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Grades 910

Section 1: Overview
Goal: English learners read, analyze, interpret, and create a variety of literary and informational text types. They develop an understanding of how language is a complex,
dynamic, and social resource for making meaning, as well as how content is organized in different text types and across disciplines using text structure, language fea-
tures, and vocabulary depending on purpose and audience. They are aware that different languages and variations of English exist, and they recognize their home lan-
guages and cultures as resources to value in their own right and also to draw upon in order to build proficiency in English. English learners contribute actively to class and
group discussions, asking questions, responding appropriately, and providing useful feedback. They demonstrate knowledge of content through oral presentations, writing
tasks, collaborative conversations, and multimedia. They develop proficiency in shifting language use based on task, purpose, audience, and text type.

Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts: While advancing along the continuum of English language development levels, English
learners at all levels engage in intellectually challenging literacy, disciplinary, and disciplinary literacy tasks. They use language in meaningful and relevant ways appropri-
ate to grade level, content area, topic, purpose, audience, and text type in English language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, and the arts. Specifically, they use
language to gain and exchange information and ideas in three communicative modes (collaborative, interpretive, and productive), and they apply knowledge of language
to academic tasks via three cross-mode language processes (structuring cohesive texts, expanding and enriching ideas, and connecting and condensing ideas) using
various linguistic resources.

Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy*


A. Collaborative
1. Exchanging information and ideas with others through oral collaborative discussions on a range of social SL.910.1, 6; L.910.3, 6
and academic topics
W.910.6; WHST.910.6; SL.910.2; L.910.3, 6
2. Interacting with others in written English in various communicative forms (print, communicative technology
W.910.1; WHST.910.1; SL.910.1, 4, 6;
and multimedia)
L.910.3, 6
3. Offering and justifying opinions, negotiating with and persuading others in communicative exchanges
W.910.4-5; WHST. 910.45; SL.910.6;
4. Adapting language choices to various contexts (based on task, purpose, audience, and text type) L.910.1, 3, 6

*The California English Language Development Standards correspond to the California Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Science and Technical Subjects
(CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy). English learners should have full access to opportunities to learn ELA, mathematics, science, history/social studies, and other content at the same time they are progressing
toward full proficiency in English.

122 | Chapter 3 Grades 910


Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
B. Interpretive
5. Listening actively to spoken English in a range of social and academic contexts l SL.910.1, 3, 6; L.910.1, 3, 6
6. Reading closely literary and informational texts and viewing multimedia to determine how meaning is l RL.910.17, 910; RI.910.110; RH.910.110;
conveyed explicitly and implicitly through language RST.910.110; SL.910.2; L.910.1, 3, 6
7. Evaluating how well writers and speakers use language to support ideas and arguments with details or l RL.910.45; RI.910.4, 6, 8; RH.910.46, 8;
evidence depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area RST.910.46, 8; SL.910.3; L.910.3, 56
8. Analyzing how writers and speakers use vocabulary and other language resources for specific purposes l RL.910.45; RI.910.45; RH.910.45;
(to explain, persuade, entertain, etc.) depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and RST.910.45; SL.910.3; L.910.3, 56
content area
C. Productive
9. Expressing information and ideas in formal oral presentations on academic topics l SL.910.46; L.910.1, 3
10. Writing literary and informational texts to present, describe, and explain ideas and information, using l W.910.110; WHST.910.12, 410; L.910.16
appropriate technology l W.910.1, 89; WHST.910.1, 89; L.910.13, 6
11. Justifying own arguments and evaluating others arguments in writing l W.910.45; WHST.910.45; SL.910.4, 6;
12. Selecting and applying varied and precise vocabulary and other language resources to effectively convey L.910.1, 3, 56
ideas
Part II: Learning About How English Works Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts l RL.910.5; RI.910.5; RH.910.5; RST.910.5;
1. Understanding text structure W.910.15, 10; WHST.910.1-2, 45, 10;
2. Understanding cohesion SL.910.4
l RI.910.5; RH.910.5; RST.910.5; W.910.15,
10; WHST.910.12, 45, 10; L.910.1, 36
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas l W.910.5; WHST.910.5; SL.910.6; L.910.1, 36
3. Using verbs and verb phrases l W.910.5; WHST.910.5; SL.910.6; L.910.1, 36
4. Using nouns and noun phrases l W.910.45; WHST.910.45; SL.910.6;
5. Modifying to add details L.910.1, 36
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas l W.910.1-5; WHST.910.12, 45; SL.910.4, 6;
6. Connecting ideas L.910.1, 36
7. Condensing ideas l W.910.15; WHST.910.12, 45; SL.910.4, 6;
L.910.1, 36
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills l RF.K1.14; RF.25.34 (as appropriate)
Note: Examples provided in specific standards are offered only as illustrative possibilities and should not be misinterpreted as the only objectives of instruction or as the only types of language that English
learners might or should be able to understand or produce.
Grades 910 Chapter 3 | 123
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways

Texts and Discourse ELD Proficiency Level Continuum


in Context Emerging Expanding Bridging
Part I, strands 14, corresponding to the 1. Exchanging information/ideas 1. Exchanging information/ideas 1. Exchanging information/ideas
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy Engage in conversational exchanges Contribute to class, group, and partner Contribute to class, group, and partner
1. SL.910.1,6; L.910.3, 6 and express ideas on familiar current discussions, sustaining conversations on discussions, sustaining conversations on a
2. W.910.6; WHST.910.6; SL.910.2; events and academic topics by asking a variety of age and grade-appropriate variety of age and grade-appropriate aca-
L.910.3, 6 and answering yes-no questions and wh- academic topics by following turn-taking demic topics by following turn-taking rules,
3. W.910.1; WHST.910.1; SL.910.1, 4, questions and responding using phrases rules, asking and answering relevant, asking and answering relevant, on-topic
6; L.910.3, 6 and short sentences. on-topic questions, affirming others, questions, affirming others, and providing
4. W.910.4-5; WHST.910.45; providing additional, relevant information, coherent and well-articulated comments
SL.910.6; L.910.1, 3, 6 and paraphrasing key ideas. and additional information.
Purposes for using language include but 2. Interacting via written English 2. Interacting via written English 2. Interacting via written English
are not limited to: Collaborate with peers to engage in Collaborate with peers to engage in increas- Collaborate with peers to engage in a
Describing, entertaining, informing, inter- short, grade-appropriate written exchang- ingly complex grade-appropriate written variety of extended written exchanges and
preting, analyzing, recounting, explaining, es and writing projects, using technology exchanges and writing projects, using complex grade-appropriate writing projects,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evalu- as appropriate. technology as appropriate. using technology as appropriate.
ating, and so on.
A. Collaborative

