Proc. Instn
Civ. Engrs, Part 2, 1983,15, Sept., 419451
PAPER 8656
Moment redistribution in skewed slab bridges
R. J. COPE, BSc, PhD, MICE, MIStructE*
P. v. RAO, BSc, PhD, MIE(India)*
The behaviour of reinforced concrete, skewed slab bridges designed for standard highway loading is described. It is shown that the response at the serviceability and ultimate limit states is strongly influenced by the directions of reinforcing bars. However, redistributing reinforcement to avoid congestion did not greatly influence response to loading. Sufficient test data is provided to enable engineersto validate proposed analytical methods. Since moments are redistributed by cracking and yielding of reinforcement, nonlinear methods of analysis are needed to predict the behaviour of skew slabs. A method based on finite element procedures is described. The modelling of constitutive equations is discussed in detail. It is shown that with suitable representation of cracking, tension stiffening and the inplane shear modulus, good predictions can be made with a diagonal constitutive matrix for cracked concrete. Monitoring indices to control the number of iterations to be taken in a solution are discussed, and suitable parameters for use with reinforced concrete slabs are proposed. The relative costs of numerical procedures are assessed and recommerldations are made for a relatively economicapproach.
coefficients relating concrete stress and strain equilibrating nodal forces coefficient relating concrete shear stress and strain initial and tangent stiffness matrices bending moment twisting moment design moment for xdirection steel applied nodal loads outofbalance forces vertical outofbalance force norm iterative work cracked shear stiffness parameter iterative displacements tensile strains in concrete for defining tension stiffening concrete strains in nt axes concrete stresses in _{n}_{}_{t} axes
Introduction
Linear elastic theories of plate analysis are distributions under working loads to assess
used to predict strain
and deflexion
criteria for the serviceability limit
states. They are also used to predict moment fields and shear forces for the ulti
Written discussion closes 15 November 1983;for further details see p. (ii). * University of Liverpool.
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COPE AND RA0
401
Analytical representation
Strain
Fig. 1. Compressive stressstrain curve
mate limit states. Itis generally accepted that the theoriesof linear elastic analysis for plates can provide only a very approximate description of the behaviour of reinforced concrete slabs. At working load levels, this is due mainly to the varia tion in stiffness parameters due to cracking, but coupling of membrane and flex ural effects when there is a stiff surrounding structural system can also be important. Use of moments from linear analysis for design for ultimate loading conditions is justified not on the accuracyof the analytical prediction, but because any load equilibrating moment system satisfies the requirements of rigid plastic design theories.
2. To provide information on the behaviour
of 45" skewed bridge slabs
designed for standard highway loading, with which to assess the predictions of analysis, four onefifth scale models were tested. All the designs were based on the same moment envelopes,which were determined using linear plate theory.Two of the models were reinforced with steel perpendicular and parallel to the supported
Table 1. Concrete properties
Model
Compressive strength
Tensile strength,*
100 mm cube, modulus,150 _{X} 300 mm cylinder
N/mm2
^{A}^{v}^{e}^{r}^{a}^{g}^{e}
Standard
deviation
Initial elastic
kN/mm2t
1A 
42.1 
3.0 
_{3}_{.}_{0}_{7} 
31.3 
_{2}_{A} 
44.8 
2.5 
2.97 
30.5 
_{1}_{B} 
47.9 
2.6 
_{3}_{.}_{4}_{1} 
33.2 
_{2}_{B} 
44.1 
2.0 
_{3}_{.}_{1}_{0} 
30.0 
* Average of four tests. t From strain gauged cylinder.
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MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION IN
SLAB BRIDGES
edges and two had orthogonal reinforcement oriented with respect edges.
to the free
3. Each model was subjected to a sustained load component and live loading
consisting of one bogie
of the HB design vehicle. This loading was applied repeat
edly at five locations and then its intensity was increased to cause failure. As
moments cannot be
recorded to provide a basis for assessing the response of the slabs to loading. Values of these quantities are presented here to provide data for the validation of analytical methods.
measured directly, reactions, deflexions and strains were
4. A simple nonlinear analytical procedure is presented for analysing such
slabs. It is based on the finite element approach with an iterative solution to the stiffness equations. A smeared crack approach is used with nonlinear orthotropic plane stress material equations applied at a threedimensional gridof stations. The material modellingand numerical techniques areassessed in the light of the experi mental results,and their relative accuraciesand costs are compared.
Model skew slabs
5. Model dimensions
were selected to be reasonably large
to reduce scaling
effects. Onefifth scale models of a solid skew slab bridge with prototype dimen sions of: right span 94 m, right width 94 m, traffic lanes 3.7 m, footpaths 1 m, depth 0.5 m and askew angle of 45" were selected.
Concrete
of tensile to
compressive strengths produced by the model concrete in the range obtained for concrete in prototype slabs. The maximum sized aggregate was _{7} mm, to reduce
6. Concrete mix proportions were designed to give the ratio
600 ^{}
Analvtical remesentation
400 ^{}
N
E
2 E
.
5 g!
f Typical test
200 ^{} 

