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robert o. gjerdingen

ne autumn day in 1896, anton arensky invited partimenti, solfeggi, and intavolature.5 Regole were exemplars of
Rachmaninoff and Glazunov to dinner at his St. basic patterns such as cadences and various sequences.
Petersburg home to celebrate a visit from Sergey Partimenti were basses intended to be realized as full-fledged
Taneyev. A network of personal and professional ties linked compositions at the keyboard. Solfeggi were exercises in style
these notable musicians. Rachmaninoff, for example, had stud- for voice and basso continuo, providing a storehouse of contra-
ied with Arensky and Taneyev; Arensky and Glazunov had in puntally and harmonically contextualized melodic exemplars
turn studied with Rimsky-Korsakov. After dinner the four useful in partimento realizations and free composition.
composers played a musical parlor game.1 Each of them took Intavolature were instructional works for keyboard that offered
a sheet of paper and wrote out the initial phrase of a small models of keyboard textures and figurations. Regole, solfeggi,
character piece for piano. When all were ready, each passed and intavolature filled the students storehouse of memory, and
his sheet to a colleague who extended the composition, and partimenti gave the student practice in controlling and applying
this round robin continued until the sheets returned to their that treasure over the vast field of opportunities constantly
starting positions. The original composer then completed the offered by the changing bass patterns in a partimento. This
final phrases and cadence. Example 1 shows the first of the regimen may seem strange in relation to the modern music
resulting four compositions, the one begun and completed classroom, but in its day it was simply the time-honored tradi-
by Arensky.2 tion of apprenticeship adapted to the craft of music. Apprentice
Few classical musicians today could play this game at such a joiners spent their days learning to craft the wooden shapes
high level. Arensky and his guests displayed amazing musical demanded by their masters, and apprentice musicians did much
fluency, a score-reading ability that took in all the harmonic and the same with tonal shapes. They learned the mystery of their
contrapuntal implications on the page, and an aural imagination craft through long years of observation, internalization, and
capable of devising satisfying continuations to complex musical reproduction of a whole repertory of patterns.6
gestures penned by others. How were they able to do this? In 1921, with the experience of having conducted the pre-
The same question could be put to jazz musicians from the mieres of Histoire du Soldat and Pulcinella under his belt, Ernest
1930s or to actors in the commedia dellarte from the 1630s. Two Ansermet remarked, The teaching of composition in Russia, as
giants from that distant world of Italian theater, in explaining far as I can gather from what Stravinsky received from Rimsky-
their craft, emphasized that the novice had to build up a large Korsakov, is much more in the spirit of Medieval guild appren-
memory of stored material and then learn to control it: ticeship than our own generally academic instruction. . . .
Niccol Barbieri (15761641): [Actors must] study and fortify Stravinsky . . . is an artisan.7 Certainly the artisanal system of
their memory with a wide variety of things such as sayings, phrases, partimento training was imported to Russia in the eighteenth
love-speeches, reprimands, cries of despair, and ravings, in order to century through a long series of famous maestros hired for the
have them ready for the proper occasion.3 court in St. Petersburg. The very first print of Neapolitan parti-
Pier Maria Cecchini (1563ca. 1630): [T]he actor must see to it menti, by Giovanni Paisiello, was published there in 1782, and
that his mind controls his memory (which dispenses the treasure of Giuseppi Sarti even established a music school in Russia.
memorized phrases over the vast field of opportunities constantly Whether compositional instruction in Russia became more
offered by comedy).4 academic after the lapse of Italian hegemony (ca. 1806) or
remained artisanal has been unclear, at least to this author. And
Elsewhere I have detailed how eighteenth-century musicians
so I was greatly intrigued to read Professor Taruskins reference
built up their treasure of memorized phrases through long
to Gebrauchs-formulascompositional exemplars for emulation
apprenticeship to masters who taught them using an array of
pedagogical materials known, in the Italian tradition, as regole,
5 Gjerdingen (2007).
6 Dunlop (1912); Stuart (1933).
1 Adapted from the story posted by Amphissa (2007) on the website of The 7 Ansermet (1921, 16): Lenseignement quon donne de la musique en
Rachmaninoff Society. Russie, autant que jen puis juger par celui que Strawinsky a reu de
2 Arensky et al. (1949, 174 [No. 1 of the four improvisations]). The four Rimsky-Korsakow, est beaucoup plus prsdans lespritde
manuscript pages of these improvisations were first published in an appen- lapprentissage corporatif du Moyen-Age que lenseignement aca-
dix to Taneyev (1925). dmique que est gnralement le notre. . . . Il est un trait particulier par
3 Barbieri (1954, 53). lequel Strawinsky ressemble encore aux hommes du Moyen-Age: il est
4 Cecchini (1954, 50). comme eux un artisan.


