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Dumitru eicu

Ceti medievale din Banat


Medieval fortifications in Banat
Publicaie realizat n cadrul proiectului Cetile Banatului - un patrimoniu european
derulat de Muzeul Banatului Montan cu sprijinul financiar al Uniunii Europene prin
Programul de Vecintate Romnia-Serbia 2006, RO 2006/018-448.01.02.12

Editor: Muzeul Banatului Montan

Autor: Dumitru eicu

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2009
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Data publicrii: iulie 2009.

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DUMITRU EICU

ceti medievale din banat

MEDIEVAL FORTIFICATIONS IN BANAT

Timioara
2009
Patrimoniul arheologic i etnologic al Banatului
archaeological and ethnological patrimonY of the
region of banat

Seria Repertorii / Repertories Series

EDITORI / EDITORS
Muzeul Banatului Montan / Mountaineous Banat Museum Reia
Muzeul Banatului Timioara / Banat Museum Timioara
Complexul Muzeal Arad / Museal Complex Arad

COLEGIUL EDITORIAL / MEMBERS OF THE EDITORIAL BOARD:


Dumitru eicu, Florin Draovean, Peter Hgel

Relevee i reconstituiri: arh. Drago Zipfl

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naionale a Romniei


EICU, DUMITRU
Ceti medievale din Banat = Medieval Fortifications in Banat /
Dumitru eicu. - Timioara : Cosmopolitan-Art, 2009
Bibliogr.
ISBN 978-973-8903-64-7

728.81(498)
Cuprins
CONTENTS

Contribuii la geografia istoric a Banatului medieval


Contributions to historical geography of medieval Banat .............................................. 7

Izvoarele i istoriografia problemei


Sources and historiography ............................................................................................ 11

Turnuri locuin din Banat


Dwelling-towers in Banat .............................................................................................. 23

Fortificaii medievale din Banat secolele XIII-XVI


Medieval fortifications from Banat from the 13th-16th centuries ....................................... 73

Probleme ale cetilor medievale din Banat


Problems of medieval fortresses in Banat ................................................................... 140

Lista prescurtrilor bibliografice

List of bibliographical abbreviations .......................................................................... 152

Surse pentru ilustraii

Sources for illustrations ............................................................................................... 157


CONTRIBUII LA CONTRIBUTIONS TO
GEOGRAFIA ISTORIC HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY
A BANATULUI MEDIEVAL OF MEDIEVAL BANAT

Lucrarea Fortificaii medievale din Ba- The work Medieval Fortifications in


nat se nscrie n seria unor repertorii arheolo- Banat is part of the series of archaeological
gice despre o regiune geografic Banatul i repertories of a geographical region Banat,
n egal msur am abordat aceast tem i din and, in an equal measure, we have approached
perspectiva unei geografii istorice a Banatului. this subject also from the point of view of a
Demersul nostru se nscrie ntr-un efort mai historical geography of Banat. Our approach
amplu, pe care l-am discutat cu colegii de la has been, with an ampler effort, discussed
Muzeul Banatului din Timioara, cu dr. Florin with colleagues from the Museum of Banat
Draovean ct i cu cei din Arad, n spe cu dr. from Timioara, with dr. Florin Draovean, as
Peter Hgel i pe care dealtminteri l-am mate- well as with those from Arad, that means with
rializat ntr-un protocol tiinific, ce prevede n dr. Peter Hgel. It has been materialized in a
esen publicarea n comun a unor cataloage scientifical draft agreement, that has planned
tiinifice, cu piese din patrimoniul arheologic in essence publishing in common scientifical
i etnologic al muzeelor bnene concomi- catalogues of pieces belonging to the archaeo-
tent cu publicarea unor repertorii arheologice logical and ethnological patrimony of the
tematice ale Banatului. Consecvent acestei museums from Banat in the same time with
iniiative, ce am propus-o colegilor arheologi, the publication of some archaeological reper-
istorici i etnologi am susinut publicarea tories by subject of Banat. Being consistent
Catalogului coleciei etnografice a Muzeului on this initiative proposed to my archaeolo-
Banatului Montan de ctre Mircea Taban i a gists, historians and ethnologists colleagues,
Catalogului pieselor romane i daco-romane I insisted on publishing The Catalogue of the
din colecia Muzeului Banatului Montan de Ethnographical Collection of the Museum of
ctre Ovidiu Bozu n anul 2008. the Mountainous Banat by Mircea Taban and
Cele dou lucrri Arta minor medieval The Catalogue of Roman and Dacian-Roman
din Banat i Fortificaii medievale din Banat Items of the Collection of the Museum of the
se nscriu n seria de repertorii i cataloage ti- Mountainous Banat Ovidiu Bozu in 2008.
inifice arheologice i etnologice referitoare la The two works Minor Medieval Art in
Banat, o provincie istoric rmas foarte mult Banat and Medieval Fortifications in Banat
vreme n conul de umbr al scrisului istoric. are part of the series of scientifical archaeo-
Istoricul Nicolae Bocan, ntr-o admirabil logical and ethnological repertories and cata-
abordare a evoluiei istoriografiei bnene a logues concerning Banat, a historical province
evideniat perioadele de acumulri ale aces- that has been for a very long time period in
tora, dar i sincopele intervenite pe parcurs, the cone of shadow of the historical writing.
pendulrile n multiconfesionalitate i istoria The historian Nicolae Bocan, in an admirable
naional n scrierile istorice ce au abordat approach of evolution of historiography of
Banat, pointed out its periods of accumula-
tion, but also the sincopes suffered along the
time, oscillations in multi-confesionality and
national history in the historical writings that

7
trecutul acestei provincii de frontier. Aceste dealt with the past of this frontier province.
limite n care a evoluat scrisul istoric pn n These limits in which the historical writing has
perioada foarte recent, din care nu trebuie evolved by the recent period, from where the
neglijat absena unor instituii tiinifice i absence of some scientifical and academical
academice n cadrul provinciei, orgoliile locale institutions within the province, do not have
mereu active au mpiedicat o abordare global to be neglected. The local prides always active
a istoriei Banatului, o coagulare a efortului prevented from a global approach of the his-
academic al istoricilor risipii n diverse centre tory of Banat, a coagulation of the academical
tiinifice din afara provinciei. Muzeele bn- effort of the historians dispersed in different
ene au avut un rol esenial, n opinia mea, n scientifical centres outside the province. The
cercetarea istoric a provinciei, suplinind cel museums from Banat played an essential role,
mai adesea absena unor instituii universitare in my opinion, in the historical research of the
i academice. Cercetarea tiinific a constituit province, replacing very often the absence of
o component serioas a activitii muzeelor some universitary and academic institutions.
din Romnia, fora tiinific, baza material The scientifical research constituted a serious
i financiar a acestora n derularea unor pro- component of the activity of museums in Ro-
iecte tiinifice, a fost un vector important ce mania, the scientifical force, their material and
nu poate fi neglijat n evalurile istoriografice. financial base in the developement of some
Unirea i coagularea efortului tiinific i fi- scientifical projects. It was an important vector
nanciar al muzeelor bnene a fost motivaia that can not be neglected in the historiographi-
ce a stat la baza angajamentului protocolar i cal valuations. Unification and coagulation of
care sperm s-i fac simite mai consistent scientific and financial effort of the museums
efectele. from Banat constituted the motivation that was
Cele dou lucrri menionate la ncepu- at the base of the protocol agreement whose
tul acestei prezentri, Arta minor medieval effects we wait to be felt.
i Fortificaiile medievale din Banat constituie The two works mentioned at the begin-
etapa final a unui proiect de cercetare tiini- ning of this presentation, Minor Medieval Art
fic transfrontalier pe care Muzeul Banatului and Medieval Fortifications in Banat consti-
Montan din Reia l-a derulat n parteneriat cu tute the final stage of a project of scientifical
Muzeul regional din Zrenjanin, Serbia. transfrontier research that the Museum of
Proiectul Cetile Banatului un pa- Mountainous Banat from Reia developed in
trimoniu cultural european a fost finanat partnership with the Regional Museum from
din fonduri nerambursabile ale Uniunii Eu- Zrenjanin, Serbia.
ropene n cadrul Programului de vecintate The project The Fortresses from Banat
Romnia-Serbia 2004-2006. Prioritatea 2; a Cultural European Patrimony was financed
Msura 2.1; Phare CBC 2006/018.448. A from non-repayable funds of the European
fost un proiect complex, tiinific i practic, Union within The Program of Vicinity Ro-
n acelai timp ce a vizat un segment extrem mania-Serbia 2004-2006. Priority 2; Mea-
de reprezentativ al patrimoniului cultural al sure 2.1; Phare CBC 2006/018.448. It was a
Banatului: cetile medievale. complex practical and scientifical project that
Cetatea a reprezentat, n toate formele aimed, in the same time, at an extremely rep-
ei, un simbol esenial al Evului Mediu pretu- resentative segment of the cultural patrimony
tindeni n Europa medieval. Cetile medie- of Banat: medieval fortresses.
vale din Banat, un spaiu de frontier pe tot The fortress represented, in all its shapes,
parcursul secolelor XI-XVI, a cror genez i an essential symbol of the Middle Ages
throughout the medieval Europe. Medieval
fortresses from Banat, a frontier region, along
the 11th-16th centuries, whose genesis and

8
evoluie se leag de istoria central european, evolution are connected with the central Eu-
reprezint prin urmare un segment repre- ropean history, consequently a representative
zentativ al patrimoniului cultural european. segment of the cultural European patrimony.
Amplasate pe nlimi ele au dominat peisajul Located on heights, it dominated the geo-
geografic nc din momentul zidirii i pn la graphical landscape even since the moment of
momentul actual, cnd ele se prezint ntr-o its building till the present moment when they
dezolant hain de ruin. Cetatea medieval are in ruins. The medieval fortress represented,
a reprezentat, alturi de biseric, un centru de beside the church, a centre of power of medi-
putere al lumii medievale. Biserica a repre- eval world. The church represented, through
zentat prin monumente i slujitorii acestora monuments and their servants, a centre of
un centru al puterii eterne n timp ce instituia the eternal power while the institution cre-
creat n jurul cetilor era proiecia n teritoriu ated around the fortresses was the projection
a puterii temporare, umane. Omul medieval, in territory of the temporary human power.
indiferent de ordinul cruia i aparinea, a The medieval man, no matter of the order to
pendulat mereu prin constrngerile cotidiene which it belonged, always oscillated through
ntre cele dou centre de putere: biserica i daily compulsions between the two centres
cetatea. Am abordat cu puin vreme n urm, of power: the church and the fortress. We ap-
din perspectiva geografiei istorice, problema proached, a little time ago, from the point of
bisericilor i a mnstirilor din Banat n seco- view of the historical geography, the problem
lele XI-XVI. Din considerentele pe care le-am of churches and monasteries from Banat in
discutat mai nainte, am propus i abordarea the 11th-16th centuries. From the reasons
problemei cetilor medievale din Banat. Lu- discussed before, we have also proposed the
crarea este n intenia noastr un repertoriu approach of the problem of the medieval for-
arheologic i un studiu parial de geografie tresses from Banat. In our intention there are
istoric. Chestiunile de istorie instituional also an archaeological repertory and a study
discutate la nivelul Regatului maghiar medie- partly of historical geography. The matters of
val n studii de mare amploare de Erik Fgedi, institutional history discussed at the level of
Engel Pl, ori mai recent pentru spaiul tran- the medieval Hungarian Kingdom in important
silvnean de Adrian Andrei Rusu au inclus i studies by Erik Fgedi, Engel Pl, or more
problemele fortificaiilor bnene. Nu a stat recently for the area of Transylvania by Adrian
n intenia noastr abordarea unor probleme Andrei Rusu, included also the problems of the
instituionale specifice lumii romneti din fortifications from Banat. We did not intend
Banat districtele medievale, ce au gravitat an approach of institutional problems specific
n jurul cetilor regale, care a fost fcut cu to the Romanian world from Banat the me-
mult competen n sinteza profesorului Ioan dieval districts, that revolved round the royal
Aurel Pop. fortresses that was done with much compe-
Dorim s consemnm sumar n finalul tence in the synthesis of prof. Ioan Aurel Pop.
acestei prezentri chestiunile practice realizate We want to summarily register, at the
n cadrul acestui grant, este vorba de realizarea end of this presentation, the practical matters
unei expoziii de grafic i fotografii despre accomplished within this grant. It is about the
fortificaiile medievale din ntreaga provincie. achievement of an exhibition of graphic arts
Cetile din judeele Cara-Severin i Timi items and photos about medieval fortifica-
au beneficiat de o aciune de ecologizare, de tions from the whole province. The fortresses
curire de vegetaie i arbuti i n acelai from the Cara-Severin and Timi counties
timp de o marcare a lor cu panouri n teren benefited of an action with an ecological
object, getting rid of vegetation and bushes,
and, in the same time, of their marking with
panels on the spot according to the European

9
dup normele europene pentru monumente. norms for monuments. Implementation of
Implementarea acestui proiect complex s-a this complex project was fulfilled by a team
fcut de o echip n care am avut alturi pe composed of dr. Adriana Radu, dr. Adrian
dr. Adriana Radu, dr. Adrian Magina i Mela- Magina and Melania Zancu. The administra-
nia Zancu. Chestiunile administrative n-ar fi tive problems would not have been surpassed
putut fi surmontate fr sprijinul doamnelor without help of Marinela Ilie and Cristina
Marinela Ilie i Cristina Tru ce au asigurat Tru that assured the financial management
managementul financiar al proiectului. Am be- of the project. I benefited of the disinterested
neficiat de sprijinul dezinteresat, pe parcursul help, along the scientifical documentation,
documentrii tiinifice, al colegilor dr. Viorel of my colleagues dr. Viorel Achim, dr. Ioan
Achim, dr. Ioan Stanciu i Clin Cosma de la Stanciu and Clin Cosma from the institutes
institutele de istorie i arheologie ale Acade- of history and archaeology of the Romanian
miei Romne din Bucureti i Cluj crora le Academy from Bucharest and Cluj, to whom
rmn profund ndatorat. Un gnd special de I am deeply grateful. Many thanks, that can
mulumire, care nu poate s acopere nici pe not cover not even by far the good offices of
departe bunele oficii de care m-am bucurat pe which I enjoyed during my documentation,
tot parcursul documentrii, ctre Prof. univ. dr. towards prof.dr. Doru Radosav, director of the
Doru Radosav, directorul Bibliotecii Centrale Lucian Blaga Central Universitary Library
Universitare Lucian Blaga din Cluj-Napoca. from Cluj-Napoca.
Muzeul din Zrenjanin a fost un partener The museum from Zrenjanin was an
ideal n acest proiect iar directorul acestei in- ideal partner in this project, and the director
stituii, domnul Boidar Vorgic, a fost solidar of this institution, Mr. Boidar Vorgic, was
alturi de noi pe tot parcursul demersului i solidary with us along the whole approach.
cruia i exprimm aici gratitudinea noastr. We express our gratitude to him.

Dumitru eicu Dumitru eicu

Reia, 20.07. 2009 Reia, 20.07. 2009

10
IZVOARELE I SOURCES AND
ISTORIOGRAFIA PROBLEMEI HISTORIOGRAPHY

Banatul a beneficiat de o publicare a Banat has benefited of the publication


surselor istorice scrise nc din a doua jumtate of written historical sources even since the
a veacului al XIX-lea. Se detaeaz n aceast second half of the 19th century. It stands out,
privin activitatea extrem de laborioas a in this respect, the extremely laborious activ-
istoricului Pesty Friges, cel ce a identificat n ity of the historian Pesty Friges, that one who
arhive circa 1500 de documente medievale. O identified about 1,500 medieval documents
parte din acestea au fost publicate n cele dou in archives. Part of them were published in
volume consacrate comitatului Cara, aprute two volumes dedicated to the Cara comitat,
n anii 1882-18831. Alte 280 de documente au issued in 1882-18831. Other 280 documents
fost editate de Pesty Friges n volumul con- were edited by Pesty Friges in the volume
sacrat Banatului de Severin2, publicat n anul dedicated to the Banat of Severin2, published
1878. Datorm aceluiai harnic istoric al colii in 1878. We owe identification and transcrip-
critice maghiare identificarea i transcrierea tion of a lot of 418 documents concerning
unui lot de 418 documente referitoare la co- the Timi comitat to the same hard-working
mitatul Timi, dar publicate sub semntura historian of the Critic Hungarian School. But
istoricului german bnean Theodor Ortvay- they were published under the signature of
Ortmayr n anul 18963. Biblioteca Academiei the German historian from Banat, Theodor
Maghiare pstreaz n manuscris un volum Ortvay-Ortmayr in 18963. The Library of the
de 800 documente transcrise de Pesty Friges, Hungarian Academy preserves a manuscript
referitoare la comitatul Timi, ce ateapt s of 800 documents transcribed by Pesty Friges,
fie publicate4. Cetile medievale din Banat concerning the Timi comitat, that waits
din secolele XIV-XV au fost consemnate n to be published4. Medieval fortresses from
documentele scrise sub forma castrum ori Banat dated to the 14th-15th centuries were
castellum. Aceleai surse ofer informaii cu recorded in written documents in the form of
privire la castelanii cetilor, ori ai altor sluj- castrum or castellum. The same sources pro-
bai din cetate, informaii ce au ngduit lui vide information related to the fortress lords
Pl Engel remarcabila reconstituire propus n or to other civil servants of the fortress. This
volumul de geografie istoric aprut n anul information allowed Pl Engel the remarkable
19965. Cunoatem uneori existena cetii prin reconstitution proposed in the volume of his-
prisma informaiilor despre satele ce formau torical geography issued in 19965. We know
about the existence of the fortress according
1
Pesty, Krass, III-IV, 1882-1883. to the information about the villages forming
2
Pesty, Szreny, III, 1878.
3
Ortvay, 1896. 1
Pesty, Krass, III-IV, 1882-1883.
4
Cercetri de arhiv dr. Adrian Magina. 2
Pesty, Szreny, III, 1878.
5
Engel, 1996. 3
Ortvay, 1896.
4
Investigations in archives by dr.Adrian Magina.
5
Engel, 1996.