Analytical data 

E = 219.2 kN/mmz 

Ultimate stress: 620.0 N/mmz Ultimate strain: _{0}_{.}_{0}_{6}_{7}_{5} 

^{0} 0 
0002 
0004 
0.006 
Strain
Fig.2. Stressstrain curvefor 8 mm Torbar
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COPE AND RA0
scale effects on aggregate interlock action in shear and on growth of cracks. Concrete properties based ontests of control specimens at the timeof loading the slabs to failure are given in Table 1. A typical uniaxial stressstrain curve for the four slabsis shown in Fig.1.
7. Each slab was cast on a speciallybuilt table, with attached vibrators to
provide the necessary compaction.Six mixer loads were requiredto cast each slab and its control specimens. Both slaband controlspecimens were cured under wet burlap for 28 days, after which they were left exposed in the laboratory. The slabs
were tested over a threeweek period,about two monthsafter being cast.
8. Concrete material properties are stochastic
in nature. Nondestructive
testing indicated a variation in strength over plan, but the rangeof extreme values
was smaller than that of the test specimens. It seems likely that the variation in strength through the thickness of the models would be less than that _{t}_{o} be expected in prototypeslabs.
Reinforcement
9. Eight mm Torbar was used for the reinforcement.
A typical stressstrain
curve is shown in Fig.2. There was little variation in the propertiesof bars before the onsetof yielding. The ranges for the ultimatestress and strainfor the specimens tested were 58C620 N/mm2 and 0.06754’085,respectively.
(b)
Fig.3. Reinforcement for slab1A: (a) so@t steel; (b)top steel
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MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION
IN SLAB BRIDGES
10. Reinforcement for the model slabs of series 1 was placed parallel and
orthogonal to thelines of the supports,while that for slabs of series _{2} was arranged
parallel and orthogonal to the free edges. Quantities of steel for slabs 1A and 2A were determined using the WoodArmer equationsfor each loading case, without reference to the amountof orthogonal steel (i.e., M: = M, + 1M,, I and so on). To follow design oftice practice, additional reinforcement was provided in softitthe to ensure maximum spacings of 150 mm and 300 mm for main and secondary steel directions, respectively. Reinforcementquantities for slabs _{1}_{B} and _{2}_{B} were obtained by using judgementto reduce theamounts of steel in congested areasand by adopting a more uniform spacing of bars. The behaviour of these slabs was assessed using nonlinear analytical methods (whichwill be described later) before they were constructed.
11. Layouts of reinforcement are illustrated in Figs 36, and a comparison of
steel quantities is given in Table 2. Nominal stirrups fabricated from3 mm round
bars were provided at about 70 mm centres along lines of support, and at about 40 mm centres for 1 m from the obtuse corners along thefree edges.
Test procedure
12. Since the densities of materials for the prototype and model slabs are the
same, additional loading was added to the slab to simulate prototype selfweight
(b)
Fig. 4. Reinforcement for slab IB: (a)sofit steel;(b)top steel
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COPE AND RA0
effects.
excluding the selfweight of the concrete, was 52 kN. For the tests to fai1ure;this loading was increased to 64 kN.
For most of the tests, the total, sustained, distributed load on a slab,
13. As the HB bogie was appliedat five positions, Fig. 7, HA loading could not
easily be applied and was omitted. Except for slab 2A, all the slabs were subjected
to five cycles of loading at each of the stationsPlP5 in turn.
levels40 kN (corresponding to serviceability load intensity)and 60 kN (partly to simulate longterm effects and additional cracking that would be caused by the
Loading totwo load
Table 2. Total length of 8 mm bars in metres
~
~~
Soat steel
Top steel
Longitudinal
Longitudinal
Transverse
Transverse
Slab 1A 
39 
39 
92 
21 

Slab 1B 
66 
39 
21 
41 

Slab 2A 
108 
71 
54 
31 

Slab 2B 
_{8}_{4} 
_{4}_{3} 
_{1}_{9} 
_{2}_{4} 
U
l
1
l
L
l
IllltiiiiiiW/
(b)
Fig. 5. Reinforcementfor slab 2A: (a)sofit steel; (b)top steel
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MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION
IN SLAB BRIDGES
HA load componentkwas completed before loading the slab to failure with the bogie stationed atP2.
Instrumentation
14. Reactions, deflexions, strains, and crack widths were recorded. The model
skew slabshad six supports on eachside. To represent prototype bearing pads, the slabs were supported on 150 X 150 X 30 mm steel bearing pads lined with hard rubber. To minimize inplane restraints, a thrust bearing assembly was incorpo
rated between each load cell and steel pad. The average support assemblystiffness was about 250 kN/mm.
15. Deflexions were measured using mechanical dial gauges. The datum for
measurements is given by the deflexions that prevailed under the weight of con crete only. Because testing for load cycles at each load position took about one
day, some drift of readings was unavoidable and there was some recovery in residual deflexions overnight.
is
made particularly difficult by the discrete nature of cracking. In areas susceptible to crackingmost of the sofit andthe top surface at the obtuse cornersDemec
16. Measurement and interpretation
of surface strains on concrete slabs
^{.} 18 mm cover
(b)
Fig. 6. Reinforcementfor slab 2B:(a)soffit steel; (b)top steel
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COPE AND RA0
426
c
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MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION IN SLAB BRIDGES
mechanical demountable gauges were used. Measured strains were found to depend critically on the gauge length used and the number of cracks crossing the gauge length. For the slabs tested, the average spacing of the sofit cracks was of the order 6&70 mm. Strains over a gauge length of 100 mm were large when one or two crackswere included, but very small when irregularities in the crack pattern left uncracked concrete over a gauge length. Attempts to derive principal strains from readings over 100 mm produced very peaky distributions. Principal strains
based on 
readings 
over gauge lengths 
of 200 mm and 
300 mm were broadly 
similar. 
17. In Fig. 8, typical distributions of principal strains across the soffit centre
line of slab 1A are shown. The degree of similarity for 200 mm and 300 mm gauge lengths (2 and 3 times the slab depth respectively) suggests that use of 200 mm is
2500
(D
0
7
X
C
.
2000
_{5}_{0}_{0} 
Y
_