3. Supporting opinions and persuading 3. Supporting opinions and persuading 3. Supporting opinions and persuading
Informational text types include but are
others others others
not limited to:
Negotiate with or persuade others in con- Negotiate with or persuade others in Negotiate with or persuade others in con-
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
versations using learned phrases (e.g., conversations (e.g., to provide counter- versations in appropriate registers (e.g., to
historical, economic, technical), recounts
Would you say that again? I think...), as arguments) using a growing number of acknowledge new information in an
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
well as open responses to express and learned phrases (I see your point, but...) academic conversation but then politely
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factu-
defend opinions. and open responses to express and defend offer a counterpoint) using a variety of
al), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
nuanced opinions. learned phrases, indirect reported speech
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., I heard you say X, and I havent
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
thought about that before. However...),
Literary text types include but are not and open responses to express and defend
limited to: nuanced opinions.
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on. 4. Adapting language choices 4. Adapting language choices 4. Adapting language choices
Adjust language choices according to the Adjust language choices according to the Adjust language choices according to the
Audiences include but are not limited to: context (e.g., classroom, community) and context (e.g., classroom, community), task (e.g., group presentation of research
Peers (one to one) audience (e.g., peers, teachers). purpose (e.g., to persuade, to provide project), context (e.g., classroom, commu-
Small group (one to a group) arguments or counterarguments), task, nity), purpose (e.g., to persuade, to provide
Whole group (one to many) and audience (e.g., peers, teachers, guest arguments or counterarguments), and
lecturer). audience (e.g., peers, teachers, college
recruiter).

124 | Chapter 3 Grades 910


Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways

Texts and Discourse ELD Proficiency Level Continuum


in Context Emerging Expanding Bridging
Part I, strands 58, corresponding to the 5. Listening actively 5. Listening actively 5. Listening actively
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy Demonstrate comprehension of oral pre- Demonstrate comprehension of oral pre- Demonstrate comprehension of oral pre-
5. SL.910.1, 3, 6; L.910.1, 3, 6 sentations and discussions on familiar sentations and discussions on a variety of sentations and discussions on a variety of
6. RL.910.17,910; RI.910.110; social and academic topics by asking social and academic topics by asking and social and academic topics by asking and
RH.910.110; RST.910.110; and answering questions, with prompting answering questions that show thoughtful answering detailed and complex questions
SL.910.2; L.910.1, 3, 6 and substantial support. consideration of the ideas or arguments, that show thoughtful consideration of the
7. RL.910.45; RI.910.4, 6, 8; with moderate support. ideas or arguments, with light support.
RH.910.46, 8; RST.910.46, 8;
SL.910.3; L.910.3, 56 6. Reading/viewing closely 6. Reading/viewing closely 6. Reading/viewing closely
8. RL.910.45; RI.910.4-5; a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes, a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes, a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes,
RH.910.45; RST.910.45; and text relationships (e.g., compare/ and relationships within and across texts and relationships within and across texts
SL.910.3; L.910.3, 56 contrast, cause/effect, evidence-based (e.g., compare/contrast, cause/effect, (e.g., compare/contrast, cause/effect,
argument) based on close reading of themes, evidence-based argument) based themes, evidence-based argument) based
Purposes for using language include but a variety of grade-appropriate texts, on close reading of a variety of grade- on close reading of a variety of grade-level
are not limited to: presented in various print and multi- appropriate texts, presented in various print texts, presented in various print and multi-
Describing, entertaining, informing, inter- media formats, using short sentences and multimedia formats, using increasingly media formats, using a variety of detailed
preting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
B. Interpretive

and a select set of general academic and detailed sentences, and an increasing sentences and a range of general academic
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evalu- domain-specific words. variety of general academic and domain- and domain-specific words.
ating, and so on. specific words.
b. Explain inferences and conclusions b. Explain inferences and conclusions
Informational text types include but are drawn from close reading of grade- b. Explain inferences and conclusions drawn drawn from close reading of grade-level
not limited to: appropriate texts and viewing of multi- from close reading of grade-appropriate texts and viewing of multimedia using a
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific, media using familiar verbs (e.g., seems texts and viewing of multimedia using an variety of verbs and adverbials (e.g.,
historical, economic, technical), recounts that). increasing variety of verbs and adverbials creates the impression that, consequently).
(e.g., biography, memoir), information (e.g., indicates that, suggests, as a result).
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factu- c. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g., c. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g.,
al), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion common prefixes and suffixes), context, c. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g., derivational suffixes), context, reference
pieces, argument, debate), responses reference materials, and visual cues affixes, Greek and Latin roots), context, materials, and visual cues to determine
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on. to determine the meaning of unknown reference materials, and visual cues to the meaning, including figurative and
and multiple-meaning words on familiar determine the meaning of unknown and connotative meanings, of unknown and
Literary text types include but are not topics. multiple-meaning words on familiar and new multiple-meaning words on a variety of new
limited to: topics. topics.
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)

Grades 910 Chapter 3 | 125


Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways

Texts and Discourse ELD Proficiency Level Continuum


in Context Emerging Expanding Bridging
Part I, strands 58, corresponding to the CA 7. Evaluating language choices 7. Evaluating language choices 7. Evaluating language choices
CCSS for ELA/Literacy Explain how successfully writers and Explain how successfully writers and Explain how successfully writers and
5. SL.910.1, 3, 6; L.910.1, 3, 6 speakers structure texts and use speakers structure texts and use speakers structure texts and use lan-
6. RL.910.17,910; RI.910.110; language (e.g., specific word or language (e.g., specific word or phrasing guage (e.g., specific word or phrasing
RH.910.110; RST.910.110; SL.910.2; phrasing choices) to persuade the choices) to persuade the reader (e.g., choices) to persuade the reader (e.g.,
L.910.1, 3, 6 reader (e.g., by providing evidence to by providing well-worded evidence to by providing well-worded evidence to
7. RL.910.45; RI.910.4, 6, 8; support claims or connecting points support claims or connecting points in an support claims or connecting points in an
RH.910.46, 8; RST.910.46, 8; SL.910.3; in an argument) or create other spe- argument in specific ways) or create other argument in specific ways) or create other
L.910.3, 56 cific effects, with substantial support. specific effects, with moderate support. specific effects, with light support.
8. RL.910.45; RI.910.4-5;
RH.910.45; RST.910.45; 8. Analyzing language choices 8. Analyzing language choices 8. Analyzing language choices
SL.910.3; L.910.3, 56 Explain how a writers or speakers Explain how a writers or speakers choice Explain how a writers or speakers choice
choice of phrasing or specific words of phrasing or specific words (e.g., using of a variety of different types of phrasing
Purposes for using language include but are not
(e.g., describing a character or action figurative language or words with multiple or words (e.g., hyperbole, varying conno-
limited to:
as aggressive versus bold) produces meanings to describe an event or char- tations, the cumulative impact of word
B. Interpretive

Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting,


nuances and different effects on the acter) produces nuances and different choices) produces nuances and different
analyzing, recounting, explaining, persuading,
audience. effects on the audience. effects on the audience.
negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are not
limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts (e.g.,
biography, memoir), information reports, expla-
nations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g.,
speeches, opinion pieces, argument, debate),
responses (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths, graphic
novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)