11
domeniul acesteia, ori a districtului romnesc its domain or the Romanian district in which
la care erau amplasate. they were settled.
Cetile bnene apar n conul de The fortresses from Banat appear in the
lumin al istoriei prin prisma actelor scrise cone of light of history from the angle of the
ntr-un mod extrem de divers i inegal n timp. written documents in an extremely different
Cunoatem, prin prisma acestor informaii, and unequal way in time. We know, thanks to
rolul activ jucat n prima jumtate a secolului this information, the active role played in the
al XV-lea de cetile din Clisura Dunrii n first half of the 15th century by the fortresses
confruntarea european cu Imperiul Otoman, from the Danube Clisura in the European
n timp ce alte fortificaii din spaiul montan, confrontation with the Ottoman Empire while
din valea Brzavei, din Almj, bunoar, au other fortifications from the mountainous
rmas mereu n zona cu puine informaii, deci area, from the Brzava valley, from Almj,
puin luminat. Implicarea elitelor bnene, for instance, were less known because of few
accederea lor prin nnobilare la funcii n con- information. Implication of elites from Banat,
ducerea cetilor i a comitatelor bnene n succeeding in being ennobled at ranks in the
secolele XV-XVI s-au transmis i prin prisma leadership of fortresses and of comitats from
documentelor medievale publicate de ctre Banat in the 15th-16th centuries was transmit-
Costin Fenean6. ted also from the angle of medieval documents
Reconstituirile de geografie istoric a published by Costin Fenean6.
Banatului beneficiaz de informaii de prim Reconstitutions of historical geography
importan din cronici turceti sau din nsem- of Banat benefits of very important informa-
nrile unor cltori strini prin Banat. Dei au tion from Turkish chronicles or from notes
fost redactate trziu, n secolul al XVII-lea, of some foreign travellers throughout Banat.
ele aduc informaii utile pentru o reconstituire Even if they were drawn up late in the 17th
regresiv a trecutului cetilor medievale din century, they brought useful information for
Banat. Cronica turceasc Nusretname, scris a regressive reconstitution of the past of the
de Silahdar Fndkliei Mehemed Aga7 face o medieval fortresses in Banat. The Turkish
descriere a cetii Cuieti cu prilejul asediu- Nusretname Chronicle, written by Silahdar
lui acesteia din anul 1695. Ea era amplasat Fndkliei Mehemed Aga7 presents a descrip-
pe un loc greu accesibil i este prezentat de tion of the Cuieti fortress occasioned by its
cronicar ca o fortificaie mic cu dou turnuri siege in 1695. It was located in a difficult of
interioare8. Cltorul turc Evlin Celebi a lsat access place. It is described by the chronicler
nsemnri despre o parte din cetile Banatului. as being a small fortification with two interior
Referinele sale sunt utile pentru descrierea towers8. The Turkish traveller Evlin Celebi
vechilor nuclee ale cetilor de la Caransebe, wrote about part of the fortresses from Banat.
Lugoj, Timioara, iar alteori, cum este cazul His references are useful for depicting the an-
cetii Jdioara, trebuie privite cu pruden. cient nuclei of the fortresses from Caransebe,
Cetatea Caransebeului pstra la 1660, cnd a Lugoj, Timioara, and some other time, as in
trecut prin ea Evlia Celebi, nucleul vechi, fiind the case of the Jdioara fortress, they must be
o puternic cetate interioar, n cinci coluri, prudently regarded. The Caransebe fortress
solid construitaceast cetate interioar are was still preserved in 1660, when Evlia Celebi
passed through it, the ancient nucleus, being
6
Fenean, 1981; Fenean, 2007 a powerful interior five-cornered fortress
7
Cronici turceti, II, 1974, p.432. solidly built... this interior fortress has only
8
Cronici turceti, II, p.432.

6
Fenean, 1981; Fenean, 2007
7
Cronici turceti, II, 1974, p.432.
8
Cronici turceti, II, p.432.

12
o singur poart9. Castrul medieval de la Lu- one gate9. The medieval castrum from Lugoj
goj este prezentat de acelai cltor turc drept is presented by the same Turkish traveller as
o cetate interioar din zid cu an de aprare10. an interior wall fortress with defensive ditch10.
Giovan Andreea Gromo, un cltor Giovan Andreea Gromo, an Italian trav-
italian ce a strbtut inutul Banatului, a lsat eller that wandered the region of Banat, let
cteva mrturii despre Caransebe, Mehadia few testimonies about Caransebe, Mehadia
i Lugoj. Cetatea Mehadiei ocupa o poziie and Lugoj. The Mehadia fortress occupied a
strategic deosebit n drumul dintre Dunre special strategical position in the way between
i Transilvania, lucru remarcat de Gromo11. the Danube and Transylvania, fact remarked
Amplasarea pe o stnc natural face dificil by Gromo11. Its location on a natural rock
urcarea artileriei, care odat urcat nici nu made difficult climbing for the artilery that
poate fi aezat din cauza ngustimii spaiului once climbed up, it could not be set because
dimprejur12. the narrowness of the surrounding area12.
Mrturiile din cronicile turceti i din Testimonies from the Turkish chronicles
nsemnrile din cltorie prin Banat au primit and from the traveling notes throughout Banat
o confirmare din surse cartografice austriece got confirmation from Austrian map sources
din secolele XVII-XVIII. Arhiva Marsigli de from the 17th-18th centuries. The archive
la Bologna pstreaz mape cu hri realizate Marsigli from Bologna preserves paper cases
de ofierii aflai sub comanda generalului with maps drawn by officers under the general
Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli, aflat n misiune Luigi Ferdinando Marsiglis command, who
austriac n Banat n anul 169713. Publicate was in Austrian mission in Banat in 169713.
de G. Sebestyen ele ofer informaii despre Published by G. Sebestyen, those maps pro-
starea monumentelor n momentul realizrii vided information about the state of monu-
releveelor. Planurile i hrile realizate de ments in the moment of drawing of plans.
austrieci n Banat sunt foarte puin cunoscute The plans and the maps achieved by Austrians
n istoriografie, deoarece nu a existat o direcie in Banat are less known in historiography
de cercetare punctual n aceast chestiune14. because there was not a direction of punctual
Alexander Krischan, istoric bnean stabilit research in this matter14. Alexander Krischan,
n Viena i cu preocupri legate de istoria a historian from Banat established in Wien,
provinciei, a publicat un inventar extrem de in- who was preoccupied by the province history,
teresant al planurilor i hrilor aflate n arhiva published an extremely interesting inventory
Ministerului de Rzboi de la Viena referitoare of plans and maps concerning Banat pre-
la Banat15. El semnaleaz n studiul amintit, served in the archives of the Ministry of War
preciznd inclusiv cotele, un numr de 495 in Wien15. He pointed out, in the mentioned
de hri din perioada 1686-1900 cu tematic study, specifying inclusively the spot heights,
administrativ, politic, militar aflate la Kri- a number of 495 maps belonging to the period
egsarchiv din Viena referitoare la Banat16. Se 1686-1900 with administrative, political and
regsesc n inventarul publicat de Alexander military themes related to Banat preserved at
Krischan semnalate planuri de ceti vechi, ct Kriegsarchiv in Wien16. In the inventory pub-
lished by Alexander Krischan, there are plans
9
Cltori strini, VI, 1976, p.534-535.
10
Cltori strini, VI, 1976, p.533-534. 9
Cltori strini, VI, 1976, p.534-535.
11
Cltori strini, II, 1970, p.328. 10
Cltori strini, VI, 1976, p.533-534.
12
Cltori strini, II, 1970, p.328 11
Cltori strini, II, 1970, p.328.
13
Sebestyen, 1984, p.41-50. 12
Cltori strini, II, 1970, p.328.
14
Sebestyen, 1984, p.42-48. 13
Sebestyen, 1984, p.41-50.
15
Krischan, 1996, p.295-351. 14
Sebestyen, 1984, p.42-48.
16
Krischan, 1996, p.295-306. 15
Krischan, 1996, p.295-351.
16
Krischan, 1996, p.295-306.

13
i ale fortificaiei noi de la Orova, Panevo, of ancient fortresses and of new fortifications
Mehadia, Caransebe, Lipova i altele ce pot from Orova, Pancevo, Mehadia, Caransebe,
oferi cu siguran o alt imagine despre cet- Lipova and others that can certainly offer
ile medievale ale Banatului, n stadiul n care another image of the medieval fortresses of
le-au gsit la sfritul secolului al XVII-lea17. Banat, in the stage in which there were found
Arheologia medieval i-a structurat de at the end of the 17th century17.
la bun nceput n cmpul su de investigare un Medieval archaeology structured, from
segment consacrat monumentelor din zid, al- its very early beginning in its field of investi-
turi de cele consacrate arheologiei aezrilor gation, a segment dedicated to the wall monu-
ori celei funerare. Investigarea fortificaiilor ments beside those dedicated to the settlement
medievale din zid, nu doar a vestigiilor pstra- or funerary archaeology. Investigation of
te, presupune un efort deosebit, lucru remarcat medieval wall fortifications, not only that one
de mult vreme i pentru spaii cu o veche of the preserved vestiges, supposes a special
tradiie n domeniul arheologiei medievale18. effort. This matter was noticed for a long time
Apelul la cercetarea arheologic a fortificaii- also in the case of areas with old tradition in
lor n spaiul Transilvaniei i Banatului, ce nu the domain of medieval archaeology18. The
beneficiaz de abundena surselor din regiunile appeal to archaeological investigation of
vest i central europene, este esenial pentru fortifications in Transylvaia and Banat, that
a reface fizionomia general a arhitecturii do not benefit of abundence of sources from
militare medievale, pentru a utiliza aici the western and central European regions, is
expresia consacrat a lui Michael de Bouard, essential to recreate general physionomy of
unul dintre ntemeietorii acestei discipline19. the military medieval architecture, to use
Evalurile recente fcute de Adrian Rusu here Michael de Bouards phrase, one of the
n problema surselor de informare oferite de founders of this discipline19.
arheologia monumentelor relev acumulrile Recent valuations done by Adrian Rusu
lente i chiar pierderile survenite pe parcurs, in the problem of sources of information
dup cercetarea monumentelor i nstrinarea provided by the monument archaeology em-
documentaiei i a materialului arheologic phasize slow accumulations and even losts
descoperit20. Cercetarea fortificaiilor medi- happened along the time, after investigation
evale din Banat a nceput trziu, la nceputul of monuments and removal of documenta-
deceniului al optulea al secolului trecut, sub tion and archaeological material discovered20.
impulsul venit dinspre un centru cu mai vechi Investigation of the medieval fortifications in
tradiii universitare i academice de la Cluj. Banat started late, at the beginning of the 8th
Cercetrile iniiate de tefan Matei la Ilidia n decade of the last century, under the impulse
1972 i mai apoi la cetile de la Mehadia i come from a centre with older universitary and
Coronini au oferit elementele pe baza crora academical traditions from Cluj. The investi-
discutm i la momentul actual evoluia arhi- gations initiated by tefan Matei at Ilidia in
tecturii medievale de fortificaii din Banat21. 1972, and later at the fortresses from Mehadia
Investigaiile au oferit date privind planime- and Coronini, offered elements on whose
17
Krischan, 1996, p.335.
base we discuss even at present the evolution
18
Bouard, 1975, p.105-106. of the medieval architecture of fortifications
19
Bouard, 1975, p.105. from Banat21. The investigations offered data
20
Rusu, 1998, p.5; Rusu, 2005, p.26-32.
21
Matei, Uzum, 1973, p.141-155; Matei, 1982, p.102- 17
Krischan, 1996, p.335.
120. 18
Bouard, 1975, p.105-106.
19
Bouard, 1975, p.105.
20
Rusu, 1998, p.5; Rusu, 2005, p.26-32.
21
Matei, Uzum, 1973, p.141-155; Matei, 1982,
p.102-120.

14
tria monumentelor i etapele de amenajare a concerning planimetry of monuments and
acestora. Materialul arheologic ajut ntr-o stages of their disposal. The archaeological
oarecare msur la datarea etapelor de ame- material helps in a certain measure to date the
najare a cetilor de la Coronini, Mehadia i stages of construction of the fortresses from
Ilidia22. Turnurile locuin de la Svinia au fost Coronini, Mehadia and Ilidia22. The dwelling-
investigate arheologic n toamna anului 1970, towers from Svinia were archaeologically
fiind singura fortificaie cercetat i publicat investigated in the autumn of 1970. They were
din cadrul proiectului de amenajare a Dunrii the only one fortification investigated and
la Porile de Fier23. Cercetrile de arheologie published within the project of arrangement of
medieval din Valea Dunrii, derulate n anii the Danube at the Iron Gates23. The archaeo-
1965-1970, au vizat extrem de puine obiec- logical medieval investigations in the Danube
tive, iar rezultatele publicate sunt dezolante24. valley, developed in 1965-1970, aimed at very
Cercetrile de la Ilidia din cadrul curii few objectives, and the published results are
feudale de pe dealul Oblia, derulate n anii unsatisfactory24.
1969-1980, au adus n discuie planul unui turn Investigations from Ilidia within the
locuin, datat pe baza materialului arheologic feudal court on the Oblia hill, developed in
descoperit n veacul al XII-lea25. Construcia 1969-1980, brought in discussion the plan
de la Ilidia constituie un reper, sigur datat, cu of a dwelling-tower, dated on the base of the
privire la nceputul arhitecturii de fortificaii n archaeological material discovered in the 12th
spaiul Dunrii de Jos Apusene. Identificarea century25. The building from Ilidia constitutes
pe teren a unor monumente, din preajma Anu- a reference point, certainly dated, for the be-
lui O Mie, n spaiul nord estic al Banatului a ginning of the architecture of fortifications
fost obiectul mrturisit al cercetrii, ce i l-a within the area of the western Low Danube.
fixat profesorul Radu Popa i echipa pe care o Identification on the spot of some monuments,
conducea. Investigaiile de la Gladna Romn about the year One Thousand, in the north-
i Fget din anii 1986-1988 se nscriu n aceste eastern area of Banat was the declared object
preocupri. Documentaia arheologic de la of the investigation that prof. Radu Popa and
Fget a confirmat datarea trzie a cetii n his team proposed. The investigations from
secolul al XVI-lea, pe de o parte, i a oferit Gladna Romn and Fget in 1986-1988 are
elemente de planimetrie ale acesteia cunoscute part of these preoccupations. The archaeo-
pn atunci din planurile din arhiva Marsigli26. logical documentation at Fget confirmed the
Demersul iniiat de profesorul Radu late dating of the fortress to the 16th century,
Popa la cercetarea arhitecturii militare a Bana- on one side, and offered elements of its pla-
tului la nceputul Evului Mediu n-a fost conti- nimetry known by then from the plans of the
nuat dup dispariia sa prematur. Cercetarea Marsigli archives26.
arheologic de la cetatea de la Caraova din The approach initiated by prof. Radu
anii 1998- 2000 a fost i a rmas un experi- Popa at the research of the military architec-
ture of Banat at the beginning of the Middle
22
Matei, 1982, p.114-119. Ages has not been continued after his prema-
23
Corvtescu, Rdulescu, 1979, p.169. ture death. The archaeological investigation at
24
Rosetti, 1978, p. 147-153.
25
eicu, 1996, p.77-79.
the fortress from Caraova in 1998- 2000 was
26
Popa, Cpn,Achim, 1987, p.12; Popa, Cpn,
Rdulescu, Tomoni, 1991, p.23 i urm. 22
Matei, 1982, p.114-119.
23
Corvtescu, Rdulescu, 1979, p.169.
24
Rosetti, 1978, p. 147-153.
25
eicu, 1996, p.77-79.
26
Popa, Cpn,Achim, 1987, p.12; Popa,
Cpn, Rdulescu, Tomoni, 1991, p.23 and
following.

15
ment al unui arheolog debutant, ce-i cuta o and has remained an experiment of a beginner
direcie n cercetarea arheologic. Observaiile in archaeology who was looking for a direction
din rapoartele de spturi, nesudate pe un plan in the archaeological investigation. Observa-
general i alte elemente obligatorii de sptu- tions from the excavation reports, without a
r, spuse pe un ton justiiar trebuie luate cu general plan and other obligatory elements of
pruden necesar27. excavation, told on a redeeming tone have to
Marin Brmboli a organizat o cercetare be considered with necessary prudence27.
sistematic la donjonul de la Vrsc n anii Marin Brmboli organized a systematic
1997-2000, care a oferit elemente de cunoa- investigation at the donjon from Vrsc in 1997-
tere a arhitecturii unuia din cele mai bine con- 2000, that offered elements of knowledge of
servate monumente din Banat28. Construcia the architecture of one of the best preserved
fortificaiei s-a derulat n dou etape, cea dinti monuments from Banat28. The construction
amenajare reprezentnd donjonul rectangular. of the fortification developed in two stages.
O incint din zid cu plan triunghiular a fost The first building represented the rectangular
amenajat la vestul donjonului, extremitatea donjon. A wall compound with triangular plan
estic fiind flancat de un turn semicircular. was disposed west to the donjon. The eastern
Materialul arheologic gsit a oferit extrem de extremity was flanked by a semicircular tower.
puine elemente de datare sigur a structuri- The archaeological material found provided
lor cetii medievale de la Vrsc. Recursul la very few elements of sure dating of the struc-
documentele istorice scrise s-a fcut n acest tures of the medieval fortress from Vrsc.
caz conjunctural i selectiv, ceea ce a viciat, The appeal to written historical documents
dup opinia mea, stabilirea cronologiei pe was done in this case in a conjunctural and
de o parte, i o corect ncadrare a acesteia selective way what vitiated, in my opinion, the
n peisajul geografiei istorice a Banatului establishment of the chronology on one side,
medieval. Aezarea i fortificaia de la Vrsc and a correct framing of it in the scenery of the
trebuie identificat cu aezarea i cetatea re- historical geography of the medieval Banat.
gal Ersumlio29. The settlement and the fortification from Vrsc
O privire retrospectiv asupra cercetrii has to be identified with the Ersumlio settle-
arheologice a fortificaiilor medievale din ment and royal fortress29.
Banat evideniaz absena unui progres ori a A retrospective view over the archaeo-
unor preocupri ferme i de lung durat n logical investigation of the medieval forti-
acest domeniu. Debutul extrem de promitor fications from Banat points out the absence
n aceast privin iniiat la nceputul deceniu- of progress or of some firm and long-term
lui al optulea de tefan Matei, un cercettor preoccupations in this domain. The very prom-
tiinific ce a avut chemarea, tiina necesar ising beginning in this respect initiated at the
dar i experiena dobndit pe antierele tran- beginning of the 8th decade by tefan Matei, a
silvnene, s-a oprit brusc i nu a mai fost reluat scientifical researcher who had vocation, nec-
n ultimele decenii. Informaia arheologic essary science, but also experience acquired on
despre evoluia arhitecturii de fortificaii din the excavations from Transylvania, suddenly
Banat n secolele XIII-XV rmne la stadiul ceased and it has not been taken over for the
incipient. last decades. Archaeological information
about evolution of the architecture of fortifica-
27
Oa, 1999, p.22-23; Oa, 2001, p.57-59. tions in Banat in the 13th-15th centuries has
28
Brmboli, 2009, p.35, 48-53. remained at the incipient stage.
29
Brmboli, 2009, p.105-109; Gyrffy, III, 1987,
p.493. 27
Oa, 1999, p.22-23; Oa, 2001, p.57-59.
28
Brmboli, 2009, p.35, 48-53.
29
Brmboli, 2009, p.105-109; Gyrffy, III, 1987,
p.493.