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192 music theory spectrum 33 (2011)

Arensky . . . Rachmaninoff . . . Glazunov . . .


Taneyev . . . Arensky . . .




example 1. A joint improvisation by Arensky, Rachmaninoff, Glazunov, and Taneyev, 1896

Arensky, Glazunov, Rachmaninoff, and Taneyev: Four Improvisations, in Serge Rachmaninoff, Polnoe sobranie sochineni
dlia fortepiano (Rachmaninoff: Complete Works for Piano), vol. 3, Muzgiz, Moscow, 1949

by the artisan apprentice.8 I thought that perhaps Arenskys number of melodies or basses to be harmonized according to
demonstrated talent for improvisation might be a by-product of given rulesassignments that he improvised off the cuff.10
partimento-style instruction, and so I looked for a publication of Arenskys Sbornik reveals many layers of style and influence.
his that might show the least traces of generally academic in- The eighteenth-century layers are most obvious in the earlier
struction. exercises. Almost all the rules of Italian partimenti find their ex-
Given my limitations with the Russian language and the scar- emplars in Arenskys basses; even very particular and unpredict-
city of relevant material in North America, I was fortunate to find able eighteenth-century patterns find their place. Example 2
a copy of Arenskys Sbornik zadach (1000) dlja prakticheskogo shows the beginning of an advanced partimento in Eb major by
izucheniia garmonii (A Collection of 1000 Lessons for the Paisiello (the bass is his, the upper voices are my interpretation
Practical Study of Harmony) from 1897.9 This is a partimento of his figures) along with the analogous exercise from Arensky,
collection in all but name. It contains no explanations, no theory his No. 513 in G# minor (again the realization is mine). The
of harmony, no real instructions outside of occasional descriptive topic of these exercises is the simultaneous suspension of at least
headings (e.g., Suspensions in two or three voices). Instead, it is two voices in the context of a famous ground bass (the basso
packed solid (over 1300 lines of single-stave exercises) with musi- ostinato from Pachelbels Canon in D, which is likewise the
cal patterns to be absorbed and stored in memory. At its begin- major-mode, B-section bass of La romanesca, known better to
ning the young apprentice would find short and easy figured-bass English speakers as the scheme of Greensleeves).11 This inter-
exercises in simple note values. By its end the journeyman musi- locking gestaltRomanesca bass supporting parallel descend-
cian would be expected to realize florid unfigured basses of forty ing thirds, with or without double suspensionswas apparently
to fifty measures and equal in complexity to published character a jewel stored in Arenskys memory for ready retrieval. It was
pieces. The book contains both basses and melodies, what the the very pattern that he selected to lead off his after-dinner
French call basses et chantes donnes, many of which, accord- improvisation (see Example 1, mm. 13, in E minor).
ing to his student Matvey Pressman, Arensky had improvised for
classes at the Moscow Conservatory: At that time there were still
10 Bcher mit Harmonielehre-Aufgaben gab es damals noch nicht. So dachte
no books with [extensive] harmony exercises. So he devised any er sich irgendwelche Melodien oder Bsse aus, die nach bestimmten Regeln
zu harmonisieren warenAufgaben, die er im Stegreif erfand. Translation
8 Taruskin (2011, 175). from the original Russian to German in Wehrmeyer (2001, 42).
9 Arensky ([1897] 1929). I consulted the 1929 reprint; Arenskys collection 11 For eighteenth-century examples of this schema, see Gjerdingen (2007,
remained in print until 1960. Chapter 2).