126 | Chapter 3 Grades 910


Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways

Texts and Discourse ELD Proficiency Level Continuum


in Context Emerging Expanding Bridging
Part I, strands 912, corresponding to the 9. Presenting 9. Presenting 9. Presenting
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy Plan and deliver brief oral presentations Plan and deliver a variety of oral presen- Plan and deliver a variety of oral presen-
9. SL.910.46; L.910.1, 3 and reports on grade-appropriate topics tations and reports on grade-appropriate tations and reports on grade-appropriate
10. W.910.110; WHST.910.12, 410; that present evidence and facts to sup- topics that present evidence and facts to topics that express complex and abstract
L.910.16 port ideas. support ideas by using growing understand- ideas well supported by evidence and
11. W.910.1, 89; WHST.910.1, 89; ing of register. sound reasoning, and are delivered using
L.910.13, 6 an appropriate level of formality and under-
12. W.910.45; WHST.910.45; standing of register.
SL.910.4, 6; L.910.1, 3, 56
10. Writing 10. Writing 10. Writing
Purposes for using language include but a. Write short literary and informational a. Write longer literary and informational a. Write longer and more detailed literary
are not limited to: texts (e.g., an argument about water texts (e.g., an argument about water rights) and informational texts (e.g., an argument
Describing, entertaining, informing, inter- rights) collaboratively (e.g., with peers) collaboratively (e.g., with peers) and about water rights) collaboratively (e.g.,
preting, analyzing, recounting, explaining, and independently. independently by using appropriate text with peers) and independently using appro-
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evalu- organization and growing understanding of priate text organization and register.
ating, and so on. b. Write brief summaries of texts and
C. Productive

register.
experiences by using complete sentences b. Write clear and coherent summaries of
Informational text types include but are and key words (e.g., from notes or graph- b. Write increasingly concise summaries of texts and experiences by using complete
not limited to: ic organizers). texts and experiences by using complete and concise sentences and key words (e.g.,
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific, sentences and key words (e.g., from notes from notes or graphic organizers).
historical, economic, technical), recounts or graphic organizers).
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factu- 11. Justifying/arguing 11. Justifying/arguing 11. Justifying/arguing
al), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion a. Justify opinions by articulating some a. Justify opinions and positions or per- a. Justify opinions or persuade others
pieces, argument, debate), responses relevant textual evidence or background suade others by making connections be- by making connections and distinctions
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on. knowledge, with visual support. tween ideas and articulating relevant textual between ideas and texts and articulating
Literary text types include but are not evidence or background knowledge. sufficient, detailed, and relevant textual
b. Express attitude and opinions or
limited to: evidence or background knowledge, using
temper statements with familiar modal b. Express attitude and opinions or temper
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths, appropriate register.
expressions (e.g., can, may). statements with a variety of familiar modal
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on. expressions (e.g., possibly/likely, could/ b. Express attitude and opinions or temper
Audiences include but are not limited to: would). statements with nuanced modal expres-
Peers (one to one) sions (e.g., possibly/ potentially/ certainly/
Small group (one to a group) absolutely, should/might).
Whole group (one to many)

Grades 910 Chapter 3 | 127


Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways

Texts and Discourse ELD Proficiency Level Continuum


in Context Emerging Expanding Bridging
Part I, strands 912, corresponding to the 12. Selecting language resources 12. Selecting language resources 12. Selecting language resources
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy a. Use familiar general academic (e.g., a. Use an increasing variety of grade- a. Use a variety of grade-appropriate
9. SL.910.4-6; L.910.1, 3 temperature, document) and domain- appropriate general academic (e.g., dom- general (e.g., anticipate, transaction) and
10. W.910.1-10; WHST.910.12, 410; specific (e.g., characterization, photo- inate, environment) and domain-specific domain-specific (e.g., characterization,
L.910.16 synthesis, society, quadratic functions) (e.g., characterization, photosynthesis, photosynthesis, society, quadratic
11. W.910.1, 89; WHST.910.1, 89; words to create clear spoken and written society, quadratic functions) academic functions) academic words and phrases,
L.910.13, 6 texts. words accurately and appropriately when including persuasive language, accurately
12. W.910.45; WHST.910.45; producing increasingly complex written and and appropriately when producing complex
b. Use knowledge of morphology to ap-
SL.910.4, 6; L.910.1, 3, 56 spoken texts. written and spoken texts.
propriately select basic affixes (e.g., The
Purposes for using language include but skull protects the brain). b. Use knowledge of morphology to appro- b. Use knowledge of morphology to appro-
are not limited to: priately select affixes in a growing number priately select affixes in a variety of ways
Describing, entertaining, informing, inter- of ways to manipulate language (e.g., diplo- to manipulate language (e.g., changing
preting, analyzing, recounting, explaining, matic, stems are branched or unbranched). humiliate to humiliation or incredible to
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evalu- incredibly).
ating, and so on.
C. Productive

Informational text types include but are


not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factu-
al), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)

128 | Chapter 3 Grades 910


Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works

Texts and Discourse ELD Proficiency Level Continuum


in Context Emerging Expanding Bridging
Part II, strands 12, corresponding to the 1. Understanding text structure 1. Understanding text structure 1. Understanding text structure
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy Apply analysis of the organizational Apply analysis of the organizational struc- Apply analysis of the organizational struc-
1. RL.910.5; RI.910.5; RH.910.5; structure of different text types (e.g., how ture of different text types (e.g., how argu- ture of different text types (e.g., how argu-
RST.910.5; W.910.15, 10; WHST.9 arguments are organized by establishing ments are organized by establishing clear ments are organized by establishing clear
10.12, 45, 10; SL.910.4 clear relationships among claims, relationships among claims, counterclaims, relationships among claims, counterclaims,
2. RI.910.5; RH.910.5; RST.910.5; counterclaims, reasons, and evidence) to reasons, and evidence) to comprehending reasons, and evidence) to comprehending
W.910.15,10; WHST.910.12, 45, comprehending texts and to writing brief texts and to writing increasingly clear and texts and to writing clear and cohesive
10; L.910.1, 36 arguments, informative/explanatory texts cohesive arguments, informative/ arguments, informative/explanatory texts
and narratives. explanatory texts and narratives. and narratives.
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, inter- 2. Understanding cohesion 2. Understanding cohesion 2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply knowledge of familiar language a. Apply knowledge of a growing number of a. Apply knowledge of a variety of language
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts

preting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,


persuading, negotiating, justifying, evalu- resources for referring to make texts language resources for referring to make resources for referring to make texts more
ating, and so on. more cohesive (e.g., using pronouns to texts more cohesive (e.g., using nominaliza- cohesive (e.g., using nominalization,
refer back to nouns in text) to compre- tions to refer back to an action or activity paraphrasing, or summaries to reference or
Informational text types include but are hending and writing brief texts. described earlier) to comprehending texts recap an idea or explanation provided
not limited to: and to writing increasingly cohesive texts for earlier) to comprehending grade-level
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific, b. Apply knowledge of familiar language
specific purposes and audiences. texts and to writing clear and cohesive
historical, economic, technical), recounts resources for linking ideas, events, or
grade-level texts for specific purposes and
(e.g., biography, memoir), information reasons throughout a text (e.g., using b. Apply knowledge of familiar language
audiences.
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factu- connecting/transition words and resources for linking ideas, events, or
al), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion phrases, such as first, second, third) to reasons throughout a text (e.g., using b. Apply knowledge of familiar language
pieces, argument, debate), responses comprehending and writing brief texts. connecting/transition words and phrases, resources for linking ideas, events, or
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on. such as meanwhile, however, on the other reasons throughout a text (e.g., using con-
hand) to comprehending texts and to writing necting/transition words and phrases, such
Literary text types include but are not increasingly cohesive texts for specific as on the contrary, in addition, moreover)
limited to: purposes and audiences. to comprehending grade-level texts and to
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths, writing cohesive texts for specific purposes
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on. and audiences.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)