16
Analiza dosarului surselor istorice acu- Analysis of the historical sources gath-
mulate despre cetatea medieval din Banat ne ered about the medieval fortress from Banat
faciliteaz n bun msur o discuie despre facilitates, in a good measure, a discussion
modul cum s-a scris n istoriografia multi- about the way how the medieval fortifica-
confesional bnean despre fortificaiile tions were presented in the multiconfessional
medievale30. historiography from Banat30.
Interesul pentru cetile medievale ale Interest for the medieval fortresses from
Banatului s-a manifestat de timpuriu, nc Banat manifested early, even since the second
din a doua jumtate a secolului al XIX-lea, half of the 19th century, but from the point of
ns din perspectiva geografiei istorice. Pesty view of the historical geography. Pesty Friges,
Friges, harnicul istoric al Banatului, odat cu the hard-working historian of Banat, in the
publicarea izvoarelor diplomatice medievale same time with the publication of diplomatic
a consacrat un segment important al scrisului medieval sources, dedicated an important seg-
su istoric geografiei istorice a comitatului ment of his historical writing to the historical
Cara i Banatului de Severin31. Cetile medi- geography of the Cara and Banat of Severin
evale din acest spaiu se regsesc analizate prin comitats31. Medieval fortresses within this area
prisma informaiilor oferite de documentele are analyzed through the information provided
medievale deja publicate. Merit semnalate, n by the already published medieval documents.
acest context, eforturile istoricului pozitivist It is worth to be pointed out, in this context,
maghiar de a localiza o parte din fortificaiile the positivist Hungarian historians efforts to
medievale disprute de la Ersumlia32, Borza- locate part of the disappeared medieval forti-
v33, Peth34, Liboradea35 i altele. El a loca- fications from Ersumlia32, Borzav33, Peth34,
lizat, dup o trecere n revist a informaiilor Liboradea35 and others. He located, after a
documentare din secolele XIII-XVI despre review of the documentary information from
cetatea Ersumlia, amplasarea acesteia pe malul the 13th-16th centuries, the Ersumlia fortress
drept al Caraului, n apropiere de Vrdia36. on the right bank of the Cara, in the vicin-
Informaiile din documentele medievale i ity of Vrdia36. Information from medieval
toponimia local nu au fost corelate de fiecare documents and local toponimy were not linked
dat, dei erau bine cunoscute, fapt ce a dus every time, even if they were well known.
la identificri eronate ale cetilor medievale This fact led to wrong identifications of the
n scrierile lui Pesty Friges. A discutat bu- medieval fortresses in Pesty Friges writings.
noar sursele despre cetatea Cuieti, legat He discussed, for instance, about the sources
indiscutabil de Valea Brzavei, dar a localizat related to the Cuieti fortress, indisputably
aceast cetate undeva ntre Clina i Seca n related to the Brzava valley, but he located
Munii Dognecei37. Toponimia de la Boca, this fortress somewhere between Clina and
unde se afla i cetatea sus menionat, pe care Seca in Dognecea Mounts37. Toponimy from
el o cunotea cu siguran din rspunsurile din Boca, where the fortress mentioned above
chestionarele trimise, meniona Dealul Cetii was situated, that he certainly knew from the
sau Dealul Monastirei i Dealul Petri, toate answers to the sent questionnaires, was men-
tioning Dealul Cetii or Dealul Monastirei
30
eicu, 1998, p.35 i urm.
31
Pesty, Krass, II, 1-2, 1884; Pesty, Szreny, II, 30
eicu, 1998, p.35 and following.
1878. 31
Pesty, Krass, II, 1-2, 1884; Pesty, Szreny, II,
32
Pesty, Krass, II, 2, p.165. 1878.
33
Pesty, Krass, II, 1, p.72. 32
Pesty, Krass, II, 2, p.165.
34
Pesty, Szreny, II, p.441. 33
Pesty, Krass, II, 1, p.72.
35
Pesty, Krass, II,p. 314. 34
Pesty, Szreny, II, p.441.
36
Pesty, Krass, II, 1, p.171. 35
Pesty, Krass, II,p. 314.
37
Pesty, Krass, II, 1, p.296. 36
Pesty, Krass, II, 1, p.171.
37
Pesty, Krass, II, 1, p.296.

17
legate de numele cetii i amintirea acesteia and Dealul Petri, all linked to the name of
n memoria colectiv38. n Valea Brzavei, la the fortress and its remembrance in the col-
Boca, n preajma cetii Cuieti s-a aflat i lective memory38. In the Brzava valley, at
un convent franciscan n veacul al XIV-lea, a Boca, around the Cuieti fortress, there was
crui amintire se pare c a pstrat-o toponimia also a Franciscan convent in the 1th century,
local pn la un moment dat39. Monumentele whose remembrance seems to have been kept
din Banatul de Severin, amplasarea acestora in the local toponimy till a given moment39.
n teren, erau puin cunoscute i discuiile Monuments from the Banat of Severin, their
purtate pe marginea lor se fcea pe temeiul location, were less known. The discussion
documentelor i arareori pe descrierile i concerning them took place on the base of
cercetrile locale, cum este cazul bunoar documents, and seldom of depictions and local
cu cetile de la Mehadia, Drencova, Orova investigations, as in the case of the fortresses
i Peth40. Discuiile despre cetile medievale from Mehadia, Drencova, Orova and Peth for
bnene purtate n istoriografia multicultural instance40. Discussions about the medieval for-
bnean au preluat pn la mijlocul secolului tresses from Banat taken in the multicultural
trecut informaiile i ipotezele formulate de historiography from Banat took over, till the
Pesty Friges. Cel ce a adus uneori nuanri n middle of the last century, information and hy-
privina localizrii unor fortificaii medievale potheses formulated by Pesty Friges. That one
pe baza toponimiei i a cercetrilor proprii who brought sometimes nuances as concerns
din teren a fost Felix Milleker, istoricul i location of some medieval fortifications on the
arheologul german de la Muzeul din Vrsc41. base of toponimy and of his own investigations
Extrem de utile pentru cunoaterea strii was Felix Milleker, German historian and
monumentelor sunt studiile de istorie local archaeologist from the Museum from Vrsc41.
publicate la finele veacului al XIX-lea de ctre The studies of local history published at the
un alt istoric german bnean Leonard Bhm, end of the 19th century by another German
din Bela Crkva/Weisskirchen. Informaiile historian from Banat, Leonard Bhm, from
sale despre cetiile de la Pojejena, Dubova Bela Crkva/Weisskirchen, were very useful
i Mehadia sunt extrem de utile42. for the knowledge of the state of monuments.
Monumentele de fortificaii medievale His information about the fortresses from
bnene au rmas n afara sferei de interes Pojejena, Dubova and Mehadia are extremely
a scrisului istoric pe tot parcursul perioadei useful42.
interbelice, att pentru istoriografia local, ct Monuments of medieval fortifications
i pentru centrele academice cu preocupri de from Banat remained out of the interest sphere
istoria Banatului din afara spaiului provinciei. of the historian writing along the period be-
Consecina acestei lipse de interes i de infor- tween the two wars both for local historiogra-
maii s-a rsfrnt direct n abordrile de sintez phy and for academical centres from outside
cu privire la arhitectura medieval, publicate the province with preoccupations for the his-
dup al doilea rzboi mondial. Banatul, cu tory of Banat. The consequence of this lack of
interest and of information directly reflected in
38
Pesty, Krass, II, 1, p.65. the synthesis approaches concerning medieval
39
eicu, 2007, p.84. architecture published after the second World
40
Pesty, Szreny, II, p.52, 309, 389, 441. War. Banat, with its monuments of medieval
41
Milleker, 1915.
42
Bhm, 1880, p.64-70; Bhm, 1880, p.161-168.
architecture, is not found in a far-reaching ap-
38
Pesty, Krass, II, 1, p.65.
39
eicu, 2007, p.84.
40
Pesty, Szreny, II, p.52, 309, 389, 441.
41
Milleker, 1915.
42
Bhm, 1880, p.64-70; Bhm, 1880, p.161-168.

18
monumentele sale de arhitectur medieval, proach, but extremely solid in the same time,
nu se regsete bunoar ntr-o abordare de as was that one of Virgil Vteanu 43.
mare anvergur, extrem de solid n acelai Interest for studying architecture of
timp, cum a fost aceea a lui Virgil Vteanu 43. fortifications of medieval Banat starts to be
Interesul pentru studierea arhitecturii de manifested punctually on this theme since the
fortificaii ale Banatului medieval ncepe s se 8th decade of the last century. This direction
manifeste punctual pe aceast tem odat cu in the historical research of Banat comes from
deceniul al optulea al secolului trecut. Aceast outside the province, from Cluj, from a centre
direcie n cercetarea istoric a Banatului vine of academical research with old traditions, that
din afara provinciei de la Cluj, dintr-un centru Banat has not had for a long time period. Prof.
de cercetare academic cu vechi tradiii, ceea Nicolae Bocanu, in a radiography of evolu-
ce a lipsit Banatului foarte mult vreme. Pro- tion of historiography from Banat that we have
fesorul Nicolae Bocanu, ntr-o radiografie a often invoked, has pointed out the specific of
evoluiei istoriografiei bnene pe care noi the historiographical phenomenon from Banat
am invocat-o adeseori, a evideniat specificul and its evolution in time44. Investigations of
fenomenului istoriografic bnean i evo- medieval archaeology initiated by tefan
luia sa n timp44. Cercetrile de arheologie Matei at the fortresses from Mehadia,Turnu
medieval iniiate de tefan Matei la cetile Ruieni, Coronini, Ilidia, starting from 1969,
de la Mehadia,Turnu Ruieni, Coronini, Ilidia, have marked the beginning of an important
ncepnd cu anul 1969, marcheaz nceputul stage in the knowledge of ecclesiastic and for-
unei etape importante n cunoaterea arhitec- tification architecture of the medieval Banat45.
turii de fortificaii i ecleziastice a Banatului Now, in 2009, after four decades regard-
medieval45 ing retrospectively, we can assert that the
Acum, n anul 2009, deci dup patru approach concerning the medieval fortresses
decenii privind retrospectiv, putem afirma c have not coagulated also on local plan in the
demersul n privina cetilor medievale nu s-a museums from Banat, that represented the
coagulat i pe plan local n muzeele bnene, main actor in the archaeological investigations
care au reprezentat n acest interval principalul during this time period. There was a weak at-
actor n cercetarea arheologic. A existat o tempt between 1973-1975 at the Museum of
tentativ firav n anii 1973-1975 la Muzeul Banat that initiated archaeological excavations
Banatului, care a iniiat spturi arheologice at Jdioara, but it rapidly failed.46
la Jdioara i care s-a stins rapid.46 Investigations in the Danube valley in
Cercetrile din Valea Dunrii din anii 1961-1965 motivated by the deep changes
1961-1965 motivate de schimbrile profunde brought to the construction of the hydro-
aduse de construcia hidrocentralei de la Pori- electric plant from the Iron Gates represented
le de Fier au reprezentat o oportunitate ratat. a failed opportunity. The investigations at the
Cercetrile de la cetile de la Orova, Dubo- fortresses from Orova, Dubova, Drencova,
va, Drencova, Coronini (Pescari) i Pojejena Coronini (Pescari) and Pojejena could have
ar fi putut oferi rspunsuri la ntrebri legate provided answers to questions related to the
de nceputurile arhitecturii de fortificaii din beginning of the architecture of fortifications
Banat n preajma Anului O Mie, rspunsuri from Banat about the year of One Thousand,
la evoluia arhitecturii de fortificaii n spaiul answers to the evolution of the architecture
Dunrii de Jos Apusene n secolele XIV-XV. of fortifications within the area of the western
Low Danube in the 14th-15th centuries. Total
43
Vtianu, 1959. 43
Vtianu, 1959.
44
Bocan, 1996, p.267-268. 44
Bocan, 1996, p.267-268.
45
Matei, 1973, p.311; Matei, 1982, p.114-120. 45
Matei, 1973, p.311; Matei, 1982, p.114-120.
46
Bejan, 1975, p.155-156; Bejan, 1979, p.199-203. 46
Bejan, 1975, p.155-156; Bejan, 1979, p.199-203.

19
Absena total a informaiilor arheologice des- absence of archaeological information about
pre o bun parte din aceste monumente ajunse great part of these monuments reached under
acum sub apele fluviului, dar nu numai despre the river waters, but not only about them,
ele, marcheaz unul din eecurile rsuntoare marked one of the resounding failures of our
ale istoriografiei noastre, neasumat n nici un historiography. But this failure has not been
fel pn astzi. assumed in any way by now.
Abordri punctuale ale monumentelor Punctual approaches of the monuments
bnene, asupra donjonului de la Ceacova, from Banat on the donjon from Ciacova, Me-
Mehadia i Turnu Ruieni, au venit din sfera hadia and Turnu Ruieni, came from the sphere
istoriei artei i au fost propuse cu succes de of art history and they were successfully
ctre Nicolae Secar47. Un studiu despre tur- proposed by Nicolae Secar47. A study about
nurile locuin de la Svinia, publicat n anul the dwelling-towers from Svinia, published
1979 de ctre un arhitect i un arheolog, re- in 1979 by an architect and an archaeologist
prezint o palid consolare despre ceea ce ar fi represents a pale consolation as concerns what
putut oferi cercetrile fortificaiilor medievale could have provided the investigations of the
din Clisura Dunrii48. Abordarea punctual a medieval fortifications from the Danube Cli-
chestiunii turnurilor locuin n anii 1978-1980 sura48. The punctual approach of the matter of
propus de Radu Popa49, Gheorghe Anghel50 the dwelling-towers in 1978-1980 proposed by
i Adrian Rusu51 a vizat i monumentele b- Radu Popa49, Gheorghe Anghel50 and Adrian
nene, integrate fiind astfel ntr-o dezbatere Rusu51 aimed also at the monuments from
global asupra unui segment al arhitecturii Banat integrated in a global debate over a seg-
de fortificaii din Transilvania medieval. ment of the architecture of fortifications from
Cetile medievale ale Banatului se regsesc medieval Transylvania. Medieval fortresses
i ntr-o sintez recent, de mare anvergur of Banat are encountered also in a recent far-
despre nceputurile i evoluia arhitecturii de reaching synthesis about the beginning and
fortificaii din spaiul intercarpatic propus de evolution of the architecture of fortifications
Adrian Andrei Rusu52. Nu au lipsit n ultima within the intracarpathian area proposed by
vreme preocupri de cercetare a arhitecturii Adrian Andrei Rusu52. There have been also,
de fortificaii venite dinspre cellalt centru for the last time period, preoccupations of
academic important, cel de la Bucureti. Pro- research of the architecture of fortifications
fesorul Radu Popa s-a apropiat n ultimii ani come from the other important academical
ai vieii de problemele Banatului medieval. centre from Bucharest. Prof. Radu Popa has
Demersul su se nscria n concepia sa de gotten close by the problems of medieval
cercetare a spaiilor de frontier din Transil- Banat for his last years. His approach was part
vania medieval, unde lumea romneasc i-a of his conception of research of the frontier
putut conserva privilegii, tradiii, un mod de areas from medieval Transylvania where the
via propriu n schimbul serviciilor prestate Romanians could preserve their privileges,
i al libertilor de care se bucurau spaiile de traditions, a proper way of life in return for the
frontier ale lumii medievale. Cercetrile de services carried out and their liberties that the
la Gladna Romn i Fget conduse de Radu frontier areas of the medieval world enjoyed.
The investigations from Gladna Romn and

47
Secar, 1971, p.157-162; Secar, 1975, p.167-180, 47
Secar, 1971, p.157-162; Secar, 1975, p.167-180,
Secar, 1975 a, p.303-304. Secar, 1975 a, p.303-304.
48
Corvtescu, Rdulescu, 1979, p.169. 48
Corvtescu, Rdulescu, 1979, p.169.
49
Popa, 1978, p.116 i urm. 49
Popa, 1978, p.116 and following.
50
Anghel, 1980, p.197. 50
Anghel, 1980, p.197.
51
Rusu, 1980, p.182-189. 51
Rusu, 1980, p.182-189.
52
Rusu, 2005. 52
Rusu, 2005.

