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1.

The Present Continuous 6


2. The Present Simple 9
3. The Past Simple 11
4. The Past Continuous 15
5. The Present Perfect 17
6. The Present Perfect Continuous 22
7. The Past Perfect 24
8. The Past Perfect Continuous 27
9. Introducere n timpurile viitorului 29
10. Will/shall 30
11. Be going to/Viitorul cu intenie 33
12. Timpuri prezente pentru exprimarea viitorului 35
13. When, before, etc cuvinte de legtur 36
14. Wh-questions 38
15. Question tags/ntrebri cu NU-I AA? 40
16. Construcii cu So/Neither do I/I think so 42
17. Abilitatea: can/could/be able to 43
18. Permisiunea: can/may/could/be allowed to 45
19. Posibilitate i certitudine 46
20. Necesitate: must/have to 49
21. Necesitate: mustn't/needn't/didnt need to/neednt have 50
22. Should/ought to/had better/be supposed to 52
23. Cum se exprim solicitrile 53
24. Sugestii, oferte i invitaii 55
25. It may have been/it could have been/it should have been/it ought to have been 56
26. Diateza pasiv 58
27. Verbe care cer infinitivul lung (cu particula to) 62
28. Verbe care cer terminaia - ing 63
29. Like, start, etc 64
30. Remember, regret, try, etc. 66
31. Substantive 68
32. Articolul hotrt i nehotrt 75
33. Pronumele demonstrativ de apropiere i de deprtare 80
34. Pronumele i adjectivele posesive 82
35. Exprimarea posesiei 84
36. Pronumele personale 87
37. Pronumele reflexive i de ntrire 89
38. Adjectivul 91
39. Adverbul 96
40. Numeralul 99
41. Prepoziii 102
42. Verbe frazeologice 109
43. Vorbirea direct i indirect 113
44. Relative Clause 118
45. Frazele condiionale 120
46. I wish/if only 123
47. Subjonctivul 125
Anex 127
The Present Simple
Folosim Prezentul Simplu pentru:
gnduri i sentimente: I think so, I like it;
stri de fapt, adevruri general valabile sau valabile pentru o perioad ndelungat
aciuni repetate

Afirmativ
I/you/we/they like ice-cream.
Mie/ie/nou/lor le place ngheata.
He/she/it likes ice-cream.
Lui/ei i place ngheata.

La Present Simple folosim verbul fr terminaie, cu o excepie!

La persoana a III-a sg (dup he, she, it, your friend), verbul se termin
n -s (dup majoritatea verbelor) sau es (dup verbele care se termin n
-x, -ss, -ch, -sh):
Jane never catches the last train.
Jane niciodat nu prinde ultimul tren.
She faxes messages all over Europe.
Ea trimite mesaje prin fax n ntreaga Europ.

Negativ i Interogativ
Folosim forma do not i do pentru negativ i interogativ, cu excepia
pers.a III-a sg, pentru care folosim does not/doesnt i does.
We do not/don't live (forma scurt) in the suburbs.
Noi nu locuim la periferie.
He doesn't want to go skiing.
El nu vrea s mearg la ski.
Do you live here? ~ Yes, 1 do.
Tu locuieti aici? ~ Da.
What does he want? ~ Money.
Ce vrea? ~ Bani.
Nu adaugm terminaia - s verbului, n forma de negativ i interogativ.
He-doesn't gets
Does he gets?
The Present Continuous
Prezentul Continuu ne arat o aciune n plin desfurare.
Prezentul Continuu se formeaz din:
verbul to be la Prezentul Simplu + verbul de conjugat + terminaia - ing.
Afirmativ:
I am learning OR I'm learning
Eu nv.
You/we/they are learning OR you/we/they're learning.
Tu sau voi/noi/ei sau ele nva.
He/she/it is learning OR he/she/it's learning.
El/ea nva.
It se traduce cu el/ea, dar se folosete numai pentru obiecte, lucruri,
animale.
Negativ:
I'm not learning.
Eu nu nv.
You/we/they aren't learning.
Tu sau voi/noi/ei sau ele nu nva.
He/she/it isn't learning.
El/ea nu nva.
Interogativ:
Am I learning?
nv eu?
Are you/we/they learning?
nvai voi/nvm noi/nva ei sau ele?
Is he/she/it learning?
nva el/ea?
Alte exemple:
I'm getting the dinner ready. The train is coming, look.
Pregtesc cina. Uite, trenul sosete.
We're looking for a supermarket.
Cutm un supermarket.
Rachel isn't wearing her new skirt.
Rachel nu poart rochia ei cea nou.
What are you doing?
Ce faci?
Who is Julie dancing with?
Cu cine danseaz Julie?
Utilizare
Folosim Prezentul Continuu pentru a preciza c ne aflm n mijlocul unei aciuni.
I'm waiting for my boss to come. (I'm in his office now.)
mi atept eful s soseasc. (Sunt n biroul lui acum.)
Putem folosi Prezentul Continuu i cnd ne aflm n mijlocul unei activiti fr a
efectua nimic concret n momentul vorbirii.
I'm quite busy these days. I'm doing a course at college.
Sunt cam ocupat n prezent. Urmez un curs la facultate

Putem folosi Prezentul Continuu cnd activitatea se deruleaz pe o perioad mai


ndelungat de timp.
The number of taxes in Romania is increasing.
3. The Past Simple

Folosim Tecutul Simplu pentru o activitate din trecut care s-a ncheiat i nu mai are nici o
legtur cu prezentul.

Afirmativ
VB+ed (pentru verbele regulate)

It happened very quickly.

Pentru verbele care au o form neregulat lum forma de Past Tense Simple a acestor verbe
din a doua coloan a tabelului verbelor neregulate.

Vicky a sunat mai devreme.

Past Tense Simple are form identic la toate persoanele cu excepia verbului to be.

I/he/she/it was.
Eu/ el/ea sau el/ea (pentru obiecte i animale) a fost.
I was in hospital last week.
Eu am fost n spital sptmna trecut.
You/we/they were.
Tu ai fost/noi am fost/ei sau ele au fost.
You were offended by his response.
Tu ai fost/ voi ai fost ofensat/ofensai de rspunsul lui.

Negativ i Interogativ
Folosim did not i did pentru formele de Negativ i Interogativ.

The car did not stop.


Maina nu a oprit.
Mark didn't look (forma scurt) to his right.
Mark nu s-a uitat n dreapta.
Did you ring at your office? ~ Yes, I did.
Ai sunat la birou? ~ Da.
Folosim de asemenea was not/were not i was/were pentru formele de
Negativ i Interogativ ale verbului to be.
Negativ:
I/he/she/it was not/ wasn't.
Eu/el/ea/ el sau ea nu a fost.
You/we/they were sau weren't.
Tu sau voi/noi/ei sau ele nu au fost.
Was I/he/she/it?
Am fost eu/a fost el/ea?
Were you/we/they?
Ai fost tu/ai fost voi/am fost noi/au fost ei/ele?
I wasn't myself last week.
N-am fost eu sptmna trecut.
The shops weren't open.
Magazinele nu au fost deschise.
4. The Past Continuous
The Past Continuous Tense ne arat o aciune n plin desfurare la momentul trecut.

The Past Continuous Tense se formeaz din verbul to be conjugat la Past


Simple+ verbul de conjugat + terminaia -ing.

Afirmativ:
I/he/she/it was singing.
Eu/el/ea/el sau ea cnta.
You/we/they were singing.
Voi/noi/ei sau ele cntau.

Negativ:
Sg. I was not singing. Pl. We were not singing.
Eu nu cntam. Noi nu cntam.
You were not singing. You were not singing.
Tu nu cntai. Voi nu cntai.
He was not singing. They were not singing.
El nu cnta. Ei/ele nu cntau.
She was not singing.
Ea nu cnta.
It was not singing.
El/ea nu cnta.