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gebrauchs-formulas 193

Paisiello (1782) . . . Arensky (1897) . . .


4  53  42 3
4 3
7 6 5

example 2. A partimento by Paisiello published in St. Petersburg and a similar exercise by Arensky
In Giovanni Paisiello, Regole per bene accompagnare il partimento o sia, il basso fondamentale sopra il cembalo, St. Petersburg;
Anton Sepanovich Arensky, Sbornik zadach (1000) dlja prakticheskogo izucheniia garmonii (A Collection of 1000 Lessons
for the Practical Study of Harmony), Gosudarstvennoe Izdatelstvo-Muzykalnyi Sektor, Moscow, 1929

The type of circumlocution needed to describe the Paisiello/ music-rhetorical strategy of delaying the arrival of an important
Arensky variation on the Romanesca schema is already cumber- cadential dominant chord by means of (1) an inner pedal on the
some, whether one speaks in words or thoroughbass figures. tonic, (2) passing motions between different positions of a 6/5/3
When Arensky progressed to the more complex combinations of chord over the fourth scale degree in the bass, and (3) the frequent
his own day, he eventually abandoned any implied metalanguage raising of the fourth degree as it finally moves to the fifth degree.
and resorted to a page of fully realized Gebrauchs-formulas Below Kalafatis phrase, Example 5(a), I have placed the relevant
exemplars in my terms.12 That page is reproduced as Example 3. esempio (example, but also exemplar) by the early nineteenth-
Arensky titled this page - century Neapolitan maestro Saverio Valente (Example 5[b]),
(Motives for Modulating whose lessons may still have been used at the Naples conservatory
Sequences). Thus, these formulas were both integral, in the when Glinka visited there in the early 1830s. I mention Glinka
sense of constituting independent modules, and connectable, because in the overture to Ruslan and Ludmila (183742; see
in the sense of working well when strung together in larger Example 5[c]), one finds the same strategy employed at a corre-
ascending or descending schemes. As shown in Example 4, sponding location, though with the passing 5/4 over the dominant
the Schumannesque No. 846 fits nicely into a descending replaced by the more common passing 6/4. Example 5(d) is taken
sequence that moves diatonically to the relative minor. By con- from Akimenkos Romance for Violin and Piano, Op. 9 (1901), and
trast, No. 847 suggests a thoroughly chromatic sequence in the represents a more remote derivation of the Indugio. Akimenko pro-
manner of Rimsky-Korsakov. And No. 865, with its Tchaikovsky- vides most of the features of this Gebrauchs-formula, but he recom-
like intensity and initial upward thrust, suggests an ascending bines and reinterprets them in a way reminiscent of Rachmaninoff s
sequence and a triumphant breakthrough to the major mode. command of sonority and harmonic implication.
A purple expression like triumphant breakthrough may ir- In 1974 a window opened onto Stravinskys compositional
ritate some readers, yet ignoring the affective preoccupations of apprenticeship when Eric Walter White published the early
this music culture would be the greater sin. These Gebrauchs- Scherzo (1902) and the substantial Sonata in F# Minor (1903
formulas are, to be sure, describable as mere combinations of 4). The Scherzo is a modest work playable by any good amateur
tones and intervals. Perhaps more importantly, however, they pianist. In its Trio one finds Stravinsky working out, in Arenskys
represent specific locations in a cultural web of emotional, so- phrase, motives for modulating sequences. The modules that
cial, and historical associations. When I played No. 848 for a he chose to sequence invite comparison with the Gebrauch-
colleague, he smiled and said Schubert. These exemplars are formulas notated by Arensky. For instance, Example 6(a) pairs
the musical equivalents of the sayings, phrases, love-speeches, Arenskys No. 849 (extended to fall a third) with mm. 78 from
reprimands, cries of despair, and ravings that were learned in the Trio of Stravinskys Scherzo. Similarly, Example 6(b) pairs
the commedia dellarte. Gebrauchs-formulas were musical utter- Arenskys No. 859 (extended to rise a second) with mm. 1112
ances that meant something, and in giving them to students, from the same Trio.
Rimsky-Korsakov and Arensky were providing starting points Speaking of the Sonata in 1960, and not knowing that a
for the creation of meaningful music. copy of it had survived in Russia, Stravinsky quipped that It
Stravinskys early teachers, Fedir Akimenko and Vasily Kalafati, was, I suppose, an inept imitation of late Beethoven.13 Like so
were both recent students of Rimsky-Korsakov, so one could expect many of Stravinskys bons mots, this one is both sardonic and
to find echoes of chromatic Gebrauchs-formulas in their music. I slyly misleading. His sonata is a virtuoso piano work very much
was thus surprised to see even standard Italian diatonic formulas of its time, one that challenged Rachmaninoff, Medtner, and
still in evidence. The first of Kalafatis Op. 9 bagatelles (1907) em- other young lions of the keyboard on their own ground, even if
ploys what I term the Indugio (It.: lingering or tarrying), an old not always to Stravinskys advantage. Yet Gebrauchs-formulas