20
Popa au fost valorificate tiinific punctual53. Fget led by Radu Popa were scientifically
Istoriografia maghiar aa cum este i revaluated in a punctual way53.
firesc a manifestat o preocupare deosebit Hungarian historiography manifested a
pentru cercetarea cetii medievale. Cetatea a special preoccupation for the research of the
reprezentat una din instituiile fundamentale medieval fortress. The fortress represented
ale Regatului maghiar, deoarece ea constituie one of the fundamental institutions of the
un centru de putere aezat pe o solid baz eco- Hungarian Kingdom because it constituted a
nomic. Rolul instituional al cetii medievale centre of power settled on a solid economical
n relaia cu puterea central i domeniile ma- base. The institutional role of the medieval
rilor feudali ai Regatului Maghiar n vremea fortress in relation to the central power and
dinastiei de Anjou a fost atent analizat de Erik the domains of the great feudals of the Hun-
Fgedi54. Abordarea sa include i fortificaiile garian Kingdom during the dinasty of Anjou
din Banat. Aceeai tem a relaiei dintre pute- was carefully analyzed by Erik Fgedi54. His
rea central i marii feudali, deintorii unor approach includes also the fortifications from
mari domenii funciare, i cetile maghiare Banat. The same theme of relation between the
ale regatului a fost abordat n studii de mare central power and the great feudals who pos-
anvergur de Pl Engel55. Cetile bnene i sessed vast domains in lands, and the Hungar-
structurile de putere ale acestora se regsesc ian fortresses of the kingdom was approached
discutate n studiile lui Engel, n cadrul general in far-reaching studies by Pl Engel55. The
al istoriei fortificaiilor medievale maghiare56. fortresses from Banat and their structures of
Istoriografia srbeasc privitoare la power are discussed in Engels studies, in the
fortificaiile medievale din Banat marcheaz, general framework of the history of Hungarian
dup cunotinele noastre, cteva cercetri medieval fortifications56.
punctuale la cetatea de la Vrsc i de la Galad. Serbian historiography concerning
Donjonul de la Vrsc, unul din cele mai bine medieval fortifications in Banat mark several
conservate din Banat, a fost cercetat arhe- punctual investigations at the fortress from
ologic n ultimii ani, evideniind etapele de Vrsc and from Galad. The donjon from Vrsc,
amenajare din jurul su n secolele XIII-XV57. one of the best preserved donjons from Banat,
Cercetrile de la Galad au fost conduse de M. was archaeologically investigated in the last
Giric, oferind un dosar complex despre un years pointing out the stages of consruction
monument medieval puin cunoscut58. around it in the 13th-15th centuries57. The
O privire retrospectiv asupra scrisului investigations from Galad led by M. Giric of-
istoric despre cetile medievale ale Banatului fered a complex documentation about a less
relev o imagine cu foarte multe goluri i pete known medieval monument58.
albe n privina monumentelor. Cercetarea A retrospective regard over the histori-
monumentelor, iniiat cu debuturi att de cal writing about the medieval fortresses of
promitoare la nceputul deceniului al optulea Banat emphasizes an image with many lacks
and blanks as concerns the monuments. The
53
Popa, Cpn, Achim, 1987, p.12 i urm.; Popa, monuments research, initiated with so promis-
Cpn, Rdulescu, Tomoni, 1991, p.23 i urm. ing starts at the beginning of the 8th decade of
54
Fgedi, 1977, p.97, 115, 145.
55
Engel, 1977, p.101 i urm.
56
Engel, 1996.
53
Popa, Cpn, Achim, 1987, p.12 and following.;
57
Brmboli, 2009, p.108-112. Popa, Cpn, Rdulescu, Tomoni, 1991, p.23 and
58
Giri, 1996, p.146-147. following.
54
Fgedi, 1977, p.97, 115, 145.
55
Engel, 1977, p.101 and following.
56
Engel, 1996.
57
Brmboli, 2009, p.108-112.
58
Giri, 1996, p.146-147.

21
al secolului trecut pe ntreg spaiul bnean, the last century on the whole Banat, gradually
s-a stins treptat. disappeared.
Scrierile istorice au abordat cu predilec- Historical writings approached espe-
ie temele de geografie istoric, puine s-au cially the themes of historical geography. Only
oprit asupra monumentelor din perspectiva few writings dealt with monuments from the
arhitecturii de fortificaii, abordrile propuse point of view of architecture of fortifications.
rareori au oferit o discuie global din perspec- The proposed approaches seldon offered a
tiva surselor istorice i arheologice a cetilor global discussion from the point of view of
bnene. Istoriografia ultimei jumti de historical and archaeological sources of the
veac cu tematic privitoare la fortificaiile fortresses from Banat. Historiography of the
medievale evideniaz doar cercetri punc- last half of century with themes concern-
tuale i conjuncturale la diverse monumente ing medieval fortifications emphasizes just
constatnd absena unei direcii ferme, coe- punctual and conjunctural investigations at
rente, de durat n interiorul centrelor istorice different monuments noticing the absence of
din perimetrul provinciei pentru cercetarea a firm coherent direction of long term inside
fortificailor. Abordrile globale, de obicei de the historical centres within the perimeter of
geografie istoric ori genealogie istoric medi- the province for investigating fortifications.
eval au venit din afara spaiului Banatului i a The global approaches, usually of historical
nglobat problemele specifice acestei provincii geography or historical medieval genealogy,
de frontier a Regatului maghiar medieval. came from outside Banat and included the
problems specific to this frontier province of
the Hungarian medieval Kingdom.

22
Turnuri locuin DWELLING-TOWERS
din Banat IN BANAT

nceputurile arhitecturii de fortificaii The beginning of architecture of wall


din zid din Banat se regsesc o dat cu veacul fortifications in Banat date to the 12th century
al XII-lea n forma simpl, cu puine amenajri in a simple form with few arrangements of the
a turnurilor-locuin. Istoriografia romn s-a dwelling-towers. The Romanian historiogra-
preocupat n mod deosebit de aceast chesti- phy has dealt with this matter in a special way
une odat cu deceniul al optulea al secolului since the 8th decade of the last century. Radu
trecut. S-a propus atunci pentru definirea celor Popa proposed the term of dwelling-tower.
dinti construcii cu caracter militar i civil n The term of French inspiration, donjon, was
acelai timp termenul de turn-locuin de ctre adopted more frequently by the Romanian
Radu Popa sau cel de inspiraie francez don- historical literature to define the first buildings
jon, care a fost adoptat mai frecvent n scrisul with military and civilian character in the same
romnesc1. Turnurile-locuin erau definite time1. The dwelling-towers were defined in
n romn cu echivalentul formei germane Romanian with the equivalent of the German
Wohturn ori a celei franceze donjon2. Demer- term Wohturn or of the French form donjon2.
surile iniiate la sfritul veacului trecut de The approaches initiated at the end of the last
ctre Radu Popa, Gheorghe Anghel i Adrian century by Radu Popa, Gheorghe Anghel and
Rusu au vizat att chestiunile de form, ct i Adrian Rusu aimed both at the form matters,
cele de fond, prin ncercarea de a sistematiza and at the content ones, by attempting to sys-
informaia cu privire la donjoanele din spaiul tematize information concerning the donjons
Romniei ridicate n cursul Evului Mediu. built within Romania during the Middle Ages.
Abordrile propuse de Radu Popa i Gheor- The approaches proposed by Radu Popa and
ghe Anghel, bunoar, se adresau deopotriv Gheorghe Anghel, for instance, addressed in
specialitilor romni ct i celor cu preocupri the same time to Romanian specialists and
exclusiviste n acest domeniu, prin publicarea to those with exclusivist preoccupations in
acestora n reviste de strict interes despre cet- this domain by publishing these towers in
ile medievale ce apreau n lumea tiinific magazines of strict interests about medieval
central i vest european. S-a ncercat n acest fortresses that were issued in the scientifical
fel, n mod credibil, o racordare a cercetrii central and western European world. Thus, it
tiinifice romneti n circuitul european al was attempted, in a credible way, a connection
arheologiei medievale. of the scientifical Romanian research with the
Donjonul a fost definit drept un turn cu European circuit of the medieval archaeology.
rosturi militare i civile n acelai timp, avnd The donjon was defined like a tower
aadar un scop precumpnitor defensiv, dar with military and civilian purposes in the same
asigurnd n acelai timp spaiu de locuit pen- time. It had a defensive prevailing goal, but
tru efii politici i militari i familiile acestora, providing also the dwelling area for political
care au avut fora economic de a ridica aceste and military leaders and for their families,
that had the economical power to erect those
1
Popa, 1972, p. 59-60.
2
Villena, 1975, p. 127; Popa, 1978, p. 116; Anghel, 1
Popa, 1972, p. 59-60.
1972, p. 30; Anghel, 1980, p. 178-179. 2
Villena, 1975, p. 127; Popa, 1978, p. 116; Anghel,
1972, p. 30; Anghel, 1980, p. 178-179.

23
fortificaii simple din zid i lemn la nceputu- simple wall and wood fortifications at the
rile Evului Mediu3. beginning of the Middle Ages3.
Donjoanele din spaiul Banatului, n Donjons within Banat, during the Middle
cursul Evului Mediu, au fost ridicate la Meha- Ages, were built at Mehadia, Turnu Rueni,
dia, Turnu Ruieni, Svinia, Vrac i Ciacova. Svinia, Vrac and Ciacova. They dominated
Ele domin prin nlimi att spaiul plan al through their heigths both the flat plain at Cia-
cmpiei, la Ciacova, bunoar, ct i peisajul cova, for instance, and the piemontane region
piemontan din sudul Banatului, de pe nli- south to Banat on whose heights they had
mile pe care au fost amplasate. Cercetrile de been built. The archaeological investigations
arheologie de la Ilidia, de pe dealul Oblia, au at Ilidia, on the Oblia hill, have identified the
identificat fundaiile unei construcii rectan- foundations of a rectangular building that had,
gulare ce a avut, n opinia noastr, rosturile in our opinion, the meanings of a dwelling-
unui turn-locuin ridicat n cursul secolului tower erected in the 12th century. A similar
al XII-lea. O construcie asemntoare, de construction, of more reduced dimensions,
dimensiuni mai mici, se pare, s-a aflat pe cul- seems to have been on the top of the Moroasa
mea dealului Moroasa de la Reia n cadrul hill at Reia within a feudal court from the
unei curi feudale din secolele XIV-XV, care a 14th-15th centuries that was destroyed by
fost distrus de lucrri arhitectonice moderne. modern architectonical workings.
Izvoarele istorice medievale scrise aduc Written historical medieval sources have
foarte puine mrturii cu privire la nceputurile brought very few accounts concerning the
arhitecturii de fortificaii bnene, recursul beginning of the architecture of fortifications
la sursele arheologice fiind singurul capabil in Banat, the appeal at the archaeological
s nuaneze i s aduc consisten dosaru- sources being the only one capable to modify
lui despre fiecare monument de arhitectur and to bring consistency to the documents
militar. Un document singular, trziu, din concerning each monument of military ar-
anul 1467, a consemnat turnul de piatr de la chitecture. A singular late document since
Turnu Ruieni, aflat n stpnirea unei familii 1467 registered the stone tower from Turnu
de nobili romni, n rest tcerea domnete Ruieni, which was possessed by a family of
asupra zidurilor cetilor. Cercetri de arheo- Romanian nobles. Otherwise, silence reigns
logie medieval la fortificaiile de la Mehadia4, over the fortress walls. Investigations of me-
Turnu Ruieni5, Svinia6, Ilidia7 i Vrac8 s-au dieval archaeology at the fortifications from
derulat n ultimele decenii ale secolului trecut. Mehadia4, Turnu Ruieni5, Svinia6, Ilidia7 and
Documentaia arheologic pentru donjoanele Vrac8 developed in the last decades of the
amintite mai sus este inegal i ofer elemente last century. Archaeological documentation
de cronologie a monumentului n puine ca- for the donjons mentioned above is unequal
zuri. Turnul-locuin de la Ilidia-Oblia, din and offers elements of monument chronology
secolul al XII-lea, este singurul ce a beneficiat in few cases. The dwelling-tower from Ilidia-
n urma cercetrilor de o documentaie ce ofer Oblia, dated to the 12th century, is the only
argumente sigure pentru o datare a monumen- one that benefited, as a result of investigations,
tului n cursul veacului al XII-lea. ncadrarea of a documentation that provides sure argu-
cronologic a turnurilor-locuin bnene s-a ments for dating the monument during the
12th century. The chronological assigment of
3
Rusu, 1980, p. 181; Popa, 1978, p. 116.
4
Matei, 1982, p. 110. 3
Rusu, 1980, p. 181; Popa, 1978, p. 116.
5
Matei, 1982, p. 108. 4
Matei, 1982, p. 110.
6
Corvtescu, Rdulescu, 1979, p. 174-177. 5
Matei, 1982, p. 108.
7
eicu, 1996, p. 78-79. 6
Corvtescu, Rdulescu, 1979, p. 174-177.
8
Brmboli, 2009, p. 35-49. 7
eicu, 1996, p. 78-79.
8
Brmboli, 2009, p. 35-49.

24
fcut de obicei pe temeiul puinelor elemente the dwelling-towers from Banat, as usually,
de arhitectur, n cazul celui de la Ciacova was done based on the few architecture ele-
bunoar, a unor analogii de plan i, mai te- ments, in the case of the one from Ciacova for
meinic, pe recursul la sursele scrise referitoare instance, on some plan analogies and, more
la aezarea n care au fost ridicate. Aceast serious on the appeal to the written sources
inconsisten a surselor a determinat uneori concerning the location where they had been
i ncadrri cronologice diverse ale aceluiai built. This inconsistency of sources deter-
monument. Turnul de la Ciacova, cu elemen- mined sometimes also different chronological
tele sale de arhitectur atribuite romanicului, assignments of the same monument. The tower
a fost datat ntr-o perioad anterioar anului from Ciacova, with its elements of architecture
1308, momentul stingerii dinastiei arpadiene, assigned to the Romanic, dated to a period
deci pe un argument circumstanial, legat mai previous to 1308, moment of disappearance
degrab de istoria politic general a Regatu- of the Arpadian dinasty, that means on a cir-
lui maghiar9. Monumentul de la Mehadia cu cumstantial argument connected rather with
planul hexagonal a fost atribuit, pe temeiul the general political history of the Hungarian
materialului arheologic gsit, al elementelor Kingdom9. The monument from Mehadia with
de arhitectur conservate i pe temeiul atestrii a hexagonal plan was assigned, on the base
documentare nceputului secolului al XIV- of the found archaeological material, of the
lea10. El ar fi aadar o construcie anterioar preserved elements of architecture and of the
anului 1317. Turnul de la Mehadia se afla n documentary certification to the beginning of
cadrul unei structuri de grani a Regatului the 14th century10. So, it could be a construc-
arpadian, Banatul de Severin, ce a funcionat tion anterior to 1317. The tower from Mehadia
cu mici intermitene pe tot parcursul veacului belonged to a structure of frontier of the Ar-
al XIII-lea, din momentul crerii acestuia n padian Kingdom, the Banat of Severin, that
anul 1232. Zidirea fortificaiei de la Mehadia functioned with little intermitences along the
s-ar fi putut face deci i n perioada de sfrit 13th century, since the moment of its creation
a secolului al XIII-lea, avnd n vedere poziia in 1232. The construction of the fortification
acestuia n cadrul unei regiuni de frontier11. from Mehadia could have taken place also in
S-a vehiculat n istoriografie o plasare a don- the period of ending of the 13th century taking
jonului de la Mehadia n veacul al XV-lea, into account its position within a frontier re-
pe temeiul analogiilor de plan hexagonal cu gion11. It was discussed, in historiography, that
modele din spaiul nvecinat al Transilvaniei12. the donjon from Mehadia was dated to the 15th
O situaie similar putem discuta n cazul century on the base of analogies of the hexago-
donjonului de la Vrac, unde cercetarea arhe- nal plan with models from the neighbouring
ologic recent n-a oferit argumente credibile area of Transylvania12. A similar situation is
pentru cronologia monumentului, ceea ce a in the case of the donjon from Vrac, where
determinat apelul la argumente circumstan- recent archaeological investigation have not
iale preluate din sursele scrise medievale de offered credible arguments for the monument
cancelarie referitoare la zona Vreului13. chronology, that determined the appeal to
Donjonul de la Vrac se identific cu nucleul circumstantial arguments taken over from the
primar al cetii regale arpadiene Ersomlio, written chancellery medieval sources regard-
ing the region of Vrac 13. The donjon from
9
Secar, 1970, p. 160, 162. Vrac is identified with the primary nucleus of
10
Matei, 1982, p. 112.
11
Achim, 2006, p. 57-58. 9
Secar, 1970, p. 160, 162.
12
Rusu, 1980, p. 185. 10
Matei, 1982, p. 112.
13
Brmboli, 2009, p. 53; Petrovi, 1970, p. 56. 11
Achim, 2006, p. 57-58.
12
Rusu, 1980, p. 185.
13
Brmboli, 2009, p. 53; Petrovi, 1970, p. 56.

25
al crei castelan este cunoscut dintr-un act the royal Arpadian Ersomlio fortress, whose
din 1323, prin urmare fortificaia a fost zidit owner was known from an document dated to
ntr-o perioad ante 1323. Turnul locuin de 1323. Consequently the fortification was built
la Reia s-a aflat n apropierea capelei de curte during a period ante 1323. The dwelling-tower
a cnezilor de erova14. El a fost ridicat, foarte from Reia was situated in the vicinity of the
probabil, odat cu biserica de curte, n a doua court chapel of the knezes of erova14. It was
jumtate a veacului al XIV-lea. Discuii suscit erected, very probably, in the same time with
i cronologia celor trei turnuri de pe malul the court church in the second half of the 14th
Dunrii de la Svinia, unde cercetarea arheo- century. The chronology of the three towers on
logic n-a oferit repere pentru geneza acestor the bank of the Danube at Svinia, where the
monumente. Amplasarea lor ntr-o zon de archaeological investigation offered reference
culoar ne-a determinat s judecm apariia points for the genesis of these monuments
acestora n cursul veacului al XIII-lea, ntr-o determine also discussions. Their location
regiune de frontier a Banatului de Severin15. in a corridor region determined us to judge
Documentaia arheologic acumulat their appearance during the 13th century in a
i publicat, informaiile surselor scrise cu frontier region of Banat of Severin15.
privire la fortificaiile medievale, ngduie The gathered and published archaeologi-
n momentul actual o reconstituire cu multe cal documentation, information from the writ-
umbre a genezei i a rspndirii turnului lo- ten sources related to medieval fortifications
cuin n spaiul bnean. Monumentul de la allow, at this moment, a modest reconstitution
Ilidia-Oblia din veacul al XII-lea dovedete of genesis and spreading of the dwelling-tower
apariia acestei categorii de fortificaii simple within the region of Banat. The monument
foarte timpuriu n spaiul bnean, situndu-l from Ilidia-Oblia from the 12th century
n capul de serie al acestei categorii de monu- proves the appearance of this category of
mente de arhitectur sau, cum am spus-o deja, simple fortifications very early within Banat
la momentul semnalrii acesteia. O serie de situating it in the top of this category of ar-
monumente de la Mehadia, Vrac i Ciacova chitecture monuments or, as we have already
au fost zidite n perioada de nceput a veacului asserted, at the moment of its record. A series
al XIV-lea. of monuments from Mehadia, Vrac and Cia-
Donjonul de piatr i face apariia n cova were built in the period of beginning of
Transilvania nc n prima jumtate a secolu- the 14th century.
lui al XIII-lea. Turnul de la Cetatea de Balt, The stone donjon appeared in Transyl-
plasat pe temeiul arheologiei n prima jumtate vania even in the first half of the 13th century.
a secolului al XIII-lea, pare a fi la momentul The tower from Cetatea de Balt, dated to
actual ntre cele dinti fortificaii din zid de the first half of the 13th century seems to be,
acest tip din spaiul transilvnean16. ncepu- at the present moment, among the first wall
turile perioadei de difuziune a donjonului din fortifications of this type from Transylvania16.
zid n Transilvania este circumscris ndeobte The beginning of the period of spreading of the
deceniului al aptelea al secolului al XIII-lea17. wall donjon in Transylvania is assigned espe-
Documentele de cancelarie, pe temeiul crora cially to the 7th decade of the 13th century17.
s-au fixat nceputurile cronologiei arhitecturii Chancellery documents, on the base of which
de fortificaii din Transilvania i Banat, au the beginnings of the chronology of the archi-
tecture of fortifications in Transylvania and
14
eicu, 1996, p. 6,9.
15
eicu, 1998, p. 207. 14
eicu, 1996, p. 6,9.
16
Anghel, 1980, p. 196. 15
eicu, 1998, p. 207.
17
Rusu, 1980, p. 181. 16
Anghel, 1980, p. 196.
17
Rusu, 1980, p. 181.