Grades 910 Chapter 3 | 129


Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works

Texts and Discourse ELD Proficiency Level Continuum


in Context Emerging Expanding Bridging
Part II, strands 35, corresponding to the 3. Using verbs and verb phrases 3. Using verbs and verb phrases 3. Using verbs and verb phrases
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy Use a variety of verbs in different tenses Use a variety of verbs in different tenses Use a variety of verbs in different tenses
3. W.910.5; WHST.910.5; SL.910.6; (e.g., past, present, future, simple, pro- (e.g., past, present, future, simple, progres- (e.g., past, present, future, simple, progres-
L.910.1, 36 gressive) appropriate to the text type and sive, perfect) appropriate to the text type sive, perfect), and mood (e.g., subjunctive)
4. W.910.5; WHST.910.5; SL.910.6; discipline to create short texts on familiar and discipline to create a variety of texts appropriate to the text type and discipline
L.910.1, 36 academic topics. that explain, describe, and summarize con- to create a variety of texts that describe
5. W.910.45; WHST.910.45; crete and abstract thoughts and ideas. concrete and abstract ideas, explain proce-
SL.910.6; L.910.1, 36 dures and sequences,
summarize texts and ideas, and present
Purposes for using language include but
and critique points of view.
are not limited to:
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas

Describing, entertaining, informing, inter-


4. Using nouns and noun phrases 4. Using nouns and noun phrases 4. Using nouns and noun phrases
preting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
Expand noun phrases to create increas- Expand noun phrases in a growing number Expand noun phrases in a variety of ways
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evalu-
ingly detailed sentences (e.g., adding of ways (e.g., adding adjectives to nouns; (e.g., more complex clause embedding)
ating, and so on.
adjectives for precision) about personal simple clause embedding) to create de- to create detailed sentences that accu-
Informational text types include but are and familiar academic topics. tailed sentences that accurately describe, rately describe concrete and abstract
not limited to: explain, and summarize information and ideas, explain procedures and sequences,
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific, ideas on a variety of personal and academic summarize texts and ideas, and present
historical, economic, technical), recounts topics. and critique points of view on a variety of
(e.g., biography, memoir), information academic topics.
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factu-
al), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion 5. Modifying to add details 5. Modifying to add details 5. Modifying to add details
pieces, argument, debate), responses Expand sentences with simple adver- Expand sentences with a growing variety of Expand sentences with a variety of adver-
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on. bials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, bials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases and
prepositional phrases) to provide details prepositional phrases) to provide details clauses, prepositional phrases) to provide
Literary text types include but are not
(e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause)
limited to:
familiar activities or processes. familiar or new activities or processes. about a variety of familiar and new activi-
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
ties and processes.
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)

130 | Chapter 3 Grades 910


Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works

Texts and Discourse ELD Proficiency Level Continuum


in Context Emerging Expanding Bridging
Part II, strands 67, corresponding to the 6. Connecting ideas 6. Connecting ideas 6. Connecting ideas
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy Combine clauses in a few basic ways Combine clauses in a growing number of Combine clauses in a variety of ways to
6. W.910.15; WHST.910.12, 45; (e.g., creating compound sentences ways to create compound and complex create compound and complex sentences
SL.910.4,6; L.910.1,36 using and, but, so; creating complex sentences that make connections between that make connections between and link
7. W.910.1-5; WHST.910.1-2, 45; sentences using because) to make and link concrete and abstract ideas, for ex- concrete and abstract ideas, for example,
SL.910.4, 6; L.910.1, 36 connections between and to join ideas ample, to express a reason (e.g., He stayed to make a concession (e.g., While both
(e.g., I want to read this book because it at home on Sunday in order to study for characters strive for success, they each
Purposes for using language include but
describes the solar system). Mondays exam) or to make a concession take different approaches through which
are not limited to:
(e.g., She studied all night even though she to reach their goals.), or to establish cause
Describing, entertaining, informing, inter-
wasnt feeling well). (e.g., Womens lives were changed forever
preting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas

after World War II as a result of joining the


persuading, negotiating, justifying, evalu-
workforce).
ating, and so on.
Informational text types include but are 7. Condensing ideas 7. Condensing ideas 7. Condensing ideas
not limited to: Condense ideas in a few basic ways (e.g., Condense ideas in a growing number of Condense ideas in a variety of ways (e.g.,
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific, by compounding verb or prepositional ways (e.g., through embedded clauses or by through a variety of embedded clauses,
historical, economic, technical), recounts phrases) to create precise and detailed compounding verbs or prepositional phras- or by compounding verbs or prepositional
(e.g., biography, memoir), information simple, compound, and complex sen- es) to create more precise and detailed phrases, nominalization) to create precise
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factu- tences (e.g., The students asked survey simple, compound, and complex sentences simple, compound, and complex sentenc-
al), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion questions and recorded the responses). (e.g., Species that could not adapt to the es that condense concrete and abstract
pieces, argument, debate), responses changing climate eventually disappeared). ideas (e.g., Another issue that people
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on. may be concerned with is the amount of
Literary text types include but are not money that it will cost to construct the new
limited to: building).
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)

Grades 910 Chapter 3 | 131


Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Foundational literacy skills in an alpha- See chapter 6 for information on teaching foundational reading skills to English learners of various profiles based on age, native language,
betic writing system native language writing system, schooling experience, and literacy experience and proficiency. Some considerations are as follows:
l Print concepts l Native language and literacy (e.g., phoneme awareness or print concept skills in native language) should be assessed for potential
l Phonological awareness transference to English language and literacy.
l Phonics and word recognition
l Similarities between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., phonemes or letters that are the same in both
l Fluency languages).
l Differences between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., some phonemes in English may not exist in the students
native language; native language syntax may be different from English syntax).

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Page 133 intentionally blank.
Grades 1112

Section 1: Overview
Goal: English learners read, analyze, interpret, and create a variety of literary and informational text types. They develop an understanding of how language is a complex,
dynamic, and social resource for making meaning, as well as how content is organized in different text types and across disciplines using text structure, language fea-
tures, and vocabulary depending on purpose and audience. They are aware that different languages and variations of English exist, and they recognize their home lan-
guages and cultures as resources to value in their own right and also to draw upon in order to build proficiency in English. English learners contribute actively to class and
group discussions, asking questions, responding appropriately, and providing useful feedback. They demonstrate knowledge of content through oral presentations, writing
tasks, collaborative conversations, and multimedia. They develop proficiency in shifting language use based on task, purpose, audience, and text type.

Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts: While advancing along the continuum of English language development levels, English
learners at all levels engage in intellectually challenging literacy, disciplinary, and disciplinary literacy tasks. They use language in meaningful and relevant ways appropri-
ate to grade level, content area, topic, purpose, audience, and text type in English language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, and the arts. Specifically, they use
language to gain and exchange information and ideas in three communicative modes (collaborative, interpretive, and productive), and they apply knowledge of language
to academic tasks via three cross-mode language processes (structuring cohesive texts, expanding and enriching ideas, and connecting and condensing ideas) using
various linguistic resources.

Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy*


A. Collaborative
1. Exchanging information and ideas with others through oral collaborative discussions on a range of social SL.1112.1, 6; L.1112.3, 6
and academic topics
W.11-12.6; WHST.1112.6; SL.1112.2;
2. Interacting with others in written English in various communicative forms (print, communicative technology L.1112.3, 6
and multimedia)
W.1112.1; WHST.1112.1; SL.1112.1, 4, 6;
3. Offering and justifying opinions, negotiating with and persuading others in communicative exchanges L.1112.3, 6
4. Adapting language choices to various contexts (based on task, purpose, audience, and text type) W.1112.45; WHST.1112.45; SL.1112.6;
L.1112.1, 3, 6

*The California English Language Development Standards correspond to the California Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Science and Technical Subjects
(CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy). English learners should have full access to opportunities to learn ELA, mathematics, science, history/social studies, and other content at the same time they are progressing
toward full proficiency in English.

134 | Chapter 3 Grades 1112


Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
B. Interpretive
5. Listening actively to spoken English in a range of social and academic contexts l SL.1112.1, 3, 6; L.1112.1, 3, 6
6. Reading closely literary and informational texts and viewing multimedia to determine how meaning is l RL.1112.17, 910; RI.1112.110; RH.1112.110;
conveyed explicitly and implicitly through language RST.1112.110; SL.1112.2; L.1112.1, 3, 6
7. Evaluating how well writers and speakers use language to support ideas and arguments with details l RL.1112.45; RI.1112.4, 6, 8; RH.11-12.46, 8;
or evidence depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, and content area RST.1112.46, 8; SL.1112.3; L.1112.3, 56
8. Analyzing how writers and speakers use vocabulary and other language resources for specific purpos- l RL.1112.45; RI.1112.45; RH.1112.45; RST.11
es (to explain, persuade, entertain, etc.) depending on modality, text type, purpose, audience, topic, 12.45; SL.1112.3; L.1112.3, 56
and content area
C. Productive
9. Expressing information and ideas in formal oral presentations on academic topics l SL.1112.46; L.1112.1, 3
10. Writing literary and informational texts to present, describe, and explain ideas and information, using l W.1112.110; WHST.1112.12, 410; L.1112.16
appropriate technology l W.1112.1, 89; WHST.1112.1, 89;L.1112.13, 6

11. Justifying own arguments and evaluating others arguments in writing l W.1112.45; WHST.1112.45; SL.1112.4, 6;

12. Selecting and applying varied and precise vocabulary and other language resources to effectively L.1112.1, 3, 56
convey ideas
Part II: Learning About How English Works Corresponding CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts l RL.1112.5; RI.1112.5; RH.1112.5; RST.1112.5;
1. Understanding text structure W.1112.15, 10; WHST.1112.12, 45, 10;SL.1112.4
2. Understanding cohesion l RI.1112.5; RH.1112.5; RST.1112.5; W.1112.15,
10; WHST.1112.12, 45, 10; L.1112.1, 36
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas
3. Using verbs and verb phrases l W.1112.5; WHST.1112.5; SL.1112.6; L.1112.1, 36
4. Using nouns and noun phrases l W.1112.5; WHST.1112.5; SL.1112.6; L.1112.1, 36

5. Modifying to add details l W.1112.45; WHST.1112.45; SL.1112.6;


L.1112.1, 36
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas l W.1112.15; WHST.1112.12, 45; SL.1112.4, 6;
6. Connecting ideas L.1112.1, 36
7. Condensing ideas l W.1112.15; WHST.1112.1-2, 45; SL.1112.4, 6;
L.1112.1, 36
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills l RF.K1.1-4; RF.25.34 (as appropriate)
Note: Examples provided in specific standards are offered only as illustrative possibilities and should not be misinterpreted as the only objectives of instruction or as the only types of language that English
learners might or should be able to understand or produce.
Grades 1112 Chapter 3 | 135
Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways

Texts and Discourse ELD Proficiency Level Continuum


in Context Emerging Expanding Bridging
Part I, strands 14, corresponding to the 1. Exchanging information/ideas 1. Exchanging information/ideas 1. Exchanging information/ideas
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy Engage in conversational exchanges Contribute to class, group, and partner Contribute to class, group, and partner dis-
1. SL.1112.1,6; L.1112.3, 6 and express ideas on familiar current discussions, sustaining conversations on cussions, sustaining conversations on a va-
2. W.11-12.6; WHST.1112.6; SL.1112.2; events and academic topics by asking a variety of age and grade-appropriate riety of age and grade-appropriate academic
L.1112.3, 6 and answering yes-no questions and academic topics by following turn-taking topics by following turn-taking rules, asking
3. W.1112.1; WHST.1112.1; SL.1112.1, wh- questions and responding using rules, asking and answering relevant, and answering relevant, on-topic questions,
4, 6; L.11-12.3, 6 phrases and short sentences. on-topic questions, affirming others, affirming others, and providing coherent and
4. W.1112.45; WHST.45; SL.1112.6; providing additional, relevant information, well-articulated comments and additional
L.1112.1, 3, 6 and paraphrasing key ideas. information.
Purposes for using language include but 2. Interacting via written English 2. Interacting via written English 2. Interacting via written English
are not limited to: Collaborate with peers to engage Collaborate with peers to engage in increas- Collaborate with peers to engage in a variety
Describing, entertaining, informing, inter- in short, grade-appropriate written ingly complex grade-appropriate written of extended written exchanges and complex
preting, analyzing, recounting, explaining, exchanges and writing projects, using exchanges and writing projects, using grade-appropriate writing projects, using
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evalu- technology as appropriate. technology as appropriate. technology as appropriate.
ating, and so on.
A. Collaborative

Informational text types include but are 3. Supporting opinions and persuading 3. Supporting opinions and persuading 3. Supporting opinions and persuading
not limited to: others others others
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific, Negotiate with or persuade others in Negotiate with and persuade others (e.g., Negotiate with or persuade others in dis-
historical, economic, technical), recounts conversations (e.g., ask for clarification by presenting counter-arguments) in dis- cussions and conversations in appropriate
(e.g., biography, memoir), information or repetition) using learned phrases cussions and conversations using learned registers (e.g., to acknowledge new infor-
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factu- (e.g., Could you repeat that please? phrases (e.g., You make a valid point, but mation and politely offer a counterpoint)
al), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion I believe...) and open responses to my view is...) and open responses to using a variety of learned phrases (e.g., You
pieces, argument, debate), responses express and defend opinions. express and defend nuanced opinions. postulate that X. However, Ive reached a
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on. different conclusion on this issue) and open
responses to express and defend nuanced
Literary text types include but are not opinions.
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths, 4. Adapting language choices 4. Adapting language choices 4. Adapting language choices
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on. Adjust language choices according Adjust language choices according to the Adjust language choices according to the
Audiences include but are not limited to: to the context (e.g., classroom, com- context (e.g., classroom, community), task (e.g., group presentation of research
Peers (one to one) munity) and audience (e.g., peers, purpose (e.g., to persuade, to provide project), context (e.g., classroom, com-
Small group (one to a group) teachers). arguments or counterarguments), task, munity), purpose (e.g., to persuade, to
Whole group (one to many) and audience (e.g., peers, teachers, guest provide arguments or counterarguments),
lecturer). and audience (e.g., peers, teachers, college
recruiter).