l00 mm
200 mm
c 300 mm
/\
l
\
\
l
Fig.8. Comparison of midspan sofit strains5th cycle, 60 kN vehicle load (P2, P4)
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MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION IN
SLAB BRIDGES
towards both free edges along lines roughly parallel to the supports and at a
spacing of about 65 mm. The directions of additional cracks in the edge zones,
which formed when the loading was applied at positions P2 and P4, were imately orthogonal to thefree edges.
20. Under 60 kN load cycling, the extent of the soffit cracking spread towards
the obtusecorners, and the short lengthsof cracks, initiated during the40 kN load cycling, grew parallel to the initially established cracksto produce a more uniform
spread of cracking. Fig. 9(a) shows the soffit crack pattern after the 60 kN load sequence hadbeen completed.
21. Loading to 60 kN at positions P2 and P4 also produced hogging cracksin
the obtuse corners, a few of which continued as inclined cracks down the sup ported edges, between the first and second supports. Thefull extent of top surface
cracking could not be seen during testing becauseof the presence of the sustained load component.
22. Initial cracking of slab 2A was observed at about 16 kN with the vehicle
approx
bogie at P1. When the live loading reached _{4}_{0} kN the soffit cracks extended over the entire width of the slab. They were straighter and more continuous than the cracks in slab lA, but had about the same average spacing. Hogging cracks in the
obtuse corner became noticeable at about 40 kN with the vehicle bogie at posi tions P2 and P4.
23. The development of cracking in slab 1B was similar to that in slab 1A, but
there were a few ‘intersecting’ cracks on the soffit, i.e. cracks running between
nearly parallel cracks. Slab 2B behaved in a similar manner to slab 2A. The sofft crack pattern for this slab at the end of the 60 kN load cycling is shown in Fig. 9(b).
24. Comparison of the crack patterns shown in Fig. 9 indicates clearly the
influence of the reinforcement directions. In the stiffer slabs of series 1, the edge zones cracked under the influence of loading close to the edges; the cracks there tend to be orthogonal to thesides. The crack patternis discontinuous and does not reach the acute corner zones. In contrast, the centre loading cracked most of the soffits of the moreflexible slabs and the crack pattern consistsof more continuous, and more nearly straightlines.
25. Just as the responses to working loadswere strongly influencedby the steel
directions so too were the modes of failure. For slab IA, with a load of 100 kN on
the vehicle bogie at position P2, a shear crack opened suddenly right through the
depth of the free edge near the line of supports in the obtuse corner.A local shear failure appeared imminent, but on further loading, midspan deflexions continued to increase af about the same rate. Soffit cracks began to spread towards the loaded acute corner,and from about 120 kN, offshoots of cracks began to produce an intersecting crack pattern. When the applied load reached _{1}_{8}_{0} kN, there was a sudden punching shearfailure in the obtuse corner.
26. The sofft crack pattern after failure is shown in Fig. lqa). It can be seen
that a band of sagging failure cracks was in the process of forming from the load position (at the topof the figure) towards the opposite obtuse corner bearing. The corresponding crack pattern on the top surfaceis shown in Fig. 1l(a),where awide band of hogging cracks canbe seen.From the distributionsof sagging and hogging cracks it would appear that if the shear failure had been prevented, a ‘yieldline’ flexural mechanism might have formedwith a sagging yieldline running from the vehicle to the opposite obtuse corner and with a hogging yieldline between the obtuse corners.
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COPE AND RA0
27. The behaviour of slab 1B was broadly similar to that of slab 1A. At about
90 kN, flexural shear cracks at the loaded free edge widened and progressed
through the depthof the slab. At this load level the sofft cracksbegan to spread in
a manner similar to that describedfor slab 1A. Ata load of 160 kN the capacity for rotation at the obtuse corner bearing was reached (the maximum deflexion was threequarters of the slab depth) and testing was discontinued. The sofit crack pattern was similarto thatshown for slab 1A. On the topsurface a narrow bandof crushing started at thefree edge, about l m from the obtuse cornerand progressed to about the centroidof the load position.Top surface crackingwas similar to that shown for slab 1A. Inspection of the slab near the obtuse corner bearing revealed effects of punching shear, andit was thought that a shear failure had been immi nent.
28. Slabs of series 2 responded to increased loading in a more ductile manner,
and with better moment distribution across the widths of the slabs. However, for
slab 2A,
between the two obtuse corner supports and was wide enough to produce a discontinuity in slope about a normalto the supported side. From about 180 kN, midspan sofit cracks at the free edge widened noticeably and concrete at the top surface began to crush. When the central yieldline had reached about half the width of the slab, deflexions becameexcessive and testing was stoppedat _{2}_{0}_{0} kN.
at a load of about 140 kN, a crack progressed from the top surface
29. Behaviour of slab 2B was similar to that of slab 2A, but events occurred at
lower load levels and the test was stopped at 169 _{k}_{N}_{.} The sofit crack pattern of
this slab, after failure is shown in Fig. lqb), and the top surface is shown
Fig. 1l(b). Itis clear that the slabwas folding into two halves. The yieldline is not quite parallel to the supported edges andthis is possibly due to thedisplacements
of the supports. It was thought unlikely that a full yieldline would have formed
because of incipient instability of the bearings. Even if the yieldline had pro gressed further, it is not clear whether greater load capacity could have been mobilized, as the crushed concrete appeared incapable _{o}_{f} sustaining a large com pressive stress.
30. The test results show clearlythat the amountof moment redistribution in a
reinforced concrete skewed slab is largely in the hands of the designer. Placing orthogonal reinforcement with respect to the line of supports produces a stiff slab with concentration of reactive load in the obtuse corner. With orthogonal reinforcement oriented with respectto the free edges, a moreflexible slab results. A reasonable amount of redistribution of the reinforcement designedon the basis of linear elastic moment envelopes to reduce congestion does not greatly affect behaviour in eithercase.
Numerical procedures
in
31. Analysis of the slabs was conducted using the finite element (FE) method.
The displacement functions selected for flexural effects are those of the Baldwin, Irons, Razzaque' constrained quadrilateral element. Those for inplane displace ments are the quadratic serendipity shape functions for an eightnode quadrilat eral element.2 Taken together, these provide the basis forflata shell element with linear strain variation over thicknessand bilinear variationof inplane strains.
32. To start an analysis, the finite element stiffness equations are set up and
solved to provide an initial estimate of strains. At this stage the stiffness matrix is based on unstressed material properties, with no coupling of flexural and inplane
components. Strains are sampledat a threedimensional gridof stations over each
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MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION IN SLAB BRIDGES
element. In plan, the sampling stations are located at the 2 X 2 GaussLegendre integration stations and there are five equallyspaced stations through the thick ness. For the analyses reported, an8 X 8 mesh of elements was used, so strains are sampled at a grid of 16 X 16 X 5 points in a slab.
33. Using the
material property relationships, which are described in 4656
the stress state corresponding to the prevailing strainsis determined. Virtual work
is invoked to determine a vector of equilibrating nodal forces [F]. If the applied loading is represented by the consistent nodal force vector [P], the basic non linear equation tobe solved is
where [R] is the vector of outofbalance nodal forces. Equation (1) is solved
iteratively to some prescribed tolerance on the length of the vector of outof balance forces and/or on the displacement increments. It is customary to apply loading in steps and to solve equation (1) at each load level. Details of the pro cedure for setting up the equations havebeen described el~ewhere.~.~
34. In the past few years a considerable effort has been expended to produce
efficient procedures for solving the equations. In a full NewtonRaphson scheme,
be computed at each iteration. As this is
extremely expensive, the method is prohibitively costly for the large system of
equations involved. In a modified NewtonRaphson scheme, thestiffness matrix is
is
perfectly acceptable to use an approximate matrix, but the number of iterations
required diminishes with increasing accuracyof the estimate.
35. As an alternative to the NewtonRaphson approach, a class of procedures
known as matrix update methods or QuasiNewton methodshas been developed. These methods involve updating the inverse of the stiffness matrix to provide
secant approximations during each iteration. The method used for this work is known as theBFGS (Broyden, Fletcher, Goldfarb, Shanno) method,and its use in finite element analysiswas first suggested by Matthies and Strang.’
matter which of the analytical techniques is used, equation _{(}_{1}_{)} is not
completely satisfied; iterations are stoppedwhen specified tolerances are satisfied.
For the slabs studied, it was found that measures of outofbalance vertical forces and of released energy couldbe used to control operations.6
the tangent stiffness matrix would
recomputed _{o}_{c}_{c}_{a}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y}_{.}_{A}_{s} equation (1) does not contain thestiffness matrix it
36. No
37. In particular, the normof outofbalance vertical nodal forces R, given by
was found to be useful. In the equation, Pi and Fiare the applied and internally mobilized vertical forces at node i. The value of R, can both increase and decrease during iterations and theuse of the BFGS procedure leads to a more rapid, though less uniform, decrease. For some modified NewtonRaphson solutions, R, stabil ized at a relatively high value, while analysis of the same slab using the BFGS solution produced small R, values. The updating and scaling techniques involved must disturb thesettled patterns of selfequilibrating outofbalanceforce systems. In general, for the skew slabs, R, = 0.02, for two successive iterations, has been found to be satisfactory.
38. The released energy
W
can be assessed by
the work done
by the outof
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COPE AND RA0
balance loads moving through the correspondingiterative displacements (Si).
W
= c
i L
1 (Pi  F#,
)
where j is taken for each degree of freedom. In Modified NewtonRaphson solu tions, the approximated tangent stiffness matrix is greater than that prevailing after the load increment is applied and, although the outofbalance forcesfluctu ate, the iterative work decreasesfairly smoothly. With the _{B}_{F}_{G}_{S} method, deflex
ions can be overestimated during iterations leading to fluctuations and sign changes in W. This feature is illustrated in Table 3, which lists values of iterative work during a loadincrement in which considerable cracking occurred.
39. To provide a norm for monitoring convergence involving both forces and
Table 3. Variation of iterative work
Without acceleration
_{W}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{B}_{F}_{G}_{S} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{c}_{e}_{d}_{u}_{r}_{e}
Iteration 
W 
_{I}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} 
W 
Iteration 
W 