26
consemnat turnuri locuin ctre sfritul de- Banat was set, registered dwelling-towers at
ceniului al aptelea al secolului al XIII-lea18. the end of the 7th decade of the 13th century18.
Originea donjonului n spaiul intracar- The origin of the donjon in the intra
patic la nceputurile Evului Mediu trebuie c- -Carpathians area at the beginning of the
utat nspre civilizaia occidentului medieval, Middle Ages has to be searched close to
unde donjonul din zid i-a fcut timid apariia the civilization of the medieval west where
odat cu veacul al X-lea. Perioada secolelor the wall donjon shyly appeared in the 10th
XI-XII a fost vzut, pe temeiul documente- century. The period of the 11th-12th centu-
lor scrise i al arheologiei medievale, drept ries was considered, on the base of written
epoca de mare nflorire a acestei categorii de documents and of medieval archaeology, the
monumente ale arhitecturii de fortificaii19. epoch of great development of this category of
Arhitectura ecleziastic aflat n plin nflori- monuments of fortification architecture19. The
re a stimulat la rndul ei avntul arhitecturii ecclesiastic architecture which was in a great
militare, ceea ce explic formidabila difuziune development, stimulated at its turn the prog-
a turnului locuin pe vaste spaii ale Europei ress of the military architecture, that explains
n secolele XIII-XIV20. Regatul arpadian ma- the formidable diffusion of the dwelling-tower
ghiar a receptat de timpuriu, nc din veacul al on large areas of Europe in the 13th-14th cen-
XII-lea, aceste inovaii ale arhitecturii militare turies20. The Arpadian Hungarian Kingdom
occidentale. Un turn locuin cu ziduri groase early intercepted, even since the 12th century,
de 2,5 m, de form rectangular, cu dimensi- those innovations of the military western ar-
unile de 10/10m, a fost cercetat n satul Kcs, chitecture. A rectangular dwelling-tower with
la poalele Munilor Bkk. Donjonul de la walls of 2.5 m in thickness, with dimensions
Kcs, ridicat de o familie nobiliar din zon, of 10/10m, was investigated in the village of
a funcionat ntre sfritul secolului al XII-lea Kcs, at the foot of Bkk Mounts. The donjon
i mijlocul secolului al XIV-lea21. Difuziunea from Kcs, erected by a noble family from that
acestei fortificaii simple n spaiul regatului region, functioned between the end of the 12th
arpadian cunoate o perioad de avnt dup century and the middle of the 14th century21.
mijlocul secolului al XIII-lea. Cazul turnului Diffusion of this simple fortification within the
de la Ilidia, din sudul Banatului, din vecin- area of the Arpadian kingdom knew a period
tatea Dunrii, atribuit cu certitudine veacului of development after the middle of the 13th
al XII-lea, ridic problema contactului cu century. The case of the tower from Ilidia, in
arhitectura militar bizantin, ntr-o perioad the south of Banat, in the close vicinity of the
n care frontiera de nord a imperiului se afla Danube, certainly assigned to the 12th century,
pe linia Dunrii. Cercetarea sistemului defen- raised the problem of the contact with military
siv bizantin din secolele XI-XII de pe linia Byzantine architecture in a period when the
Dunrii de ctre Marko Popovi a dovedit o northern frontier of the empire was mapped
reutilizare a vechilor castre din perioada ro- out by the Danube. The investigation of the
man i roman trzie22. Singurele fortificaii defensive Byzantine system in the 11th-12th
centuries along the Danube by Marko Popovi
18
Vtianu, 1959, p. 17; Rusu, 1980, p. 181. proved a reutilization of the ancient Roman
19
Bouard, 1975, p. 114; Enaud, 1985, p. 49; Beck, camps belonging to the Roman and Late Ro-
1986, p. 25.
20
Enaud, 1985, p. 35, 49.
man time22. The only new fortifications built
21
Parady, 1982, p. 131, 136.
22
Popovi, 1991, p. 170-171.
18
Vtianu, 1959, p. 17; Rusu, 1980, p. 181.
19
Bouard, 1975, p. 114; Enaud, 1985, p. 49; Beck,
1986, p. 25.
20
Enaud, 1985, p. 35, 49.
21
Parady, 1982, p. 131, 136.
22
Popovi, 1991, p. 170-171.

27
noi ridicate de bizantini n secolului al XIII-lea by the Byzantins in the 13th century were
au fost cele de la Branievo i Belgrad23. Nu those from Branievo and Belgrad23. There are
se pot face supoziii despre o influen direct no suppositions refering to a direct influence
i nemijlocit a arhitecturii militare bizantine of the military Byzantine architecture over
asupra celei din Regatul arpadian maghiar, cu the architecture from the Arpadian Hungar-
toate apropierile existente n cursul veacului ian kingdom irrespective of all existent ap-
al XII-lea ntre Imperiul bizantin i Regatul proaches between the Byzantine Empire and
maghiar. ntrebarea, la care Radu Popa caut the Hungarian kingdom in the 12th century.
un rspuns pentru monumentele haegane i The question, to which Radu Popa has looked
anume cnd i sub impulsul crui exemplu au for an answer concerning the monuments from
aprut turnurile locuin n mediul romnesc, the region of Haeg, that is when and under
poate fi formulat i pentru spaiul bnean24. the impulse of which example the dwelling-
Sigur n Transilvania un rol important l-a avut towers appeared in the Romanian area, can
colonizarea german i greavii sai n ridicarea be formulated also for the area of Banat24. Of
unor turnuri locuin n a doua jumtate a vea- course, in Transylvania, the German coloniza-
cului al XIII-lea25. Banatul a fost un spaiu de tion and the Saxon leaders played an important
frontier i a fost, n acelai timp, un spaiu de role in building dwelling-towers in the second
misiune al ordinelor catolice nc din veacul al half of the 13th century25. Banat was a fron-
XI-lea. Ordinul benedictin, i mai apoi cister- tier region, and, in the same time, an area of
cienii, au ridicat n secolul al XII-lea biserici mission of the Catholic orders even since the
i mnstiri din valea Mureului i pn ctre 11th century. The Benedictine order, and then
spaiul dunrean. Putem presupune, n cazul the Cistercians, built churches and monaster-
turnului locuin din secolul al XII-lea de la ies from the Mure valley to the Danube area
Ilidia, o influen venit dinspre arhitectura in the 12th century. We can suppose, in the
ecleziastic promovat de ordinele monahale case of the dweling-tower from Ilidia dated
latine. to the 12th century, an influence coming from
Donjoanele au fost construite pe nl- the ecclesiastic architecture promoted by the
imi greu accesibile, de unde dominau vile monachal Latin orders.
nconjurtoare, unde se aflau satele medievale. The donjons were built on difficult of
Turnul de la Ilidia este amplasat pe culmea access heights, from where they dominated
dealului Oblia cu o nlime de 220 m, cel de the surrounding valleys where the medieval
la Turnu Ruieni se afla pe o culme cu altitu- villages had been settled. The tower from Ilidia
dinea de 450 m, iar cel de la Vrac, pe dealul is located on the peak of the Oblia hill of 220
Cul, cu nlimea de 400 m. m in height, that one from Turnu Rueni had
Planimetria donjoanelor din spaiul been built on a height of 450 m, and that one
Transilvaniei i Banatului, n strns conexi- from Vrac, on the Cul hill of 400 m in height.
une cu cronologia monumentelor i originea The planimetry of the donjons from
acestora, a suscitat diverse opinii n scrisul Trasylvania and Banat, in tight connection
istoric26. Turnurile cu plan ptrat ori rectangu- with the chronology of monuments and their
lar sunt formele predominante n arhitectura origin provoked different opinions in his-
de fortificaii i se ntlnesc pe tot parcursul torical writing26. The towers with square or
23
Popovi, 1991, p. 174. rectangular plan are the predominant forms in
24
Popa, 1972, p. 60. the architecture of fortifications and they are
25
Popa, 1972, p. 60.
26
Rusu, 1980, p. 182; Anghel, 1980, p. 197; Einaud, 23
Popovi, 1991, p. 174.
1985, p. 50, 53. 24
Popa, 1972, p. 60.
25
Popa, 1972, p. 60.
26
Rusu, 1980, p. 182; Anghel, 1980, p. 197; Einaud,
1985, p. 50, 53.

28
perioadei discutate, ncepnd cu cea mai tim- encountered throughout the discussed period
purie amenajare, aceea de la Ilidia-Oblia, din starting with the earliest construction, that one
secolul al XII-lea. Ele se nscriu din aceast from Ilidia-Oblia, in the 12th century. From
perspectiv ntr-o tradiie a arhitecturii de this point of view, they are part of a tradition
fortificaii din Transilvania i din Regatul of architecture of fortifications from Transyl-
maghiar. Donjoanele de form rectangular vania and from the Hungarian Kingdom. The
de la Ciacova i Turnu Ruieni au avut contra- rectangular donjons from Ciacova and Turnu
forturi la coluri. Materialele de construcie Rueni had buttresses at their corners. The es-
eseniale, utilizate la ridicarea turnurilor, au sential materials of construction, used to build
fost adaptate n funcie de sursele oferite de the towers, had been adapted depending on
zon. Astfel, donjoanele din Banatul montan the sources provided by the region. Thus, the
au fost ridicate exclusiv din piatra de carier donjons from the mountainous Banat were
oferit cu generozitate de resursele spaiului built exclusively of quarry stone generously
montan i piemontan, n timp ce n nordul provided by the resources of the mountain-
Banatului, n cmpie, constructorii medievali ous and piemontane area while, in the north
au utilizat doar crmida i lemnul. Nucleul of Banat, in the plain, the medieval builders
zidurilor se prezint sub forma unui bloc used only brick and wood. The nucleus of
compact de zidrie din piatr fragmentar de walls is like a compact block of brickwork
carier, necat n mortar, n timp ce faadele made of fragmentary quarry stone, drowned
zidurilor au un aspect ngrijit realizat din roc in mortar, while the wall facades have an el-
cioplit i ecarisat. Structurile unghiulare se laborate aspect made of cut and squared off
prezint extrem de ngrijit, lucrate din bolari rock. The angular structures are extremely el-
de roc ecarisat dispui n asize inegale, laborate. They are made of blocks of squared
ceea ce confer aspect ngrijit monumentelor. off rock disposed in irregular courses, that
Deosebit de spectaculoas se prezint faada provide a careful aspect to the monuments.
exterioar pstrat a donjonului hexagonal de Extremely spectaculous is the exterior pre-
la Mehadia (Fig. 45). Exist o mare similitu- served facade of the hexagonal donjon from
dine n modul ngrijit de realizare a faadei Mehadia (Fig.45). There is a big similitude in
zidurilor i structurii unghiulare de la coluri the neat way of working the facade walls and
ntre monumentul de arhitectur ecleziastic of the angular structures at corners between
de la Mehadia, din veacul al XIV-lea situat the ecclesiactic architecture monument from
n valea rului Bela Reca, i donjonul de pe Mehadia, from the 14th century siuated in
dealul Grad. Zidurile donjoanelor erau masive, the Bela Reca valley, and the donjon settled
indiferent de materialul utilizat la ridicarea on the Grad hill. The walls of donjons were
turnurilor, astfel la Ciacova ele aveau la baz massive, no matter of the material used to
2,70 m, la Mehadia a avut 2,20 m, la Vrac build the towers. Thus, at Ciacova, they had
aveau 2,50 m grosime iar la Turnu Ruieni 2.70 m at base, at Mehadia they had 2.20 m,
ajungeau la 3 m grosime. Turnul de la Ilidia Vrac they were 2.50 m in thickness, and at
din veacul al XII-lea a avut ziduri groase de Turnu Rueni they reached 3 m in thickness.
numai 0,90 m realizate din piatr i crmid. The tower from Ilidia from the 12th century
Grosimea foarte mare a zidurilor la baz a had walls of 0.90 m in thickness made of stone
permis constructorilor s realizeze retrageri and brick. The very large thickness of walls at
succesive, pe nivele pe care se aezau apoi base allowed to the builders to extract succes-
planeele din lemn care departajau structura sively material courses on which there were
vertical a turnurilor. Rmnnd cu discuia la then set the wooden floors that were separating
materialul de construcie utilizat se constat c the vertical structure of the towers. Discussing
on about the used construction material, it has
been ascertained that, by that moment, they

29
nu dispuneau pn la momentul actual de un did not dispose of a special geological study
studiu special, geologic, cu privire la sursele concerning the sources of stone exploitation
de exploatare a pietrei de constructorii medie- by the medieval builders from Banat. The
vali din Banat. Observaiile cu privire la struc- observations refering to the region structure
tura zonei ofer sugestii n aceast privin. offer suggestions in this respect. The calcare-
Zonele calcaroase din preajma monumentelor ous areas around the monuments from Ilidia,
de la Ilidia, Mehadia, din vecintatea Sviniei Mehadia, in the vicinity of Svinia and even
i chiar de la Vrac au oferit surse facile de from Vrac offered facile sources of exploita-
exploatare i dificulti minime de transport tion and minimum difficulties of transport for
pentru constructorii medievali. Calcarul i the medieval builders. The limestone and the
gnaisurile aflate n preajma monumentelor gneiss found in the surroudings of monuments
au constituit rocile utilizate pentru ridicarea constituted the rocks used to build the monu-
monumentelor, ce au fost uneori ancorate di- ments, that had been sometimes anchored di-
rect n patul stncos al zonei. Ruinele romane rectly in the rocky bed of the zone. The Roman
de la Mehadia i de la Jupa au fost utilizate ruins from Mehadia and from Jupa were used,
ntr-o mic msur de constructorii medievali, in a reduced measure, by medieval builders,
apelnd n acest caz doar la materialul tegular appealing in this case only to tegular material
i crmid, constatat cu mai mult eviden and brick, which were more evident in the
n cazul donjonului de la Mehadia. Crmida case of the donjon from Mehadia. The brick
a fost utilizat pentru nveliul bolilor de la was used for the cover of the vaults from the
parter, constatat la monumentul de la Mehadia, ground floor, noticed at the monument from
pentru ancadramente la ferestrele de tragere Mehadia, for frameworks at the pulling win-
ori amenajri interioare, pstrate nc la mo- dows or interior arrangements still preserved
numentul de la Vrac. at the monument fom Vrac.
Dimensiunile i structura interioar a Dimensions and interior structure of
monumentelor prezint elemente constante. monuments present constant elements. The
Donjonul de la Vrac se detaeaz prin dimen- donjon from Vrac detaches itself through
siunile sale impuntoare, el msurnd la baz its imposing dimensions. It measured 13.80
13,80 m/11 m i avnd o nlime de 19,80 m/11 m at base, and it was 19.80 m in height.
m. Turnurile de la Svinia se afl la extrema The towers from Svinia are at the opposite
opus, unul dintre ele bunoar msurnd extremity. One of them, for instance, was 6.70
6,70 m/6,50 m i o nlime ce nu trece de 10 m/6.50 m at base and 10 m in height. The brick
m. Donjonul din crmid de la Ciacova are donjon from Ciacova was 23.7 m in height to
o nlime pn la creneluri de 23,7 m i doar the crenels and only 20.95 m to the platform
20,95 m pn la nivelul platformei. Monumen- level. The monuments from Turnu Rueni and
tele de la Turnu Ruieni i Mehadia au avut o Mehadia were 18.50 m, and respectively 16
nlime estimat de 18,50 m i respectiv 16 m. m in height.
Structura vertical a fost adaptat forma- The vertical structure was adapted to the
tului din parter i trei etaje. Construciile de la format of ground floor and three floors. The
Mehadia, Turnu Ruieni, Ciacova i Vrac au constructions from Mehadia, Turnu Rueni,
avut un parter nchis deasupra cruia se ridicau Ciacova and Vrac had a closed ground floor
trei etaje. Accesul se fcea la nivelul primu- above which there were built three floors. The
lui etaj, printr-o deschidere ngust. Astfel la access was done at the level of the first floor
Svinia accesul se fcea printr-o deschidere through a narrow opening. Thus, at Svinia
de 1,90 m/1 m pstrat n structura turnului la the access was done through an opening of
nivelul primului etaj, iar la Vrac deschiderea 1.90 m/1 m preserved in the tower structure
din zidul vestic al turnului, la etajul nti, a at the level of the first floor, and at Vrac the
opening in the western wall of the tower, at

30
avut dimensiunile de 1,70/1 m27. O situaie the first floor, had the dimensions of 1.70/1
identic a avut i donjonul de la Ciacova, m27. An identical situation was in the case of
accesul n turn se fcea printr-o deschidere the donjon from Ciacova. The access in the
de 1,90m/1 m. Monumentele bnene se tower was through an opening of 1.90m/1 m.
nscriu din perspectiva structurii interioare, a The monuments from Banat are part, from the
planimetriei adaptate n ambiana monumen- point of view of interior struture, of planimetry
telor contemporane transilvnene din secolele adapted in the ambiance of the contempora-
XIII-XIV, unde donjonul cu parter i trei etaje neous monuments from Transylania from the
a fost modelul cel mai frecvent adoptat de 13th-14th centuries, where the donjon with
constructorii medievali28. Donjoanele de la ground floor and three floors was the most
Mehadia i Ciacova au avut parterul nvelit cu frequent model adopted by medieval build-
o bolt din crmid, etajele fiind delimitate ers28. The donjons from Mehadia and Ciacova
prin planee din lemn, susinute pe grinzi fixate had the ground floor covered by a brick vault.
n perei29. Monumentele de la Turnu Ruieni The floors were delimited through wooden
i Ciacova au fost amenajate cu contraforturi floors supported on beams fixed in walls29. The
la coluri. Donjonul de la Turnu Ruieni a avut monuments from Turnu Rueni and Ciacova
patru contraforturi masive, ce au avut dimen- were disposed with buttresses at corners. The
siuni de 2,80/1,85 m, amenajate n trepte cu donjon from Turnu Ruieni had four massive
retrageri succesive pn la nlimea de 9,60 buttresses with dimensions of 2.80/1.85 m,
m. Acestea erau dispuse n unghiuri de 45. disposed in levels with successive digging out
Monumentul de la Turnu Ruieni, din aceast to the height of 9.60 m. They were disposed in
perspectiv a elementelor de arhitectur, poate angles of 45. The monument from Turnu Rui-
fi vzut ntr-o conexiune direct cu antierele eni, from this point of view of the architecture
ce au funcionat n imediata sa vecintate, dup elements, can be seen in a direct connection
mijlocul secolului al XIV-lea la Cvran i with the building sites that functioned in the
Caransebe, unde au fost ridicate dou biserici close vicinity at Cvran and Caransebe af-
sal cu contraforturi dispuse n unghi de 450 pe ter the middle of the 14th century, where two
spaiul vestic al navei30. A existat fr doar i churches composed of hall with buttresses
poate, aa cum s-a mai remarcat dealtminteri, disposed in angles of 450 in the western side
o influen direct a arhitecturii ecleziastice n of the nave were erected30. Undoubtedly, there
difuziunea unor forme ale arhitecturii militare was a direct influence of the ecclesiactic ar-
medievale31. chitecture in the diffusion of certain forms of
Luminaia natural n interiorul turnu- military medieval architecture31.
rilor era asigurat prin ferestrele amenajate The natural lighting inside the towers
pe fiecare nivel. Ele s-au pstrat mai bine la was done through the windows disposed on
monumentele de la Ciacova i Vrac i doar each level. They were better preserved at the
n parte la Turnu Ruieni i Mehadia. Latura monuments from Ciacova and Vrac, and
vestic a hexagonului de la Mehadia pstreaz only partly at those from Turnu Ruieni and
nc fereastra cu fant ngust, situat deasupra Mehadia. The wester side of the hexagon
unei sprturi n zid. Un desen din anul 1885 from Mehadia still maintains the window
al ruinei de la Mehadia publicat de L. Bhm, with narrow slit situated above a breach in the
wall. A drawing, since 1885, of the ruin from
27
Brmboli, 2009, p. 38. Mehadia published by L. Bhm, custodian of
28
Rusu, 1980, p. 186-187.
29
Secar, 1970, p. 158; Matei, 1982, p. 110. 27
Brmboli, 2009, p. 38.
30
eicu, 1998, p. 180, 183. 28
Rusu, 1980, p. 186-187.
31
Enaud, 1985, p. 49. 29
Secar, 1970, p. 158; Matei, 1982, p. 110.
30
eicu, 1998, p. 180, 183.
31
Enaud, 1985, p. 49.

