead of storing the images on traditional film. A PC
video camera is a digital video camera that allows users to create a movie or take still
photographs electronically.

An output device is any hardware component that conveys information to


one or more people. Four commonly used output devices are a printer, a monitor, speakers

, and a portable media player.

A printer produces text and graphics on a physical medium such as paper. A


monitor displays text, graphics, and videos on a screen. Speakers allow you to hear music
voice, and other audio (sounds). You can transfer audio, video, and digital images from your
computer to a portable media player, and then listen to the audio, watch the video, or view the
images on the media player.

The system unit is a case that contains electronic components of the computer
that are used to process data. The circuitry of the system unit usually is part of or is connected

to a circuit board called the motherboard .


Two main components on the motherboard are the processor and memory. The

processor, also called the central processing unit (CPU) , is the electronic component
that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer. Memory
consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed and data
needed by those instructions. Most memory keeps data and instructions temporarily, which
means its contents are erased when the computer is shut off.

Storage holds data, instructions, and information for future use. For example,
computers can store hundreds or millions of customer names and addresses. Storage holds
these items permanently.
A computer keeps data, instructions, and information on storage media. Examples of

storage media are USB flash drives, hard disks, CDs, DVDs, and memory cards . A

storage device records (writes) and/or retrieves (reads) items to and from storage media.
Storage devices often function as a source of input because they transfer items from storage to
memory.
A USB flash drive is a portable storage device that is small and lightweight
enough to be transported on a keychain or in a pocket. The average USB flash drive can hold
about 500 million characters.
A hard disk provides much greater storage capacity than a USB flash drive. The

average hard disk can hold more than 250 billion characters. Hard disks are enclosed in
an airtight, sealed case. Although some are portable, most are housed inside the system unit.
Portable hard disks are either external or removable. An external hard disk is a separate, free-
standing unit, whereas you insert and remove a removable hard disk from the computer or a
device connected to the computer.
A compact disc is a flat, round, portable metal disc with plastic coating. One type of
compact disc is a CD-ROM, which can hold from 650 million to 1 billion characters. You can
access a CD-ROM using most CD and DVD drives. Another type of compact disc is a DVD-
ROM, which has enough storage capacity to store two full-length movies or 17 billion
characters. To access a DVD-ROM, you need a DVD drive.
Some portable devices such as digital cameras use memory cards as the storage media.
You can use a card reader/writer to transfer stored items, such as digital photographs, from
the memory card to a computer or printer.

A communication device is a hardware component that enables a computer to


send (transmit) and receive data, instructions and information to and from one or more

computers. A widely used communications device is a modem .

Communications occur over cables , telephone lines, cellular radio networks,

satellites and other transmission media . Some transmission media, such as satellites and
cellular radio networks, are wireless, which means they have no physical lines or wires.

B. Software , also called a program, is a series of instructions that tells the computer
what to do and how to do it.
You interact with a program through its user interface. Software today often has a

graphical user interface. With a graphical user interface GUI, you interact with the

software using text, graphics, and visual images such as icons. An icon is a miniature

image that represents a program, an instruction, or some other object. You can use the
mouse to select icons that perform operations such as starting a program.
The two categories of software are system software and application software. The
following sections describe these categories of software.

System software consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations
of the computer and its devices. System software serves as the interface between the user, the
application software, and the computers hardware. Two types of system software are the
operating system and utility programs.
OPERATING SYSTEM. An operating system is a set of programs that coordinates all
the activities among computer hardware devices. It provides a means for users to
communicate with the computer and other software. Many of todays computers use
Windows XP or Vista, two of Microsofts operating systems, or Mac OS X, Apples
operating system.
When a user starts a computer, portions of the operating system load into memory
from the computers hard disk. It remains in memory while the computer is on.

UTILITY PROGRAM. A utility program allows a user to perform maintenance-type


tasks usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs. Most operating
systems include several utility programs for managing disk drives, printers, and other devices
and media. You also can buy utility programs that allow you to perform additional computer
management functions.

Application software consists of programs designed to make users more


productive and/or assist them with personal tasks. A widely used type of application software

related to communications is a Web browser , which allows users with an Internet


connection to access and view Web pages. Other popular application software includes word
processing software, spreadsheet software, database software, and presentation graphics
software.
Many other types of application software exist that enable users to perform a variety of
tasks. These include personal information management, note taking, project management,
accounting, document management, computer-aided design, desktop publishing, paint/image
editing, audio and video editing, multimedia authoring, Web pages authoring, personal
finance, legal, tax preparation, home design/landscaping, education, reference, and
entertainment (e.g., games or simulations).

Installing and Running Programs


The instructions in a program are stored on storage media such as a hard disk or
compact disc. When purchasing software from a computer store, you typically receive a box
that includes a CD(s) or DVD(s) that contains the program. You also may receive manual or
printed instructions explaining how to install and use the software.

Installing is the process of setting up software to work with the computer,


printer, and other hardware components. When you buy a computer, it usually has some
software preinstalled on its hard disk. This enables you to use the computer the first time you
turn it on. To begin installing additional software from a CD or DVD, insert the program disc
in a CD or DVD drive. The computer then copies the program from the disc to the computers
hard disk.
Once software is installed, you can use or run it. When you instruct the computer to
run an installed program, the computer loads it, which means the program is copied from
storage to memory. Once in memory, the computer can carry out, or execute, the instructions
in the program.

Software Development
A programmer , sometimes called a developer, is someone who develops
software or writes the instructions that direct the computer to process data into information.
Complex programs can require thousands to millions of instructions.
Programmers use a programming language or program development tool to create

computer programs. Popular programming languages include C++, Visual C#, Visual
Basic, JavaScript, and Java.

Information Processing Cycle


Computers process data (input) into information (output). A computer often holds
data, information, and instructions in storage for future use. Instructions are the steps that tell
the computer how to perform a particular task. Some people refer to the series of input,

processes, output, and storage activities as the information processing cycle . Recently,
communication also has become an essential element of the information processing cycle.

Self-check
Answer the following questions:

1. Are computers useful?


2. Define computers.
3. Make the distinction data-information.
4. What is hardware?
5. Define input devices. Give examples.
6. Define output devices. Give examples.
7. Define system unit.
8. Define storage devices. Give examples.
9. Define communication devices. Give examples.
10. What is software?
11. Make the distinction between system software and application software.
12. Define operating system. Give examples.
13. Define utility program.

Self-check Answers
1. Yes, computers are very useful everywhere: at work, at school and at home.
2. A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in
its own memory that can accept data, process the data according to specified rules, produce
results and store the results for future use.

3. There is a clear-cut distinction between data and information: data is a collection of


unprocessed item, whereas information is processed data.
4. Hardware refers to the electric, electronic, and mechanical components of a computer.
5. An input device is any hardware component that allows you to enter data and
instructions into a computer. Examples of input devices: keyboards, mouses, microphones,
scanners, digital cameras and PC video cameras.
6. An output device is any hardware component that conveys information to one or more
people. Examples of output devices: printers, monitors, speakers, portable media players.
7. The system unit is a case that contains electronic components of the computer that are
used to process data
8. Storage devices contribue to holding data, instructions, and information for future use.
Examples of storage devices: USB flash drives, hard disks, CDs, DVDs, and memory cards
9. A communication device is a hardware component that enables a computer to send
(transmit) and receive data, instructions and information to and from one or more computers.
An example of communication device is the modem.
10. The software is a series of instructions that tells the computer what to do and how to
do it.
11. There is a clear-cut distinction between the system software and the application
software. The system software consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations
of the computer and its devices, whereas the application software consists of programs
designed to make users more productive and/or assist them with personal tasks.
12. An operating system is a set of programs that coordinates all the activities among
computer hardware devices. Examples of operating system: Windows XP or Vista, Mac OS
X, Apples operating system.
13. A utility program allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks usually related to
managing a computer, its devices, or its programs

Topic 2:

Activities:
1. Try to define information processing cycle, programmer, Web browser and to
install.





2. Give a synonym of to buy, box, programmer.




.

3. Give an antonym of processed, shut off, temporarily


.
.

4. Write down the words pronounced in the Audio File 1:

a) ..

b) ..

c) ...

d) ...
5. Write down the English words for:
a) plac de baz;
b) microprocesor;
c) calculator digital;
d) subsistem;
e) algoritm;
f) prelucrarea datelor.

6.Make up a sentence of your own with: to run a program, to enter data into a
computer, to retouch a photograph, to carry out an instruction, to complete an
assignment.

Answers to Activities:
1. see http://computer.yourdictionary.com/information-processing-cycle
see http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/programmer
see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_browser
see http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/install

2. see http://www.synonym.com/synonyms/buy/
see http://www.synonym.com/synonyms/box/
see developer

3. see unprocessed
see turn in
see permanently

4. a) spreadsheet; b) USB flash drive; c) interface; d) digital camera;

5. a) motherboard; b)microprocessor; c) digital computer; d) subsystem; e) algorithm; f)


data processing.

6. My computer cant run this program!


I have been trying to enter data into my computer for three hours and I havent finished
yet.
I cant believe she looks so good at
her age. I think the magazine has retouched the photographs.
Can you imagine that his computer cant carry out this instruction?
I had to complete a very hard assignment that semester.

Topic 3

Activities:
1. Translate into Romanian:
Advantages and disadvantages of using computers
Society has reaped many benefits from using computers. Both business and home users
can make well-informed decisions because they have instant access to information from
anywhere in the world. A user is anyone who communicates with a computer or utilises the
information it generates. Students, another type of user, have more tools to assist them in the
learning process.
The benefits of computers are possible because computers have the advantages of speed,
reliability, consistency, storage, and communications.
Speed: When data, instructions, and information flow along electronic circuits in a
computer, they travel at incredibly fast speeds. Many computers process billions or
trillions of operations in a single second.
Reliability: The electronic components in modern computers are dependable and
reliable because they rarely break or fail.
Consistency: Given the same input and processes, a computer will produce the same
results consistently. Computers generate error-free results, provided the input is
correct and the instructions work.
Storage: Computers store enormous amounts of data and make this data available for
processing anytime it is needed.
Communications: Most computers today can communicate with other computers,
often wirelessly. Computers allow users to communicate with one another.
Some disadvantages of computers relate to the violation of privacy, public safety, and the
impact on the labour force, health risks, and the impact on the environment.
Violation of Privacy: In many instances, where personal and confidential records
were not properly protected, individuals have found their privacy violated and their
identities stolen.
Impact on Labour Force: Although computers have improved productivity and
created an entire industry with hundreds of thousands of new jobs, the skills of
millions of employees have been replaced by computers. Thus, it is crucial that
workers keep their education up-to-date. A separate impact on the labour force is that
some companies are outsourcing jobs to foreign countries instead of keeping their
homeland labour force employed.
Health Risks: Prologue or improper computer use can lead to health injuries or
disorders. Computer users can protect themselves from health risks through proper
workplace design, good posture while at the computer, and appropriately spaced work
breaks. Another health risk, called computer addiction, occurs when someone becomes
obsessed with using the computer.
Impact on Environment: Computer manufacturing processes and computer waste are
depleting natural resources and polluting the environment. Strategies that can help
protect the environment include recycling, regulating manufacturing processes,
extending the life of computers, and immediately donating replaced computers.
2. Translate into English:

A. Calculatoarele digitale sunt echipamente complexe care conin milioane de


componente electronice elementare. Un calculator digital reprezint un sistem ierarhic, format
din cteva subsistme ca interacioneaz pn la subsistemul cel mai de jos al componentelor
electronice. Avnd n vedere numrul foarte mare de entiti, numite la ora actual calculator, i
proprietile foarte diferite ale acestora, este practic imposibil s se formuleze o definiie unic a
acestei noiuni. Potrivit diferitelor puncte de vedere se pot da diferite definiii ale unui
calculator numeric sau digital.
Definiia nr. 1: Un calculator digital (numeric) este un sistem destinat automatizrii
calculelor informaiei discrete n conformitate cu anumii algoritmi.
Definiia nr. 2: Un calculator digital este o reuniune ntre ansamblul de echipamente fizice
care constituie hardware-ul, ansamblul de microprograme care constituie firmware-ul i
ansamblul de programe care constituie software-ul, ce permite prelucrarea logic i aritmetic a
informaiei discrete la o vitez foarte mare (de ordinul milioanelor de operaii pe secund) n
conformitate cu algoritmii dai.
Definiia nr. 3: Un calculator digital este un automat finit, deci un sistem cu stare finit
care prelucreaz cu o vitez foarte mare informaia discret n conformitate cu algoritmii
impui.
Din definiiile anterioare se pot desprinde cteva trsturi comune specifice tuturor
calculatoarelor:
1. Informaia este discret, datele sunt numerice.
2. Prelucrrile sunt complet automatizate.
3. Prelucrarea se face n conformitate cu algoritmii impui.
4. Viteza de prelucrare este foarte mare.
5. Natura prelucrrilor este aritmetic i logic.
Termenul de calculator digital sau numeric este foarte larg, de la microcalculatoarele pe
un singur cip la supercalculatoare. Diferenele ntre diferite calculatoare este dat de mrime
pre, performan, domeniul de aplicabilitate i organizare.
(http://www.cs.ucv.ro/staff/dmancas/AC/Curs4_ConcepteAC.pdf)

B. Calculatorul personal este folosit acas, la birou, n laborator, etc . Laptop ul este de
dimensiuni mult mai mici, este mai uor, seamn cu o geant diplomat, este mai uor de
transportat i prezint avantajul c poate fi alimentat de la baterii.
Un calculator se caracterizeaz prin hardware i software. Hardware ul reprezint totalitatea
componentelor fizice ale unui calculator . Acestea sunt inutile fr existena software ului . El
reprezint totalitatea programelor care faciliteaz accesul utilizatorului i efectueaz operaiile
de prelucrare a datelor . Pentru a introduce date n calculator n vederea prelucrrii, ct i pentru
a intra n posesia rezulatatelor, calculatorul se conecteaz la diferite ecchipamente de intrare (
tastatur, scaner, mouse, etc ) respectiv, echipamente de ieire ( monitor, imprimant, etc ).

1.PLACA DE BAZ
Aceasta reprezint cea mai important cea mai important component aflat n carcas ; mai
este denumit i placa principal ( motherboard )

Pe ea se afl aplicate urmtoarele componente : micropocesorul, memoria, alte plci necesare


funcionrii unor echipamente inserate n locae speciale, numite Sloturi.

Printre alte plci exist : placa video, placa de sunet, modemul, placa de reea, etc . Pe lng
acestea, porturile seriale i paralele servesc la conectarea unor dispozitive periferice, cum ar fi :
mouse ul, imprimanta, modem ul .
Placa de baza pastreaza legatura si cu celelalte componente ale calculatorului care nu sunt
amplasate direct pe ea, prin magistrale (cum ar fi CD-ROM, HDD, FLOPPY DISK).

2.MICROPROCESORUL -CPU

Unitatea central de prelucrare (CPU) este, n ingineria calculatoarelor, un set de circuite


microscopice care reprezint procesorul cu informaiile principale dintr-un calculator. CPU este
n general un singur microprocesor creat de obicei dintr-un disc subire de material
semiconductor, de obicei siliciu, cu milioane de circuite electrice pe suprafaa sa. Pe un nivel
mai nalt, CPU este de fapt un numr de uniti de prelucrare interconectate care sunt fiecare
responsabile pentru un aspect al funciei unitii centrale de prelucrare.

Unitile centrale de prelucrare standard conin uniti de prelucrare care interpreteaz i


implementeaz instruciunile software-ului, realizeaz calcule i comparaii, fac decizii logice
(determinnd dac o propoziie este adevrat sau fals dup regulile Algebrei Booleene),
nmagazineaz temporar informaii pentru utilizarea ulterioar de ctre alt unitate de prelucrare
a CPU, in evidena pasului curent n execuia programului i permit CPU s comunice cu restul
calculatorului.

Principalele caracteristici ale puterii unui procesor sunt :


- cantitatea de memorie ce poate fi citit la un moment dat
- viteza de execuie a operaiilor
- numrul de instruciuni diferite ce pot fi executate
3 . HARD DISK - UL ( DISCUL DUR )

Reprezint cea mai importanta unitate de stocare a datelor . Acestea


sunt nmagazinate permanent, indiferent daca calculatorul este deschis
sau nchis . Hard Disk - urile sunt de diferite dimensiuni . ntre 10
MB si 30 GB si sunt n continua cretere .

4 . PLACA GRAFICA ( PLACA VIDEO )

Face posibila afiarea imaginilor pe monitor . Ea este nzestrata cu


microprocesor propriu numit accelerator grafic si cu memorie proprie
numita memorie video .

Imaginea care apare pe monitor este formata dintr - o serie de


suprafee dreptunghiulare numite pixeli . Fiecare pixel reprezint o
anumita culoare si este att de mic nct nu poate fi distins .
Numrul de pixeli care se afieaz pe ecran se numete rezoluie .

5 . PLACA DE SUNET

Are rolul de a transforma informaia binara n informaie analogica


necesara boxelor (incinte acustice) la redarea sunetelor sau invers
.

6 .MEMORIA INTERNA

Exista doua tipuri de memorie interna : difereniate din punct de


vedere constructiv

1. Memoria ROM ( Read Only Memory ) este memoria doar pentru citire .
Nu poate fi scrisa si conine codul anumitor programe scrise de
fabricani pe plcile de baza.
2. Memoria RAM ( Random Access Memory ) este pentru citire si scriere
. Pentru citire se determina informaia memorata, iar pentru
scriere se memoreaz informaiile .

Cu ct memoria interna este mai mare cu att programele se executa mai


repede . Fizic, memoria se prezint sub forma unor circuite integrate
( circuite electrice obinute prin aplicarea pe un suport
electroizolant a elementelor de circuit electric n scopul
miniaturizrii si simplificrii tehnologiei de fabricaie ) , lipite
pe un circuit imprimat care se ataeaz plcii de baza .

7. UNITATEA DE DISKETA

Servete la citirea / scrierea datelor pe discuri de capaciti mai


mici numite si diskete utile, mai rar pentru pstrarea informaiei sau
pentru salvarea datelor de importanta

8 .UNITATEA DE CD - ROM

Este des ntlnita pe calculatoarele performante, permind citirea


compact discurilor

9 . ALIMENTATORUL

Are rolul de distribuire a curentului ctre componentele electronice


ale calculatorului si ocupa cel mai mare spaiu .

10. VENTILATOARELE

Contribuie la rcirea componentelor electrice . Unul se afla n


apropierea alimentatorului, iar celalalt care se mai numete cooler
sau fan, se afla procesorului .
http://www.referat.ro/referate/Calculatorul_si_componentele_lui_1741.html
Topic 4

I. Phrasal verb to lay

Meaning Examples
to lay aside 1.to stop using something and put it 1. My grandmother laid aside the
down; knitting needles to see why the dog
2.to cease behaving in a certain way; started to bark.
3.to save money. 2. We could not lay aside our
anger and talk like friends do.
3. I never manage to lay aside
money for vacations!
to lay down to state something officially; This university clearly lays down
its rules.
to lay in to store a supply of something to use in His grandmother laid in some
the future; bottles of wine for his future
wedding.
to lay into to attack or criticize; Every time they meet, they lay into
each other.
to lay off 1.to stop employing someone; 1. They are very poor because their
2. to stop doing or using something mother is retired and their father
(informal); has just been laid off.
3. to stop hurting or annoying someone 2. He had to lay off smoking
(informal); because he coughed badly.
3. I want to be laid off!
to lay on 1.to provide something (such as food, 1. He laid on a car to take his
transport, entertainment) for people; mother home.
2. to ask someone to do something that 2. They laid this unpleasant job on
is difficult or that he/she will not want to me because they could not find
do anyone else willing to do it.
to lay out 1.to spread 1. You should lay out the new
2.to arrange carpet to see what is so special
3.to explain about it.
4. to spend a lot of money (informal) 2. His garden is laid out in a
5. to hit very hard special pattern.
3. The rules are laid out in the
book he wrote last year.
4. She laid out money to buy two
expensive bags.
5. They took him to hospital
because he was laid out.

to lay over to stay somewhere for a short time Do you want to lay over here?
before continuing the trip
to lay up 1. to have to stay in bed 1. He was laid up with pneumonia.
2. to stop using a vehicle because it is 2. Our car is laid up for the winter.
being repaired

Activity:
Translate into English using to lay as phrasal verb:

1. A ntins ziarul pe mas c s vedem cu toii articolul.


2. A fost lovit foarte ru de cei care i-au spart casa.
3. El a fost nevoit s stea la pat din cauza pojarului.
4.Ai putea s lai deoparte furia i s ncerci s rezolvi problema.
5. Instruciunile de utilizare sunt explicate n broura care se vinde cu imprimanta.
6. De fiecare dat cnd se ntlnesc, se atac reciproc.
7. Mama a pus deoparte cartea pe care a citea i s-a ndreptat spre u.
8. Fabrica la care lucra a renunat la serviciile lui i acum este omer.
9. Ai reuit s pui deoparte bani pentru a-i cumpra o nou main?
10. Regulamentul acestei instituii este foarte clar formulat.
11. A pus la dispoziie un autobuz c s-i duc pe copii n excursie.
12. Ei au pus deoparte nite borcane cu dulcea de viine pentru iarn.
13.Ei au pus bazele unui spital pentru vrstnici.
14.Fii atent! i se ntinde o capcan!
15.Fcnd asta, s-a expus ridicolului.

Answer to Activity:
1. He has laid aut the newspaper on the table for us all to see the article.
2. He was laid out by those who had broken into his house.
3. He had to lay up with measles.

Activity
Make sentences of your own using the following phrases and translate them into Romanian:
to lay the foundations of; to lay emphasis/ stress on; to lay a hand/ finger on somebody; to lay
bare/open something; to lay waste something; to lay plans/ a trap; to lay claim to doing
something; to lay siege to; to lay something at the door of somebody or something; to lay
somebody low; to lay the ghost of something; to lay down your life.
Answer to Activity:

1. He is the VIP that has laid the foundations of this company.


2. My teacher lays stress on the spelling of our papers.
3. He lays a finger on me whenever we meet.

Topic 5
Pay attention to the difference among the nouns that refer to the money given for work:
salary, wage, pay, remuneration, fee, stipend, honorarium,

Salary - money received by white-collar workers or by


executives; paid at regular intervals (a month, a year);
Wage - money received by blue-collar workers; usually an
hourly rate paid weekly or fortnightly;
Pay - informal term for wages and salary; it is mainly used in
military; it refers to a permanent, recurring amount of
money;
Remuneration - formal term for wages and salary; it may refer to
money received only once;
Fee - it usually refers to the money charged by a professional
person in advance for performing something;
Stipend - a fixed amount regularly paid; usually referring to
clergy or to students that are given a scholarship;
Honorarium - money given to a professional person for services when
law or custom forbids a set fee;
Emolument - the most formal of all the above words; it refers to the
money paid for somebody appointed to a particular
office (often including other fringe benefits).

Activity:
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word from the ones given below: salary, wage, pay,
remuneration, fee, stipend, honorarium and emolument:

1. They earn a minimum hourly of 10.


2. These are perfectly legal that go along with the function of mayor.
3. The charged by Kevin Costner for a film that will begin to be shot next month is
outstanding.
4. His monthly is spent entirely on paying the bank loan.
5. This literary magazine gives 100 for critical articles.
6. The received for being a model in this fashion show is amazing.
7. The of the priests have been cut down.
8. His parents, working in the army, have a substantial

Answer to Activity:

1. Wage; 2. Emolument; 3. Fee.

Activity:

Translate into English using in each sentence one of the following words: salary (x 2), wage,
pay, remuneration, fee (x 2), stipend (x 2), honorarium and emolument:

1. Onorariul cerut de avocat pentru procesul de luna viitoare m-a luat prin surprindere.
2. Banii primii ca MC la acel eveniment au fost suficieni pentru a-i plti chiria luna aceea.
3. Onorariul cerut de celebrul poet pentru a citi fragmente din opera sa a fost simbolic.
4. Plile aferente acestui post au fost anchetate de poliie.
5. Salariul episcopului a fost donat pentru sinistrai.
6. Ateapt cu nerbdare slariul meu lunar.
7. Banii primii de fiul ei ca burs au fost cheltuii pentru a cumpra cri.
8. Banii solicitai pentru a juca ntr-un film anul viitor sunt prea muli.
9. Solda tatlui lui a fost diminuat drastic.
10. Salariul su annual l depete cu mult pe cel al surorii sale.
11. Salariile clasei muncitoare au fost majorate anul trecut.