number 
number number 

1 
5082 
1 
_{2}_{3}_{8} 
_{1}_{2} 
4 

10 
1030 
2 
 86 
39 14 

298 
20 
3 
463 
16 
2 

30 
135 
4 
_{1}_{8} 
_{1}_{6}_{2} 
0.01 

40 
101 
5 
367 
20 
0.01 

50 
94 
6 
 27 
22 
0@005 

60 
42 
7 
24 
345 
6 

70 
15 
8 
14 
26 
0.3 

80 
 72 
9 
265 
_{2}_{7} 
O~ooool 

90 
0.8 
10 
9 

95 
0.5 
186 
11 
Table 4. Computer mill time (ECP: energy control parameter)
Load
K,/BFGS
_{(}_{E}_{C}_{P} for K,,: 0.005; ECP for BFGS: 0.001)
1.2 Selfweightt 
519 
20 kN 
46/20 
40 
57/25 
60 
52/22 
80 
6414l 
90 
155t/56 
100 
l55tj51 
110 
99/50 
120 
88/24 
130 
155t/65 
* Stiffness recomputed.
t Maximum number of iterations.
434
_{K}_{T}
_{(}_{E}_{C}_{P}_{:}_{0}_{4}_{0}_{5}_{)}
15*
46*
23*
_{2}_{8}_{*}
32*
165t*
165t*
36*
34*
165t*
718
K,/BFGS
(ECPfor KTand
BFGS: 0.005)
617
55*/25*
32*/22*
20116
35/20
156t/95
1567159
42/20
57*/31*
165t*/59*
7241354