31
custodele muzeului din Bela Crkva, evideni- the museum from Bela Crkva, highlights two
az dou ferestre suprapuse pe aceeai latur superposed windows on the same side of the
a turnului de la Mehadia (Pl. 4). Fereastra de tower from Mehadia (Pl.4). The window from
la primul etaj pare s fi avut un ancadrament the first floor seems to have had a framework
n arc frnt, dup sugestia desenului publicat in a broken arch, according to the suggestion
de L. Bhm (Pl.4/1). of the drawing published by L. Bhm (Pl.4/1).
Donjonul de la Turnu Ruieni pstreaz The donjon from Turnu Ruieni preserves
intact fereastra amenajat pe latura de est, la in an intact state the window disposed on the
nivelul celui de-al doilea etaj (Pl. 41). Ea are eastern side at the level of the second floor
o fant dreptunghiular, nalt i ngust, cu (Pl.41). It has a rectangular tall and narrow
deschideri evazate spre interior32. Turnul de slit with inward widened out openings32. The
la Vrac a conservat att niele amenajate n tower from Vrac preseved both the niches
perei la parter i la nivelul al doilea pentru in the walls at the ground floor, and at the
iluminatul artificial, ct i ferestrele pstrate second floor for the artificial lighting, and the
la etajul nti i al doilea33. Ferestrele sunt windows from the first and the second floors33.
nchise cu arcuri semicirculare din crmid. The windows are closed by semicircular brick
(Pl. 40). Donjonul de la Ciacova prezint arches. (Pl. 40). The donjon from Ciacova
o dispunere a ferestrelor inegal pe fiecare presents an unequal disposal of windows on
nivel. Astfel n timp ce la primul nivel ele se each level. Thus, while at the first level they
regsesc pe laturile de nord i sud ale turnului, are on the northern and southern sides of the
la nivelul superior se afl dispuse cte una pe tower, at the superior level there is disposed
fiecare latur, iar nivelul al treilea avea cte one window on each side. The third level has
dou spre sud i vest i cte una pe celelalte two windows to the south and west and one
dou laturi ale etajului. Evazarea ferestrelor window on the other two sides of the floor.
s-a fcut spre interior, fiind nchise cu arcuri Widening out of the windows was inward.
semicirculare, avnd asemnri tipologice cu They were closed with semicircular arches
cele de la turnul-locuin din Vrac. having typological similarities with those from
Arhitectura monumentelor bnene a the dwelling-tower from Vrac.
pstrat extrem de puine dotri interioare, ce The architecture of monuments from
presupuneau c le-au avut i care ar fi trebuit s Banat preserved extremely few interior
ofere un minim de confort celor ce le-au ridicat endowments that supposed that they had
i care au locuit n ele. Ele par, n forma n care had them and which should have offered a
au ajuns, extrem de austere. O imagine i mai minimum comfort to those who built them and
accentuat, n aceast privin, o ofer com- who dwelled them. They seem, in the form
paraia cu dotrile ntlnite n donjoanele din in which they reached, extremely austere. A
aceeai perioad n centrul i vestul european, more accentuated image, in this respect, is
cu camere de rugciune, culoare, latrine34. Si- offered by the comparison to the endowments
gurana acestor locuine fortificate era ntrit encountered in the donjons from the same
i prin elemente defensive exterioare. ntlnim period in the centre and west of Europe, with
la donjonul de la Turnu Ruieni, bunoar, un praying rooms, corridors, latrines34. The safety
an cu un val de aprare ridicat n jurul su. of those fortified dwellings was strenghthened
also through defensive exterior elements. For
32
eicu, 1998, p. 206, fig. 81. instance, the donjon from Turnu Rueni, had a
33
Petrovi, 1976, p. 56-57, fig. 4-5. ditch with a defensive wall raised around it.
34
Beck, 1986, p. 26.
32
eicu, 1998, p. 206, fig. 81.
33
Petrovi, 1976, p. 56-57, fig. 4-5.
34
Beck, 1986, p. 26.

32
Pl.1. Ilidia. Harta zonei.
Pl.1. Ilidia. Map of the region.

33
Pl.2. Ilidia-Oblia. Plan de situaie al curii medievale (sec. XII-XV).
Pl.2. Ilidia-Oblia. Plan of situation of medieval court (12th-15th centuries).

34
Pl.3. Ilidia-Oblia. Donjon (sec. XII).
Pl.3. Ilidia-Oblia. Donjon (12th century).

35
Pl.4. Ilidia-Oblia. Donjon. Propunere de reconstituire.
Pl.4. Ilidia-Oblia. Donjon. Proposal of reconstitution.

36
Pl.5. Ciacova. Donjon (sec. XIV). Plan parter i etaj I.
Pl.5. Ciacova. Donjon (14th century). Plan of the ground floor and of the first floor.

37
Pl.6. Ciacova. Donjon. Planurile nivelelor II-III.
Pl.6. Ciacova. Donjon. Plans of the 2nd-3rd levels.

38
Pl.7. Ciacova. Donjon. Seciune.
Pl.7. Ciacova. Donjon. Section.

39
Pl.8. Ciacova. Donjon. Vederi faade.
Pl.8. Ciacova. Donjon. Views of facades.

40
Pl.9. Ciacova. Donjon. Schi de plan din anul 1920.
Pl.9. Ciacova. Donjon. Sketch of plan since 1920.

41
Donjoanele au reprezentat n multe cazuri The donjons represented in many cases the
nucleul unor fortificaii din curtine i turnuri, nucleus of some fortifications of curtains and
fiind ridicate n secolele XIV-XV. towers built in the14th-15th centuries.

DONJONUL DE LA CIACOVA THE DONJON FROM CIACOVA



Ciacova este situat n cmpia joas Ciacova is situated in the low plain of
bnean dintre Timi i Brzava numit i Banat between the Timi and the Brzava
Cmpia Timiului35. Ea se afla pe hotar cu named the Plain of Timi35. It is on the bound-
Jebel, Voiteg, Macedonia, Obad, aezri cu ary line with Jebel, Voiteg, Macedonia, Obad,
parohii catolice i moii nobiliare la nceputu- settlements with Catholic parishes and noble
rile Evului Mediu. Donjonul este situat pe un estates at the beginning of the Middle Ages.
mal vechi al Timiului, numit astzi Timiul The donjon is located on an older bank of the
Mort, fiind cunoscut n toponimia local sub Timi, named nowadays the Dead Timi, being
forma Cul36. Construcii moderne ridicate known in the local toponimy as Cul36. Mod-
pe rama nord-estic a Ciacovei nconjoar la ern constructions built on the northern-eastern
momentul actual monumentul, ce i-a pstrat frame of Ciacova surrounds presently the
n bun parte nemodificat aspectul su iniial. monument that preserved, at a large measure,
Lucrri de reparaii, iniiate pe plan local, unmodified its initial aspect. The reparation
s-au derulat n anul 1898. Din anul 1936 s-a workings, initiated on local plan, developed
intervenit n structura interioar, cnd monu- in 1898. Since 1936, the interior structure
mentul a nceput s fie utilizat i drept turn has occured modifications. The monument
de ap al oraului Ciacova, prin amenajarea started to be used as a water tower of the
unei cisterne la etajul al treilea, utilizat pn town of Ciacova, by equipping a tank at the
n momentul actual. Lucrri de restaurare s-au third floor, used by the present moment. The
iniiat prin Direcia Monumentelor Istorice restoration workings were initiated by the
din Bucureti n anii 1962-196337. Turnul de Direction of the Historical Monuments from
la Ciacova are un plan ptrat cu dimensiunile Bucharest in 1962-196337. The tower from
laturilor de 9,80/10,50 m. nlimea acestuia, Ciacova has a square plan with the dimen-
msurat la nivelul platformei superioare este sions of 9.80/10.50 m. It was, at the level of
de 20,95m. Zidurile au fost ridicate n ntregi- the superior platform, 20.95 m in height. The
me din crmid, acesta fiind singurul material walls were made entirely of brick that was
de construcie utilizat. Se mai pstreaz la the only building material used. At the level
nivelul celui de-al doilea etaj ancadramentul of the second floor, there is still preserved the
din bolari din piatr al unei ui. Grosimea framework of stone blocks of a door. The walls
zidurilor la nivelul parterului este 2,70m, were 2.70 m in thickness at the ground floor
n timp ce la nivelul etajului al doilea i al level, while the thickness of the walls from the
treilea grosimea pereilor nu depete 2m, second and the third floors did not surpass 2 m,
iar la nivelul platformei de aprare msoar and at the level of the defending platform the
1,1 m grosime (PL.5;6). Structura vertical walls were 1.1 m in thickness (PL.5;6). The
a turnului prezint un parter nalt, ce msura vertical structure of the tower presents a high
6,95m, nvelit cu o bolt semicilindric, peste ground floor that measures 6.95m, covered
care se nal trei nivele (Pl.7). Peretele de with a semicylindrical vault over which there
are three levels (Pl.7). The eastern wall of
35
Ardeleanu, 1979, p. 27.
36
Borovszky, Temes, 1912, p. 34-35; Trpcea, 1969, 35
Ardeleanu, 1979, p. 27.
p. 66-67; Secar, 1970, p. 157. 36
Borovszky, Temes, 1912, p. 34-35; Trpcea, 1969,
37
Merschedorf, 1997, p. 87. p. 66-67; Secar, 1970, p. 157.
37
Merschedorf, 1997, p. 87.

42
rsrit al turnului, la nlimea de 3.80 m, are the tower, of 3.80 m in height, has disposed,
amenajat n structura sa masiv o ni din in its massive structure, a niche from where
care se pornete o scar n trepte amenajat staircase leads to the platform level (Pl.7).
pn la nivelul platformei (Pl.7). Nia pentru The niche for the staircase has an opening
scar are o deschidere de 1,20 m i o nlime of 1.20 m and a height of 2 m. It is covered
de 2 m, la nivelul de pornire este nvelit cu o with a semicircular vault at the starting level
bolt semicircular pn la nivelul platformei. to the platform level. The windows, with a
Ferestrele, cu o fant dreptunghiular, evazat rectangular slit, inwardly widened, closed
spre interior, nchise cu arcuri semicirculare, with semicircular arches, were iregularly dis-
au fost dispuse inegal pe fiecare nivel. Astfel, posed on each level. Thus, at the first level of
al primul nivel al turnului se regsesc doar the tower, there are only two on the northern
dou pe laturile de nord i sud, la nivelul al and southern sides. At the second level, each
doilea fiecare din laturi are cte o fereastr, side has a window while the third level of the
n timp ce nivelul al treilea al donjonului era donjon was endowed with two windows on the
prevzut cu cte dou pe laturile de vest i sud western and southern sides and one window on
i cte una pe celelalte laturi (Pl. 8). Structu- the other sides (Pl. 8). The structure of resis-
ra de rezisten a turnului a fost ntrit prin tance of the tower was strengthened through
contraforturile n trepte, dispuse cte dou n buttresses in steps, disposed two by two in the
colurile de sud-vest i nord-vest i doar unul south-western and north-western corners and
n cealalt latur a patrulaterului (Pl. 5). Se re- only one in the other side of the quadrilater
marc pe latura de sud a turnului existena unui (Pl. 5). It is pointed out that on the southern
contrafort, n apropierea colului de sud-vest, side of the tower, there was a buttress, close
ce a avut menirea ntririi unui perete n care to the south-western corner, that was meant
era amenajat scara interioar38. Cercetrile to strengthen a wall on which the interior
arheologice din anii 2000 i 2006 derulate de staircase was disposed38. The archaeological
Alexandru Rdulescu i Rzvan Pinca au adus investigations from 2000 and 2006 led by Al-
puine informaii cu privire la elementele de exandru Rdulescu and Rzvan Pinca brought
fortificaii dezvoltate n jurul donjonului n few information concerning the elements of
cursul secolelor XIV-XV, dar i pentru stabi- fortifications developed around the donjon
lirea momentului construciei donjonului39. during the 14th-15th centuries, but also for
Documentele de cancelarie au nscris trziu, n establishing the building moment of the don-
anul 1395, fortificaia de la Ciacova castrum jon39. The chancellery documents registered
Chaak40. Ea a fost o cetate regal, pe care late, in 1395, the fortification from Ciacova
regele Sigismund de Luxemburg a cedat-o castrum Chaak40. It was a royal fortress that
n anii 1394-1395 familiei nobiliare Chaak41. the king Sigismund of Luxembourg yielded to
Ridicarea donjonului de la Ciacova a the Chaak noble family in 1394-139541.
fost fixat, pe temeiul analizei elementelor The construction of the donjon from
arhitectur pstrate, la sfritul secolului al XI- Ciacova was established, on the base of the
II-lea i nceputul secolului al XIV-lea, cndva analysis of the preserved architecture ele-
ntr-o vreme ante 130842. Argumentele istorice ments, at the end of the 13th century and the
beginning of the 14th century, sometime in a
38
Secar, 1970, p. 158 period ante 130842. The historical arguments
39
Rdulescu, Pinca, 2002, p. 325-326.
40
Csnki, II, p. 11. 38
Secar, 1970, p. 158
41
Fgedi, 1977, p. 115; Engel, 1996, p. 291. 39
Rdulescu, Pinca, 2002, p. 325-326.
42
Secar, 1970, p. 160, 162. 40
Csnki, II, p. 11.
41
Fgedi, 1977, p. 115; Engel, 1996, p. 291.
42
Secar, 1970, p. 160, 162.

43
invocate s susin aceast datare erau circum- invoked to sustain this dating were circum-
staniale, anul 1308 fiind momentul stingerii stantial because the year of 1308 constituted
dinastiei arpadiene, o perioad de relaxare n the moment of disappearance of the Arpadian
care marii feudali puteau ridica astfel de for- dinasty, a period of relaxing when the great
tificaii. Se pierdea din vedere faptul c iniial feudals could erect such fortifications. It was
fortificaia de la Ciacova a fost o stpnire lost sight of the fact that initally the fortifica-
regal, cedat mai apoi a neamului nobililor tion from Ciacova was a royal possession, then
Chaak. Donjonul de la Ciacova a putut fi mai yielded to the Chaak nobles. The donjon from
degrab ridicat ctre mijlocul secolului al Ciacova could have been rather built at the
XIV-lea, n vremea angevinilor. Elementele middle of the 14th century, during the Anjous
de arhitectur atribuite romanicului trziu au rule. Elements of architecture assigned to the
persistat n lumea rural bnean pn n late Romanic persisted in the rural world from
aceast epoc aa cum sugereaz cercetri la Banat till that epoch so as the investigations
ruinele unei biserici medievale din Banat. at the ruins of a medieval church from Banat
suggest.