Answer to Activity:

1. fee; 2. remuneration; 3. Honorarium.

Abstract:
The present unit deals with defining computers and highlighting their importance in nowadays
society. At the same time, it introduces the components of a computer: hardware (input
devices, output devices, system unit, storage devices, communication devices) and software.
It focuses on the phrasal verb to lay and on the following tricky words: salary, wage, pay,
remuneration, fee, stipend, honorarium, emolument.

FINAL TESTS
I) Say whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):
1. Web browser is a widely used type of system software.
2. Windows XP is an operating system.
3. Computer literacy is not essential in understanding computers.
4. A computer contains many electric, electronic and mechanical components known as software.
5. Three commonly used output devices are keyboard, a mouse and a microphone.
6. Computers are mainly used in the workplace.
7. Data is synonymous with information.
8. The mouse is also called pointer.
9. The portable media player is an output device.
10. The CD has a flat coating.

Example: 1. Web browser is a widely used type of system software. (F)

II) Underline the right definition according to the text:

means
a) ways out; b) way-sides; c) ways; d) way-lays;

payroll
a) wads; b) wage-packets; c) wagers; d) wages;

leisure
a) tranquillity; b) free; c) serene; d) serendipity;

literacy
a) knowledge; b) understanding; c) books; d) readings;

to convey
a) to communicate; b) to conceal; c) to conceive; d) to conceptualize;

retrive
a) to redeem; b) to recuperate; c) to rectify; d) to redistribute;

lightweight
a) light; b) lighted; c) lighter; d) lighten;

average
a) avowed; b) common; c) compliant; d) available;

to provide
a) to supplement; b) to supersede; c) supply; d) to supervene.

Example:
means
b) ways out; b) way-sides; c) ways; d) way-lays;

III) Fill in the blanks with the correspondimg words from the text:

1. A is a machine that performs four basic operations: input, processing, output and
storage.
2. is the raw form that is used to create information.
3. is data that have been simplified and organized in a way that people can use.
4. A computer systems includes the physical components of the computer, including the
(2 words) itself, as well as keyboards, monitors, speakers and so on.
5. (2 words) enable you to enter data into the computer for processing.
6. (2 words) show the results of processing information.
7. (2 words) hold all of the programs and data that the computer system uses.
8. (2 words) enable computers to connect to a computer network.
9. includes all of the programs that give the computer its instructions. It can be divided into
two categories: and .
10. A (abbreviation, 3 letters) offers graphical icons and visual indicators, as opposed to
text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation, to fully represent the
information and actions available to a user. The actions are usually performed through direct
manipulation of the graphical elements.
11. There are two types of system software: (2 words) and . (2 words).
12. These days, a program is usually only as complicated as clicking the Install button.
13. A or coder is someone who writes computer software.
14. Together, input, processing, output and storage are called .

Example:
1. A COMPUTER.is a machine that performs four basic operations: input, processing,
output and storage.

Bibliography:

Alexander, L. G., Right Word, Wrong Word, Longman, 1996.


Hayakawa, S.I, The Penguin Guide to Synonyms and Related Words, Penguin Books, 1994.
Shelly, Gary B., Cashman, Thomas J., Vermaat, Misty E., Discovering Computers:
Fundamentals, Fourth Edition, 2008, USA;
Turton, ND, Heaton, JB, Dictionary of Common Errrors, Longman, 1996.
Wolf, Wayne, Computers as Components: Principles of Embedded Computing System Design

Connection with the next unit:


After having defined computers and presented their components, we can proceed by
introducing the categories of computers.
Unitatea de nvare 9, 10, 11, 12:

CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS

Introduction:
The present unit focusses on presenting the categories of computers. It introduces a specific
vocabulary, familiarizes the students with the phrasal verb to break and tackles with the
following tricky words: smash, shatter, shiver, split, snap, tear, burst, disintegrate, fracture,
crack, crush.

Contents:
1.1. the categories of computers;
1.2. key words and phrases: personal computers (desktop); mobile computers and devices (notebook
computer; tablet PC; handheld computer; PDA); game consoles; servers; mainframes;
supercomputers; embeded computers; to make a clear-cut distinction; to carry from place to place; to hold in
the palm of ones hand; to operate on battery; to take notes; to fit in one hand; to access information; in
addition to; to continue a trend; at the same time.
1.3. the phrasal verb to break;
1.4. tricky words: smash, shatter, shiver, split, snap, tear, burst, disintegrate, fracture, crack, crush
1.5. bibliography

Previous knowledge required:


-general vocabulary on computers;
-basic grammar knowledge;

Objectives:
1. The students should be able to enlarge upon the categories of computers.
; 2.The students should be able to understand the meaning of the key words and phrases as
well as to write and pronounce them correctly.
3. The students should be able to translate, from English into Romanian and vieceversa, texts
that focus on the newly introduced vocabulary.
4. The students should be able to understand and use the phrasal verb to break as well as
to use it in sentences of their own.
5. The students should be able to make the distinction among smash, shatter, shiver, split, snap,
tear, burst, disintegrate, fracture, crack, crush

List of necessary equipments:


- computer;

Supplementary bibliography:
English Phrasal Verbs, Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Exercises on Phrasal Verbs, Oxford University press,1991.
Fitikides, T.J., B.A., F.I.L., Common Mistakes in English with Exercises, Longman, 2000.

Time: 12 hours
Topic 1

CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS

Industry experts typically classify computers in seven categories: personal computers

, mobile computers and mobile devices , game consoles , servers ,

mainframes , supercomputers , and embedded computers . A computers


size, speed, processing power, and price determine the category is best fits. Due to rapidly

changing technology , however, the distinction among categories is not always clear-cut.

Category Physical Size Number of General Price


Simultaneously Range
Connected Users
Personal computers Fits on a desk Usually one ( can be Several hundred to
(desktop) more if networked ) several thousand
dollars
Mobile computers Fits on your lap Usually one Less than a hundred
and mobile devices dollars to several
or in your thousand dollars
hand
Game consoles Small box or One to several Several hundred
dollars or less
handheld
device
Servers Small cabinet Two to thousands Several hundred to a
million dollars
Mainframes Partial room to a Hundreds to $300.000 to several
full room of thousands million dollars
equipment
Supercomputers Full room of Hundreds to $500.000 to several
equipment thousands billion dollars
Embedded Usually one Embedded in the
computers Miniature price of the product

A. Personal computers (desktop)

Personal computer is a computer that can perform all of its input,


processing, output, and storage activities by itself. A personal computer contains a processor

, memory , and one or more input , output , and storage devices .

They also often contain a communications device .


Two popular styles of personal computers are the PC and the Apple. These two types

of computers use different operating systems . PC and PC-compatible computers usually


use a Windows operating system. Apple computers usually use a Macintosh operating system
(Mac OS X). The term, PC-compatible , refers to any personal computer based on the
original IBM personal computer design. Companies such as Dell, Gateway, and Toshiba sell
PC-compatible computers.
Two types of personal computers are desktop computers and notebook computers.

A desktop computer is designed so the system unit, input devices, output

devices, and any other devices fit entirely on or under a desk or table. In some models,
the monitor sits on top of the system unit, which is placed on the desk. The more popular style

of system unit is the tall and narrow tower, which can sit on the floor vertically.

B. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices

A. A mobile computer is a personal computer you can carry from place to place.
Similarly, a mobile device is a computing device small enough to hold in your hand. The
most popular type of mobile computer is the notebook computer.

- A notebook computer , also called a laptop computer, is a portable, personal

computer designed to fit on your lap. Notebook computers are thin and lightweight , yet
can be as powerful as the average desktop computer. Notebook computers usually are more
expensive than desktop computers with equal capabilities.
On a typical notebook computer, the keyboard is on top of the system unit, and

the display attaches to the system unit with hinges . These computers weigh on average
between 2.5 and 9 pounds, which allows users easily to transport the computers from place to

place. Most notebook computers can operate on batteries or a power supply or


both.

- Tablet PC . Resembling a letter-sized slate , the Tablet PC is a special type


of notebook computer that allows you to write or draw on the screen using a digital pen. For
users who prefer typing instead of handwriting, you can attach a keyboard to Tablet PCs that
do not include one already. Tablet PCs are useful especially for taking notes in locations
where the standard notebook computer is not practical.

B. Mobile devices , which are small enough to carry in a pocket, usually store
programs and data permanently on memory inside the system unit or on small storage media
such as memory cards. You often can connect a mobile device to a personal computer to
exchange information. Some mobile devices are Internet-enabled, meaning they can connect
to the Internet wirelessly.
Three popular types of mobile devices are handheld computers, PDAs, and
smart phones.

A handheld computer , sometimes referred to as an ultra personal computer

(uPC), or an Ultra-Mobile PC (UMPC), or a handtop computer, is a computer small


enough to fit in one hand. Because of their reduced size, the screens on handheld computers
are small. Industry-specific handheld computers serve mobile employees, such as parcel

delivery people, whose jobs require them to move from place to place.

A PDA (personal digital assistant) provides personal organizer functions such as

a calendar, an appointment book , an address book, a calculator, and a notepad .


Most PDAs also offer a variety of other application software such as word processing,

spreadsheet , personal finance, and games.


Many PDAs are Internet-enabled so users can check e-mail and access the Web. Some

also provide camera and telephone capabilities .

The primary input device of a PDA is the stylus , which looks like a small

ballpoint pen , but uses pressure instead of ink to write and draw .

Offering the convenience of one-handed operation, a smart phone is an


Internet-enabled telephone that usually also provides PDA capabilities. In addition to basic
telephone capabilities, a smart phone allows you to send and receive e-mail messages, access
the Web, listen to music, and share photographs or videos.
As smart phones and PDAs continue a trend of offering similar functions, it is
becoming increasingly difficult to differentiate between the two devices. This trend, known as

convergence , has led manufacturers to refer to PDAs and smart phones simply as
handhelds. Some factors that affect a consumers purchasing decision include the devices
size, screen size, and capabilities of available software.

C. Game Consoles

A game console is a mobile computing device designed for single-player or

multiplayer video games. Standard game consoles use a handheld controller(s) as an


input device(s); a television screen as an output device; and hard disks, CDs, DVDs, and/or
memory cards for storage. The compact size and light weight of game consoles make them
easy to use at home, in the car, in a hotel, or any location that has an electrical outlet. Three
popular models are Microsofts Xbox 360, Nintendos Wii, and Sonys PlayStation 3.
A handheld game console is small enough to fit in one hand. With the handheld game
console, the controls, screen, and speakers are built into the device. Some models use

cartridges to store games; other use a miniature type of CD or DVD. Many handheld

games consoles can communicate wirelessly with other similar consoles for multiplayer
gaming. Two popular models are Nintendo DS Lite and Sonys PlayStation Portable (PSP).
In addition to gaming, many console models allow users to listen to music, watch
movies, and connect to the Internet.

D. Servers
A server controls access to the hardware, software, and other resources on a network

and provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information. Servers
support from two to several thousand connected computers at the same time.
People use personal computers or terminals to access data, information, and programs
on a server. A terminal is a device with a monitor, keyboard and memory.

E. Mainframes

A mainframe is a large, expensive, powerful computer that can handle hundreds

or thousands of connected users simultaneously . Mainframes store huge amounts of

data, instructions, and information. Most major corporations use mainframes for

business activities. With mainframes, large businesses are able to bill millions of
customers, prepare payroll for thousands of employees, and manage thousands of items in
inventory. One study reported that mainframes process more than 83 percent of transactions
around the world.
Servers and other mainframes can access data and information from a mainframe.

People also can access programs on the mainframe using terminals or personal
computers.

F. Supercomputers
A supercomputer is the fastest, most powerful computer and the most expensive.
The fastest supercomputers are capable of processing more than 135 trillion instructions in a
single second.

Applications requiring complex, sophisticated mathematical calculations use

supercomputers. Large scale simulations and applications in medicine, aerospace ,


automotive design, online banking, weather forecasting, nuclear energy research, and

petroleum exploration use a supercomputer.

