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Russian Course

AGENDA
I. CLASS INTRODUCTION 1. CLASS 2 vowels. Consonant CLASS 3. Pronunciation of vow
els CLASS 4. Pronunciation of consonants CLASS 5. Pronunciation exercises CLASS
6. Masculine noun, feminine and neuter CLASS 7. Singular and plural noun CLASS 8
. Concordance CLASS 9. Endings of adjectives CLASS 10. Demonstrative adjectives
CLASS 11. Possessive adjectives CLASS 12. CLASS personal pronouns 13. Exercises
CLASS 14. Verb "be" CLASS 15. Verb conjugation 1st CLASS 16. Verb conjugation 2n
d CLASS 17. Adverb Training Class 18. Sentence structure affirmative CLASS 19. S
tructure of the negative sentence CLASS 20. Exercises II. 1 .- Singular DECLINE
CLASS 21. Nominative CLASS 22. Accusative CLASS 23. Dative CLASS 24. Genitive CL
ASS 25. Instrumental Class 26. Ablative CLASS 27. 2 .- Plural Exercise Class 28.
Nominative CLASS 29. Accusative
CLASS 30. Dative CLASS 31. Genitive CLASS 32. Instrumental CLASS 33. Ablative CL
ASS 34. Exercises III. PREPOSITIONS CLASS 35. Prepositions of place (I) CLASS 36
. Prepositions of place (II) CLASS 37. Prepositions of place (III) Class 38. Pre
positions of place (IV) CLASS 39. Prepositions of movement (I) Class 40. Preposi
tions of movement (II) CLASS 41. Prepositions of movement (III) CLASS 42. Prepos
itions of movement (IV)
1st Lesson Voice
GRAMMAR
In Russia there are 10 members:
There are therefore two options for each vocal Castilian: A variant hard that th
e vowel is pronounced as Castilian. A soft version, which is pronounced like the
vowel Castilian but preceded by an "i" is pronounced very short and smooth, sin
ce the force falls to the end. "I A" --- "i E" --- "i I" --- "i O" --- "i U"
In addition to the 10 vowels, there is a glide in Russian:
VOCABULARY
(*) Both the Russian word pronounced as in the syllable that stands out where th
e emphasis lies.
Attention can be stood fast how some vowels are pronounced differently if they a
re stressed or if they are not. In Lesson 3 rd discuss the pronunciation of vowe
ls.
Consonant 2nd LESSON
GRAMMAR
In Russia there are 20 consonants:
VOCABULARY
(*) In the Russian word and pronunciation syllable that stands out where the emp
hasis lies.
LESSON 3rd pronunciation of vowels
GRAMMAR
In Russian accent is not used as in Castilian, but the accent is identified only
in pronunciation. You have to know every word to find out which syllable the ac
cent falls.
The focus could change in a single syllable word in passing from singular to plu
ral, or
its various declensions or different verb forms.
(*) Is highlighted in which syllable the accent falls
Pronunciation of vowels
Examples
VOCABULARY
(*) In the Russian word and pronunciation syllable that stands out in which the
accent falls
LESSON 4 th pronunciation of consonants
GRAMMAR
In Russia many of the consonants are grouped into two categories: voiceless cons
onants: it is pronounced with a single stroke of voice. Consonants: their sound
is held for a moment.
There is some equivalence between these two categories: some have their equivale
nt voiceless consonants sound and vice versa. In some cases, as we shall see, th
ese consonants can take the sound of its equivalent.
(*) They are grouped equivalent pairs of consonants.
Pronunciation of consonants
VOCABULARY
5th Lesson Pronunciation Exercises
Lesson 6 Male, female and neuter
GRAMMAR
In Russian there are three genders: Masculine, Feminine and Neuter, each with th
eir own endings:
Examples:
Also, the male and female may end by the hard sign "b", which is not pronounced.
In these cases only by knowing the word we would find out whether male or femal
e:
Examples:
Finally, some words have the following termination neutral characteristic of fem
inine
Examples:
VOCABULARY
LESSON 7th Singular and plural
GRAMMAR
In Russian there Singular and Plural. The formation of the plural will depend on
the gender of the word and its termination in the singular.