TURNUL LOCUIN DE LA ILIDIA THE DWELLING-TOWER FROM


ILIDIA
Ilidia este o aezare situat pe cursul
mijlociu al prului Vicinic, un afluent de pe Ilidia is a settlement situated on the
malul stng al Caraului. Cercetri mai vechi middle course of the Vicinic rivulet, an af-
din anii 1969-1985 au identificat la Ilidia o fluent on the left bank of the Cara. Older
curte feudal pe dealul Oblia, unde se afla i investigations from 1969-1985 identified a
turnul locuin adus din nou n discuie acum43. feudal court at Ilidia on the Oblia hill, right
S-a cercetat, n aceeai zon, o biseric din there where there was also the dwelling-tower
zid i o fortificaie de pmnt, vatra satului brought again into discussion now43. In the
medieval i ruinele cetii medievale Ilidia44. same region, there was investigated a church
Turnul-locuin ocup o poziie excentri- of walls and an earthen fortification, the pre-
c n cadrul curii feudale de la Ilidia-Oblia, cincts of the medieval village and the ruins of
fiind situat pe panta vestic a dealului (Pl. the medieval fortress44.
2). Planul construciei are o form ptrat, The dwelling-tower occupied an excen-
cu laturile de 11 m /11 m (Pl. 3). Delimitarea trical position within the feudal court from
planului s-a fcut dup zidurile de fundaie Ilidia-Oblia. It was situated on the western
pstrate i a anului de fundaie al acesto- slope of the hill (Pl. 2). The plan of construc-
ra, acolo unde zidurile au fost demantelate. tion is square with the sides of 11 m /11 m (Pl.
Zidurile n fundaie au avut 0,90 m grosime. 3). The delimitation of the plan was achieved
S-a utilizat de constructorii medievali o roc following the walls of the preserved founda-
calcaroas i crmid, legate cu mortar. Ob- tion and their foundation ditch there where
servaii cu privire la structura zidurilor s-au the walls had been dismantled. The walls in
putut face n zona de nord-est a construciei, foundation were 0.90 m in thickness. The
mai bine pstrat, de-a lungul zidului sudic medieval builders used limestone and brick
i, n parte, pe zidul de nord. Adncimea an- fixed with mortar. Observations concering
the walls structure could be done in the north-
43
eicu, 1996, p. 78-80. eastern area of the construction, which was
44
Matei, Uzum, 1972, p. 555-559; eicu, 1998, p. better preserved, along the southern wall and,
105.
43
eicu, 1996, p. 78-80.
44
Matei, Uzum, 1972, p. 555-559; eicu, 1998, p.
105.

44
ului de fortificaie cobora pe terenul n pant partly on the northern wall. The depth of the
ntre 0,60-1,00 m, msurat la nivelul actual fortification ditch lowered on the slopy ground
de clcare. Cercetarea arheologic a pus n between 0.60-1.00 m, measured at the present
eviden ceramic uzual din past lutoas de walking level. The archaeological investiga-
nuan crmizie i forme specifice veacului tion highlighted usual ceramics made of brick-
al XII-lea, un pinten cu spin i dou monede, coloured clay paste and shapes specific to the
una emis de regele tefan al II-lea (1162- 12th century, a spur with spin and two coins,
1171) i un denar de Sazburg, emis la mijlocul one issued by king Steven II (1162-1171) and
secolului al XII-lea. Construcia cu plan rec- a dinar of Sazburg, issued at the middle of the
tangular, cu un zid mediu, a fost interpretat 12th century. The construction with rectangu-
de noi drept ruina unui turn-locuin45. Sigur lar plan, with a medium wall, was interpreted
nu au lipsit prezentri lipsite de temei istoric i as the ruin of a dwelling-tower45. It is certain
arheologic. Astfel, ntr-un studiu de ansamblu that there did not miss presentations without
despre cercetrile de arheologie medieval de any historical and archaeological ground.
la Ilidia ruina turnului locuin era prezentat Thus, in an ensemble study about the investi-
drept o simpl locuin feudal timpurie, n gations of medieval archaeology from Ilidia,
cadrul unei reedine puin cunoscute a cne- the ruin of the dwelling-tower was presented
zilor romni din sudul Banatului46. Cercetarea as a simple early feudal dwelling within a less
istoric i arheologic a trebuit s rspund known residence of the Romanian knezes in
la nite chestiuni eseniale despre construcia the south of Banat46. Historical and archaeo-
din secolul al XII-lea de la Ilidia-Oblia: care logical investigation had to answer to certain
au fost rosturile acestor construcii i sub ce essential matters about the construction from
impuls a aprut ea n aceast zon montan the 12th century at Ilidia-Oblia: what the pur-
din sudul Banatului. Materialul arheologic i poses of those buildings were and under what
numismatic ofer repere ferme pentru datarea impulse it appeared in that mountainous area
acestei construcii n cursul veacului al XII- in the south of Banat. The archaeological and
lea, distrus cndva spre sfritul secolului al numismatic material provide firm reference
XII-lea sau poate chiar la nceputul secolului points for dating those constructions to the
al XIII-lea. Momentul ridicrii acesteia poate 12th century, destroyed towards the end of the
fi identificat ctre mijlocul secolului al XII-lea. 12th century or maybe even at the beginning
Ceramica i resturile menajere de la animale of the 13th century. The moment of its build-
domestice i slbatice sacrificate dovedesc ing can be identified at the middle of the 12th
faptul c locuina din zid de la Ilidia-Oblia century. Ceramics and domestic leavings of
din veacul al XII-lea a avut o utilitate civil, sacrified domestic and wild animals prove that
ct i una militar conferit de structura unei the walled dwelling from Ilidia-Oblia from
construcii din zid. Turnul-locuin de la Ilidia the 12th century had both a civilian utility and
se situeaz astfel la nceputul seriei de astfel a military one conferred by the structure of a
de amenajri militare i civile din spaiul Ba- wall construction. The dwelling-tower from
natului i al Transilvaniei. Ea a avut un parter Ilidia is placed at the beginning of the series
nchis deasupra cruia s-au nlat, probabil, of such military and civilian contructions in
cel mult dou nivele (Pl. 3). Banat and Transylvania. It had a closed ground
Documentele scrise din prima jumtate floor above which there were, probably, at the
a veacului al XIII-lea dovedesc exercitarea most two levels (Pl. 3).
Written documents from the first half of
45
eicu, 1996, p. 77. the 13th century prove the exertion of an early
46
Uzum, 1988, p. 43.
45
eicu, 1996, p. 77.
46
Uzum, 1988, p. 43.

45
unei stpniri timpurii a regalitii arpadiene reign of the Arpadian royalty in the area of
n zona Ilidia. Un act din 30 martie 1223 Ilidia. An act dated to March 30th 1223 men-
meniona moia regal Ilidia, alturi de cetatea tioned the royal Ilidia estate, beside the Keve
Keve i alte sate ntre stpnirile Margaretei, fortress and other villages among the posses-
fost mprteas a Bizanului, pe care le-a sions of Margaret, ex-empress of Byzantium,
pus sub protecia papal47. Satele i moiile that she put under papal protection47. The
invocate n actul din 1223, ntre care i moia villages and estates invoked in the act from
regal Ilidia, au fcut parte n anul 1185 din 1223, among which the royal Ilidia estate, was
zestrea pe care Margareta, fiica regelui Bela part of the dowry that Margaret, daughter of
al III-lea, a primit-o la cstoria cu mpratul Bela III, got at her marriage with the Byzan-
bizantin Isac al II-lea Angelos (1185-1195)48. tine emperor Isac II Angelos (1185-1195) in
Acestea au fost teritorii cucerite de regele 118548. Those were territories conquered by
Bela al III-lea. Exercitarea stpnirii regale the king Bela III. Exertion of the royal Hun-
maghiare pe cursul inferior al Caraului i Ne- garian domination along the inferior course
rei, unde se afl dealtminteri i Ilidia, n cursul of the Cara and the Nera, where there was
veacului al XII-lea se nscriu n tendinele i also situated Ilidia, during the 12th century,
eforturilor regalitii arpadiene de organiza- is part of the tendencies and efforts of the
re teritorial a comitatului Cara n aceast Arpadian royalty of territorial organization of
perioad. Comitatul Cara s-a organizat n a the comitat of Cara in that time period. The
doua jumtate a veacului al XII-lea n spaiul comitat of Cara was organized in the second
Cmpiei Caraului i Brzavei, cetatea Haram, half of the 12th century in the Plain of the
la vrsarea Caraului n Dunre, fiind nucleul Cara and of the Brzava. The fortress Haram,
noii structuri comitatense arpadiene49. Turnul at the river mouth of the Cara in the Danube,
locuin de la Ilidia din veacul al XII-lea este was the nucleus of the new Arpadian comitat
o fortificaie ridicat de regalitatea arpadian structure (comitatense)49. The dwelling-tower
n veacul al XII-lea. from Ilidia from the 12th century is a fortifi-
cation erected by the Arpadian royalty in the
DONJONUL DE LA MEHADIA 12th century.

Mehadia este situat pe vechea arter THE DONJON FROM MEHADIA


de circulaie care leag culoarul Dunrii de
spaiul Cmpiei Banatului, dar i de spaiul Mehadia is situated on the old arterial
transilvnean prin culoarul Cerna-Timi. Zona road that connects the Danube corridor with
ngust de chei de la Mehadia au transfor- the area of the Plain of Banat, but also with
mat-o n zon ideal de control al culoarului Transylvania through the Cerna-Timi cor-
de legtur Cerna-Timi i, prin urmare, aici ridor. The narrow area of the river banks at
s-au ridicat fortificaii n perioada roman i Mehadia, transformed it in an ideal region of
roman trzie, la nceputurile Evului Mediu i control of the link corridor Cerna-Timi. Con-
pn n secolul al XVIII-lea50. sequently, fortifications of Roman and Late
Donjonul de la Mehadia domin zona Roman period were built here at the beginning
de culoar de pe culmea dealului Grad. Dealul of the Middle Ages and till the 18th century50.
The donjon from Mehadia dominates
47
DIR, C, veac XI, XII, XIII, I, p. 197. the corridor area on the peak of the Grad hill.
48 Tutu, 1956, p. 62-65; Engel, 1996, 0. 232.
49
Kristo, 1988, p. 459; eicu, 1998, p. 417-418. 47
DIR, C, 11th, 12th, 13th centuries, I, p. 197.
50
Trpcea, 1969, p. 51-54; Groza, 1998, p. 34-35. 48
Tutu, 1956, p. 62-65; Engel, 1996, 0. 232.
49
Kristo, 1988, p. 459; eicu, 1998, p. 417-418.
50
Trpcea, 1969, p. 51-54; Groza, 1998, p. 34-35.

46
are forma unui promontoriu cu pante foarte The hill is shaped like a promontory with very
abrupte, ndeosebi pe extremitatea sudic i abrupt slopes, especially on the southern and
estic, accesul fiind posibil doar dinspre de eastern extremities. The access was possible
vest i nord-vest. only from the west and north-west.
Turnul masiv pstreaz, n parte, doar The massive tower partly preserves
trei laturi, cele dinspre nord-est i sud-vest just three sides, those from the north-east
i cea dinspre vest, pstrat aproape n ntre- and south-west and west. The western side is
gime (Pl. 11). Forma iniial a turnului a fost almost entirely preserved (Pl. 11). The initial
hexagonal, cu lungimea laturilor cuprinse form of the tower was hexagonal, with sides
ntre 6,50 m i 7,70 m. Zidurile au o grosime of 6.50 m and 7.70 m in length. The walls
de circa 2,30 m, fiind lucrate din piatr de were about 2.30 m in thickness. They were
carier necat n mortar. Faadele zidurilor made of quarry stone drowned in mortar. The
au un aspect ngrijit, fiind realizate din blocuri facades of the walls have a neat aspect being
cioplite. Faada zidurilor a fost cptuit cu made of carved stone blocks. The facades were
bolari din calcar ecarisai, ceea ce confer tur- covered with squared off limestone blocks,
nului un aspect deosebit de ngrijit. mbinrile that confered an extremely neat aspect to the
de la coluri, realizate din blocuri prismatice tower. The fixed joinings at corners, made of
de dimensiuni diferite, ce alterneaz ntre ele, prismatic blocks of different dimensions, that
ntresc aceast imagine a monumentului (Fig. alternate among them, strengthen this image
4). Structura interioar a donjonului cuprindea of the monument (Fig. 4). The interior struc-
un parter nchis, suprapus de trei etaje. Un ture of the donjon comprised a closed ground
desen realizat de istoricul german L. Bhm floor, superposed by three floors. A drawing
n anul 1880 prezenta dou ferestre suprapuse done by the German historian L. Bhm in
pe una din laturile donjonului51. (Pl. 11/1). 1880 presented two windows superposed on
Parterul nalt i nchis complet spre exterior one of the donjon sides51. (Pl. 11/1). The high
era nvelit cu o bolt din crmid, iar cele trei ground floor completely closed outwardly was
etaje ce-l suprapuneau erau nvelite cu planee covered by a brick vault, and the three floors
din lemn, fixate n structura zidurilor52. that were above it were covered with wooden
Monumentul a beneficiat de cercetare floors fixed in the structure of walls52.
arheologic n deceniul al optulea al secolului The monument benefited of an archaeo-
trecut, care ar fi putut, eventual, oferi elemente logical investigation in the 8th decade of
pentru datarea apariiei donjonului de la Me- the last century, that could have, eventually,
hadia53. Recursul la documentele istorice ofer provided elements for dating the construction
informaii despre fortificaia de la Mehadia de of the donjon from Mehadia53. The appeal at
la nceputul secolului al XIV-lea. Aflm, dintr- historical documents offer information about
un act din 23 octombrie 1317, c aceast cetate the fortification from Mehadia at the beginning
de la Mehadia era stpnit n mod abuziv de of the 14th century. We found out, from an act
Ioan, fiul lui Theodor de Veiteh54. S-a organizat dated to October 23rd 1317, that fortress from
mpotriva rebelului o expediie regal condu- Mehadia was abusively owned by Ioan, The-
s de Martin, fiul lui Bugar, comite de Slaj. odor of Veitehs son54. A royal expedition led
Documentul din 20 februarie 1323 consemna by Martin, Bugars son, comite of Slaj, was
calitatea de castelan de Mehadia a lui Dionisie organized against the rebbell. The document
from February 20th 1323 registered Dionisie
51
Bhm, 1880, p. 164. Szecs quality of lord of Mehadia, who also
52
Matei, 1982, p. 110.
53
Matei, 1982, p. 110-112.
51
Bhm, 1880, p. 164.
54
Holban, 1981, p. 91.
52
Matei, 1982, p. 110.
53
Matei, 1982, p. 110-112.
54
Holban, 1981, p. 91.

47
Szecs, care deinea i nalta funcie regal de possessed the high royal rank of High Stew-
mare stolnic. Documentele invocate mai sus ard. The documents invoked above showed
arat c fortificaia de la Mehadia era deja that the fortification from Mehadia had been
ridicat de ceva vreme, naintea anului 1317, already built for some time, before 1317, when
cnd apare consemnat documentar. Ea a fost it was documentarily mentioned. It was prob-
ridicat probabil la sfritul secolului al XIII- ably built at the end of the 13th century, or at
lea, ori cel trziu n primii ani ai secolului al last in the first years of the 14th century. It
XIV-lea. Ea a fost o cetate regal i apariia was a royal fortress and its construction must
acesteia trebuie pus n contextul politicii de be considered in the context of the policy
expansiune spre est i sud-est promovat de of expansion towards east and south-east
regalitatea arpadian n veacul al XIII-lea, de promoted by theArpadian royalty in the 13th
creare a Banatului de Severin55. Dealtminteri, century, of creation of the region of Banat of
documentul din 1329 consfinea expresis ver- Severin55. Otherwise, the document from 1329
bis aceast realitate: ea fost zidit pentru a sta confirmed expresis verbis this reality: it was
mpotriva bulgarilor a lui Basarab voievodul built to defend against Basarabs Bulgarians,
transalpin, a regelui schismatic al Rasciei i a the transalpin voivode, against the schismatic
ttarilor ce nvleau nencetat cu dumnie, king of Rascia and against the Tatars that were
atacnd hotarele regatului nostru56. invading unceasingly with enmity the borders
of our kingdom56.
TURNURILE LOCUIN DE LA
SVINIA THE DWELLING-TOWERS FROM
SVINIA
Turnurile de la Svinia sunt situate la
intrarea n Clisura Cazanelor Dunrii, la circa The towers from Svinia are situated in
45 km amonte de Orova. Fluviul strbate n the Danube Clisura, at about 45 km upstream
acest sector transcarpatic o zon de strmtu- by Orova. The river traverses, in this trans-
r pentru a face apoi un cot brusc spre nord Carpathian sector, a narrowness region, then
pn la Dubova au un bazinet. Munii Clisurii it suddenly meanders towards the north to
cu pante abrupte coboar pn la vadurile Dubova. The mountains of the Danube Cli-
fluviului, ntreaga zon fiind astfel dificil de sura with abrupt slopes go down to the river
strbtut. Trei turnuri, din care unul se afl fords, the whole region being thus difficult to
acum sub apele fluviului formau un ansamblu be passed through. Three towers, from which
fortificat controla acest sector al fluviului la one is now under the river waters formed a
nceputurile Evului Mediu57. fortified ensemble that controlled that sector of
Turnurile au fost amplasate pe teren sub the river at the beginning of the Middle Ages57.
forma unui triunghi cu baza spre mal i vrful The towers were located so as to form
spre apele fluviului. Distana ntre cele dou a triangle with its base towards the bank and
turnuri dinspre dealuri era de 20 m iar cea spre the top towards the river waters. The distance
turnul aflat n vrf, ctre Dunre, era de circa between the two towers near the hills was of
40 m58(Pl.14). Turnurile au fost construite 20 m, and the distance to the tower situated on
dup un plan ptrat cu urmtoarele dimensi- the top, towards the Danube, was of about 40
uni: 6,70/6,50 m, 7,20/6,30 m pentru cele cu m58 (Pl.14). The towers were built following
a square plan with the following dimensions:
55
Achim, 2006, p. 40 i urm; eicu, 1998, p. 421-
423. 55
Achim, 2006, p. 40 i urm; eicu, 1998, p. 421-423
56
Holban, 1981, p. 94. 56
Holban, 1981, p. 94.
57
Trpcea, 1969, p. 45; Corvtescu, Rdulescu, 1979, 57
Trpcea, 1969, p. 45; Corvtescu, Rdulescu, 1979,
p. 169-171; eicu, 1998, p. 206.
p. 169-171; eicu, 1998, p. 206
58
Corvtescu, Rdulescu, 1979, p.169. 58
Corvtescu, Rdulescu, 1979, p.169.