12 Arensky ([1897] 1929), numbered as lessons 84467. 13 Stravinsky and Craft (1960, 28).

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194 music theory spectrum 33 (2011)

example 3. Compositional exemplarsGebrauchs-formulaspublished by Arensky

from the Rimsky-Korsakov circle remain close to the surface. rejoinder to the standard thematic assertions of the galant style.14
Example 7, taken from the Andante, shows Stravinskys ascend- The compositional utility of such a Gebrauchs-formula helped it
ing and descending presentations (mm. 78 and 1920 respec- survive well into the nineteenth century, especially in social cir-
tively) of a module closely related to the opening gesture of cles where connotations of aristocratic poise were still welcome.
Arenskys No. 865 (seen previously in Example 4[c]). Example 8 displays four Prinners in chronological order. The
What I never expected to find in such a chromatically ad- first comes from the well-known opening Allegro of Mozarts
vanced sonata was a Prinner. What, you might ask, is a Prinner? Sonata in C Major, K. 545 (1788). Mozart presents two bars of
During the eighteenth century it was the most common riposte
to an opening thematic gambit, something like an all-purpose 14 See Gjerdingen (2007, Chapter 3).

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gebrauchs-formulas 195

No. 846          



No. 847



No. 865 





example 4. Three of Arenskys Gebrauchs-formulas and their implied sequential continuations


6 6
Kalafati . . .
4 4 4 4 4

6 6 6 6
4 4

(b) Valente . . . 6 6



4 5

(c) Glinka . . .                 


4 5

Akimenko . . .
 3                        4        4             
6 6 6


6 6 6
4 4 4

example 5. Instances of the Indugio schema by (a) Stravinskys teacher Kalafati, Trois bagatelles pour piano, Op. 9, No. 1, Scherzino,
mm. 12631 (M. P. Belaieff, Leipzig, 1907); (b) the Neapolitan maestro Saverio Valente (ca. 1790, Ms. Q.13.17, fol. 5v, Noseda
Collections, Milan Conservatory Library, Milan); (c) Mikhail Glinka, Ruslan and Lyudmila, mm. 4853 (vol. 14 of Mikhail Glinka,
Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, Muzyka, Moscow, 1966); and (d) Stravinskys teacher Akimenko, Deux morceaux pour violon et piano,
Op. 9, No. 1, Romance, mm. 1519 of the Pi mosso section (M. P. Belaieff, Leipzig, 1901)

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196 music theory spectrum 33 (2011)

(a) No. 849 Stravinsky . . .