Examples:
Sometimes, in the formation of plural syllable the accent changes. Only by knowi
ng the word in question may be whether this occurs because they do not meet cert
ain rules.
The masculine and feminine words ending in hard sign "b", the plural form as fol
lows:
Examples:
Finally, there is one important exception: the masculine words ending in the fol
lowing consonants, or feminine ending in these consonants followed by "A", the p
lural form as follows:
Examples:
VOCABULARY
LESSON 8 th Match
GRAMMAR In Russian the noun is in prayer alone or accompanied by an adjective. I
n Russian there is no article
When accompanied by an adjective both have to agree in gender and number.
In addition,€also agree in case. In Russian there are 6 cases (declines). Depen
ding on what the role of the noun in the sentence is used either. For example, i
f subject of the sentence you use the nominative case, if direct object accusati
ve is used, if you use the indirect object dative, etc. The cases are formed fro
m the root word and only varies its termination. The noun and adjective that acc
ompanies it are in the same case. The study of the cases we shall see later, now
we want to report this correlation that exists in Russian and that does not exi
st, for example, in Castilian. .
VOCABULARY
9th LESSON Adjective: endings
GRAMMAR In Russian the word may have different endings. However, the basic rule
to follow in their formation is as follows:
Some examples:
If the radical of the adjective ends in any of the following consonants:
Then their endings are some differences that we noted in red:
The adjective, like the noun is declined. In this lesson we are looking at the e
nds of the basic form (nominative). This is the case that is used when the noun
function as subject of the sentence. Later, when we look at the declines, we wil
l see how the adjective endings vary.
VOCABULARY
Demonstrative adjectives 10th LESSON
GRAMMAR In Russian the demonstrative adjective may take the following forms:
Some examples:
The demonstrative adjective also accepts and agrees with the noun in gender, num
ber and case.
When we analyze the cases, we analyze the decline of the demonstrative adjective
. In this lesson you have presented the basic forms, the nominative case (that w
hich
used when the noun is the subject of the sentence).
VOCABULARY
LESSON 11th Possessive adjectives
GRAMMAR In Russian possessive adjective takes the following forms:
His speech is as follows:
Some examples:
The possessive adjective is declined. In this lesson we have presented the basic
form (nominative case), which is used when the noun it accompanies is the subje
ct of prayer. Later, when we analyze the cases, we will see this adjective is de
clined.
VOCABULARY
12th LESSON personal pronouns
GRAMMAR The Russian personnel promombre has the following forms:
The staff promombre declines. In this lesson we have presented basic form (nomin
ative case), which is used when the pronoun is the subject of prayer. Later, whe
n we analyze the cases, we will look like this pronoun is declined.
Some examples:
VOCABULARY
13th Lesson Exercises
EXERCISES Translate into Russian the following sentences:
Put the plural of the following statements
13th LESSON Solutions
SOLUTIONS Russian Translate the following sentences:
Put the plural of the following statements
LESSON 14th Word "be"
GRAMMAR In Russian the verb "be" is:
The Russian verb has the peculiarity that is not used in the present:
As you can see, in Russian the sentences above are formed without using the verb
"be." However, this only happens in the present tense because it is used in the
past:
And in the future:
Here are some examples:
You can see how to use the past or future form of the verb "to be" changes the e
nd of the preached word that works. This is because instead of the nominative ca
se (which is what we're seeing at the moment), use another case, the instrumenta
l (this will be considered when we look at the declines).
LESSON 15th 1st Conjugation Verb
GRAMMAR In Russian to form the present tense, there are two types of conjugates
(endings). Only by knowing each verb can know what kind of combination is applie
d. In this lesson we will analyze the first model of conjugation. Finish on this
1st conjugation have a slight difference depending on whether or not the accent
falls on the termination of this:
However, only knowing each verb can find out where the emphasis lies. Some examp
les:
VOCABULARY
LESSON 16th Word 2nd conjugation
GRAMMAR The 2nd type of conjugation has the following endings:
In this model there is no difference depending on whether the accent falls on th
e last syllable or not. As we discussed in the previous lesson, only knowing eac
h verb can know what kind of conjugation follows. Some examples:
VOCABULARY
LESSON adverb 17th Training
Russian grammar, the adverb follows different rules of formation, but one of the
most common is from the adjective: The word loses its completion and it is bein
g gradually phased out by "- or": It is a process very similar to what occurs in
Castilian with adverbs ending in "mind." Some examples:
In some cases, as you can see, the syllable-accent changes, although there is no
fixed rule, so knowing the adverb only you know if this happens.
