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Iphigenie auf Tauris Goethes Bekenntnis zur Humanitt

Concluzia lui Schiller este ca aceasta piesa a devenit in mainile lui Goethe o "masa solidificata" a carei
modelare va avea sigur succes.

Cea care i-a inspirat lui Goethe piesa Ifigenia in Taurida a fost Charlotte von Stein, dar in acelasi timp,
Goethe nutrea o iubire si pentru actrita Corona Schrter: "Ceea ce e suflet in Ifigenia corespunde foarte bine
lui Charlotte, asa cum o vedea Goethe in momentele ei cele mai bune, dar vesmintele, gesturile, alura ne fac
sa ne gandim la Corona"

In definirea personajului Ifigenia, Goethe pleaca de la Euripide, dar, spre deosebire de Ifigenia lui Euripide
"care reprezinta o eroina barbara intr-o lume barbara, slujind intr-un templu al sacrificiului uman, Ifigenia lui
Goethe este o eroina umanizata, intr-o lume umanizata"

"Vai! marea ma desparte de toti cei


Care-mi sunt dragi, si zile-ntregi pe tarm
Cu sufletul in departare caut
Meleagurile Greciei iubite." 1 (I, , vv. 12-15)

"O viata care-i moarte-a doua oara!" 2 (I, , v. 67)

Imediat dupa aceasta insa, Oreste, ca un om nou, curatat de crima, isi revine si vede Eumenidele plecand.
Tocmai acest pasaj ridica obiectia lui Schiller: "neincoltit de Furii, nu mai este Oreste. Motivarea starii sale
rezulta doar din afect si nu din actiunea simturilor; starea sa apare ca un chin nesfarsit, lipsit de orice
sens."1

Acest patos al adevarului va fi intalnit mai tarziu la Kant care, dezvoltand-si conceptele din Critica ratiunii
pure, va justifica in 1798 eseul Despre un asa-zis drept de-a minti din dragoste de oameni, in care minciuna
este considerata drept o vina pe care omul o indreapta impotriva propiei sale fiinte.

Pilade: ispasindu-si vina, el slujeste


si zeilor, si lumii, si ajunge
La mare cinste." 2 (II, , vv. 1002-1004)

Goethe nu se considera totusi un autor tragic: "Nu sunt nascut pentru a fi autor tragic, intrucat firea mea e
prea impaciuitoare" (catre Zelter, la 31 X 1831)

Ifigenia devine astfel, in viziunea lui Noica "o carte a vindecarii si armoniei: Oreste se face bine, regele
barbar Thoas devine echitabil, iar Ifigenia se intoarce acasa" .

Goethe im Dienste unserer Zeit

mie-mi creste/ |n inima dorinta unei fapte/ cutezatoare. Daca n-oi putea/ S-o duc la capat, am sa-ndur
desigur/ {i mai multe mustrari V, 3
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Mai intai clasicismul francez si apoi neoumanismul german, prin Goethe, au contribuit enorm la circulatia temelor
mitice. Neoumanistii germani au fost interesati nu atat de imitarea servila a literaturii antice, cat de intruparea
idealului estetic de armonie si echilibru, ideal ce apartinea clasicismului. Scopul umanistilor germani consta in
impunerea ideii de formare si educare a omului, a unui ideal de umanitate condus spre o etica absoluta care sa
fuzioneze cu idealul estetic. O concretizare a acestei conceptii este exprimata de piesa Ifigenia in Taurida (1787) de
Goethe.