(b) No. 849 Stravinsky . . .



example 6. Two of Arenskys Gebrauchs-formulas paired with (a) mm. 78 of the Trio from Stravinskys early Scherzo for Piano; and (b)
mm. 1112 of the same Trio movement. Stravinsky: Scherzo for Piano, Faber, London, 1974

 6  6
descending ascending
  8                 8        


example 7. From the Andante of Stravinskys early Sonata in F # Minor, two presentations (descending: mm. 78; ascending: mm. 1920)
of sequences based on modules quite close to the opening of Arenskys four-voice exemplar No. 865. Stravinsky: Sonata in F# Minor, Faber,
London, 1974

Mozart . . . 4 3





4 3 2 1

(b) Chopin . . . 6 5




 4 3 2 1

Rubinstein . . . 6 5 4


4 3 2 1

(d)  2 
Stravinsky . . . 6 5

4 3


4 3 2 1

Example 8. Instances of the Prinner schema by (a) Mozart, Sonata in C Major, K. 545 (Klaviersonaten, Ser. 9: Group 25/Vol. 2 of
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Neue Ausgabe smtlicher Werke, Brenreiter, Kassel, 1986); (b) Chopins Piano Concerto No. 1 in E Minor,
Op. 11, I, mm. 6168 (Probst-Kistner and M. Schlesinger, Leipzig, 1833); (c) Rubinsteins Piano Concerto No. 4 in D Minor, Op. 70, II,
mm. 1320 (Bartholf Senff, Leipzig, 1872); and (d) Stravinskys Sonata in F # Minor, IV, mm. 16368

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gebrauchs-formulas 197

Kalafati . . .


example 9. An obvious presentation of the Romanesca schema in the first movement of Kalafati, Sonata in D Minor, Op. 4, No. 2, I,
shortly before the return of the second theme, M. P. Belaieff, Leipzig, 1900
Tchaikovsky . . .






example 10. My adaption of a famous theme from Tchaikovskys Symphony No. 6, showing how closely it conforms to an archaic double-re-
prise form, including the Fonte digression after the double bar, a typical feature of the galant style

opening statement, and then two bars of Prinner riposte (he Over the years, in public lectures on the schematism of eigh-
slightly departs from the norm by placing the standard bass in teenth-century music, I have found audiences quite willing to
the implied tenor voice). The second Prinner is from Chopins accept the premise that people who wore powdered wigs might
first piano concerto (1830), the major-mode theme of the first have behaved musically in stereotypical ways. Leonard B.
movement. Four bars of opening statement lead to a two-bar Meyer, one of my own teachers, argued that nineteenth-century
Prinner riposte and then to a harmonic feint, through a composers retained many of these same schematisms but went
Phrygian cadence, toward the relative minor. Chopin matches to great lengths to conceal them.16 One feature that may distin-
the 23 bass suspension in his Prinners first half with a 43 guish Russian compositional technique in the later nineteenth
soprano suspension in its second half, and makes the first half century from, say, German, is the use of far less concealment
harmonically more urgent by means of a tenor line that rises (e.g., the example from the Rubinstein concerto). When
C#D#E (thus creating a #4/2 chord over the bass A4 in place Stravinskys teacher Kalafati chose to employ the Romanesca
of the more relaxed and common 5/3). The third Prinner is the schema in a large sonata for piano, he did so in a way that calls
opening theme from the slow movement of Anton Rubinsteins attention to it (Example 9). And when Tchaikovsky, in the first
fourth piano concerto (1864). Much like Chopins theme, movement of one of the repertorys most heart-rending and
Rubinsteins follows a four-bar opening gambit (a Meyer in psychologically intense symphonies (No. 6, 1893), chose to offer
my taxonomy15) with a two-bar Prinner riposte and then a two- a theme of hope and redemption (characteristically marked ten-
bar half cadence. The final Prinner of Example 8 is by eramente, molto cantabile, con espansione), he laid it out in a form
Stravinsky, the opening theme of the Andante B section of his barely distinguishable from that of small Italian minuets from
sonatas final movement (1904). Two bars of opening gambit the first half of the eighteenth century: statement, restatement,
lead to two bars of Prinner riposte, though the expected melodic Fonte digression, return of statement. Example 10 makes nota-
termination on F# is delayed so as to elide with what becomes a tionally explicit the correspondence between Tchaikovskys
melodically extended restatement of the theme.

15 Ibid. (Chapter 9). 16 Meyer (1989, 22241).

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198 music theory spectrum 33 (2011)

Arensky . . . Rachmaninoff . . .

cadence plagal cadence

Glazunov . . . Taneiev . . .


half cadence

Arensky . . .



* almost note-for-note from Fenaroli partimenti: ascending Rule of the , then cadenza composta
Example 11. The joint improvisation of Arensky, Rachmaninoff, Glazunov, and Taneyev, annotated to draw attention to the survival of a
number of eighteenth-century Italian commonplacesGebrauchs-formulas

theme and the double-reprise form of countless small galant Gebrauchs-formulas that facilitated Arenskys after-dinner parlor
movements.17 game. As a final musical illustration I present, in Example 11,
Regardless of whether these composers absorbed the con- an annotated score of the joint improvisation of Example 1. My
stituent Gebrauchs-formulas of the repertory from extensive ex- annotations mark off the many eighteenth-century schemata
perience or through guided tutelage, having such exemplars in still operational that autumn evening in 1896. When Taneyev
memory made possible fluent composition and improvisation. begins a Prinner but Arensky takes it up in mid-flight and
Stravinsky received training in this tradition, as an artisan in completes it (mm. 1314), we might ask the same question of
Ansermets view. Ansermet went on to say that The fault of Arensky that one of Pushkins characters put to a Neapolitan
academic instruction is to be theoretical and speculative instead improvisatore: Astonishing. . . . How can it be that someone
of being operational.18 It was the shared operational knowl- elses idea, which had only just reached your ear, immediately
edge offered by historically, culturally, and affectively situated became your own property, as if you had carried, fostered, and
nurtured it for a long time?19 The answer, of course, is that
17 Most minuets modulate before the double bar. One eighteenth-century the ideain all its improbable specificitywas already there
genre that, like Tchaikovskys theme, does not, is the amoroso. For a set of tucked away in the improvisers memory, a gift to him from
amorosi, see Gaetano Pugnani ([ca. 177174] 1991), Op. 8. his master.
18 Ansermet (1921, 16): Le tort de lenseignement acadmique est dtre
thorique et spculatif au lieu dtre opratif [paraphrasing M. Maritain]. 19 Pushkin (1990, 255).

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gebrauchs-formulas 199

works cited Paisiello, Giovanni. 1782. Regole per bene accompagnare il parti-
mento o sia, il basso fondamentale sopra il cembalo. St. Petersburg.
Akimenko, Fedir Stepanovych. 1901. Romance, Op. 9, No. 1. Pugnani, Gaetano. [ca. 177174] 1991. Six Solos for a Violin
In Deux morceaux pour violon et piano, Op. 9. 211. Leipzig: and Bass, Op. 8. In Late Eighteenth-Century Masters:
M. P. Belaieff. Continuo Sonatas for Violin. Ed. Jane Adas. 173209. New
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Ansermet, Ernest. 1921. Loeuvre dIgor Strawinsky. La revue Fiction. Ed. Paul Debreczeny. Trans. Paul Debreczeny and
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