136 | Chapter 3 Grades 1112


Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways

Texts and Discourse ELD Proficiency Level Continuum


in Context Emerging Expanding Bridging
Part I, strands 58, corresponding to the 5. Listening actively 5. Listening actively 5. Listening actively
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy Demonstrate comprehension of oral pre- Demonstrate comprehension of oral pre- Demonstrate comprehension of oral pre-
5. SL.1112.1, 3, 6; L.1112.1, 3, 6 sentations and discussions on familiar sentations and discussions on a variety of sentations and discussions on a variety of
6. RL.1112.17, 910; RI.1112.110; social and academic topics by asking social and academic topics by asking and social and academic topics by asking and
RH.1112.110; RST.1112.110; and answering questions with prompting answering questions that show thoughtful answering detailed and complex questions
SL.1112.2; L.1112.1, 3, 6 and substantial support. consideration of the ideas or arguments that show thoughtful consideration of the
7. RL.1112.45; RI.1112.4, 6, 8; with moderate support. ideas or arguments with light support.
RH.1112.46, 8; RST.1112.46, 8;
SL.1112.3; L.1112.3, 56 6. Reading/viewing closely 6. Reading/viewing closely 6. Reading/viewing closely
8. RL.1112.45; RI.1112.45; RH.11 a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes, a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes, a. Explain ideas, phenomena, processes,
12.45; RST.1112.45; SL.1112.3; and text relationships (e.g., compare/ and relationships within and across texts and relationships within and across texts
L.1112.3, 56 contrast, cause/effect, evidence-based (e.g., compare/contrast, cause/effect, (e.g., compare/contrast, cause/effect,
argument) based on close reading of a themes, evidence-based argument) based themes, evidence-based argument) based
Purposes for using language include but variety of grade-appropriate texts, pre- on close reading of a variety of grade- on close reading of a variety of grade-level
are not limited to: sented in various print and multimedia appropriate texts, presented in various print texts, presented in various print and multi-
Describing, entertaining, informing, inter- formats, using phrases, short sentences, and multimedia formats, using increasingly media formats, using a variety of detailed
preting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
B. Interpretive

and a select set of general academic and detailed sentences, and a range of general sentences and precise general academic
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evalu- domain-specific words. academic and domain-specific words. and domain-specific words.
ating, and so on.
b. Explain inferences and conclusions b. Explain inferences and conclusions drawn b. Explain inferences and conclusions
Informational text types include but are drawn from close reading of grade- from close reading of grade-appropriate drawn from close reading of grade-level
not limited to: appropriate texts and viewing of multi- texts and viewing of multimedia using a va- texts and viewing of multimedia using a va-
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific, media, using familiar verbs (e.g., seems riety of verbs and adverbials (e.g., indicates riety of verbs and adverbials (e.g., creates
historical, economic, technical), recounts that). that, suggests, as a result). the impression that, consequently).
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factu- c. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g., c. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g., c. Use knowledge of morphology (e.g.,
al), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion common prefixes and suffixes), context, affixes, Greek and Latin roots), context, derivational suffixes), context, reference
pieces, argument, debate), responses reference materials, and visual cues reference materials, and visual cues to materials, and visual cues to determine
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on. to determine the meaning of unknown determine the meaning of unknown and the meaning, including figurative and
and multiple-meaning words on familiar multiple-meaning words on familiar and new connotative meanings, of unknown and
Literary text types include but are not topics. topics. multiple-meaning words on a variety of new
limited to: topics.
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)

Grades 1112 Chapter 3 | 137


Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways

Texts and Discourse ELD Proficiency Level Continuum


in Context Emerging Expanding Bridging
Part I, strands 58, corresponding to the CA 7. Evaluating language choices 7. Evaluating language choices 7. Evaluating language choices
CCSS for ELA/Literacy Explain how successfully writers Explain how successfully writers and Explain how successfully writers and
5. SL.1112.1, 3, 6; L.1112.1, 3, 6 and speakers structure texts and speakers structure texts and use language speakers structure texts and use
6. RL.1112.17,910; RI.1112.110; use language (e.g., specific word or (e.g., specific word or phrasing choices) language (e.g., specific word or phrasing
RH.1112.1 10; RST.1112.110; phrasing choices) to persuade the to persuade the reader (e.g., by providing choices) to persuade the reader (e.g.,
L.1112.2; L.1112.1, 3, 6 reader (e.g., by providing evidence to well-worded evidence to support claims or by providing well-worded evidence to
7. RL.1112.45; RI.1112.4, 6, 8; RH.11 support claims or connecting points in connecting points in an argument in specific support claims or connecting points in
12.46, 8; RST.1112.46, 8; SL.1112.3; an argument) or create other specific ways) or create other specific effects, with an argument in specific ways) or create
L.1112.3, 56 effects. moderate support. other specific effects, with light support.
8. RL.1112.45; RI.1112.45; RH.1112.45;
RST.1112.45; SL.1112.3; L.1112.3, 56 8. Analyzing language choices 8. Analyzing language choices 8. Analyzing language choices
Explain how a writers or speakers Explain how a writers or speakers choice Explain how a writers or speakers
Purposes for using language include but are
choice of phrasing or specific words of phrasing or specific words (e.g., using choice of a variety of different types of
not limited to:
(e.g., describing a character or action figurative language or words with multiple phrasing or words (e.g., hyperbole, vary-
Describing, entertaining, informing, interpreting,
as aggressive versus bold) produces meanings to describe an event or character) ing connotations, the cumulative impact
B. Interpretive

analyzing, recounting, explaining, persuading,


nuances or different effects on the produces nuances and different effects on of word choices) produces nuances and
negotiating, justifying, evaluating, and so on.
audience. the audience. different effects on the audience.
Informational text types include but are not
limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts (e.g.,
biography, memoir), information reports, expla-
nations (e.g., causal, factual), expositions (e.g.,
speeches, opinion pieces, argument, debate),
responses (e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not limited
to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths, graphic
novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)