G. Embedded computers
An Embedded computer is a special-purpose computer that functions as a component in a
larger product. A variety of everyday products contain embedded computers:
o Consumer electronics
o Home automation devices

o Automobiles

o Process controllers and robotics


o Computer devices and office machines
Because embedded computers are components in larger products, they usually are small
and have limited hardware. Embedded computers perform various functions, depending on
the requirements of the product in which they reside . Embedded computers in
printers, for example, monitor the amount of paper in the tray, check the ink or toner level,

signal if a paper jam has occurred , and so on.

Self-check
Answer the following questions:

1. What are the main categories in which computers are classified?


2. What are the elements that are taken into account when determining the category in which a
computer fits?
3. Define personal computer.
4. What does a personal computer contain?
5. Give examples of personal computers.
6. How many types of personal computers are there?
7. Make the distinction between mobile computers and mobile devices.
8. What is a notebook computer?
9. What is a Tablet PC?
10. What is a handheld computer?
11. What is a PDA?
12. Define game consoles.

Self-check Answers
1.There are seven categories of computers: personal computers, mobile computers and
mobile devices, game consoles, servers, mainframes, supercomputers, and embedded
computers.
2. When determining the category in which a computer fits the following elements are
taken into account: size, speed, processing power and price.
3. Personal computer is a computer that can perform all of its input, processing, output,
and storage activities by itself.
4. A personal computer contains a processor, memory, and one or more input, output,
and storage devices. It often contains a communications device.
5. PC and Apple are two examples of personal computers.
6. There are two types of personal computers: desktop computers and notebook
computers.
7. The distinction between mobile computers and mobile devices is the following: a
mobile computer is a personal computer you can carry from place to place, whereas a
mobile device is a computing device small enough to hold in your hand.
8. A notebook computer, also called a laptop computer, is a portable, personal
computer designed to fit on your lap.
9. The Tablet PC is a special type of notebook computer that allows you to write or
draw on the screen using a digital pen.
10. A handheld computer is a computer small enough to fit in one hand.
11. A PDA (personal digital assistant) provides personal organizer functions such as a
calendar, an appointment book, an address book, a calculator, and a notepad.
12. A game console is a mobile computing device designed for single-player or
multiplayer video games.

Topic 2:

Activities:
1. Try to define server, mainframe, supercomputer and embeded computers.





2. Give a synonym of to manufacture, practical, to function.




.

3. Give an antonym of thin, top, variety


.
.

4. Write down the words pronounced in the Audio File 1:

a) ..

b) ..

c) ...

d) ...

5. Write down the English words for:


a) computer personal;
b) portabil;
c) miniatur;
d) putere de calcul;
e) ecran sensibil la atingere;
f) a stoca date;

6.Make up a sentence of your own with: to make a clear-cut distinction; to carry from place
to place; to hold in the palm of ones hand; to operate on battery; to take notes; to fit in one
hand; to access information; in addition to; to continue a trend; at the same time.

Answers to Activities:
1. see http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/server
see http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/mainframe
see http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/supercomputer
see http://www.contactomagazine.com/computers/embeddedcomputers0707.htm

2. see http://www.synonym.com/synonyms/manufacture/
see http://www.synonym.com/synonyms/practical/
see http://www.synonym.com/synonyms/function/

3. see thick
see bottom
see homogeneity

4. a) embedded computers; b) game console; c) handheld computer; d) tablet PC.

5. a) personal computer; b) portable; c) miniature; d) computational power; e) touchscreen;


f) to store data.

6. We should make a clear-cut distinction between mobile computers and mobile devices.
He carries from place to place a briefcase.
She was holding a buterfly in the palm of her hand.
This device operates on battery.
The students are taking notes now.
This device fits in his hand.
I cant access the information referring to the president.
In addition to this rule, you should take into account another one.
She doesnt want to continue this trend.
I would like you to read this book. At the same time, you should watch some
documentaries on this topic.

Topic 3

Activities:
1. Translate into Romanian:
A. Servers are computers that make programs and data available to people who are
connected to a computer network. They are not designed for individual use and are
typically centralized or operated from one location. Users connect to the network on
clients, which can be desktops, notebooks, workstations or any other computer for
individuals, to contact the server and obtain the needed information. This use of remote or
off-side clients and centralized servers is called client/server computing. It plays an
important role in todays businesses. Servers can be as small as a microcomputer or as
large as a mainframe. The top three server manufacturers are IBM, Sun Microsystems and
Dell. Servers typically cost between $ 1,000 and upwards of $ 30,000 but HP UNIX
servers run from $100,000 to over $1 million!
Minicomputers, also referred to as midrange servers, are midsize computers that
handle the computing needs of a smaller corporation or organization. They enable dozens,
hundreds or even thousands of users to connect to them simultaneously through PCs or
terminals. Terminals are basically computers that lack processing capabilities. They
simply receive input via remote keyboard and display output on a monitor. Minicomputers
can be slightly larger than microcomputers or as big as a washing machine. In recent
years, the minicomputer market has waned.
Mainframes are designed to handle huge processing jobs in large corporations or
government agencies. For example, an airline may use a mainframe to handle airline
reservations. Some mainframes are designed to be used by hundreds of thousands of
people at the same time. People connect to mainframes using terminals or PCs.
Mainframes are usually stored in special, secure rooms that have a controlled climate.
They are manufactured by firms such as IBM, Honeywell and HP/Agilent, cost hundreds
of thousands to millions of dollars and are very powerful.
Supercomputers are ultrafast computers that process large amounts of scientific data
and then display the underlying patterns that have been discovered in the data. According
to Top 500.org the top three supercomputers in the world as of November of 2005 are:
The Dept. of Energy=s IBM BlueGreen/L system, installed at Dept. of Energys Lawrence
Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). It has achieved a record Linpack performance of
280.6 TFlop/s (trillion cycles per second). It is still the only system ever to exceed the 1oo
TFlop/s mark. No. 2 is a similar but smaller IBM eServer- the Blue Gene Solution system,
installed at IBMs Thomas Watson Research Center with 91.20 TFlop/s Linpack
performance. And No. 3 is the ASCI Purple system at LLNL, also built by IBM. It has
reached 63.4 TFlop/s. A supercomputers price tag is also large from $ 1 million to $ 20
million. (Daley, Bill, Computers are your Future, Ninth Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall,
2007, USA, pp. 15-16)

B. Laptops or Notebook computers are a type of personal computers which are portable
devices. The special feature of laptop computers is that it is far lighter than a Desktop PC.
Being a wireless system, you can use it even when there is a power cut or you are away
from home where electricity is not available.

Laptops or Notebook Computers are different from a desktop computer not only in terms
of size and portability but the following factors count for the basic difference:

- In laptops, the mouse, keyboard and sound box is integrated with the main system
itself.
- A notebook computer is not powered by electricity but by a battery.
- Nowadays networking features like Intel Centrino mobile Technology is installed
within the laptop computers itself.
- In most laptops with the exception of a few like Alienware, the internal parts cannot
be updated once you have bought the Laptop.
- And to say the least it is far more fragile than a Desktop PC.

While buying a Laptop computer you need to consider the quality of the portable
computer. What accounts for the portability, are the following factors. So make sure to
check out that the basic components of the system, that is to say, the Processor, Memory,
Mass Storage and Removal components and the peripheral accessories should be designed
in such a way that it is

- as light and small as possible;


- should be powered by a proper battery which must generate minimum heat;
- should be accessible by a floppy or a CD.
With the market pouring over with companies such as Compaq, Acer, Toshiba, Zenith,
Sahara, HCL, Lenovo, Del Inspiration, ASUS, HP computers, Apple Computers,
Alienware and many more, you can choose laptops ranging in price anywhere between
29000 ICR to anywhere beyond 1,00,000.
(http://www.mapsofworld.com/referrals/computers/types-of-computers/laptop.html)

C. What is a Tablet PC? What is the basic difference between a tablet PC and a Laptop?
They literally look somewhat similar. But tablet PC is far more convenient to use than the
Notebook computers. They are both portable computers, but they differ with respect to the
accessories, the software used and the screen. Though both laptops and tablet PC s are mobile
computer systems, the later one gives you the opportunity of writing directly on the screen
rather than typing out the same on the keyboard. Naturally when it comes to explaining
directly from the PC in colleges or business organizations, using a pen to explain is always
more convenient.

But you must be wondering how it is possible for the computer to understand handwriting.
For your tablet PC to decipher the handwriting, special softwares are loaded. For your
convenience, the significant features of tablet PC has been listed below:

- The tablet PC has handwriting recognizing softwares installed in them as the


recognizer pack in Windows XP Tablet PC Edition 2005.

- Several Shorthand recognizing tools as Inscribe, Tap, Message Ease, Alpha Tap, act
like virtual keyboards. You can easily learn up these short hand languages within a matter of
weeks before using these accessories.

- Nowadays active digitizers are fitted behind the tablet PC screen to to avail maximum
visibility. The protection provided by the active digitizers allow you to rest your hand without
misguiding the computer to recognize it as a command. Hence, writing becomes easy even
when the screen is placed in a horizontal position.

(http://www.mapsofworld.com/referrals/computers/types-of-computers/tablet-pc.html)
2. Translate into English:
A. Datorit existentei numrului mare si diversittii criteriilor ce ar trebui luate n
considerare, este foarte greu s se fac o clasificare riguroas, clar si complet a
sistemelor de calcul. Sintetiznd, se poate considera c, n general, sistemele de calcul se
diferentiaz dup mrime, posibilitti de procesare, pret si vitez de operare. Se consider
astfel c exist patru categorii de sisteme de calcul:
Microcalculatoare sunt calculatoare cunoscute sub denumirea de calculatoare personale
(Personal Computer - PC). Acestea au cunoscut cea mai rapid dezvoltare si diversificare
odat cu aparitia chip-ului (cip) - circuit integrat obtinut prin ncapsularea a milioane de
tranzistoare ntr-un nvelis ceramic, pe o singur pastil de siliciu.
Constructia unui PC se bazeaz pe microprocesor, un cip care contine portiuni din unitatea
centrala de prelucrare (UCP). Acesta este considerat "creierul" microcalculatorului.
Sunt de remarcat urmtoare caracteristici ale PC-urilor:
*sunt accesibile din punct de vedere al pretului;
*au dimensiuni reduse si unele tipuri pot fi portabile;
*utilizatorii pot nvta foarte usor operarea acestora;
*pot fi folosite n orice domeniu;
*lucreaz n retea putnd realiza schimburi de date.

Minicalculatoare au fost create pentru executarea unor functii specializate: aplicatii multi-
utilizator, masini cu control numeric, automatizri industriale, transmisii de date ntre
sisteme dispersate geografic. Ele sunt calculatoare de dimensiuni medii, compuse din
module structurale cu functii precise, sunt usor de instalat si utilizat, se pot conecta la
reteaua electric fr restrictii. Au putere si capacitate de stocare mai mare, UCP complex,
Sistemul de intrare/iesire foarte dezvoltat n sensul comunicrii prin retea de periferice n
sistem multiutilizator.
Calculatoarele "mainfraime" constituie o categorie aparte, situat ntre supercalculatoare si
minicalculatoare, opernd cu viteze ridicate si administrnd un volum foarte mare de date.
Au procesorul foarte complex, volum mare de stocare n DM, S I/O complex, orientat pe
gestionare de statii de lucru, permit acces multiutilizator (pot suporta sute si chiar mii de
utilizatori simultan).
Calculatoarele "mainframe" necesit instalatii speciale si proceduri de mentinere n
functiune, neputnd fi cuplate direct la reteaua de nalt tensiune, de aceea au costuri
foarte ridicate. Ele functioneaz, de regul, fr ntrerupere, ceea ce presupune accesul
controlat la date si un sistem de protectie adecvat. Se utilizeaz n spitale, bnci, etc.
Supercalculatoarele sunt cele mai puternice, complexe si scumpe sisteme electronice de
calcul, care pot executa peste 1 bilion de instructiuni pe secund. Au procesorul format
dintr-un numr mare de microprocesoare (de ordinul miilor), sunt proiectate pentru calcul
paralel, au costuri si performante foarte ridicate. Sunt utilizate n domenii care necesit
prelucrarea complex a datelor, cum ar fi: reactoare nucleare, proiectarea aeronavelor,
seismologie, meteo, etc.
Lund n considerare particularittile unui calculator personal (PC), din punct de vedere a
mrimii (fizice sau ca si capacitate de memorare), vitez de lucru, costuri, utilizri
specifice, se poate spune c exist mai multe tipuri de calculatoare si anume: Desktop,
Tower, Laptop, Palm PC.
*Desktop - calculatorul de tip clasic, la care monitorul este asezat n general pe carcasa
unittii centrale ce se afl pe birou.
*Tower - acel calculator la care carcasa unittii centrale este mai ngust dar mai nalt
dect la desktop si este asezat lng monitor sau, de cele mai multe ori, sub mas.
*Laptop (notebook) - calculator usor de transportat, construit pentru a fi folosit n afara
biroului (de exemplu n tren), avnd o surs independent de alimentare (baterii sau
acumulatoare). Au componente usoare si mici, de exemplu afisajul cu cristale lichide,
tastatur si nlocuitor de mouse. Cntresc numai 3 - 5 kg si sunt cele mai
costisitoare (aproximativ pretul a dou PC-uri).
*Palm PC (Palmtop, Handhold sau Organizer) - se utilizeaz ca bloc notes, agend
telefonic, calculator de buzunar, calendar, etc. Facilitti: posibilitatea transferului de date
prin PC, recunoasterea scrisului de mn, accesarea Internet-ului. Datorit dimensiunilor
reduse (ct o palm), procesarea textelor este destul de dificil.
(http://www.referate.k5.ro/referate/referat/Tipuri-de-calculatoare/328)

B.Exista o multitudine de termeni care pot fi folositi pentru a caracteriza un calculator. Cele
mai folosite descrieri sunt in privinta dimensiunii,sau capacitatii calculatorului.In timp ce
cuvantul computer poate indica orice dispozitiv care contine microprocesor. Cei mai multi
oameni se gandesc la calculator ca si la un dispozitiv care receptioneaza comanda de la user
prin intermediul mouse-ului si tastaturii,o proceseaza intr-un anumit fel, iar dupa aceea
afiseaza rezulatatele pe monitor.

Vom descrie foarte pe scurt 10 tipuri de calculatoare, mai mult sau mai putin folosite de catre
omul obisnuit.

1.PC: Computerul personal (PC=Personal Computer) defineste calculatorul destinat folosirii


generale de catre o singura persoana. In timp ce Mac ( Apple) este un PC,majoritatea
oamenilor asociaza termenul cu sisteme ce folosesc sisteme de operare Windows. PC-urile la
inceput erau cunoscute si sub termenul de microcomputer, pentru ca ele erau calculatoare
complete, dar erau contruite la o scara mai mica decat sistemele imense folosite de catre
companii mai mari.

2. Desktop: PC-ul care nu este construit sa fie portabil este un calculator desktop.Aceste
tipuri de PC uri sunt gandite sa fie instalate intr-o locatie permanenta, de exemplu sufrageria
sau biroul tau. Cele mai multe calculatoare desktop ofera mai multa putere de calcul, mai mult
spatiu de stocare si mai multa versalitate decat fratii lor care sunt destinati pentru portabilitate.

3. Laptop: Mai numite si notebook-uri,laptopurile sunt computere portabile,care integreaza


monitorul, tastatura, trackball-ul (in loc de mouse,sa inteleaga toti), procesorul, memoria si
hard-disk-ul,intr-un singur dispozitiv alimentat cu baterii, care deseori nu este mai mare decat
o carte mai voluminoasa.

4. PDA: PDA-urile (Personal Digital Assistance) sunt calculatoare miniatura, care folosesc
memorie flash in locul hard discului pentru a stoca datele digitale.Aceste dispozitive de
obiciei nu au tastatura. Ele in schimb folosesc ecran sensibil la atingere,numit si
touchscreen in locul tastaturii. PDA-urile sunt de obiciei mai mici decat caietele de tip
notes,sunt foarte usoare,cu o durata a bateriei destul de rezonabila.O versiune mai mare a
PDA ului sunt asa numitele handheld computer,adica calculatoarele de mana.
5. Workstation: Un alt tip de calculator este asa numitul Workstation.Un Workstation este
pur si simplu un calculator desktop,care are un procesor mult mai puternic,mai multa
memorie, si capacitati sporite de a efectua o anumita sarcina,cum ar fi Grafica 3D, sau
conceptia de jocuri pe calculator.

6. Server: Este un calculator optimizat pentru a furniza servicii catre mai multe calculatoare,
prin intermediul unei retele.Serverele au de obiciei procesoare puternice, foarte multa
memorie si hard discuri cu capacitati mari.

7. Mainframe: Pe la inceputul erei calculatoarelor,calculatoarele de tipul Mainframe


puteau sa umple o camera intreaga, sau chiar si un etaj de locuinte. Pe parcurs ce dimensiunea
calculatoarelor s-a diminuat,in timp ce puterea acestora a crescut,termenul de mainframe a
iesit din folosinta,in favoarea denumirii de server de intreprinderesau in engleza enterprise
server.Aceste calculatoare sunt folosite la companiile foarte mari,care proceseaza milioane de
tranzactii in fiecare zi.

8. Minicomputere: Este un alt termen mai rar folosit in zilele noastre.Minicomputerul se


poate categoriza undeva intre PC-uri (calculatoare personale) si Mainframe-uri (servere de
intreprindere). De fapt in zilel noastre minicomputerele sunt servere de rang mediu.

9. Supercomputerul: Acest tip de calculator de obiciei costa sute de mii,sau chiar si milioane
de dolari. Desi unele supercomputere sunt sisteme individuale,cele mai multe sunt combinate
din mai multe sisteme de inalta performanta,care lucreaza in paralel ca si un singur calculator.
Cele mai bune supercomputere din lume sunt construite de catre firma Cray
Supercomputers.

10. Computere portabile: Ultimul trend in moda calculatoarelor este calculatorul portabil. In
special, aplicatii obisnuite (e-mail,baza de date,multimedia,calendar/planificator) sunt
integrate in ceasuri,telefoane mobile,sau chiar si haine. (http://www.leoblog.ro/2009/09/10-
tipuri-de-calculatoare.html)
Topic 4

I. Phrasal verb to break

Meaning Examples
to break away 1. to leave a group or political party and form 1. Many members broke away
another group; to form a new party.
2. to leave your home, family, job to become 2. He felt the need to break
independent; away from home.
3. to move away from someone who is 3. She broke away from him
holding you; and answered the phone.
4. to move away from other people in 4. Tom broke away 100
game/race, etc; meters before the finish.
5. to no longer be attached to something; 5. A part of the car broke
away after the impact.
to break down 1.cause to collapse by using force 1. He was so strong that he
2. collapse, cease to function properly broke down the front door.
because of some fault or weakness; 2. The microwave has broken
down.
to break in 1.entering a building illegally and by force, 1. The thieves broke in the
especially in order to steal things; bank building last night.
2.interrupt someone by some sudden remark; 2. I felt the need to break in
3.train a horse/pony etc. for use; on his conversation.
4. to help a person get used to a certain way 3. He broke in this horse a
of working; long time ago.
4. Because I am new, they are
breaking me in.
to break off 1.(tr. or intr.) detach or become detached; 1. The door handle has broken
2. (tr.) terminate (used of agreements or off.
negotiations); 2. They broke off the
3. (intr.) stop talking suddenly, interrupt diplomatic relations with us.
oneself; 3. When he saw them coming,
he broke off because he didnt
want them to hear what he was
saying.
to break out 1. begin (used of evils such as wars, 1. The fire broke out on the
epidemics, fires, etc.) last floor.
2. escape by using force from a prison; 2. The prisoners could not
break off because of the
guards.
to break up 1. .(tr. or intr.) disintegrate 1. The old ship was broken up
2. (intr.) terminate (used of school terms, by the waves.
meetings, parties, etc.) 2. The meeting broke up at
3.the act of ending a marriage or relationship; two oclock.
3. This rumour is false: they
did not break up! On the
contrary, they are happier than
ever!

Activity:
Translate into English using to break as phrasal verb:

1. n sfrit s-a terminat trimestrul! Vine vacana!


2. S-au terminat negocierile.
3. Ei nu vor s se despart pentru c nc se iubesc.
4. Dac ai pierdut cheile, trebuie s spargi ua.
5. A evadat din nchisoare acum 2 luni i poliia nu l-a gsit nc.
6. A simit nevoia s prseasc partidul.
7. Avionul s-a dezintegrat n aer.
8. Profesorul explica o problem dar s-a oprit cnd a auzit clopoelul.
9. Imprimanta s-a stricat chiar n momentul n care voiam s printez lucrarea.
10. n fiecare toamn izbucnete o epidemie de grip.

Answer to Activity:
1. The term has broken up! Holiday is coming!
2. The negociations have broken off.
3. They dont want to break up because they are still love each other.

Activity
Fill in the blanks with to break as phrasal verb:

1. She was speaking but she broke when she heard that noise.
2. Someone broke my house and stole my TV.
3. She usually broke on his conversation.
4. They break the horses when they are two years old.
5. The Second World War broke on the 1st of September 1939.
6. The meeting broke at 10 oclock.
7. The leg of the chair broke .

Answer to activity:
1. break off; 2. break into; 3.break in.

Activity:
Make sentences of your own using the following and translate them into Romanian:
breakthrough; break-even; breakneck; breakwater; to have a break; to do something without
a break; lunch/coffee/tea break; to break into a run; to break into a smile/ a song/ applause,
to break out in spots/ a rash/ a sweat; to break with tradition/ the past.

Answer to Activity:

1. The scientist has made an incredible breakthrough.


2. In economics, the break even point is the point at which cost or expenses and revenue are
equal.
3. He drives at a breakneck speed.

Topic 5

Pay attention to the difference among: smash, shatter, shiver, split, snap, tear, burst,
disintegrate, fracture, crack, crush, smash.

smash to break with a lot of force; it suggest the complete deformation


caused by a heavy, noisy blow; it suggests the shattering of
something brittle either by throwing it or by throwing something
against it.
shatter to break into many pieces; it refers to the total breaking up of a thin
surface;
shiver it is more closely restricted to glass or glass-like surfaces,
suggesting a reduction into long, narrow shards or slivers;
split to break into two pieces;
snap to break into two pieces with a sudden loud noise;
tear to break into pieces paper/cloth;
burst to break (about tyre/balloon/ pipe); it involves much greater
violence than to break; it suggests a forceful breaking open that is
due to internal pressure;
disintegrate to break into a lot of small pieces and be destroyed;
fracture to break (about bones); it suggest a deeper, thorough and more
localized breaking than to crack;
crack to break without the separation of parts; it suggests the breaking
out across a surface of slit-like openings or hairline ruptures
because of wear, age or pressure; sometimes, it may suggest
breaking into pieces;
crush it points to the effect of great external pressure; it suggests
squeezing something out of shape;

Activity:

Translate into English using the words given below: smash, shatter, shiver, split, snap, tear,
burst, disintegrate, fracture, crack, crush, smash.

1. Trebuie s m duc la spital. Cred c mi-am fracturat mna.


2. Paharul s-a crpat.
3. Trebuie s chemm instalatorul. S-a spart conducta de ap cald.
4. A spart oglinda.
5. Statuia s-a spart la cutremur.
6. Ai spart ole pentru c ai pus deasupra lor cartofii.
7. Nu tiu de ce a sfiat perdeaua.
8. Racheta s-a dezintegrat pur i simplu n aer.
9. Profitul se mparte la doi.
10. Creanga a pocnit sub picioare.
11. Paharul s-a spart pentru c a aruncat cu el n main.

Answer to Activity:
1. I have to got o the hospital. I think I have fractured my hand.
2. The glass has cracked.
3. We have to call the plumber. The hot water pipe has burst.

Activity:
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word from the ones given below: burst (x2), shattered,
split (x2), cracked (x2), crushed, snapped, smash.

1. He blew up the balloon until it .


2. The stone the already cracked window.
3. I want to the cake into two.
4. She open the walnut to get the kernel.
5. Money should be into two.
6. Everyone could see that he was nervous because he the Coca-Cola can in his hand.
7. The teacher the chalk in two.
8. Vandals all the windows of the house.
9. Take away this cup! Nobody can drink from it!
10. She squeezed the pimple until it .
Answer to Activity:
1.B
urst; 2. Shattered; 3. Split

Abstract:
The present unit deals with presenting the main categories of computers and highlighting their
importance. At the same time, it focuses on the phrasal verb to break and on the following
tricky words: smash, shatter, shiver, split, snap, tear, burst, disintegrate, fracture, crack,
crush.

FINAL TESTS
I) Say whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):
1. Embedded computers are huge.
2. Game consoles are heavy.
3. Mainframes are cheap.
4. A PDA does not have the spreadsheet application software.
5. Notebooks are usually more expensive than desktop computers with the same capabilities.
6. A notebook computer is small enough to fit in one hand.
7. Computers can be classified in seven categories.
8. The field of computers is rather stable.
9. The tower is the less popular style of system unit.
10. The distinction among different types of computers is clear cut.

Example: 1. Embedded computers are huge. (F)

II) Underline the right definition according to the text:

console
a) boar; b) bodge; c) bodkin; d) board;

embedded
a) insight; b) inserted; c) insensate; d) inset;

hinge
a) joist; b) jotter; c) joint; d) joule;

slate
a) slant; b) board; c) slam; d) rock;

jam
a) blockade; b) blockage; c) bludgeon; d) blurb.

Example:
console
a) boar; b) bodge; c) bodkin; d) board;

III) Fill in the blanks with the correspondimg words from the text:

1. A computer is any general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and original sales
price make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end
user with no intervening computer operator.
2. A computer is a personal computer (PC) in a form intended for regular use at a single
location, as opposed to a mobile laptop or portable computer.
3. A computer is an extremely lightweight personal computer. It typically weighs less than
6 pounds and is small enough to fit easily in a briefcase.
4. A .. PC is a laptop PC equipped with a stylus or a touch screen. This form factor is intended
to offer a more mobile PC; it may be used where notebooks are impractical.
5. A device (also known as a handheld device, handheld computer or simply handheld) is a
pocket-sized computing device, typically having a display screen with touch input and/or a
miniature keyboard. In the case of the personal digital assistant (PDA) the input and output
are often combined into a touch-screen interface.
6. A computer , or H/PC for short, is a term for a computer built around a form factor
which is smaller than any standard laptop computer. It is sometimes referred to as a Palmtop.
7. A personal digital assistant, for short, is a mobile device that functions as a personal
information manager.
8. A is a mobile phone that offers more advanced computing ability and connectivity than
a contemporary basic 'feature phone'.
9. A video (2 words) is an interactive entertainment computer or modified computer
system that produces a video display signal which can be used with a display device (a
television, monitor, etc.) to display a video game.
10. In computer networking, a is simply a program that operates as a socket listener. The
term is also often generalized to describe a host that is deployed to execute one or more such
programs.
11. A computer is a powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical
applications, typically bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics,
enterprise resource planning, and financial transaction processing.
12. A is a computer that is at the frontline of current processing capacity, particularly
speed of calculation.
13. An computer is integrated as part of a complete device often including hardware and
mechanical parts.

Example:
1. A PERSONAL computer is any general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities,
and original sales price make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be
operated directly by an end user with no intervening computer operator.

Bibliography:

Alexander, L. G., Right Word, Wrong Word, Longman, 1996.


Hayakawa, S.I, The Penguin Guide to Synonyms and Related Words, Penguin Books, 1994.
Shelly, Gary B., Cashman, Thomas J., Vermaat, Misty E., Discovering Computers:
Fundamentals, Fourth Edition, 2008, USA;
Turton, ND, Heaton, JB, Dictionary of Common Errrors, Longman, 1996.
Wolf, Wayne, Computers as Components: Principles of Embedded Computing System Design

Connection with the next unit:


After having presented the categories of computers, we can proceed by presenting examples
of computer usage and discussing about computer applications in society.
Unitatea de nvare 13,14:

EXAMPLES OF COMPUTER USAGE. COMPUTER APPLICATIONS


IN SOCIETY

Introduction:
The present unit focuses on both giving examples of computer usage and presenting the
computer applications in society . It introduces a specific vocabulary, familiarizes the students
with the phrasal verb to make, makes the distinction between to make and to do and
tackles with the following tricky words: begin, start, commence, institute, initiate,
inaugurate, launch.

Contents:
1.1. the examples of computer usage and the presentation of computer applications in society.
1.2. key words and phrases: SOHO user, mobie user, large business user, to post on the network; to rely on;
to keep an inventory; to look up an information; to bill customers; to prepare payroll; to acquire
knowledge; to take a class; to track income/investments; to apply for financial aid/permit/license; to
renew vehicle registration/drivers license; to file insurance claims.
1.3. the phrasal verb to make;
1.4. the distinction between to make and to do;
1.5. tricky words: begin, start, commence, institute, initiate, inaugurate, launch;
1.6. bibliography

Previous knowledge required:


-general vocabulary on computers;
-basic grammar knowledge;

Objectives:
1. The students should be able to give examples of computer usage and to present the
computer applications in society.
2.The students should be able to understand the meaning of the key words and phrases as well
as to write and pronounce them correctly.
3. The students should be able to translate, from English into Romanian and vieceversa, texts
that focus on the newly introduced vocabulary.
4. The students should be able to understand and use the phrasal verb to make as well as
to use it in sentences of their own.
5. The students should be able to make the distinction between to make and to do;
6. The students should be able to make the distinction among salary, wage, pay,
remuneration, fee, stipend and honorarium.

List of necessary equipments:


- computer;

Supplementary bibliography:
English Phrasal Verbs, Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Exercises on Phrasal Verbs, Oxford University press,1991.
Fitikides, T.J., B.A., F.I.L., Common Mistakes in English with exercises, Longman, 2000.

Time: 6 hours
Topic 1

EXAMPLES OF COMPUTER USAGE. COMPUTER APPLICATIONS


IN SOCIETY
I. Every day, people around the world rely on different types of computers for a variety of
applications. There is a wide range of uses for computers. One can name five categories of

users: a home user, a small office/home office (SOHO) user , a mobile user ,a

power user, and a large business user .


Home User
In an increasing number of homes, the computer is a basic necessity. Each family
member, or home user, spends time on the computer for different reasons. These include

budgeting and personal finance management , Web access, communications, and


entertainment.
On the Internet, home users access a huge amount of information, take college classes ,

pay bills , manage investments , shop, listen to the radio, watch movies, read books,

play games, file taxes , book airline reservations and make telephone calls. They also
communicate with others around the world through e-mail, blogs, instant messaging, and chat
rooms. Home users share ideas, interests, photos, music, and videos on social networking
Web sites, or online social networks.
Many home users have a portable media player, so they can listen to downloaded music

and/or podcasts at a later time through earphones attached to the player. They also

usually have one or more game consoles to play video games.


Todays homes typically have one or more desktop computers. Some home users network
multiple desktop computers throughout the house, often wirelessly. These small networks
allow family members to share an Internet connection and a printer.

Home users have a variety of software. They type letters, homework assignments ,
and other documents with word processing software. Personal finance software helps the

home user with personal finances, investments, and family budgets . Other software

assists with preparing taxes, keeping a household inventory , and setting up


maintenance schedules.

Reference software, such as encyclopedias , medical dictionaries or a road atlas ,


provides valuable information for everyone in the family. With entertainment software, the

home user can play games, compose music, research genealogy , or create greeting cards.
Educational software helps adults learn to speak a foreign language and youngsters to read,

write, count and spell .


Small Office/Home Office User
Computers assist small business and home office users in managing their resources
effectively. A small office/home office (SOHO) includes any company with fewer than 50
employees, as well as the self-employed who work from home. Small offices include local

law practices, accounting firms, travel agencies, and florists . SOHO users typically use a
desktop computer. Many also use PDAs.
SOHO users access the Internet often wirelessly to look up information such as

addresses, directions, postal codes , flights, and package shipping rates or to make
telephone calls. Nearly all SOHO users communicate through e-mail. Many are entering the

e-commerce arena and conduct business on the Web. Their Web sites advertise
products and services and may provide a means for taking orders.
To save money on hardware and software small offices often network their computers.
For example, the small office connects one printer to a network for all employees to share.

SOHO users often have basic business software such as word processing and

spreadsheet software to assist with document preparation and finances. They are likely
to use other industry-specific types of software. A candy shop, for example will have software

that allows for taking orders and payments, updating inventory, and paying vendors .
Mobile User
Today, businesses and schools are expanding to serve people across the country and
around the world. Thus, increasingly more employees and students are mobile users, who
work on a computer while away from a main office or school. Some examples of mobile users

are sales representatives, real estate agents, insurance agents, meter readers , package
delivery people, journalists, and students.
Mobile users often have a notebook computer, Tablet PC, Internet-enabled PDA, or smart
phone. With these computers and devices, the mobile user can connect to other computers on
a network or the Internet, often wirelessly accessing services such as e-mail and the Web.
Mobile users can transfer information between their mobile devices and another computer.
The mobile user works with basic business software such as word processing and

spreadsheet software. With presentation graphics software , the mobile user can create

and deliver presentations to a large audience by connecting a mobile computer or device


to a video projector that displays the presentation on a full screen.
Power User
Another category of user, called a power user, requires the capabilities of a powerful
desktop computer, called a workstation. Examples of power users include engineers,
scientists, architects, desktop publishers, and graphic artists. Power users typically work with
multimedia, combining text, graphics, audio, and video into one application. These users need
computers with extremely fast processors because of the nature of their work.
The power users workstation contains industry-specific software. For example, engineers

and architects use software to draft and design floor plans, mechanical assemblies

, or vehicles . A desktop publisher uses software to prepare marketing literature such as


newsletters, brochures, and annual reports. A geologist uses software to study the earths
surface. This software usually is expensive because of its specialized design.
Power users exist in all types of businesses. Some also work at home. Their computers
typically have network connections and Internet access.
Large Business User
A large business has hundreds or thousands of employees or customers that work in or do
business with offices across a region, the country, or the world. Each employee or customer
who uses a computer in the large business is a large business user.
Many large companies use the words, enterprise computing, to refer to the huge network

of computers that meets their diverse computing needs. The network facilitates
communications among employees at all locations. Users access the network through desktop
computers, mobile computers, PDAs, and smart phones.
Large businesses use computers and the computer network to process high volumes of
transactions in a single day. Although they may differ in size and in the products or services
offered, all generally use computers for basic business activities. For example, they bill
millions of customers or prepare payroll for thousands of employees. Some large businesses
use blogs to open communications among employees and/or customers.
Large businesses typically have e-commerce Web site, allowing customers and vendors to
conduct business online. The Web sites showcases products, services, and other company
information. Customers, vendors, and other interested parties can access this information on
the Web.
The marketing department in a large business uses desktop publishing software to prepare

marketing literature. The Accounting department uses software for accounts receivable ,

accounts payable , billing , general ledger , and payroll activities.


Large business users work with word processing, spreadsheet, database, and presentation
graphics software. They also may use calendar programs to post their schedules on the
network. And, they might use PDAs or smart phones to maintain contact information. E-mail
and Web browsers enable communications among employees, vendors, and customers.
Many employees of large businesses today telecommute. Telecommuting is a work
arrangement in which employees work away from a companys standard workplace and often
communicate with the office through the computer. Employees who telecommute have
flexible work schedules so they can combine work and personal responsibilities, such as child
care.

II. The computer has changed society today as much as the industrial revolution changed
society in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
People interact directly with computers in fields such as education, finance,

government, health care , science, publishing, travel, and manufacturing. In addition,

they can reap the benefits from breakthroughs and advances in these fields. The
following pages describe how computers have made a difference in peoples interactions

with these disciplines.


Education
Education is the process of acquiring knowledge. In the traditional model, people learn
from other people such as parents, teachers, and employers. Many forms of printed material

such as books and manuals are used as learning tools. Today, educators also are turning
to computers to assist with education.
Many schools and companies equip labs and classrooms with computers. Some schools
require students to have a notebook computer or PDA to access the schools network or
Internet wirelessly.
Students use software to assist with learning or to complete assignments. To promote
education by computer, many vendors offer substantial student discounts on software.
Sometimes, the delivery of education occurs at one place while the learning occurs at
other locations. For example, students can take a class on the Web. More than 70 percent of

colleges offer some type of distance learning classes. A few even offer entire degrees
online.
Finance
Many people and companies use computers to help manage their finances. Some use
finance software to balance checkbooks, pay bills, track personal income and expenses,
manage investments, and evaluate financial plans. This software usually includes a variety of
online services. For example, computer users can track investments and do online banking.

