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# Q1: Let x(t) = 0.5u(t)-1.5u(t-T/2)+u(t-T) with T>>1/fc.

## Sketch the modulated signal and

indicate the envelope when the modulation is DSB-LC with m<1, m=1, and m>1.
Identify locations where any phase reversals occur.

Q2: Calculate the transmitted power of an AM wave with 100% tone modulation and peak
envelope power 32kW.

Q3: If a,b, and k are constants in the figure below and fc is the carrier frequency and xc(t) is the
modulated signal. Then
1) Specify the value of k to produce a DSB-SC modulation without filtering if v(t) is the
information signal.
2) Specify the value of k and v(t) (with respect to the information signal x(t)) to produce a
DSB-LC without filtering.

## V(t) + V1 V2=k2aV12 + Xc(t)

+ -
A coswct

- V3 V4=b V32

+

Q4: If the two DSB-LC Modulators in the figure below have the same amplitude sensitivity.
Determine the type of modulatod signal s(t).

1
DSB-LC
X(t) S1(t)
Modulator

+
S(t)
Accos(2fct)

DSB-LC
-X(t) S2(t)
Modulator

## Q5: Using the message signal

X(t) = 1 / (1+t2)
Determine and sketch the modulated signals for two of the following three methods of
modulation:-
a) DSB-LC with m=0.5
b) DSB-SC
c) SSB with upper sideband tranmitted.

Q6: A modulator shown in Fig(1a) has a nonlinear element of the form vout=a1 vin+ a3 vin3.
Identify the filter characteristics to produce a DSB-SC and sketch the spectrum of the
output if the input signal spectrum shown in Fig(1b).

Fig(1a)

2
Fig(1b)

## Q7: The DSB-LC signal

s(t) = Ac[1 + ka x(t)] cos(2fct)
is applied to the system shown in Fig(2). Assuming that /kax(t)/<1 for all t and the
message signal x(t) is limited to the interval -Wm f Wm and that the carrier frequency
fc > 2Wm show that x(t) can be obtained from the square-rooter output v3(t).

Fig(2)

Q8: Fig(3a) shows the circuit diagram of a switching modulator. Assuming that the carrier
wave c(t) applied to the diode is large in amplitude, so that the diode acts like an ideal switch: it
presents zero impedance when forward biased (i.e., c(t)>0). We may thus approximate the
transfer characteristics of the diode-load resistor combination by a piecewise-linear
characteristics defined as (see Fig(3b))

That is, the load voltage v2(t) varies periodically between the values v1(t) and zero at a rate
equal to the carrir frequency fc. Hence, we may write

## Where gT0(t) is a periodic pulse train defined by

(a) Find the DSB-LC component contained in the output voltage v2(t).
(b) Specify the unwanted components in v2(t) that need to be removed by a BPF of suitable
disgn.

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Fig(3)

Q9:a

Q9:b
Draw the block diagram of the system in branch (a). Specify the filter specification in
block diagram.

Q10:

## Note, J0(1)=0.765, J1(1)=0.44, and J2(1)=0.115.

Q11:

Q12:

Q13: Fig(3a) shows the circuit diagram of a switching modulator. Assuming that the carrier
wave c(t) applied to the diode is large in amplitude, so that the diode acts like an ideal switch: it
presents zero impedance when forward biased (i.e., c(t)>0). We may thus approximate the
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transfer characteristics of the diode-load resistor combination by a piecewise-linear
characteristics defined as (see Fig(3b))

That is, the load voltage v2(t) varies periodically between the values v1(t) and zero at a rate
equal to the carrir frequency fc. Hence, we may write

## Where gT0(t) is a periodic pulse train defined by

(a) Find the DSB-LC component contained in the output voltage v2(t).
(b) Specify the unwanted components in v2(t) that need to be removed by a BPF of suitable
disgn.

Fig(3)

Q14: a- Find the rms noise voltage appearing at the output terminal in a 1MHz bandwidth for
the resistive circuit shown below. Assume room temperature.

b- Calculate the rms noise current of the circuit in branch (a) and draw the thermal noise
equivalent circuit.

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Q15: Draw a block diagram of an FDM system for 3 input speech signals using DSB-SC.
Specify the filters characteristics and suggest suitable carrier frequencies. Draw the
spectrum of the output signal for the transmitter.
Note, the bandwidth of the speech signal begins from 300 Hz and end with 3.4 kHz.

Q16: Write an expression for FM signal in terms of Bessel function coefficients and sketch the
resulting line spectrum for a 1 kHz sinusoidal information signal that used to frequency
modulate a 1 MHz carrier signal. The peak frequency deviation from the carrier is 200
Hz. Assume that the amplitude of the carrier signal is unity. Identify whether the FM
signal is narrow band or wide band.

## Q17: a- What are the advantages of PCM signals?

b- An information signal has a maximum frequency 5 kHz and its minimum amplitude is
-0.5V while its maximum amplitude is 1V. Calculate the bandwidth required using PWM
if the input signal is 20 dB, resolution = 1mV, minimum pulse width is 1sec, and the
guard time is 0.5sec.

Q18: Derive the mean square value of the noise voltage developed across a capacitor when it is
connected in parallel with a noisy resistor.

Q19: Show that both of the systems below can be used to demodulate the signal
Sm(t) = [A + m(t)] cos(2fct + )
And identify the effect of the phase error in the systems below?

## Q20: The modulated signal output

FM(t) = 50 cos(2106t + 3 sin(500t))
is connected across 25 resistive load.
a- Whats the peak frequency deviation from the carrier?
b- Whats the total average power developed by FM(t) ?
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c- Whats the approximate bandwidth?

Q21: Draw a block diagram of PDM (PWM) modulator and sketch the output signal if the input
information signal shown below

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Q22: The figure (1a) shows a modulator, where
* k1,k2, and k3 are constants,
* fc is the carrier frequency
* xc(t) is the modulated signal
* v(t) is the information signal, then
1) a- specify the value of k3 to produce a DSB-SC modulation without filtering.
b- draw the output signal if the information signal shown in figure (1b).
2) a- specify the value of k3 and v(t) to produce a DSB-LC without filtering.
b- draw the output signal if the information signal shown in figure (1b).

## V(t) V1 V2=k3 k1V12

Non Linear xc(t)
+ Element +-
+

A coswct

V3 V4=k2 V32
- Non Linear
+ Element

Fig(1a)

Fig(1b)

Q23: Draw a diagram for modulator demodulator TDM system for three information signals.

## Q24: If a resistive load 50 connected across the modulated signal output

xFM(t) = 35 cos(4105t + 2 sin(400t))
Then
d- What is the peak frequency deviation from the carrier?
e- What is the total average power developed by the modulated signal?
f- What is the bandwidth?