CSP

0.94
0.13
0.07
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.01
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MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION
IN SLAB BRIDGES
displacements, the ratio of energy released during an iteration, to the maximum energy released in a previous iteration of that particular increment can be used. A limiting value of between 0.005 and 0.001 on this ratio hasbeen found to give good results, but with a BFGS solution at least two further iterations should be per formed to ensure that thevalue stays small.
40. As the above nonlinear methods of analysis have been well described and
now appear in a student text,’ only theirrelative efliciencies for use with reinforced
concrete slabs is discussed here. In Table _{4}_{,} the computer mill times for analyses of slab 2B with monotonically increasing load on the bogie at position P2 are com pared. Slab 2B is the most flexible of the slabs tested and exhibited the greatest nonlinearities.
41. In Table 4, K, indicates use of the initial stiffness matrix throughout, K,
indicates use of an approximate tangentstiffness matrix which is calculated at the
end of a concrete
concrete was given a small positive modulus.6 This procedure avoids the numeri cal instabilities reported by Crisfield.* Values in the Table under the heading BFGS used the matrix update technique on the decomposed stiffness matrix used
for each load increment.
42. There are several means for checking the integrity of a structure during
load increment. The current tangent stiffness coefficients for uncracked and reinforcement were taken from the assumed curves, but cracked
analysis. Strains canbe monitored to assess crack widths, possible _{l}_{o}_{s}_{s} _{o}_{f} ductility
and extent of yielding. For automated decisionmakirig, Bergan et aL9 have advo cated the use of a current stiffness parameter (CSP), which attempts to express the stiffness at any load level in terms of the initial linear stiffness. The parameter is defined such that it has the value of unity for an undamaged structure. However, since the rate of stiffness degradation in reinforced concrete slabs is not uniform, the variation of this parameter with load is not uniform, as can be seen from the values that aregiven in the last columnof Table _{4}_{.}
43. During an analysis, incremental changes in the CSP can be used to deter
mine when it is likely to be advantageous to recompute the tangent stiffness
matrix. A reasonable value for
value when the stiffness matrix was previously
reduces to less than 70%
changed. In the penultimate column of Table 4, the cost of an analysis of slab 28 based on this procedure is given, but for this slab, it can be seen that the method
provides no significant cost advantage.
incipient structural failure are the growth of
displacements in ductile structures, the behaviour of outofbalance force norms,
of energy released. When a slab is close to failure, R, and W
remain very large, even after many iterations.
and the quantity
effecting a change seems to be
when the CSP
of its
44. Other factors that indicate
45. For all the analyses listed in Table 4, iterations at a load level were stopped
when the energy control parameter dropped to the indicated value, or when the number of iterations performed reached 200. The predicted states of the slab at each load level were substantially the same, no matterwhich analytical procedure
and controlling parameter were used. The values in the Table show the advantage of using the BFGSmethod.
Material modelling
46. At the heart of any analytical method are the constitutive equations which
relate the changes in stress to the changes in strain. In slab theories, planestress
conditions are assumed to prevail in the plane of a slab. With linear elastic formu
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COPE AND RA0
lations, the moments produced by the distribution of stress over thickness are usually related to slab curvatures. This approach is difficult to justify for non linear analysis, because lack of symmetry about the median plane couples mem
brane and flexural effects, and the interaction between inplane and bendingstress resultants is not known. When the edge conditions are represented by displace ments of the median plane, this lack of symmetry affects boundary conditions in addition to stiffness. In the method described below, the constitutive equations relate stress to strain and planestress conditions areassumed.
reinforcement, axial stressstrain curves of the form shown in
Fig. 2 are used. Individual bars are not treated, although each layer of reinforce
ment is individually modelled. Instead, bars are grouped in plan, at the sampling
stations for strainlevels. As these stations arespaced at intervals of approximately two slab depths apart, a reasonable representationof strain variationis obtained.
47. For the
48. The treatment of the stressstrain equations for concrete is complicated
and empirically based. Becauseof the degree of uncertainty and scatterof material
properties, it is believed that approximate methods are justified. It has been suggested" that a full, unsymmetric, 3 X 3 constitutive matrix is necessary, but here it is assumed that normal stresses are independent of shear strains.
49. For uncracked concrete, a nonlinear, uniaxial stressstrain curve based on
specimen tests is used, but with an extended yield plateau to a strain of 0.0035, to allow for biaxial effects, Fig. 1. Poisson's Ratio is assumed to be constant. In order to use a uniaxial curve,the directions of the principal strains at each load level are determined, and the equationis applied in those directions. Analysesof a number of skew slabs have shownthat predictions of slab behaviour are relatively insensi tive to theprecise formof the curve,and anyof a number of procedures' _{'}_{*}_{l}_{2} could
be used.
50. The cracking strength of plain concrete specimens is subject to consider
able scatter and appears beto affected by the strain gradient and the normalstress.
The structural cracking strengthof reinforced concrete seems alsoto be affected by
Fig.12. Concrete stressstrain curvefor cyclic loading
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MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION
IN SLAB BRIDGES
the inclination of the reinforcement to the direction of principal tensile stress. In particular, cracking is initiated at a lower load when there is a considerable amount of 'distribution steel' parallel to the crack directions.
51. The smeared crack approach has been adopted for cracked concrete. With
this technique, strainsare assumed to vary continuously over an element. Concrete and steel at a point are assumed to be strained by the same amount.To represent
the effects of
inplane shear forces across cracks,
crack direction withan orthotropic model, an analyst has the stiffness parameters E,, E,, E,, G, at his disposal, where
tension in the concrete teeth between cracks, the transmission of
and the stiffness of concrete parallel
to the
52. For cracked concrete, Poisson's Ratiois assumed to be zero, so E, = 0 and
the constitutive matrix reduces to a diagonal matrix. Two approaches have been investigated to deal with the remaining parameters. In the first method, material properties are assigned in the current principal strain directions as is done for uncracked concrete. This technique does not require an explicit value for G, and
transfers the effects of material damage to current principal strain directions. The method is referred to as the variable orthotropic model. In the second method, the material axesare fixed by the directions of initial cracking and a model is required for the shear modulusG. This methodis referred to as thefixed orthotropic model. In a variationof this appr~ach,'~the material axeswere rotated when it was clear
from the inclination of the principal
could form at more than about 30" to the current cracks, and would dominate response to subsequent loading.
53. To represent the stiffness of concrete between cracks, a number of models
have been proposed.14 For this work, a curvethat gave good predictionswith the results of beam tests was used as a basis4 The shape of the curve is shown in Fig. 12; it can be seen that three parameters have to be specified. These are, the cracking strength of the reinforced concrete f,, the maximum strain E, and the unloading strain for zerostress _{(}_{E}_{,}_{,}_{)}_{.}
tensile strain direction that inclined cracks
t 

^{0} 
^{E}^{O} 
^{m}^{'} 
Tensile strain
Fig. 13. Variation of inplane shear modulus
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COPE AND RA0
5
U
8
2!
3
60
40
20
Self
weight
0
4
(a)
0
0
4
(W
a
12
Fig. 14. Central deflexion withbogie at PI: (a)slab IA; (b)slab 2B
5
A
/n
B
A
77
l
l
l
A
B
A
Fig. IS. Midspan deJexion profiles load, 40 kN;(b)vehicle load, 60 kN
438
('4
B
X
V0M
+FOM
A
5
at peak cyclic loadskew slab
IA: (a) vehicle
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MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION
IN SLAB BRIDGES
54. The cracking strength was set to the cylindersplitting strength for beams
and for slabs with no reinforcement lying approximately parallel to the crack directions. For slabs with reinforcing bars approximately parallel to the crack
directions it was set to half the cylindersplitting strength. The value of was set to the strain corresponding to the adopted tensile strength. The maximum strain was set to 15 c0. This corresponds to a strain level at which nonlinearity in the steel response is likely to reduce its ability to load the concrete in tension through bond actionto a negligibleamount.
55. The inplane shear modulus for cracked concrete
is dependent on the
normal strain across the cracks and the shearing strain. Locally, behaviouris very complex, with interlocking aggregate particles transmitting shear, butin so doing, generating compression across cracks with additional equilibrating tension in
reinforcement. A number of widely differing models for the shear modulus have been suggested,' but all degrade the modulus with increasing normal strain. The
curve shown in Fig. 13 has been used for these studies and numerical experiments have been conducted to assess the influenceof the governing parameterct.
56. Adoption of these parameters for other problems cannot be firmly recom
mended. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of information concerning detailed behaviour of realistically designed reinforced concrete slabs withwhich to validate
the suggested models. Good results have been obtained for beams under short
B
B
Fig. 16. Midspan deflexion projzles at peak cyclic loadskew slab
loud, 40 kN ;(h)vehicle load, 60 kN
B
2B: (a) vehicle
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.^
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MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION IN SLAB BRIDGES
term loading, with different steel percentages: so it can be concluded that the tensile force in cracked concrete, and its line of action, must be reasonably rep resented when reinforcement is normal to the crack direction. Results obtainedfor the reinforced concrete slabsare described below.
Test results
57. In a limited space itis not possible to present full details of the test results;
these can be found in reference 16. Here, the main aspects of the behaviour of the skew slab models are described, and sufficient data are presented to enable the
predictions of analytical procedures to be assessed. The results of the particular nonlinear analytical method described aboveare comparedwith measured values in $9 7080.
Deflexions
58. Deflexions are relatively easy to measure, provide a good overall pictureof
slab behaviour and are invaluable for validating analytical procedures. However,
it should be borne in mind that similarity in load/central deflexion curves for different slabs does not necessarily confirm similar internal behaviour.
59. In Fig. 14, the central deflexions of slabs 1A and 2B (the stiffest and most
flexible of the tested slabs) are compared for the bogie at the central position _{P}_{I}_{.} As described in §$ 12 and 13, the bogie had been placed at positions PlP5, and the load cycled to 40 kN at each position before loadingat P1 to 60 kN. It can be seen that the greatest nonlinearity in response occurs during initial cracking. Although the tensile strengths of plain concrete specimens for the two slabs are similar, the presence of secondary reinforcement parallelto the initial crack direc tions in slab1A is believed to initiate structural crackingin the reinforced concrete at a lower strain level than that required for slab _{2}_{B}_{.} However, once cracking starts, smaller strains are required in the main steel of slab _{l}_{A}_{,} which is approx imately normal to thecracks, to absorb the tensile forces releasedby the concrete.
It is believed that these reasons explain the greater deflexions of slab 1A under
selfweight, even though
slab 1A than for slab2B. On removal of the live loading, the residual deflexionsof
all the slabs were between 60% and 70%
Cycling the loadfive times showed a hysteresiseffect, but in part,this is a function of time.
initial cracking
was detected visually at a higher load for
of their respective maximum values.
60. Although the central displacement
gives an indication
of the overall
bending stiffness of a slab, it provides no information onits torsional resistance. In Figs 15 and 16 the midspan deflexionprofiles for slabs 1A and 2B are comparedat peak cyclic loads. For both slabs, the influence of load history is apparent in the differences between curves for the loading at _{P}_{2} and _{P}_{4}_{.} The results confirm that slabs of the B series are more flexible than those of the A series, and that they possess better load distribution properties.
61.
It can be seen
from Fig.
17, that these features of behaviour are present
when the slabs are loaded to failure by increasing the intensityof the bogie loading at position P2. Graphs of midspan deflexion profiles with increasing load illustrate
clearly the different modes of load transmission. For slab lA, the unloaded edge deflexion increaseis only about 8% of that of the loaded edgefor 150 kN of bogie loading, whereas the increase for slab 2B is approximately 36% at 120 kN. Slabs 1B and 2A behaved in similar manners to slabs 1A and 2B respectively, and for completeness, their load deflexion profiles are included in Fig. _{1}_{8}_{.}
441
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Strains
62. Principal strains based on Demec readings over a gauge length of 200 mm
on the sofit centreline of slab 1A are presented in Fig. 19. The selfweight strains
shown are those prevailing at the start of loading at each of the bogie positions.
After application of five loadings to 40 kN at under selfweight is approximately 60% of that
sity. Loading at the eccentric positions P2 and P4 established a more uniform
distribution of residual strain across the centreline, but did not affect the values in the centre zonesignificantly.
cycling the load to 60 kN at stations PlLP5, and increasing the
selfweight by 20% (+ 12 kN), the residual strains were greater than the peak
P1, the maximum residual strain recorded at maximum load inten
63. After
strains under the 40 kN loadings. As the bogie load increased, the strains at the free edge did not change
at was progressively significantly; see Fig. _{2}_{0}_{.}
(0
^{0}  1500[
X
6
.
m
=o
X
+
VOM
FOM
Selfweight

1500
(D
0 
X
L
0.
Fig. 19. Comparison of midspan sof’jr strainsslab IA, 40kN uehicle load (PI, PZ,
P4)
442
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MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION IN SLAB
^{I}^{D} 0
7
.
 m
m

m
a
.
0
.
E
L
0
B
^{6}^{0}^{0}^{0} 
cp2 
Curve 

0 
1 2 xselfweight 

1 
40 kN 

3 
80 kN 

5 
120kN 

 
Experimental 

4000 
X 
VOM 

+ 
FOM 
BRIDGES
g 2000 

I 

A 
B 
Fig. 20. Midspan sofit strainsslab
1A
Table 5. Slab IAmidspan,
soffit, principal strains across the centreline
Principal tensile strain X 10"/Inclination, degrees
1.2 X selfweight
+40
_{+}_{8}_{0} _{k}_{N}
+ 120 kN
kN at P2
I*
808
1136
_{1}_{5}_{5}_{2}
2432
2
_{9}_{3}_{5}_{.}_{!}_{1}_{5}
_{2}_{2}_{8}_{1}_{.}_{1}_{9}
3911i4
3
1200!'16
1986/13
3060/9
5539/5
4
1093/30
1500;331736.!27
2603.125
I
4686:u)
_{5}
1061/38
_{1}_{4}_{6}_{4}_{/}_{3}_{8}
1896/'38
2698/38
Principal tensile strain X 1O6/1nclination. degrees
1.2 X selfweight +40 kN at P2
+80 kN
+ 120 kN
* Uniaxial gauge
6
1120,:27
1394/31
l651.'34
2039,'36
7
1298,'16
1408119
1544,'22
_{1}_{5}_{9}_{1}_{:}_{2}_{7}
8
963,'15
1020/17
1092/20
1138/24
9*
936
970
1016
1016
443
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COPE AND RA0
444
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obopzww
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MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION IN
SLAB BRIDGES
OdNrN
""v?90'?
~00000
II
OOWWM
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COPE AND RA0
0 
1.2 X selfweight 

1 
40 kN 

3 
80 kN 

A' 
5 
100 kN 
A
Fig. 21. Midspan soSfit strainsslab
.?B
B
Where the centreline crosses the yielding zone, strains increased greatly. Further towards the 'loaded' free edge the measured strains increased less rapidly as the centreline departed from the zone of yielding. As the centreline strains represent different regions of slab behaviour they provide a particularly good basis for validating analytical methods.
64. Values of principal strain and the inclinations of the principal directions to
the free edge during loading to failure are given in Table _{5} which shows that the
residual principal strains are inclined to the free edges at about _{1}_{5}_{"} in the edge
zones and that the angle of inclination increases gradually to 38" in the centre. the intensity of the bogie load is increased, the principal directions swing to
be
As
more nearly parallel to the free edges in the loaded region, but to be at a greater
inclination in the 'unloaded' area.
65. When slabs 2A and 2B were tested, the difticulties imposed by the nature of
discrete cracking were not fully appreciated; only strainvalues based on a 100 mm gauge length are available. Theseare too susceptible to theinfluence of local crack details to have much numerical value, but the main trends can be discerned. In Fig. 21, principal strains during loading to failure of slab 2B are presented. If the
446
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MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION
IN SLAB BRIDGES
local peaks and troughs areregarded as distortionscaused by chance variations in cracking, the main aspects of behaviour can be seen to confirm those indicated by the deflexion profiles. In particular, the strains are more uniformly distributed across the centreline, and, for a given load level, are considerably greater than those on slab 1A.
66. A further measure of the greater strains in slabs of the B series is provided
by crack widths. For slab IA, the maximum crack
of 0.05 mm and at60 kN was 0.09 mm. The correspondingvalues for slab 2B were 0.09 mm and 0.18 mm. The maximum values during load cycling occurred when
the bogie load was in position P4.
width at _{4}_{0} kN was of the order
Reactions
67. Incremental reactions due to live loading are presented in Tables 69. For
the loading at PI,Table 6 shows that there is some redistribution of reactions due to cracking in slab 1A caused by application of the loading at positions P2P5. This feature is not present in the more flexible slab (Table 8) due probably to the
more extensive cracking of that slabcaused by the initial loading at PI. Compari
son of the reactions in the obtuse cornerfor the two slabs showsclearly the greater concentration of load there in slab 1A.
68. Live load reactions of slab IA during loading to failure are presented
in
Table 7. It can be seen that the obtuse corner bearing consistently carries more
than half the applied loading.Even though a shear crack openedright through the depth of the free edge at the line of support at 100 kN, there is no significant
line of supports. Itis not obvious why lessthan
half the total live load was carried to the edge with the load cells at higher load intensities. Possibly, with relatively large deflexions, there was insufficient articu lation in the vehicle bogie to ensure a uniform spread of load.
redistribution of reaction along the
69. Reactions during loading to failure of slab 2B are given in Table 9. It can
be seen that their distribution along the loaded edge is considerably different to that for slab 1A. However, the obtuse corner bearing is, again, by far the most heavily loaded and there is no significant redistribution of reaction along the line
of supports.
Analytical results
70. An attempt was made to predict the full load histories of the tested slabs
using the nonlinear methods outlined
material models makeno allowance for reducing stiffness due torepeated applica tions of loading, the bogie load was applied and removed twice only at the posi tions P1P5 for each of the 40 kN and 60 kN load cycles. Results from the variable orthotropic model are marked (VOM) and those from the fixed ortho tropic model (FOM). When no identification is given, results from the two methods arevirtually indistinguishable.
in $0 3156.
However, as the assumed
Deflexions
71. Values of predicted deflexions are included in Figs 1418. From Fig. 14 it
can be seen that the effects of initial loading and of the peak loads are well represented. Residual deflexions and incremental stiffnesses to subsequent loadings
are less well predicted. This is due to the simple nature _{o}_{f} the material models, which were devised to give the values of most interest, inexpensively.
72. Results for the eccentric load positions (P2, P4) during the 40 kN load
441
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MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION IN
SLAB BRIDGES
cycling are good, see Figs 15 and 16. Values at 60 kN are less well predicted, due mainly to the underestimation of residual deflexionsat the end of the 40 kN cycle. These results show that the variable orthotropic model tends to underestimate the torsional stiffnesses of the slabs, but in doing _{s}_{o}_{,} it provides very good predictions of the maximum deflexions. This feature can alsobe found in the deflexion profiles during loading to failure, see Figs 17 and 18. Predictions from the fixed ortho tropic model become increasingly sensitive to the valueof the parameter _{a}_{,} as the load intensityis increased. The plottedvalues are from analyseswith _{a} _{=} 0.1.
Strains
73. Predicted values of midspan, sofiit, principal strains are shown in Figs
1921. For slab lA, the variableorthotropic model provides reasonable prediction of maximum values at all load levels. As with deflexions, however, residual values
are underestimated, and this leads to underestimation of total strains in areas in which these are dominated by residual values. During loading to failure, the maximum values from the fixed orthotropic model are strongly influenced by the value given to the shear parameter a. Even with a = 0.1, peak strainsin the loaded area are underestimated.
74. Predicted strains for slab 2B are presented in Fig. 21. Although a detailed
comparison with experimental values is not warranted, it can be seen that the predicted distributions of strain on the centreline are in broad accord with observed behaviour.
Reactions
75. Values of predicted reactions are compared in Tables 10 and 11. For slab
IA, the obtuse corner reactionand the uplift on the adjacent support are overesti
mated by the analyses. In the test, there was a hogging crack between these supports, which formed during the 60kN load cycle, and a shear crack at the free edge which formed at 100 kN. These discrete cracks causedvisible discontinuities
of slope of the slab surface and may have been responsible for the differences in experimental and analytical reactions.
76. Reactions in the obtuse corner of slab 2B are overestimated, but there is
broad agreement between the analytical and experimental distributions of reac tions along the supportededge.
Failure loads
77. Failure of slab 1A was due to shear failure in the obtuse corner and
occurred with a bogie load of 180 kN. Failure of the analytical slab given by the variable orthotropic model occurred at about 150 kN. The indications were
intense damage to concrete
norms, with large continued valuesof outofbalance loads,R,, and the measureof iterative work, W. Failure for the same reasons was deemed to have occurred between 150and 160kN for the fixed orthotropic model with a = 0.1.
78. Testing of slab 1B was stopped at 160 kN because of excessive rotation at
the obtuse corner for the support system then in use. Inspection of the slab revealed an incipient obtuse corner shear failure and some crushing of the top surface near the bogie position. The variable orthotropic model was judged to have failed between 100 and 120 kN, and thefixed orthotropic model with a = 0.1
between 130and 140 kN.
79. Testing of slab 2A was stopped at 200 kN, because of excessive deflexions,
449
and steel and nonsatisfaction of the convergence
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COPE AND RA0
with the central deflexion greater than half the slab depth. Inspection revealed a well defined central yieldline with crushing of concrete extending for almost half the width of the slab. The variable orthotropic model was judged to have failed at about 180 kN, and the fixed orthotropic model with 2 = 0.1 between 160 and 170 kN.
80. Testing of slab 2B was stopped at 169 kN because of excessive deflexions.
The analytical slab based on the variable orthotropic model was judged to have failed between 130 and 140 kN, and the slabbased on the fixed orthotropic model with a = 0.1 at 140 kN.
Conclusions
81. The behaviour of reinforced concrete skew slabs designed for multiple live
load patterns is strongly influenced by the directions of reinforcing bars. Although slabs with the main reinforcement normal to the supported edges have better characteristics at serviceability, they do not distributeheavy concentrated loading well. In the slabs tested, this led to shear failure in the obtuse corner. Behaviourof slabs is not altered drastically when reinforcement designed using moment envelopes is redistributed to avoid congestion.
82. Nonlinear numerical procedures can be used to predict the behaviour of
skew slabs. However, at the present time they
daybyday design oflice use. In common with all analytical methods, they have to
be used with intelligence and theresults interpreted with care.
83. Success in analysing reinforced concrete structures depends critically on
the modelling of material behaviour. Because representation of cracked concrete
could involve so many parameters, the developmentof economic procedures that
rely on theuse of few material variables, should proceed handinhand with experi mental investigations.
are probably too expensive for
84. At present, there is insufficient experimental data to justify the develop
ment of a general method of nonlinear analysis for reinforced concrete. The need
for economy dictates the use of simple material models and acceleration pro cedures to speed the solution of equations. Specialized techniques are, therefore, likely to be required for particular forms of structure.
85. For slabs, the accuracy of analytical results for first loading is criticaUy
dependent on the load tocause first cracking. Predictions for slabs away from the
controlled environmentof a laboratory can,therefore, only be approximate.
86. The simulation of tension stiffening in concrete is necessary to provide
reasonable estimates for serviceability conditions, and it is suggested that this
should be a function of the steel directions.
87. Specification of the loadunload path for cracked concrete strongly influ
ences behaviour under cyclic loading. Due to the scarcity of experimental data, a numerical study was performedi6 and thesecant unloading path shownin Fig. _{1}_{2} is proposed.
88. In fixed orthotropic models, material axis directions are permanently
defined by the direction of initial cracking. For slabs with the main reinforcement normal to the supported sides, behaviour is strongly influenced by the magnitude of the postcracking inplane shear modulus. Althougha large numberof relation ships have been proposed,I5 they differ so much, and thereis so little experimental
data,
parallel to the free edges are relatively insensitive to the degradation of the in
plane shear modulus.
that a simple model was used. Results for slabs with the main reinforcement
450
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MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION IN SLAB BRIDGES
Acknowledgement
wish to record their indebtedness to the Science and Engi
neering Research Council, which has funded the studies on skew slabs over the past five years.
89. The Authors
References
1. BALUWINJ. T. RAZZAQUE A. and IRONS B. M. Shape function routine for an iso parametric thinplate element. Inr. J. Num. Meth.in Engng, 1973,7,431440.
2. ZIENKIEWICZ0. C. The,finite element
3. COPER. J. and RAO P. V. Nonlinear finite element analysis of concrete slab structures.
method.McGraw Hill, London, 1977.
Proc. Instn Cic. Engrs,Part 2, 1977.63, Mar., 159179.
4. COPER. J. et al. Nonlinear design of concrete bridge slabs using finite element pro cedures. Solid Mechanics Study Series No. 14. University of Waterloo Press, 1980,
379407.
5. MATTHIESH. and STRANGG. The solution of nonlinear finite element equations. In?. J.
Num. Meth. in Enyny, 1979.14, 16131626. 6. COPE R. J. and RAO P. V. Nonlinear finite element strategies for bridge slabs. Proc. Collqm Adad Mech. Rein. Concr., International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, Delft, 1981,275290.
Prentice Hall Inc., Engle
7. BATHEK. J. Finite element procedures wood Cliffs, N.J., 1982.
8. CRlsFIELu M. A. Local instabilities in the nonlinear
in engineering analysis.
analysis of reinforced concrete
beams and slabs. Proc. Insfn. Cio. Enyrs, Part 2, 1982, 73,Mar., 135145.
9. BERGAN _{P}_{.}_{G}_{.} et a/. Use of current stiffness parameters in solution of nonlinear prob lems. Energy methods in finite element analysis. J. Wiley & Sons. New York, 1979.
Chap. 14.265282. Report. Proc. Collqm Add Mech. Rein. Concr. International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, Delft. 1981.740.
11. Popovlrs S. A numerical approach to the completestressstrain curve for concrete. Mag. Concr. Res., 1973,3,583599.
12. CEBI’FIP. Model code for concrete structures. Comite EuroInternational du Beton (CEB), London,1978.
13. COPER. J. et al. Modelling of reinforced concrete behaviour for finite element analysis of bridge slabs. Yumerical methods for nonlinear problems. Pineridge Press, Swansea,
1980,457470. 

14.MoosECKER W. 
and GROSSERE. Evaluation of tension stiffening effects in reinforced 
concrete linear members. Proc. Co[[qmAdd Mech. Rein. Concr., International Associ
ation for Bridge and Structural Engineering, Delft, 1981,541550.
15. ALMAHAIUIR. S. H. Nonlinear ,finire element analysis
memhers, Cornell University, New York, 1979, Report No. 791. 16. COPER. J. and RAOP. V. Nonlinear response ofreinforced concrete, skewed, slah bridges. University of Liverpool. 1981. 1. Research Report.
o f
reinforced concrete deep
45 1
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