The adverb is usually placed, usually before the verb, although this rule is fle
xible. Some examples:
VOCABULARY
Affirmative Prayer 18th LESSON
GRAMMAR In Russian affirmative prayer has the following structure: + SUBJECT + V
ERB + COMPLEMENTS ADVEBIO Some examples:
In any case, the Russian language allows some flexibility of constructing senten
ces.
VOCABULARY
19th LESSON negative Prayer
GRAMMAR In Russian the negative sentence has the following structure: DENIAL + S
UBJECT + VERB + COMPLEMENTS ADVEBIO + Some examples:
If the negative sentence was answering a question, then start with the particle
of negation "HET" (/ grandchild), followed by the normal negative sentence.
VOCABULARY
20th Lesson Exercises
EXERCISES Translate into Russian the following sentences:
20th LESSON Solutions
SOLUTIONS
ç
LESSON 21st Nominative singular
GRAMMAR
The nominative case is used when the noun is the subject of the sentence. It is
in the nominative case both the noun and the adjective to accompany him. We have
seen that there are between noun and adjective gender agreement, number and cas
e. The nominative case is the basic case is that we have been studying so far. I
n dictionaries nouns and adjectives are presented in case the nominative.
In this lesson we will study the singular nominative case:
a) The endings of nouns:
Another finish that men and women share:
b) The endings of adjectives
Some examples:
VOCABULARY
Accusative singular 22nd LESSON
GRAMMAR
The accusative case has diverse uses: The main one is as direct object of the se
ntence. Also used in expressions of direction, time, etc.. That we will see in f
uture lessons. The terminations of the accusative case will depend on: Gender of
the noun. Singular or plural (here discuss the endings of the singular). If the
noun is an animate (a person or animal) or inanimate (thing). The terminations
of the singular noun in the accusative case are:
While the endings of the adjectives that accompany it are:
Some examples:
Dative singular 23rd LESSON
GRAMMAR
The dative case is also different applications: The main one is as indirect obje
ct of the sentence. It is also used, like the accusative case, in terms of direc
tion, time, etc., To be discussed in upcoming lessons. The dative case endings w
ill depend on: Gender of the noun. Singular or plural (here discuss the endings
of the singular). In this case there is no differentiation as to whether the nou
n is an animate or inanimate. The terminations of the singular noun in dative ca
se are:
While the endings of the adjectives that accompany it are:
Some examples:
Genitive singular 24th LESSON
GRAMMAR
The genitive case is used: In addition to the name: "the book of the child", "Gr
andpa's shirt, etc.. It also has other uses, in terms of possession, cause, grac
e, etc.. to be discussed in upcoming lessons. The terminations of the singular n
oun in genitive case are:
While the endings of the adjectives that accompany it are:
Some examples:
Note: In Russian, the words "this is ..."," this is ...", "This (a) s are ..." a
re expressed using only neutral personal pronouns without a verb:
Instrumental singular 25th LESSON
GRAMMAR
The instrumental case is used: To indicate the instrument with which an action i
s performed. Would in Castilian, for example: I clean with a sponge, she cut wit
h scissors, etc.. It also has various other uses to be discussed later. The term
inations of the singular noun in instrumental case are:
While the endings of the adjectives that accompany it are:
Some examples:
Ablative singular 26th LESSON
GRAMMAR
The ablative case is used: to indicate position, place, going preceded by a prep
osition: "B" conveys the idea of "inside" "HA" conveys the idea of "on" The abla
tive is also used for various purposes other than be discussed in a forthcoming
lesson. The terminations of the ablative case singular noun are:
While the endings of the adjectives that accompany it are
Some examples:
27th Lesson Exercises
Translate into Russian the following sentence:
27th LESSON Solutions
Response to the exercises:
LESSON 28th Nominative plural
GRAMMAR
We have seen when analyzing the plural noun formed as the case nominative:
In addition, we note that there were other possible endings, among which one mig
ht mention the following:
However, it should be borne in mind that Russia must always respect the followin
g rule: Behind the following consonants:
As the adjective is concerned, the nominative case plural is formed according to
the following rules:
Some examples:
LESSON 29th Accusative plural
GRAMMAR
In the formation of the accusative plural of the noun must distinguish between a
) Names of people and animals follow the following rules:
b) Things: matches the accusative plural form with the nominative plural, for it
s part, the adjective form:
These are the basic rules of training, however there are some exceptions. In any
case, as noted in the previous lesson, we must always bear in mind the followin
g rule:
Behind the following consonants:
Here are some examples of the accusative plural:
LESSON 30th Dative plural
GRAMMAR
The formation of the dative plural of the noun follows the following rules:
While the adjective form:
Here are some examples of the dative plural:
LESSON 31st Genitive plural
GRAMMAR
The formation of the genitive plural of the noun follows the following rules:
While the adjective form:
Here are some examples of the genitive plural:
Instrumental plural 32nd LESSON
GRAMMAR
The instrumental case of the noun plural forms to the following rules:
While the adjective form:
Some examples:
Ablative plural 33rd LESSON
GRAMMAR
The ablative case noun plural is formed according to the following rules:
While the adjective form:
Some examples:
34th Lesson Exercises
EXERCISES Translate into Russian the following sentences:
34th LESSON Solutions
SOLUTIONS
LESSON 35th prepositions of place (I)
Preposition "B" / "HA"
Castillian The preposition "in" (eg I am in the factory) is in Russian two varia
nts: the prepositions "B" and "HA." As a general rule one could say:
"B" is translated by "within" and is used when referring to an enclosed space.
"HA" is translated by "on" and is used when referring to an open space. In both
cases the preposition is used after the ablative case. For example:
a) Proposition "B" This preposition is used: 1 .- To indicate that it is within
a confined space:
2 .- It is sometimes used to indicate that it is within an area / place very lar
ge, even an open space.
3 .- Another typical use is with continents, countries and cities, although ther
e are some exceptions
LESSON 36th prepositions of place (II)
b) Proposition "HA" This preposition is used: 1 .- To indicate that something is
on the surface of an object / place:
2 .- Using public transport:
3 .- With open spaces:
4 .- When referring to the activity that is being developed and not the physical
space in which it takes place (albeit within an area cerado):
5 .- With the cardinal points:
In short, here are some guidelines for knowing when to use one or another prepos
ition, however there are exceptions and only practice will use them correctly. F
inally, here are some examples:
LESSON 37th prepositions of place (III)
In this lesson we will study the following prepositions of place:
Some examples:
LESSON 38th prepositions of place (IV)
In this lesson we will study the following prepositions of place:
Some examples:
LESSON 39th Prepositions of movement (I)
In this lesson we will study the prepositions of movement "B" and "HA."
In Castilian equivalent to the preposition "a" in the phrase: "going somewhere."
The basic difference between the two is that "B" indicates movement towards the
inside of a place. "HA" indicates movement towards the surface of a place.
In any event, use one or another preposition follows the same rules that we saw
in explaining the use of these expressions prepositions of place (see lesson 35
and 36). However there is a difference between the use of these prepositions wit
h expressions of place and time expressions: When accompanying expressions of pl
ace requires the ablative case. With expressions of motion governing the accusat
ive case. Some examples:
LESSON 40th Prepositions of movement (II)
In this lesson we will study other prepositions are used with expressions of mov
ement:
Some examples:
LESSON 41st Prepositions of movement (III)
In Russian there are two prepositions that are translated as "from", indicating
the place where you start the movement (for example: I'm from Madrid):
If however there is a distinction:
Both prepositions are followed by the genitive case (on the other hand,€"HA" an
d "B" are followed by the accusative case).
Some examples:
LESSON 42nd Prepositions of movement (IV)
In this lesson we will study two prepositions of movement:
Both prepositions are followed by the genitive case.
Some examples:
Also used the preposition "OT" to indicate that someone back home:
It is sometimes used together these two prepositions to indicate the distance be
tween two sites or to indicate the origin and end of a movement: