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Assalam-o Alaikum and Good Morning ladies and gentle man.

My name is Muhammad Shahid. Today the topic of my presentation is Difference between errors
and mistakes and its constructive approach to present error and mistakes of learners.

So first of all I would like to tell you about the definition of error and mistakes.

Normally both take as the similar of each other. But


Errors are usually made due to the lack of knowledge. So, the action was wrong because it was
different from the rules, model or specific code. Error is a more formal word than mistake.


Mistakes are usually accidental. You know its wrong. In other words, mistakes are performance
based, and can be self-corrected. Mistake is less formal than error, and is usually used in daily

Now I will tell you about the basic difference of mistake and error.

A mistake, generally speaking, is a choice that turns out to be wrong. It could be something you
decide to do on your own initiative that you later regret:

"You're making a mistake -- you'll regret this!"

"Coming here was a mistake -- this trip has been a waste of my time."

"Don't feel bad, everyone makes mistakes."

Errors, on the other hand, are made with reference to some ideal code, model, or set of rules that
would have dictated a different action. The action was wrong because it was different from the
"right" or normal one under the circumstances.

Error is a more formal word and has various technical meanings

- Computers produce "errors" when they aren't able to perform some step as programmed, such
as connecting to the Internet or saving a file. In science, "experimental error" is the completely
normal and expected deviation of the measurements from the theory.

Error Analysis;

Research cites three approaches

1. Constructive analysis
2. Error analysis
3. Transfer analysis

Constructive analysis compares the structure of two language system and predicts errors.

Transfer analysis on the other hand compares leaner English to explain the structure of those
errors that can be traced to language transfer.

Error analysis compares leaner English with L2 itself and judges how learners are ignorant.

Data Analysis

Data analysis is used as method of analyzing data and a theory. It is a technique for
identifying, classifying and systematically interpreting the unacceptable forms of language
writing and speaking.


Error analysis can be used to determine what a leaner still needs to be taught. They provide
the necessary information about what is lacking in his or her competence. The findings of the
present study points out the significance of learners. For example the study shows that
spelling and tense errors are the most commons errors. Teacher should train and guide learner
to apply right strategies.


It is now generally considered that errors with a view of improving

teaching. A definite conclusion cannot be making because teaching and
learning are both complex process. Findings can only be suggestive.