48
amplasament ctre deal i respectiv de 7,50/7 6.70/6.50 m, 7.20/6.30 m for those located
m pentru turnul aflat acum sub ap. Structurate towards the hill, and respectively 7.50/7 m for
pe vertical turnurile aveau un parter nchis, un the tower that is nowadays under water. The
etaj i o platform de lupt dispuse pe nlimi towers with vertical structure had a closed
de 10-11 m ct msura fiecare construcie. ground floor, a floor and a fighting platform
Planee din lemn sprijinite pe grinzi ma- disposed on heights of 10-11 m as each build-
sive separau structurile interne ale turnurilor. ing measured.
S-a remarcat n timpul cercetrii o retragere Wooden floors supported on massive
a zidurilor de la grosimea de 1,40 m la 0,80 beams were separating the intern structures of
m deasupra planeului de la platforma de the towers. It was noticed, during the investi-
tragere care a fost interpretat drept drum de gation, that the walls were decreased from 1.40
straj sprijinit pe console59. Fante de tragere m in thickness to 0.80 m in thickness above
au fost amenajate la nivelul etajului nti ct i the floors of the firing platform that was inter-
ai platformei de lupt, ce aveau dimensiunile preted as sentry road supported on consoles59.
de 0,8 m/0,12 m. Slits of firing were arranged at the level of the
Observaiile fcute n timpul cercetrii first floor and of the fighting platform, that had
arheologice din anul 1970 de ctre Corvtescu the dimensions of 0.8 m/0.12 m.
i Rdulescu la paramentul monumentului a The observations done during the ar-
evideniat trei registre, care nu indic faze di- chaeological investigation led by Corvtescu
ferite de refacere, ci reprezint o caracteristic and Rdulescu in 1970 at the parameters of
constructiv ntlnit i la alte monumente din the monument pointed out three registers that
zon60. Cercetarea arheologic nu a produs do not indicate different phases of rebuilding,
dovezi pentru o datare restrns a monumen- but they represent a constructive character-
telor, perioada propus din secolul al XIII-lea istic encountered also at other monuments
pn la mijlocul secolului al XV-lea fiind from this region60. The archaeological inves-
foarte lung61. Documentele de cancelarie au tigation did not provide proofs for a limited
consemnat castrum Zincze n anul 1443 alturi dating of monuments, the proposed period
de alte fortificaii de pe Dunre62, mrturiile from the 13th century till the middle of the
arheologice neconcludente identificate ct i 15th century being very long61. Chancellery
consemnrile documentare trzii las deschi- documents registered castrum Zincze in 1443
s discuia cu privire la momentul ridicrii beside other fortifications on the Danube
turnurilor de la Svinia. Fortificaia de la Svi- course62, identified archaeological unconvinc-
nia se leag n opinia noastr, exprimat cu ing proofs, as well as late documentary records
ceva vreme n urm, de politica rsritean a do not close the discussion as concerns the
Regatului Maghiar, de tendina acestuia de a moment of building the towers from Svinia.
controla cursul Dunrii de Jos apusene63. The fortification from Svinia is connected,
Regalitatea maghiar a ridicat n cursul in our opinion expressed a time ago, with the
veacului al XIII-lea o fortificaie la Coronini, eastern policy of the Hungarian Kingdom, by
its tendency to control the course of the Low
59
Corvtescu, Rdulescu, 1979, p.169. western Danube63.
60
Corvtescu, Rdulescu, 1979, p.171. Hungarian Royalty erected, during the
61
Corvtescu, Rdulescu, 1979, p.171. 13th century, a fortification at Coronini, at an
62
Pesty, Szrenyi, p.44-45; Csnki, II, p.14.
63
eicu, 1998, p.207. 59
Corvtescu, Rdulescu, 1979, p.169.
60
Corvtescu, Rdulescu, 1979, p.171.
61
Corvtescu, Rdulescu, 1979, p.171.
62
Pesty, Szrenyi, p.44-45; Csnki, II, p.14.
63
eicu, 1998, p.207.

49
la o extremitate a Clisurii i o alta la Turnu extremity of the Danube Clisura and another
Severin, n aceeai vreme, ceea ce exprim one at Turnu Severin, in the same time, that
cu limpezime tendina de a avea sub control clearly expresses the tendency to have under
acest segment al Dunrii64. Fortificaiile de la control this segment of the Danube64. The for-
Svinia ar fi putut fi ridicate n aceast vreme tifications from Svinia could have been built
a secolului al XIII-lea dar este posibil ca tur- in the 13th century, but it is possible that the
nurile s fi fost zidite i n cursul veacului al towers should have been built also in the 14th
XIV-lea n epoca angevinilor. century during the Angevin rule.

DONJONUL DE LA TURNU RUIENI THE DONJON FROM TURNU RUI-


ENI
Localitatea Turnu Ruieni este situat pe
valea rului Sebe, ce coboar de sub Muntele The locality Turnu Rueni is situated in
Mic, n imediata vecintate sud-estic a orau- the Sebe valley, that comes from under the
lui Caransebe. Fortificaia este aezat pe un Muntele Mic, in the close south-eastern vicin-
vrf al unui deal, sub forma unui promontoriu ity of the Caransebe town. The fortification
cu pante abrupte pe rama estic a satului Turnu is located on the top of a hill, shaped like a
Ruieni65. promontory with abrupt slopes on the eastern
Donjonul, o construcie masiv, are un frame of the Turnu Rueni village65.
plan rectangular cu dimensiunile interioare The donjon, a masive construction, has
de 4,60/4,80 m. colul de sud-est s-a prbuit a rectangular plan with interior dimensions of
la mijlocul veacului trecut, el avnd aspect 4.60/4.80 m. The south-eastern corner broke
iniial neschimbat pn la nceputul veacului down at the middle of the last century. It had
trecut dup cum dovedete o fotografie de the initial aspect unchanged till the beginning
epoc (Fig.12). Patru contraforturi masive, of the last century as a photo of the epoch
realizate n trepte se afl dispuse n unghi de proved (Fig.12). Four massive butresses,
450 la colurile patrulaterului. Ele au o nl- made in steps are disposed in an angle of 450
ime de 9,80 m i dimensiunile de 3,20/1,85 at the corners of the quadrilater. They are 9.80
m; 2,80/1,85 m (Pl. 16). Structural donjonul m in height and dimensions of 3.20/1.85 m;
a avut un parter uor adncit, inaccesibil din 2.80/1.85 m (Pl. 16). Structurally, the donjon
afar, care a avut o nlime de 4,30 m. zidurile had a slightly deepened ground floor, inacces-
se ngustau la nivelul etajului I cu circa 0,40 sible by outside, that was 4.30 m in height. The
m realizndu-se n acest fel suportul pentru walls turned narrower at the level of the first
planeu. Acelai procedeu a fost aplicat de floor with about 0.40 m achieving in this way
constructorii medievali i pentru al doilea etaj the support for the floor. The same procedure
n vederea aezrii planeului. Nivelul nti was applied by medieval builders also for the
al donjonului a avut o nlime de 4.10 m n second floor in view of setting the floor. The
timp ce al doilea msura pe nlime 5,80m. first level of the donjon was 4.10 m in height
Grinzile planeului ce nvelea etajul al doilea while the second level was 5.80 m in height.
strpungeau pereii exteriori realizndu-se n The floor beams that covered the second floor
acest fel o platform de straj (Pl. 16). Etajul penetrated the exterior walls achieving in this
way a sentry platform (Pl. 16). It is estimated
64
Matei, Uzum, 1973, p.147,149; Rusu, 2003, p.65- that the third floor was about 4 m in height,
66.
65
Secar, 1975, p.302-305; Matei, 1982, p.108; 64
Matei, Uzum, 1973, p.147,149; Rusu, 2003, p.65-
eicu, 1998, p.206. 66.
65
Secar, 1975, p.302-305; Matei, 1982, p.108;
eicu, 1998, p.206.

50
al treilea estimm c avea circa 4 m nlime and the donjon was about 19 m in height of
iar donjonul a avut circa 19 m la nlimea the built walls. A defensive ditch with wall
zidurilor ridicate. Un an de aprare cu val surrounded the donjon constituting external
nconjurau donjonul constituind elementele defensive elements that were increasing its
defensive externe ce mreau capacitatea de defensive capacity (Pl. 15).
aprare a acestuia (Pl. 15). Historical information concerning the
Informaiile istorice cu privire la con- construction from Turnu Rueni are summary.
strucia de la Turnu Ruieni sunt sumare. Un An act dated to July 1467 registered a stone
act din iulie 1467 nscria ntre posesiunile tower among the possessions of the nobles
nobililor din familia Mtnic un turn din piatr, of the Mtnic family, that determined the as-
ceea ce a determinat atribuirea acestui donjon signment of this donjon to this noble family66.
acestei familii nobiliare66. Istoricul Engel Pl The historian Engel Pl considered the forti-
considera fortificaia de la Turnu Ruieni o fication from Turnu Rueni as being a creation
creaie a regalitii angevine67. Familia ro- of the Angevin royalty67. The Mtnic noble
mneasc nobiliar Mtnic, atestai nobili n Romanian family, certified as nobles in 1440,
1440 s-au implicat activ n aprarea Banatului actively implied in defending Banat during the
n vremea lui Iancu de Hunedoara. tefan rule of Iancu of Hunedoara. tefan and Mihai
i Mihai de Mtnic ajung s dein funcii of Mtnic obtain important functions as for
importante precum cea de ban al Severinului example that of ban of Severin from 1459 till
n anii 1459 i 146768. Donjonul de la Turnu 146768. The donjon from Turnu Ruieni, even
Ruieni chiar dac a fost o posesiune regal if it was initially a royal possession, could
iniial a putut ajunge n urma unor donaii n enter, as a consequence of some donations,
patrimoniul familiei nobiliare a Mtnicenilor. in the patrimony of the Mtnic noble family.

DONJONUL DE LA VRAC THE DONJON FROM VRAC

Aezarea i fortificaia medieval sunt The medieval settlement and fortifica-


situate pe rama sud-vestic a dealurilor Bana- tion are located on the south-western frame
tului, pe un vechi culoar ce lega valea Dunrii of the hills of Banat, in an old corridor that
de cmpia bnean, ocolind zona montan. connected the Danube valley with the plain
Turnul de la Vrac este situat pe dealul Cula, of Banat rounding the mountainous area. The
ce domin prin nlime pe un vast spaiu zona tower from Vrac is situated on the Cula hill,
depresionar nconjurtoare. that dominates through its height the surround-
Culmea teit pe care a fost amplasat ing depresionary zone on a large area.
fortificaia msoar 48/18 m69. (Pl. 18). Pla- The flattened peak on which the forti-
nul construciei are forma unui patrulater cu fication was placed measures 48/18 m69. (Pl.
dimensiunile de 13,80 m/11 m. Donjonul are 18). The plan of construction is rectangular
o nlime de 19,85 m i o structur interioar with the dimensions of 13.80 m/11 m. The
organizat pe trei nivele i un parter complet donjon is 19.85 m in height. It has an inte-
nchis70. (Pl.19). Planeele din lemn cu grinzi rior structure organized on three levels and a
completely closed groundfloor70. (Pl.19). The
66
Pesty, Szrenyi, p.80. wooden floors with crossed beams delimited
67
Engel, 1996, p. 407.
68
Drgan, 2000, p. 422. 66
Pesty, Szrenyi, p.80.
69
Petrovi, 1976, p. 53. 67
Engel, 1996, p. 407.
70
Petrovi, 1976, p. 54. 68
Drgan, 2000, p. 422.
69
Petrovi, 1976, p. 53.
70
Petrovi, 1976, p. 54.

51
aezate n cruce delimitau cele trei nivele, ac- the three levels. The access among the floors
cesul ntre etaje se fcea prin scri interioare was done through interior wooden staircases.
din lemn. Accesul n fortificaie se fcea la The access in fortification was done at the
primul nivel unde n zidul vestic s-a practica first level where an opening of 1.70/1 m was
o deschidere cu dimensiunile de 1,70/1 m., achieved in the western wall. The opening was
nchis cu un arc semicircular71 (Pl.19/2; 3). closed with a semicircular arch71 (Pl.19/2; 3).
Nivelul al doilea al turnului a pstrat coul de The second level of the tower preserved the
la instalaia de nclzit ce avea dou vetre. Co- chimney from the heating instalation that had
ul zidit din crmid a avut diametrul de 0,70 two hearths. The brick chimney was 0.70 m
m, fiind plasat pe colul sud-estic al nivelului72. in diameter. It was placed on the south-eastern
Turnul de la Vrac a fost zidit din piatr corner of the level72.
cioplit, faadele avnd aadar un aspect n- The tower from Vrac was built of
grijit iar la coluri s-a folosit piatra ecarisat carved stone. The facades had a neat aspect.
(Fig.15). Acoperiul de form piramidal The squared off stone was used at the corners
proteja elementele defensive de pe platforma (Fig.15). The pyramidal roof protected the
deasupra nivelului al treilea (Pl.24 a). defensive elements on the platform above the
Cercetarea arheologic recent a oferit third level (Pl.24 a).
documentaie pentru cunoaterea topografiei Recent archaeological investigations
zonei fortificaiei, a amenajrilor ulterioare din provided documentation for the knowledge
jurul donjonului fr a contribui cu informaii of the topography of the fortification area,
la stabilirea momentului cronologic al ridicrii of the subsequent constructions around the
donjonului73. Milleker n monografia istoric donjon without contributing with information
consacrat oraului Vrac a plasat momentul at setting the chronological moment of the
ridicrii fortificaiei de pe dealul Cul n epoca donjon building73. Milleker, in the histori-
lui Sigismund de Luxemburg. El consemna cal monograph dedicated to the Vrac town,
n acelai context tradiia istoric srbeasc dated the moment of building the fortification
ce lega zidirea fortificaiei n anul 1425 de on the Cul hill to the epoch of Sigismund
stpnirile n zon ale familiei Brankovi74. of Luxembourg. He wrote down in the same
n aceeai vreme, anterior anului 1427 plasa context the historical Serbian tradition that
momentul ridicrii turnului Marin Brmboli75. related the building of fortification in 1425
Epoca de nceput a fortificaiei era aadar to the Brankovi familys possessions in the
plasat ntre anii 1411-145076, fiind ndeobte region74. In the same time, previously to 1427,
legat de stpnirile lui tefan Lazarovi i Marin Brmboli dated the moment of build-
Djordje Brankovi. Istoria Vreului la n- ing the tower75. The epoch of beginning of the
ceputurile Evului Mediu se lega de integrarea fortification was placed between 1411-145076.
ei n stpnirile regatului arpadian n spaiul It was especially related to tefan Lazarovis
de sud al Banatului. Identificarea domeniului and Djordje Brankovis possessions. The his-
tory of Vrac at the beginning of the Middle
71
Brmboli, 2009, p. 38. Ages was connected with its integration in
72
Brmboli, 2009, p. 40. the possessions of the Arpadian kingdom in
73
Brmboli, 2009, p. 105. the south of Banat. Identification of the royal
74
Milleker, 2005, p. 34-35. domain, and later of the Ersumlov fortifica-
75
Brmboli, 2009, p. 53.
76
Petrovi, 1976, p. 56. 71
Brmboli, 2009, p. 38.
72
Brmboli, 2009, p. 40.
73
Brmboli, 2009, p. 105.
74
Milleker, 2005, p. 34-35.
75
Brmboli, 2009, p. 53.
76
Petrovi, 1976, p. 56.

52
regal i mai apoi al fortificaiei Ersumlov la tion at Vrac has been already an unanimously
Vrac este deja un fapt unanim acceptat n accepted fact in recent historiography77. The
istoriografia recent77. Documentele veacului documents of the 13th century starting with
al XIII-lea ncepnd cu actul din 1223 i pn the act from 1223 till 1292 when the royal
la 1292 cnd aprea nscris stpnirea regal domination of the region appeared recorded
a zonei indic rostul important al aezrii ntr-o indicates the important role of the settlement in
zon de culoar spre sudul Dunrii i ntr-o epo- the corridor area towards the south of the Dan-
c n care Regatul arpadian i concentra efor- ube in an epoch when the Arpadian Kingdom
turile de extindere a controlului n sud-estul concentrated its efforts of control extension
european. Cetatea Ersomli apare consemnat on the south-east of Europe. The Ersomli
n acte n anul 132378. Donjonul de la Vrac fortress is recorded in documents in 132378.
se identific aadar cu nucleul iniial al cetii The donjon from Vrac is identified with the
Ersomli i a fost o construcie regal. El a initial nucleus of the Ersomli fortress. It was a
fost ridicat cu siguran n perioada foarte de royal construction. It was certainly built in the
nceput a secolului al XIV-lea. Amplasarea sa very beginning of the 14th century. Its loca-
n zona de culoar geografic i pe o direcie de tion in the region of the geographical corridor
expansiune a puterii maghiare l face s aib on a direction of expansion of the Hungarian
multe similitudini cu donjonul de la Mehadia. domination makes it to have many similitudes
with the donjon from Mehadia.

77
Halasi-Kun, 1976, p. 298; Gyrffy, 1987, III, p.
494.
77
Halasi-Kun, 1976, p. 298; Gyrffy, 1987, III, p.
78
Engel, 1996, p. 309. 494.
78
Engel, 1996, p. 309

53
Pl.10. Mehadia. Plan de situaie cu amplasarea donjonului.
Pl.10. Mehadia. Plan of situation with location of donjon.

54
Pl.11. Mehadia. 1. Vedere donjonului din anul 1885.
2. Vedere n starea actual.
Pl.11. Mehadia. 1. View of donjon since 1885;
2. View of donjon in the present state.

55
Pl.12. Mehadia. Donjon. Vedere i seciune.
Pl.12. Mehadia. Donjon. View and section.

56
Pl.13. Reia-Moroasa. Plan de situaie al curii feudale cu amplasarea donjonului.
Pl.13. Reia-Moroasa. Plan of situation of the feudal court with location of donjon.

57
A

Pl.14. Svinia. Plan de amplasare a turnurilor. Vedere a ruinelor din secolul XIX-lea.
Pl.14. Svinia. Plan of location of towers. View of ruins from the 19th century.

58
Pl.15. Turnu Ruieni. Planul donjonului (sec. XIV).
Pl.15. Turnu Ruieni. Plan of donjon (14th century).

59
Pl.16. Turnu Ruieni. Seciuni i reconstituire a donjonului.
Pl.16. Turnu Ruieni. Sections and reconstitution of donjon.

60
Pl.17. Vrac. Plan de situaie cu amplasarea donjonului (sec. XIV).
Pl.17. Vrac. Plan of situation with location of donjon (14th century).

61
Pl.18. Vrac. Plan, seciuni i vederi ale faadelor donjonului.
Pl.18. Vrac. Plan, sections and views of the donjon facades.

62
Fig. 1. Ciacova. Donjon.
Fig. 1. Ciacova. Donjon.

Fig. 2. Ciacova. Donjon.


Vedere faad.
Fig. 2. Ciacova. Donjon.
View of facade.

63
Fig. 3. Ilidia- Oblia.
Turn locuin (sec. XII).
B. Socolari. Cetate.
Vedere de pe dealul Oblia.
Fig. 3. Ilidia-Oblia.
Dwelling-tower (12th century).
B. Socolari. Cetate.
View from the Oblia hill.

Fig. 4. Mehadia. Donjon.


Fig. 4. Mehadia. Donjon.

64
Fig. 5. