PLANE FRAMES
A rigid frame is one in which some or all of its joints are rigid. Rigid frames
are usually statically indeterminate. Our study will be confined to
determinate plane frames. In a plane frame, all the members and loading
must be in the same plane.
Frame with an
internal hinge
Rigid Frame
Rigid Joints
At rigid joints, the ends of connected members must not only move together
vertically and horizontally but must all rotate by the same amount. A rigid
joint preserves the angle between members connected to it.
B B' C C'
P.I.
H P.I. P.I.
A D
3. Plot the axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams on an
outline of the frame.
(a) A common convention is to draw the bending moment
diagram on the tension side of the frame. (For reinforced
concrete frames, designers often draw the bending moment
diagram on the tension side. This allows the designer to tell at
a glance on which side of the frame steel reinforcement
should be placed.)
(b) The axial force diagram may be plotted on either side of the
member, with proper indication for tension and compression.
(Tension  +ve, compression  ve)
(c) The shear force diagram may be plotted on either side of the
member but normally follows the convention used for the
bending moment diagram. (i.e. follows the convention of
plotting shear force and bending moment of beam). This can
be done by treating each individual member as a beam
element, plot the shear force diagram from the left end to the
right end of the member and draw the bending moments on
the tension side of the member.
Example 1
Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joint B is a rigid joint.
10 kN
2 kN
B
C
6m
A
4m
Solution:
10 kN
2 kN
B
6m C
A
HA V
MA A
4m
X = 0, HA = 2 kN
Y = 0, VA = 10 kN
Freebody diagrams for the members and joint, and their member end
forces.
10 kN
40 40 B
B 10
10 2 2
10 2 C 2kN
40
40
10
2
B
Freebody Diagrams
A
2 kN 10 kN
52 kNm
10 10
2 2
10 B + 2
B
C C
10 A 2 A
Axial Force (kN) Shear Force (kN)
 40
 40
B C
A
 52
Example 2
Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joint B is a rigid joint.
A B
4m
C
12 kN
6m 3m
Solution:
MA
HA A B
VA
4m
C
12 kN
6m 3m
X = 0, HA = 0kN
Y = 0, VA = 12kN
Freebody diagrams for the members and joint, and their member end
forces.
108 kNm B 36 B
36
A 36
12 kN 12 12
12
36
B
12
Freebody Diagrams
C
12 kN
In order to draw the axial force and the shear force diagram of member BC,
we have to resolve the member end forces so that the member end forces are
perpendicular and along the member axis. This is because member BC is
an inclined member.
12
9.6 7.2
B
36
4 5
3
C
123/5 = 7.2
124/5 = 9.6
12
A B 9.6
9.6
Axial Force (kN) C
12 12
7.2
A B
7.2
Shear Force (kN) C
108
36
36
A B
0
Bending Moment (kNm) C
Example 3
Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joints C and E are rigid joints.
96 kN
C E
D
3m
48 kN
5m
B
F
4.5 m
A
3m 3m
Solution:
96 kN
C E
D
3m
5m
48 kN
B
F
4.5 m
VF
A
HA
VA
3m 3m
X = 0, HA = 48 kN
Y = 0, VA + VF = 96 kN VA = 12 kN
Freebody diagrams for the members and joints, and their member end
forces.
216 216 96 kN
C C E E
12 84
12 12 D 84 84
216
216
12
84
C E
48 kN
B
F
Freebody Diagrams 84
A
48
12
C E
12 84
D

B

F 84
12 12 D
E
C
48
B
84 84
F
C 216 D E
216
B 252
216
F
A
Bending Moment (kNm)
Example 4
Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joints C and E are rigid joints.
96 kN
C E
D
3m
5m
48 kN
B
F
4.5 m
A
3m 3m
Solution:
96 kN
C E
D
3m
5m
48 kN
B
F
4.5 m
A
HA V
MA A
3m 3m
X = 0, HA = 48 kN
Y = 0, VA = 96 kN
Freebody diagrams for the members and joints, and their member end
forces.
288 288 96 kN
C 96
C E E
96 96 D
288
288
96
C
E
48 kN
B
F
Freebody Diagrams
A
96 48
504
96 C E
D
B

F
96 96
E
C D
48
B
288
0 E
288
C D
288 B
A
504 Bending Moment (kNm)
Example 5
Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joints B and C are rigid joints.
15 kN/m
50 kN
B C
2m
20 kN
D
6m
2m
E
A
8m
Solution:
15 kN/m
50 kN
B C
2m
20 kN
D
6m
2m
E
VE
A
HA
VA
8m
X = 0, HA + 20 = 50, HA = 30 kN
Freebody diagrams for the members and joints, and their member end
forces.
15 kN/m
50 kN B
32.5
180 180
20 40 40 87.5
C
20 20
32.5 30 32.5 B C 20
20 87.5
180 87.5
40
180 40
30 32.5 87.5
20
B C
20 kN
D
E
Freebody Diagrams
87.5
A
30
32.5
Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams
20 20
32.5  87.5
B C
D 

E 87.5
Axial Force (kN)
A
32.5
2.17m
32.5
30 20
B C
20
D
87.5
E
Shear Force (kN)
A
30
2.17m
180 40
40
B C
180 D
215.2
E
Example 6
Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joints B and D are rigid joints.
30 kN
B D
C
3m
10 kN
E
8m
3m
F
5kN/m A
3.5m 3.5m
Solution:
30 kN
B D
C
3m
10 kN
E
8m
3m
F
VF
5kN/m A
HA V
A
3.5m 3.5m
X = 0, HA + 10 = 5*8/2, HA = 10 kN
Y = 0, VA + VF = 30 kN, VA = 14.5 kN
Freebody diagrams for the members and joints, and their member end
forces.
30 kN
26.7 26.7 B D 10 30 30
B C
10 14.5 10 10 10
10 14.5 C 15.5
14.5 15.5 15.5
26.7 30
26.7 30
14.5
10 10 15.5
B D
10 kN
E
F
Freebody Diagrams
15.5kN
5kN/m A
10kN
14.5kN
Determination of the position of zero shear force and the maximum bending
moment of member AB.
5x/8 kN/m
M 14.5 26.7
14.5
V
B
10
x
Consider the freebody diagram for part of member AB. The loading
intensity of the triangular load = (5x/8) kN/m. Set V = 0, and determine x.
To determine the position of zero shear force (i.e. V = 0 kN), take moment
about the cut,
Y = 0, (5x/8)*(x/2) 10 = 0, x = 5.66 m
10 10
B  D
14.5 15.5
C
E 

F
15.5
14.5
Axial Force (kN)
A
14.5 14.5
B C D
10
10
15.5
5.66m
E 10
F
2.34m
26.7 30
26.7 C D
30
2.93m
B
24.3
E
F
11.0
2.34m
Example 7
Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joint B is a rigid joint and joint C
is an internal hinge of the frame.
15 kN/m
30 kN
B C
4m
A D
6m
Solution:
15 kN/m
30 kN
B C
4m
A D
HA HD
VA VD
6m
Take moment about A,
30*4 + 15*6*6/2 VD*6 = 0
VD = 65 kN
Y = 0, VA + VD = 15*6 kN, VA = 25 kN
D
HD
65
Take moment about C,
HD*4 = 0, HD = 0 kN
X = 0, HA + HD = 30, HA = 30 kN
Freebody diagrams for the members and joints, and their member end
forces.
120
25 65
30
B C
Freebody Diagram
A D
30 25 65
25 65
B C
 
A D
25 65
1.67m
25
30
B C
A D 65
30
Shear Force (kN)
1.67m
120
B C
120
140.9
A D
Example 8
Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joints B and C are rigid joints,
and joint E is an internal hinge of the frame.
20 kN
3m
B F E C
3 kN/m
4m
A D
4m 4m
Solution:
3m 20 kN
3 kN/m B F E C
4m
A D
HA HD
VA VD
4m 4m
D
HD
10.5
Take moment about E,
HD*4 = VD*4, HD = 10.5 kN
Freebody diagrams for the members and joints, and their member end
forces.
20 kN
18 18 10.5
B B C 10.5 C10.5
10.5 9.5 10.5 9.5 10.5
F E 10.5 42 42 10.5 10.5
9.5
18 42
18 42
9.5 10.5
10.5 10.5
B C
3 kN/m
A Freebody Diagrams D
1.5 9.5 10.5 10.5
10.5 10.5

9.5 10.5
B F E C
 
A D
9.5 Axial Force (kN) 10.5
9.5 9.5
10.5 F
10.5
B E C
10.5 10.5
0.5m
1.5
A D 10.5
Shear Force (kN)
42
18
18
F
42
B E C
10.5
0.5m
0.375
D
A Bending Moment (kNm)
Example 9
Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joints B and E are rigid joints, and
joint D is an internal hinge of the frame.
40 kN
B E
C D
5 kN/m
4m
6m
1m 2m 3m
Solution:
40 kN
B E
C D
5 kN/m
4m
6m
F
HF
VF
A
HA
VA
1m 2m 3m
40 kN
VD
B HD
C D
HA
VA
Freebody diagrams for the members and joints, and their member end
forces.
40 kN
2.7
48 48 8 8
B B E E8
8 42.7 8 8 42.7 8 8
42.7
C D 2.7
2.7
48 8
48 8
42.7 8 2.7
8
B E
5 kN/m
F
Freebody Diagrams 12 2.7
A
8 42.7
8 8
42.7
B  E 2.7
C D
 +
F 2.7
42.7 42.7
2.7 2.7 E
B C 8
8 D
2.4m
F
12
A 8
Shear Force (kN)
48
5.3 E
48 B C 8
D 8
14.4
2.4m
A
Bending Moment (kNm)
HD in Civil Engineering Page 346
CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames
Find the support reactions, and draw the axial force diagram, shear force
diagram and bending moment diagram for the frames shown below.
Q1.
6 kN/m
C D
2.5m
30 kN
B
5m
2.5m
A E
6m
Q2.
50 kN 40 kN
1.5m 2m 1.5m
E is an internal hinge
B C D E
4m
15 kN/m
6m
Q3.
60 kN 30 kN
B C D E
6 kN/m
5m
F
A
3m 3m 3m
Q4.
24 kN
E 20 kN
2m
D
B C
2 kN/m
4m
3m 3m
Q5.
20 kN
10 kNm 6 kNm
B
C D E
C is an internal hinge
2 kN/m
4m
A F
2m 1m 1m
Q6.
15 kN/m
C D E F G
3m
E is an internal hinge
65 kN
B
3m
A H
3m 5m 5m 2m
Q7.
10 kN/m
30 kN
C D E
3m
B F
3m
A G
3m 3m
B, D & F are internal hinges
Q8.
2 kN/m
B C D
C is an internal hinge
4m
6m
E
3 kN/m
A
3m 3m
Q9.
200 kN
C
B
3m
100 kN
D
3m
C is an internal hinge
A E
3m 4m
Q10.
4 kN/m
B C 4m
A D
4m 6m 4m
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