Interogativ:
Sg. Was I singing? Pl. Were we singing?
Cntam eu? Cntam noi?
Were you singing? Were you singing?
Cntai tu? Cntai voi?
Was he/she/it singing? Were they singing?
Cnta el/ea? Cntau ei/ele?
Alte exemple:
Rock music was playing.
Era muzic rock.
People were walking down the alley.
Oamenii se plimbau pe alee.

Utilizare

It was snowing at four o'clock nseamn c la ora patru ningea. (Puteam vedea fulgii cznd.
Zpada a nceput s cad la ora patru i a ncetat la ceva timp dup ora patru)
Folosim the Past Continuous Tense pentru aciuni/verbe de micare. n mod normal nu
l folosim pentru verbe statice. Pentru acestea folosim Past Simple.

1 didn't know where you were, i nu I wasn't knowing...

5. The Present Perfect Tense


Present Perfect face legtura dintre prezent i trecut.

The train has arrived nseamn c trenul tocmai a ajuns n gar. Aciunea de la Present
Perfect a nceput n trecut i s-a ncheiat n prezent. Are legtur cu prezentul prin
consecinele sale. Dac trenul a sosit, atunci pot s mi aez bagajele. Aciunea poate ncepe
n trecut i s continue n prezent.

Prezentul Perfect se formeaz din verbul to have conjugat la Present Simple i participiul
trecut al verbului de conjugat. (adic vb + ed pentru verbele regulate i verbele neregulate din
a treia coloan a tabelul

Afirmativ:
Sg. I have dressed. Pl. We have dressed.
Eu m-am mbrcat. Noi ne-am mbrcat.
You have dressed. You have dressed.
Tu te-ai mbrcat. Voi v-ai mbrcat.
He/she/it has dressed. They have dressed.
El/ea s-a mbrcat. Ei/ele s-au mbrcat.

Dup cum am mai spus, participiul trecut al verbelor regulate se termin


n ed., e.g. washed, landed, finished.
Exemple:
I've washed his clothes.
I-am splat hainele.
Have you opened your present?
i-ai deschis cadoul?

Forme neregulate
I've made a short presentation.
Am fcut o prezentare scurt.
We've sold our flat.
Am vndut apartamentul.
Have you written the book?
Ai scris cartea?

Verbele to be i to have au forme neregulate.


The journey has been astonishing.
Cltoria a fost uimitoare.
I've had a wonderful time, thank you.
M-am simit minunat. Mulumesc.
Utilizare
Cnd folosim Present Perfect realizm c aciunile s-au desfurat n
trecut, dar au repercusiuni, rezultate concrete in prezent.

Ive written the first chapter of my book. (You can read it now.)
Am scris primul capitol din cartea mea. Poi s-l citeti acum.
Just, already i yet Folosim Present Perfect, de regul, cu aceste adverbe.

Just nseamn tocmai.


Already nseamn deja, mai devreme dect ne-am fi ateptat.
Folosim yet, adic nc atunci cnd e de ateptat ca ceva s se ntmple.
Just i already se folosesc nainte de participiul trecut.
Yet se folosete la sfritul ntrebrii sau al frazei negative.
We've just come back from our journey.
Tocmai ne-am ntors din cltorie.
It isn't a very good party. Most people have
already gone home.
Nu este o petrecere prea reuit. Majoritatea oamenilor au plecat deja
acas.
My brother has already crashed his new car.
Fratele meu i-a fcut deja praf maina lui nou.
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It's eleven o'clock and you haven't finished breakfast yet.
Este ora unsprezece i nc nu ai terminat micul dejun.
For i since
Putem folosi Present Perfectl Perfect cu for i since.
Morris has only had that camera for three days.
Morris are aparatul acela de fotografiat de numai trei zile.
These pilots have stayed in Sibiu since Friday.
Acei piloi stau n Sibiu de trei zile.
Folosim for pentru a exprima ntregul interval al unei perioade.
Folosim since pentru a exprima nceputul perioadei.
Folosim how long n ntrebri.
How long has David had that phone? ~ Since Thursday, I think.
De cnd are David acel telefon? ~ De joi, cred.
Ever i never
Folosim aceste adverbe cu Present Perfect. l folosim pe ever n ntrebri.
n Have you ever been to Africa? cuvntul ever nseamn vreodat.
Never nseamn niciodat.
Have you ever played football? ~ No, never.
Ai jucat vreodat fotbal? ~Nu, niciodat.
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I've never ridden a bike in my life.
Niciodat nu am mers cu bicicleta.
You've never given me sweets before.
Niciodat pn acum nu mi-ai mai dat dulciuri.
First time, second time, etc/Prima dat, a doua oar
This is the first time we've been to England.
Aceasta este prima dat cnd mergem n Anglia.
This is the second time Danielle has forgotten to pay me back.
Aceasta este a doua oar cnd Daniela uit s m plteasc.
Today, this week, etc
Folosim Present Perfect cu today i expresii construite cu adjectivul
pronominal this.
e.g. this morning, this week, this year.
We've done quite a lot of work today.
Am fcut destul de mult treab astzi.
I haven't travelled to Rome this year.
Anul acesta nu am fost la Roma.
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6. The Present Perfect Continuous
Folosim Present Perfect Continuous pentru o aciune care a nceput n
trecut i poate continua n prezent, iar aciunea este privit n desfurare.
Form
Present Perfect Continuous se formeaz din have + been + verbul de
conjugat + terminaia -ing.
Afirmativ: Negativ: Interogativ:
I have been writing. I have not been writing. Have I been writing?
Eu am scris. Eu nu am scris. Am scris eu?
You have been writing. You have not been writing. Have you been writing?
Tu ai scris. Tu nu ai scris. Ai scris tu?
He/she/it has been writing. He/she/it has not been writing. Has he/she/it been
writing?
El/ea a scris. El/ea nu a scris. A scris el/ea?
We have been writing. We have not been writing. Have we been writing?
Noi am scris. Noi nu am scris. Am scris noi?
You have been writing. You have not been writing. Have you been writing?
Voi ai scris. Voi nu ai scris. Ai scris voi?
They have been writing. They have not been writing. Have they been writing?
Ei/ele au scris. Ei/ele nu au scris. Au scris ei/ele?
Alte exemple:
We've been standing here for ages.
Stm aici de o venicie.
It has been snowing all day.
A nins toat ziua.
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Utilizare
Folosim Present Perfect Continuous pentru o perioada de timp mai
ndelungat, care se ntinde din trecut pn n momentul present, existnd
posibilitatea ca aciunea s continue i n prezent.
n aceste exemple aciunea este nc n desfurare.
We've been waiting here for forty minutes. (We're waiting even now.)
Ateptm aici de patruzeci de minute. (Ateptm i acum)
Listen. That alarm has been ringing since six o'clock this morning.
Ascult! Alarma aceea s-a declanat de la ora ase n aceast diminea.
For, since, how long and recently
Putem folosi Prezentul Perfect Continuu cu for i since.
My brother has been staying with me for two weeks now.
Fratele meu st la mine de dou sptmni deja.
You've been playing on that computer since five o'clock.
Te joci pe calculatorul acela de la ora cinci.
Folosim how long pentru ntrebri.
How long have you been reading?
De cnd citeti?
Nu uitai nici de recently/recent i lately/n ultima vreme, care pot fi
folosite att cu Present Perfect Simple ct i cu Present Perfect
Continuous.
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I haven't been feeling very well recently.
Nu m-am simit foarte bine n ultima vreme.
What has he been doing lately?
Ce a mai fcut el n ultima vreme?
7. The Past Perfect
Folosim Past Perfect pentru a exprima o aciune din trecut care s-a
ncheiat anterior altei activiti din trecut sau moment din trecut.
Rosalie and I had been to a party the evening before.
Rozalia i cu mine am fost la o petrecere cu o sear nainte.
I'd left my purse at home.
Mi-am lsat poeta acas.
I went to the box office at lunch-time, but they had already sold all the
tickets.
Am mers la casa de bilete la prnz, dar ei vnduser deja toate biletele.
Form
Avem nevoie de had + participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat (adic
vb + ed pentru verbele regulate i verbele neregulate din a treia coloan a
tabelul din Anex.
Are form identic pentru toate persoanele.
Afirmativ:
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Engleza Fr Stres Prof. Anca Ki
I had finished my homework before he came home.
Eu mi terminasem tema nainte ca el s soseasc acas.
You had finished your homework before he came home.
Tu i terminasei tema nainte ca el s soseasc acas.
He/she/it had finished his/her homework before we came home.
El/ea i terminase tema nainte ca noi s sosim acas.
We had finished our homework before he came home.
Noi ne terminasem tema nainte ca el s soseasc acas.
You had finished your homework before he came home.
Voi v terminaseri tema nainte ca el s soseasc acas.
They had finished their homework before he came home.
Ei/ele i terminaser tema nainte ca el s soseasc acas.
Negativ:
I had not finished my homework before he came home.
Eu nu mi terminasem tema nainte ca el s soseasc acas.
You had not finished your homework before he came home.
Tu nu i terminasei tema nainte ca el s soseasc acas.
He/she/it had not finished his homework before we came home.
El/ea nu i terminase tema nainte ca noi s sosim acas.
We had not finished our homework before he came home.
Noi nu ne terminaserm tema nainte ca el s soseasc acas.
You had not finished your homework before he came home.
Voi nu v terminaseri tema nainte ca el s soseasc acas.
They had not finished their homework before you came home.
Ei/ele nu i terminaser tema nainte ca voi s sosii acas.
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Engleza Fr Stres Prof. Anca Ki
Interogativ:
Had I finished my homework before he came home?
mi terminasem eu tema nainte ca el s soseasc acas?
Had you finished your homework before he came home?
i terminasei tu tema nainte ca el s soseasc acas?
Had he/she/it finished his homework before we came home?
i terminase el/ea tema nainte ca noi s sosim acas?
Had we finished our homework before he came home?
Ne terminasem noi tema nainte ca el s soseasc acas?
Had you finished your homework before he came home?
V terminaseri voi tema nainte ca el s soseasc acas?
Had they finished their homework before he came home?
i terminaser ei/ele tema nainte ca el s soseasc acas?
Forma contras/scurt:
She had enjoyed the film, SAU
She'd enjoyed the film.
Ea savurase filmul.
He had enjoyed the party, SAU
He'd enjoyed the party.
Lui i plcuse la petrecere.
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8. The Past Perfect Continuous
Folosim Past Perfect Continuous pentru a exprima o aciune din trecut,
desfurat naintea alteia din trecut, aciunea de la Past Perfect
Continuous fiind privit n desfurare n acel moment.
Form
Folosim had been + verbul de conjugat + terminaia - ing.
Afirmativ:
I had been studying.
Eu studiasem.
You had been studying.
Tu studiasei.
He/she/it had been studying.
El/ea studiase.
We had been studying.
Noi studiaserm.
You had been studying.
Voi studiaseri.
They had been studying.
Ei/ele studiaser.
Negativ:
I had not been studying.
Eu nu studiasem.
You had not been studying.
Tu nu studiasei.
He/she/it had not been studying.
El/ea nu studiase.
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Engleza Fr Stres Prof. Anca Ki
We had not been studying.
Noi nu studiaserm.
You had not been studying.
Voi nu studiaseri.
They had not been studying.
Ei/ele nu studiaser.
Interogativ:
Had I been studying?
Studiasem eu?
Had you been studying?
Tu studiasei?
Had he/she/it been studying?
El/ea studiase?
Had we been studying?
Noi studiaserm?
Had you been studying?
Voi studiaseri?
Had they been studying?
Ei/ele studiaser?
Alte exemple:
I had been waiting ages, SAU I'd been waiting ages.
Ateptasem de o venicie.
I had not been paying attention, SAU I hadn't been paying attention.
Nu fusesem atent.
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Engleza Fr Stres Prof. Anca Ki
Was the ground wet?
A fost pmntul ud?
Had it been raining?
Plouase?
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