138 | Chapter 3 Grades 1112


Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways

Texts and Discourse ELD Proficiency Level Continuum


in Context Emerging Expanding Bridging
Part I, strands 912, corresponding to the 9. Presenting 9. Presenting 9. Presenting
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy Plan and deliver brief oral presentations Plan and deliver a variety of oral presen- Plan and deliver a variety of oral presen-
9. SL.1112.46; L.1112.1, 3 and reports on grade-appropriate topics tations and reports on grade-appropriate tations and reports on grade-appropriate
10. W.1112.110; WHST.1112.12, 410; that present evidence and facts to sup- topics that present evidence and facts to topics that express complex and abstract
L.1112.16 port ideas. support ideas by using growing understand- ideas, well supported by evidence and
11. W.1112.1, 89; WHST.1112.1, 89; ing of register. reasoning, and are delivered by using an
L.1112.13, 6 appropriate level of formality and under-
12. W.1112.45; WHST.1112.45; standing of register.
SL.1112.4, 6; L.1112.1, 3, 56
Purposes for using language include but 10. Writing 10. Writing 10. Writing
are not limited to: a. Write short literary and information- a. Write longer literary and informational a. Write longer and more detailed literary
Describing, entertaining, informing, inter- al texts (e.g., an argument about free texts (e.g., an argument about free speech) and informational texts (e.g., an argument
preting, analyzing, recounting, explaining, speech) collaboratively (e.g., with peers) collaboratively (e.g., with peers) and about free speech) collaboratively (e.g.,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evalu- and independently. independently by using appropriate text with peers) and independently by using
organization and growing understanding of appropriate text organization and register.
C. Productive

ating, and so on. b. Write brief summaries of texts and


register.
Informational text types include but are experiences by using complete sentences b. Write clear and coherent summaries of
not limited to: and key words (e.g., from notes or graph- b. Write increasingly concise summaries of texts and experiences by using complete
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific, ic organizers). texts and experiences by using complete and concise sentences and key words (e.g.,
historical, economic, technical), recounts sentences and key words (e.g., from notes from notes or graphic organizers).
(e.g., biography, memoir), information or graphic organizers).
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factu- 11. Justifying/arguing 11. Justifying/arguing 11. Justifying/arguing
al), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion a. Justify opinions by articulating some a. Justify opinions and positions or per- a. Justify opinions or persuade others
pieces, argument, debate), responses textual evidence or background knowl- suade others by making connections be- by making connections and distinctions
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on. edge with visual support. tween ideas and articulating relevant textual between ideas and texts and articulating
Literary text types include but are not evidence or background knowledge. sufficient, detailed, and relevant textual
b. Express attitude and opinions or
limited to: evidence or background knowledge by
temper statements with familiar modal b. Express attitude and opinions or temper
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths, using appropriate register.
expressions (e.g., can, may). statements with a variety of familiar modal
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on. expressions (e.g., possibly/likely, could/ b. Express attitude and opinions or temper
Audiences include but are not limited to: would). statements with nuanced modal expres-
Peers (one to one) sions (e.g., possibly/potentially/certainly/
Small group (one to a group) absolutely, should/might).
Whole group (one to many)

Grades 1112 Chapter 3 | 139


Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part I: Interacting in Meaningful Ways

Texts and Discourse ELD Proficiency Level Continuum


in Context Emerging Expanding Bridging
Part I, strands 912, corresponding to the 12. Selecting language resources 12. Selecting language resources 12. Selecting language resources
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy a. Use familiar general academic (e.g., a. Use an increasing variety of grade- a. Use a variety of grade-appropriate
9. SL.1112.46; L.1112.1, 3 temperature, document) and domain- appropriate general academic (e.g., fallacy, general (e.g., alleviate, salutary) and
10. W.1112.110; WHST.1112.12, 410; specific (e.g., cell, the Depression) words dissuade) and domain-specific (e.g., domain-specific (e.g., soliloquy, micro-
L.1112.16 to create clear spoken and written texts. chromosome, federalism) academic words organism) academic words and phrases,
11. W.1112.1, 89; WHST.1112.1, 89; accurately and appropriately when produc- including persuasive language, accurately
b. Use knowledge of morphology to
L.1112.13, 6 ing increasingly complex written and spoken and appropriately when producing complex
appropriately select basic affixes
12. W.1112.45; WHST.1112.45; texts. written and spoken texts.
(e.g., The news media relies on official
SL.1112.4, 6; L.1112.1, 3, 56
sources). b. Use knowledge of morphology to appro- b. Use knowledge of morphology to appro-
Purposes for using language include but priately select affixes in a growing number priately select affixes in a variety of ways
are not limited to: of ways to manipulate language (e.g., The to manipulate language (e.g., changing
Describing, entertaining, informing, inter- cardiac muscle works continuously.). inaugurate to inauguration).
preting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evalu-
ating, and so on.
C. Productive

Informational text types include but are


not limited to:
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
historical, economic, technical), recounts
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factu-
al), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
pieces, argument, debate), responses
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)

140 | Chapter 3 Grades 1112


Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works

Texts and Discourse ELD Proficiency Level Continuum


in Context Emerging Expanding Bridging
Part II, strands 12, corresponding to the 1. Understanding text structure 1. Understanding text structure 1. Understanding text structure
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy Apply analysis of the organizational Apply analysis of the organizational struc- Apply analysis of the organizational struc-
1. RL.1112.5; RI.1112.5; RH.1112.5; structure of different text types (e.g., ture of different text types (e.g., how argu- ture of different text types (e.g., how argu-
RST.1112.5; W.1112.15, 10; how arguments are organized by estab- ments are organized by establishing clear ments are organized by establishing clear
WHST.1112.12, 45, 10; SL.1112.4 lishing clear relationships among claims, relationships among claims, counterclaims, relationships among claims, counterclaims,
2. RI.1112.5; RH.1112.5; RST.1112.5; counterclaims, reasons, and evidence) reasons, and evidence) to comprehending reasons, and evidence) to comprehending
W.1112.15, 10; WHST.1112.12, to comprehending texts and to writing texts and to writing increasingly clear and texts and to writing clear and cohesive
45, 10; L.1112.1, 36 brief arguments, informative/explanato- cohesive arguments, informative/explanato- arguments, informative/explanatory texts,
ry texts, and narratives. ry texts, and narratives. and narratives.
Purposes for using language include but
are not limited to:
Describing, entertaining, informing, inter- 2. Understanding cohesion 2. Understanding cohesion 2. Understanding cohesion
a. Apply knowledge of familiar language a. Apply knowledge of a growing number of a. Apply knowledge of a variety of resources
A. Structuring Cohesive Texts

preting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,


persuading, negotiating, justifying, evalu- resources for referring to make texts language resources for referring to make for referring to make texts more cohesive
ating, and so on. more cohesive (e.g., using pronouns or texts more cohesive (e.g., using nominaliza- (e.g., using nominalization, paraphrases,
synonyms to refer back to characters or tions to refer back to an action or activity or summaries to reference or recap an
Informational text types include but are concepts introduced earlier) to compre- described earlier) to comprehending texts idea or explanation provided earlier) to
not limited to: hending and writing brief texts. and to writing increasingly cohesive texts for comprehending grade-level texts and to
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific, specific purposes and audiences. writing clear and cohesive texts for specific
historical, economic, technical), recounts b. Apply knowledge of familiar language
purposes and audiences.
(e.g., biography, memoir), information resources for linking ideas, events, b. Apply knowledge of familiar language re-
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factu- or reasons throughout a text (e.g., sources for linking ideas, events, or reasons b. Apply knowledge of familiar language re-
al), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion using connecting/transition words and throughout a text (e.g., using connecting/ sources for linking ideas, events, or reasons
pieces, argument, debate), responses phrases, such as first, second, finally) to transition words and phrases, such as throughout a text (e.g., using connecting/
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on. comprehending and writing brief texts. meanwhile, however, on the other hand) to transition words and phrases, such as on
comprehending texts and to writing increas- the contrary, in addition, moreover) to
Literary text types include but are not ingly cohesive texts for specific purposes comprehending grade-level texts and writing
limited to: and audiences. cohesive texts for specific purposes and
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths, audiences.
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)

Grades 1112 Chapter 3 | 141


Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works

Texts and Discourse ELD Proficiency Level Continuum


in Context Emerging Expanding Bridging
Part II, strands 35, corresponding to the 3. Using verbs and verb phrases 3. Using verbs and verb phrases 3. Using verbs and verb phrases
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy Use a variety of verbs in different tenses Use a variety of verbs in different tenses Use a variety of verbs in different tenses
3. W.1112.5; WHST.1112.5; SL.1112.6; (e.g., past, present, future, simple, pro- (e.g., past, present, future, simple, progres- (e.g., past, present, future, simple, progres-
L.1112.1, 36 gressive) appropriate to the text type and sive, perfect) appropriate to the text type sive, perfect), and mood (e.g., subjunctive)
4. W.1112.5; WHST.1112.5; SL.1112.6; discipline to create short texts on familiar and discipline to create a variety of texts appropriate to the text type and discipline
L.1112.1, 36 academic topics. that explain, describe, and summarize con- to create a variety of texts that describe
5. W.11-12.45; WHST.1112.45; crete and abstract thoughts and ideas. concrete and abstract ideas, explain pro-
SL.1112.6; L.1112.1, 36 cedures and sequences, summarize texts
and ideas, and present and critique points
Purposes for using language include but
of view.
are not limited to:
B. Expanding and Enriching Ideas

Describing, entertaining, informing, inter-


4. Using nouns and noun phrases 4. Using nouns and noun phrases 4. Using nouns and noun phrases
preting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
Expand noun phrases to create increas- Expand noun phrases in a growing number Expand noun phrases in a variety of ways
persuading, negotiating, justifying, evalu-
ingly detailed sentences (e.g., adding of ways (e.g., adding adjectives to nouns, (e.g., complex clause embedding) to create
ating, and so on.
adjectives for precision) about personal simple clause embedding) to create de- detailed sentences that accurately describe
Informational text types include but are and familiar academic topics. tailed sentences that accurately describe, concrete and abstract ideas, explain proce-
not limited to: explain, and summarize information and dures and sequences, summarize texts and
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific, ideas on a variety of personal and academic ideas, and present and critique points of
historical, economic, technical), recounts topics. view on a variety of academic topics.
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factu- 5. Modifying to add details 5. Modifying to add details 5. Modifying to add details
al), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion Expand sentences with simple adver- Expand sentences with a growing variety of Expand sentences with a variety of adver-
pieces, argument, debate), responses bials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, bials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases and
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on. prepositional phrases) to provide details prepositional phrases) to provide details clauses, prepositional phrases) to provide
Literary text types include but are not (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause)
limited to: familiar activities or processes. familiar or new activities or processes. about a variety of familiar and new activi-
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths, ties and processes.
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)

142 | Chapter 3 Grades 1112


Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part II: Learning About How English Works

Texts and Discourse ELD Proficiency Level Continuum


in Context Emerging Expanding Bridging
Part II, strands 67, corresponding to the 6. Connecting ideas 6. Connecting ideas 6. Connecting ideas
CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy Combine clauses in a few basic ways Combine clauses in a growing number of Combine clauses in a variety of ways to
6. W.1112.15; WHST.1112.12, 45; (e.g., creating compound sentences ways to create compound and complex create compound and complex sentences
SL.1112.4, 6; L.1112.1, 36 using and, but, so; creating complex sentences that make connections between that make connections between and link
7. W.1112.15; WHST.1112.12, 45; sentences using because) to make con- and link concrete and abstract ideas, for ex- concrete and abstract ideas, for example,
SL.1112.4, 6; L.1112.1, 36 nections between and join ideas (e.g., I ample, to express a reason (e.g., He stayed to make a concession (e.g., While both
want to read this book because it tells at home on Sunday in order to study for characters strive for success, they each
Purposes for using language include but
the history of Pi). Mondays exam) or to make a concession take different approaches to reach their
are not limited to:
(e.g., She studied all night even though she goals), or to establish cause (e.g., Womens
Describing, entertaining, informing, inter-
wasnt feeling well). lives were changed forever after World War
preting, analyzing, recounting, explaining,
C. Connecting and Condensing Ideas

II as a result of joining the workforce).


persuading, negotiating, justifying, evalu-
ating, and so on.
7. Condensing ideas 7. Condensing ideas 7. Condensing ideas
Informational text types include but are
Condense ideas in a few basic ways (e.g., Condense ideas in a growing number of Condense ideas in a variety of ways (e.g.,
not limited to:
by compounding verb or prepositional ways (e.g., through embedded clauses or by through a variety of embedded clauses,
Descriptions or accounts (e.g., scientific,
phrases) to create precise and detailed compounding verb or prepositional phrases) or by compounding verb or prepositional
historical, economic, technical), recounts
simple, compound, and complex sen- to create more precise and detailed simple, phrases, nominalization) to create precise
(e.g., biography, memoir), information
tences (e.g., The students asked survey compound, and complex sentences (e.g., simple, compound, and complex sentenc-
reports, explanations (e.g., causal, factu-
questions and recorded the responses). Species that could not adapt to the chang- es that condense concrete and abstract
al), expositions (e.g., speeches, opinion
ing climate eventually disappeared). ideas (e.g., The epidemic, which ultimately
pieces, argument, debate), responses
affected hundreds of thousands of people,
(e.g., literary analysis), and so on.
did not subside for another year).
Literary text types include but are not
limited to:
Stories (e.g., historical fiction, myths,
graphic novels), poetry, drama, and so on.
Audiences include but are not limited to:
Peers (one to one)
Small group (one to a group)
Whole group (one to many)

Grades 1112 Chapter 3 | 143


Section 2: Elaboration on Critical Principles for Developing Language and Cognition in Academic Contexts
Part III: Using Foundational Literacy Skills
Foundational literacy skills in an alpha- See chapter 6 for information on teaching foundational reading skills to English learners of various profiles based on age, native language,
betic writing system native language writing system, schooling experience, and literacy experience and proficiency. Some considerations are as follows:
l Print concepts l Native language and literacy (e.g., phoneme awareness or print concept skills in native language) should be assessed for potential
l Phonological awareness transference to English language and literacy.
l Phonics and word recognition
l Similarities between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., phonemes or letters that are the same in both
l Fluency languages).
l Differences between the native language and English should be highlighted (e.g., some phonemes in English may not exist in the students
native language; native language syntax may be different from English syntax).

144 | Chapter 3 Grades 1112