Goethes renowned work entitled Iphigenie auf Tauris published in 1779 represents a reshape of
the famous Ancient myth illustrated by Euripides. Illustrating the classic features and
conceptions promoted at the time, the work distinguishes through its simmnetry??/, etc and the
authors remarkable ability to rework the myth in such a way that it loses its characteristic of
being a tragedy, being rather transformed into a drama whose undoubted value consists of its
powerful moral teaching, namely the projection of honesty and spiritual purity at the top of the
human values and the plea for its purifying role in the world.
The differences between the two masterpieces of literature, separated by a significant period of
time consists mainly of the reflection of Goethes principles of humanity and Renaissance. The
characters in Goethes work are more individualized, capable of intense inner sensations, the
drama is powerfully interiorized and to outline these Goethe also changed part of the action: the
female protagonist, Iphigenie, is depicted as a more independent, modern person, able to take her
own decisions (she refuses to marry king Thoas because of her lack of love feelings for him, she
also in the end refuses to obey to her cousins advice to flee unexpectedly the island). All
characters are more humanized, including king Thoas who, although at first appears de
neimblanzit, he shows understanding and empathy towards Iphigenia and chooses to sacrifice his
own will and pleasure for Iphigenies happiness.
According to the Ancient myth, following the despised action of the semigod Tantalus of offering
his own son Pelops as meal to the gods when he stole their food of immortality: nectar and
ambrosia, gods cursed the entire House of Atreus with the revenge of every subsequent
generation of killing family members. This happened to Agammennon, who drived by the desire
to have favourable winds for the voyage to Troy, chose to sacrifice his own dauther, Iphigenia, to
the godess Diana. This led to even more, subsequent murders: Clymnestra murdered his husband
to revenge her daughter and then Orestes, urged by Electra, killed his mother. Pursued by the
Furies, to escape the curse, he followed the instructions of the Delphic oracle of Apollo and
misinterpriting the urge to bring the sister back by refering to Apollos sister, Orestes arrive
together with his cousin Pylades to the island where Iphigenie was.
Iphigenies salvation by the indurarea??? Of the goddess Atena on the island and making her
priestess reflect the concept of deus ex machina used by Goethe. Moreover, her achievement of
putting an end to the numerous sacrifices of the prisoners brought on the island by appealing to
king Thoass mercy, reflect her deep sympathy and care for other people and implicitly her
human character.
Moreover, her encounter with Orestes, at a metaphorical level the encounter between his
doomed, troubled state and her purity, integrity, is the one which highlights the power and
superiority of her moral integrity and conservation of virtues by destroying all the negative
influences, of destroying the curse since Orestes wakes up from the dream and is liberated,
redeemed from the genealogic curse.
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Apart from Iphigenie, Orestes appears to be the only character who shows a particular
attachment and appreciation for the moral integrity of a person: his sympathy towards
Iphighenies uneasiness and turmoil when she finds out about the course of the events after her
salvation by Atena, namely the destroy of Troy and the death of her parents reflected in his
decision to reveal to her his true identity, as well as his noble acceptance of his doomed fate and
the choice to die in order to spare the others lives are proofs of a superior understanding of the
importance of a moral behaviour and thinking.
Pylades, on the other hand, is depicted as ignoring any moral principles. He does not show any
resentment when he advises Iphigenie to flee with them in the boat as quickly as possible and
steal the statue of the goddess Artemis from the temple, overlooking any possible negative
consequences for them and for the persons to come in the future on the island. Instead, he has an
attitude of selfishness since his desperate actions are only meant to spare his life from the
oppressive, cruel plans of king Thoas.
Iphigenies final act of jeopardising her and her relatives lives for the preservance of an integral
ethic character is a genuine proof of her unshaken belief in the superiority of human virtues even
in the most difficult, seemingly uncontrollable situations. Her appeal/call to king Thoass
humanity and her courage and perfect honesty when revealing the confusion which generated
Orestes and Pyladess actions illustrate a Christian belief in the possibility of change of a human
heart by means of love and other spiritual values, which proved to be true: Iphigenie wins both
her freedom of decision and the salvation of her beloved ones and future generations.
To conclude, by reshaping the Ancient myth of Iphigenie through the creation of more
individualized, powerful characters, Goethes work is conceived as having an important didactic
purpose through the moral lesson offered especially by the female character Iphignie, namely of
the incredible power of human core values such as humanity and honesty when preserved and
valued and offered as model to the betterment of mankind.