With online banking, users access account balances , pay bills, and copy monthly
transactions from the banks computer right into their computer.

Investors often use online investing to buy and sell stocks and bonds without
using a broker. With online investing, the transaction fee for each trade usually is much less
than when trading through a broker.
Government
A government provides society with direction by making and administering policies. To
provide citizens with up-to-date information, most government offices have Web sites. People
access government Web sites to file taxes, apply for permits and licenses, pay parking tickets,
buy stamps, report crimes, apply for financial aid, and renew vehicle registrations and drivers
licenses.

Employees of government agencies use computers as part of their daily routine .


Military and other agency officials use the U.S. Department of Homeland Securitys network
of information about domestic security threats to help protect our nation. Law enforcement

officers have online access to the FBIs National Crime Information Center (NCIC)
through in-vehicle computers, fingerprint scanners, and PDAs. The NCIC contains more than
52 million missing persons and criminal records, including names, fingerprints,

parole/probation records, mug shots , and other information.


Health Care
Nearly every area of health care uses computers. Whether you are visiting a family

doctor for a regular checkup, having lab work or an outpatient test, or being rushed in

for emergency surgery , the medical staff around you will be using computers for
various purposes:
o Hospitals and doctors use computers to maintain patient records.
o Computers monitor patients vital signs in hospital rooms and at home.
o Doctors use the Web and medical software to assist with researching and

diagnosing health conditions.


o Doctors use e-mail to correspond with patients.

o Pharmacists use computers to file insurance claims.


o Computers and computerized devices assist doctors, nurses, and technicians with
medical tests.

o Surgeons implant computerized devices, such as pacemakers , that allow


patients to live longer.

o Surgeons use computer-controlled devices to provide them with greater


precision during operations, such as for laser eye surgery and robot-assisted heart
surgery.

An exciting development in health care is telemedicine , which is a form of long-


distance health care. Through telemedicine, health-care professionals in separate locations
conduct live conferences on the computer. For example, a doctor at one location can have a
conference with a doctor at another location to discuss a bone X-ray. Live images of each

doctor, along with the X-ray , are displayed on each doctors computer.
Science

All branches of science, from biology to astronomy to meteorology ,


use computers to assist them with collecting, analyzing and modelling data. Scientists also use
the Internet to communicate with colleagues around the world.
Breakthroughs in surgery, medicine, and treatments often result from scientists use of
computers. Tiny computers now imitate functions of the central nervous system, retina of the

eye, and cochlea of the ear. A cochlear implant allows a deaf person to listen.

Electrodes implanted in the brain stop tremors associated with Parkinsons


disease. Cameras small enough to swallow sometimes called a camera pill take pictures
inside your body to detect polyps, cancer and other abnormalities.
Travel
Many vehicles manufactured today include some type of onboard navigation system.
Some mobile users prefer to carry specialized handheld navigation devices.
In preparing for a trip, you may need to reserve a car, hotel or flight. Many Web sites
offer these services to the public. For example, you can order airline tickets on the Web. If
you plan to drive somewhere and are unsure of the road to take to your destination, you can
print directions and a map from the Web.
Manufacturing

Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) refers to the use of computers to assist


with manufacturing processes such as fabrication and assembly. Often, robots carry out
processes in a CAM environment. CAM is used by a variety of industries, including oil

drilling , power generation, food production, and automobile manufacturing.


Automobile plants , for example, have an entire line of industrial robots that assemble a
car.

Self-check
Answer the following questions:

1. What are the main categories of computer users?


2. How can a computer be used at home?
3. Give examples of home software.
4. What is SOHO?
5. What can you say about mobile users?
6. Define power user. Give examples.
7. Define large business user.
8. What is telecommuting?
9. What was the equivalent of the computer in the 18th century? (in point of the large influence
exerted)
10. What are the fields in which computers are used?

Self-check Answers
1. The main categories of computer users are home users, SOHO users, mobile users, power
users and large business users.
2. There are many uses of computers at home: budgeting, personal finance management, Web
access, communications and entertainment.
3. There is a variety of home software: word processing software, personal finance software,
reference software, entertainment and educational software.
4. A SOHO user stand for a small office/home office user.
5. Nowadays, increasingly more users are mobile, for example sales representatives, real
estate agents, insuurance agents, journalists, students, etc. Mobile users often have notebook
computers, Tablet PC, PDAs or smart phones and work with word processing, spreadsheet
software and presentation graphics software.
6. A power user is another category of users. It requires the capabilities of a powerful desktop
computer, called a workstation. Examples of power users include engineers, scientists,
architects, desktop publishers, and graphic artists. Power users typically work with
multimedia, combining text, graphics, audio, and video into one application.
7. Large business users are large companies that have huge networks of computers. They need
to process high volumes of transactions every day.
8. Telecommuting is a work arrangement in which employees work away from a companys
standard workplace and often communicate with the office through the computer.
9. The equivalent of the computer in the 18th century was the industrial revolution.
10. Computers are used in a variety of fields: education, finance, health care, science,
manufacturing, etc.

Topic 2:

Activities:
1. Try to define mobile user, to assist, genealogy and encyclopedia.





2. Give a synonym of advance, place, to evaluate.




.

3. Give an antonym of sure, flexible, basic


.
.

4. Write down the words pronounced in the audios:

a) ..

b) ..

c) ...

d) ...

5. Write down the English words for:


a) computerizat;
b) reea global de calculatoare;
c) tehnoredactare;
d)a prelucra imagini;
e) a face contabilitatea;
f) proiectare asistat pe calculator;

6.Make up a sentence of your own with: to post on the network; to rely on; to keep an
inventory; to look up an information; to bill customers; to prepare payroll; to acquire
knowledge; to take a class; to track income/investments; to apply for financial
aid/permit/license; to renew vehicle registration/drivers license; to file insurance claims.

Answers to Activities:
1. see http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/mobile+data+user
see http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/assist
see http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/genealogy
see http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/encyclopedia

2. see http://www.synonym.com/synonyms/advance/
see http://www.synonym.com/synonyms/place/
see http://www.synonym.com/synonyms/evaluate/
3. see http://www.synonym.com/antonym/sure/
see http://www.synonym.com/antonym/flexible/
see http://www.synonym.com/antonym/basic/

4. a) synthesizer; b) diagnosis; c) computer-aided manufacturing; d) geologist ;

5. a) computerized; b) computer global network; c) DTP (desktop publishing); d) to process


images; e) to do the accounting; f) Computer Aided Design.

6. 1. My friend has posted on the network a strange document.


2. I rely on her to help me with my homework.
3. My mother keeps the inventory for this firm.
4. I have been looking up this information for 2 hours.
5. He bills his customers.
6. His job is to prepare the payroll.
7. I want to acquire knowledge from him.
8. She went to Rome to take a class.

Topic 3

Activities:
1. Translate into Romanian:
A.
- real estate agents
- insurance agents
- accounts receivable
- accounts payable
- billing
- general ledger
- payroll activities
- personal finance management
- budgeting

B. Almost everyone has been affected by computers and the Internet. Although most people
are able bodied, consider the effect of technologies that support or provide opportunities to the
disabled and disadvantaged. As a part of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, your
school must provide computer access to people with disabilities. A colleges computing
services department must provide special software, such as speed-recognition software, to
help people with vision impairments use computers. Input and output devices specifically
designed for the physically disabled can be installed or existing devices can be modified to
accommodate users with hearing or motor impairments. Home and school computers
equipped with speech-recognition software can help children and those with learning
disabilities learn and read.
Computers are also helping stroke victims to lead more independent lives. From robotic
treadmills to muscle stimulations to therapy that involves playing video games, computers are
giving many patients hope of almost full recovery of their former abilities.
In schools, students can use computers to take advantage of inexpensive training and
learning opportunities. E-learning is the use of computers and computer programs to replace
teachers and the time-place specificity of learning. People also can access computers and the
Internet from libraries, Web cafes and public Internet centers to look for work or access
online training and rsum-creation tools.
A good example of how computers can improve the disabled peoples lives is Stephen
Hawkings case. He is a British theoretical physicist, whose scientific career spans over forty
years. His books and public appearances have made him an academic celebrity. Hes principal
fields of research are theoretical cosmology and quantum gravity.
Hawking is severely disabled by motor neurone disease also known as amyotrophic lateral
sclerosis (ALS). Hawking's illness is markedly different from typical ALS in the fact that his
form of ALS would make for the most protracted case ever documented. A survival for more
than ten years after diagnosis is uncommon for ALS; the longest documented durations are
thirty-two and thirty-nine years and these cases were termed benign because of the lack of the
typical progressive course.

When he was young, he enjoyed riding horses and playing with other children. At Oxford, he
coxed a rowing team, which, he stated, helped relieve his immense boredom at the university.
Symptoms of the disorder first appeared while he was enrolled at University of Cambridge; he
lost his balance and fell down a flight of stairs, hitting his head. Worried that he would lose
his genius, he took the Mensa test to verify that his intellectual abilities were intact. The
diagnosis of motor neurone disease came when Hawking was 21, shortly before his first
marriage, and doctors said he would not survive more than two or three years. Hawking
gradually lost the use of his arms, legs, and voice, and as of 2009 has been almost completely
paralysed. During a visit to the research centre CERN in Geneva in 1985, Hawking contracted
pneumonia, which in his condition was life-threatening as it further restricted his already
limited respiratory capacity. He had an emergency tracheotomy, and as a result lost what
remained of his ability to speak. He has since used an electronic voice synthesizer to
communicate.

The DECtalk DTC01 voice synthesizer he uses, which has an American English accent, is
no longer being produced. Asked why he has still kept it after so many years, Hawking
mentioned that he has not heard a voice he likes better and that he identifies with it. Hawking
is said to be looking for a replacement since, aside from being obsolete, the synthesizer is
both large and fragile by current standards. As of mid 2009, he was said to be using
NeoSpeech's VoiceText speech synthesizer. In Hawking's many media appearances, he
appears to speak fluently through his synthesizer, but in reality, it is a tedious drawn-out
process. Hawking's setup uses a predictive text entry system, which requires only the first few
characters in order to auto-complete the word, but as he is only able to use his cheek for data
entry, constructing complete sentences takes time. His speeches are prepared in advance, but
having a live conversation with him provides insight as to the complexity and work involved.
During a Technology, Entertainment, & Design Conference talk, it took him seven minutes to
answer a question.

He describes himself as lucky despite his disease. Its slow progression has allowed him
time to make influential discoveries and has not hindered him from having, in his own words,
"a very attractive family." When his wife, Jane, was asked why she decided to marry a man
with a three-year life expectancy, she responded, "Those were the days of atomic gloom and
doom, so we all had a rather short life expectancy."

On 20 April 2009, Cambridge University released a statement saying that Hawking was
"very ill" with a chest infection, and was admitted to Addenbrooke's Hospital.The following
day, it was reported that his new condition is "comfortable" and he should make a full
recovery from the infection. (Adapted, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Hawking;
Daley, Bill, Computers are your Future, Ninth Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007, USA, p.
22)

2. Translate into English:


Fie c ne dm seama, fie c nu, trim ntr-o lume computerizat. Astzi aproape orice
aparat din cas (televizor, cuptor, aparat de aer condiionat, telefon i aa mai departe)
funcioneaz pe baza unui calculator, mai mic sau mai mare. Mainile sunt astzi conduse de
calculatoare specializate, care accelereaz i frneaz singure, stabilesc automat temperatura
din interior sau i aprind singure farurile cnd sesizeaz c afar se ntunec. Evidena
contabil a oricrui magazin, birou de avocatur, salon de cosmetic, atelier auto, cabinet
stomatologic, etc., se face cu ajutorul calculatorului. O munc de cteva zile a ctorva
persoane este fcut de un simplu calculator n cteva minute i, culmea, fr nici o
greeal.
Dar poate cel mai mare impact al calculatoarelor n viaa de zi cu zi este produs de
Internet. Aceast reea global de calculatoare aduce o adevrat revoluie n comunicarea
dintre oameni. A scrie o scrisoare clasic, pe hrtie, i a o trimite prin pot, a devenit astzi
ceva depit. Putem acum s introducem scrisoarea n calculatorul de acas sau de la serviciu
i s o expediem, via Internet, n cellalt col al lumii n cteva minute.
Putem avea o convorbire cu mai muli prieteni odat, chiar dac se afl la mare distan
unul de altul. De exemplu, putem vedea pe ecranul monitorului prietenul din America,
prietena din Australia i colegul de la serviciu aflat ntr-o deplasare n China. Toi patru putem
vorbi simultan i ne putem vedea pe ecranul monitorului, chiar dac distana dintre noi este de
mii de kilometri.
Realizarea cumprturilor de acas a devenit ceva obinuit. Pe ecranul monitorului ne
alegem produsele de care avem nevoie, pornind de la mncare, produse de ngrijire personal
i curenie, haine, aparatur electrocasnic i electronic, ajungnd la maini, case, excursii
la munte sau la mare. Produsele comandate ne sunt aduse automat acas, plata pentru cele
cumprate fcndu-se automat din contul de la banc.
i acestea sunt numai cteva dintre lucrurile noi aduse de calculatorul personal. Prin
urmare, a ti s lucrm cu un calculator este un lucru necesar. Mai jos sunt enumerate cteva
dintre domeniile n care este utilizat cel mai des calculatorul personal:
- redactarea unui document (scrisoare, proces verbal, contract, etc.);
- tehnoredactarea unei lucrri mai ample (lucrare de licen, carte, revist, ziar, etc.);
- inerea unor evidene simple, precum un tabel cu situaia plilor i ncasrilor unei
asociaii de locatari sau situaia alimentrii cu combustibil a mainilor unei societi
comerciale;
- contabilitatea unei uniti economice, ncepnd de la situaii simple, precum calcularea
unor totaluri, i continund cu realizarea fielor de cont i a balanelor contabile, a
calculului salariilor angajailor, al impozitelor i al altor datorii fa de stat sau fa de
teri;
- prelucrarea de imagini statice sau dinamice, ncepnd de la simple preluri de pe hrtie a
unor imagini, ajustarea i apoi retiprirea lor, pn la realizarea de filme cu personaje
reale sau de desene animate sau realizarea de clipuri publicitare.
- proiectarea asistat de calculator a circuitelor electronice, a pieselor mecanice, electrice,
electronice, a ansamblurilor complexe precum maini, avioane, sisteme hidrologice, etc.
- conducerea proceselor tehnologice, calculatorul nlocuind munca de rutin a mai multor
persoane, cu o precizie superioar celei umane;
- comunicarea ntre angajaii unei firme, prin reeaua de calculatoare a unitii. De
asemenea, calculatorul poate fi folosit ca robot telefonic, fax, telefon i chiar videotelefon;
- Internetul deschide o ntreag clas de aplicaii ale calculatorului, de la diferite metode
de comunicare ntre persoane (pot electronic, conversaii n timp real ntre mai multe
persoane, etc.), la magazine virtuale, videoconferine, programe de televiziune interactiv,
etc. (Dima, Gabriel, PC- ABC-ul utilizrii, Bucureti, Editura Teora, 2005, p. 9)
Topic 4

I. Phrasal verb to make

Meaning Examples
to make for to travel towards, to head for; It is getting late. We should make
for home.
to make off to run away The cars made off towards the
statue.
to make out 1. to be just able to hear or 1. I really cant make out what
see something; she is saying.
2. to understand something; 2. I cant make out why he
3. to write (a cheque, a list, behaves like this.
etc.); 3. I cant make out the list of
guests becuse I dont know who is
in town and who has left abroad.
to make up 1. to constitute; 1. Lecturers make up only a small
2. to invent; proportion of the Universitys
3. to prepare; staff.
4. to put make-up; 2. They made up a song about the
5. to come to a decision; Foreign Minister.
6. to become friendly with 3. I could make up the beds.
someone again after you have 4. The actress made up before
had an argument; talking to the press.
5. They finally made up their
minds about this matter.
6. I ve made up with her though
she yelled at me.
to make up for to compensate for; He tried to make up for the lost
time but it was too late: he failed
the exam.
Activity:
Translate into English using to make as phrasal verb:

1. Copiii formeaz doar o mic parte din cei afectai de aceast boal.
2. Cu greu a reuit s descifreze scrisul lui de mn.
3. Hotrte-te i comunic-ne decizia ta.
4. Machiaz-te repede i coboar n sufragerie: avem musafiri.
5. M ndrept spre casa bunicilor.
6. A scris un cec pentru ei.
7. Poi tu s pregteti camera pentru musafirii notri?
8. Nu neleg de ce s-a purtat aa.
9. A inventat aceast scuz ca s nu trebuiasc s vin n vizit.
10. Hoii au fugit cnd au auzit c vine poliia.
11. Vreau s recuperez timpul pierdut!
12. S-au mpcat dei ea nu l-a iertat niciodat.

Answer to Activity:
1. The children make up only a small part of those affected by this disease.
2. Hardly had he managed to make out his handwriting.
3. Make up your mind and let us know your decision.

Activity:
II.Make sentences of your own using the following phrases and translate them into Romanian:
to be made up to captain/manager; to make as if to do something; to make the papers/
headlines/ front page; to make a break.
Answer to Activity:
1. He was made up to manager.

Topic 5

Do not use the verb to make instead of the verb to do! The verb to do has the
following meanings:

TO DO Examples
to produce, to make He asked me to do a translation but i turned
him down because I have to do the
homeworks first.
to perform, to execute I must do my duty at all costs.
to clean My mother does the dishes every evening.
to grant Do me a favour! Lend me your dictionary for
a few days.
to be satisfactory Will this present do for them?
to make progress (referring to health) He is doing well after the operation.
to get along, to get on How are you doing?

Activity:
Translate into English using either to make or to do as appropriate:

1. Ai fcut armata?
2. Ce faci n buctrie? Fac o prjitur.
3. Face exerciii de la ora 7.
4. Mi-am fcut muli dumani de cnd am nceput s lucrez aici.
5. El se descurc foarte bine la universitate.
6. Nu te atepta ca medicamentul s fac minuni.
7. Poi face diferena ntre prima carte i cea de-a treia?
8. Ar trebui s-i faci nti leciile i apoi s te duci la plimbare.
9. Au fcut un contract cu firma pentru 2 ani.
10. i spal prul n fiecare sear.
11. Ci prieteni i-ai fcut n tabr?
12. Aceast main este potrivit pentru familia mea.

Answer to Activity:
1. Have you done the military service?
2. What are you doing in the kitchen? I am making a cake.
3. He has been doing exercises sice 7 oclock.

Topic 6

Pay attention to the difference among begin, start, commence, institute,


initiate, inaugurate and launch:

Begin - the start of a process in fulfilement of a purpose; to make


the first step in doing something;
Start - it underlines the very act of making a beginning, of setting
out;
Commence - more formal than begin; preferred in legal contexts; it
can be used humorously in contexts that are far from being
solemn;
Institute - preferred in legal contexts; to set up, to put into operation,
implying enterprise and foresight; it conveys the idea of
carrying out what has started;
Initiate - to set up, to put into operation but without conveying the
idea of carrying out what has started;
Inaugurate - to begin formally or officially; it may be used in historical
contexts implying great scope;
Launch - to begin with little ceremony or publicity.

Activity:
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word from the ones given below:
begin, start, commence, institute, initiate, inaugurate, launch

1. He only the reforms. He did not do anything else. He refused to carry them out.
2. Chanel the 2010 autumn-winter collection a few days ago.
3. I want to learn how to play the piano. I by reading about famous piano players. Then, I
will take some private lessons.
4. The juridical session a few minutes ago.
5. The Galeries Lafayett were in 1912.
6. The van with a strange noise.
7. The committee the reforms initiated by the mayor.

Answer to Activity:
1.Initiated; 2. Launch; 3. Begin.

Activity:
Translate into English using in each sentence one of the following words: begin, start,
commence, institute, initiate, inaugurate, launch

1. Cnd au lansat acest parfum, au oferit reduceri semnificative.


2. Trenul a pornit cu un pufit.
3. Au iniiat acest proiect de lege anul trecut. Nu au mai fcut nimic altceva.
4. Vreau s nv japoneza. Am nceput s studiez verbul.
5. Au instituit aceast lege dei nimeni nu era de accord.
6. Procesul a nceput.
7. Au inaugurat statuia pe 1 decembrie.
8. Maina a pornit cu scrit de roi.
9. Vreau s slbesc i am nceput prin a ine regim. O s merg i la sal.
10. La lansarea noului album, au susinut un concert de 4 ore.
Answer to Activity:
1. When they launched this parfume, they offered important discounts.
2. The train started with a whiff.

Abstract:
The present unit deals with giving examples of computer usage. At the same time, it presents
the computer applications in society. It focuses on the phrasal verb to make and on the
following tricky words: begin, start, commence, institute, initiate,
inaugurate and launch. It shows the main differences between to make and to do.

FINAL TESTS
I) Say whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):
1. One can not renew his/hers permit by accessing government Web sites.
2. Any desktop computer is called workstation.
3. By networking their computers, small offices waste money on hardware and software.
4. With a media player you can listen to downloaded music.
5. There is only a small number of computer applications in society.
6. In the traditional educational model, people learnt by using computers.
7. One can access a huge amount of information on the Internet.
8. Only small businesses have e-commerce Web sites.
9. Telecommuting implies that employees commute everyday to their workplace.
10. Power users need very fast processors.

Example: 1. One can not renew his/hers permit by accessing government Web sites. (F)

II) Underline the right definition according to the text:


youngsters
a) babies; b) pupils; c) students; d) youths;

to draft
a) to draw a scheme; b) to draw a delineation; c) to draw a version; d) to draw a image;

ledger
a) accounting book; b) accounts book; c) accountancy book; d) accountant book;

to reap
a) to obtrude; b) to obviate; c) to obfuscate; d) to obtain;
fee
a) risk; b) charge;; c) chart; d) risqu;

mug shot
a) police records; b) police evidence; c) police sample; d) police photograph;

pacemaker
a) lung medical device; b) kidney medical device; c) heart medical device; d) liver medical
device;

breakthrough
a) advent; b) stern; c) advance; d) step;

cochlea
a) sensory organ; b) cartilage; c) thin skin; d) hearing organ;

to drill
a) to make a hole; b) to make a well; c) to make a forge; d) to make a pit.

Example:
youngsters
a) babies; b) pupils; c) students; d) youths;

III) Fill in the blanks with the correspondimg words from the text:

1. Manufacturers use (3 words) to assist with manufacturing processes.


2. In finance, people use computers for (2 words) to access information and (2 words)
to buy and sell stocks and bonds.
3. A (abbreviation) user is a small company or self-employed individual who works from
home and uses basic business software and industry-specific software.
4. A (2 words) is a family member who uses a computer for a variety of reasons, such as
personal budgeting.
5. (2 words) are employees and students who work on a computer while away from a main
office or school.
6. A (2 words) can exist in all types of businesses and uses powerful computers.
7. A (3 words) works in a company with many employees and uses a computer and
computer network to process high volumes of transactions.
8. The are two terms that have specific meanings in regard to computer technology and
telecommunications. In general, indicates a state of connectivity, while indicates a
disconnected state. In common usage, they often refer to the Internet or the World Wide Web.
9. By means of , employees work away from the companys workplace and communicate
with their bosses through the computer.
10. Through doctors in separate locations conduct live conferences on the computer.

Example:
1. Manufacturers use CAM. to assist with manufacturing processes.

Bibliography:

Alexander, L. G., Right Word, Wrong Word, Longman, 1996.


Hayakawa, S.I, The Penguin Guide to Synonyms and Related Words, Penguin Books, 1994.
Shelly, Gary B., Cashman, Thomas J., Vermaat, Misty E., Discovering Computers:
Fundamentals, Fourth Edition, 2008, USA;
Turton, ND, Heaton, JB, Dictionary of Common Errrors, Longman, 1996.
Wolf, Wayne, Computers as Components: Principles of Embedded Computing System Design

Connection with the next unit:


After having given examples of computer usage and presented computer applications in
society, we can proceed by discussing about data representation.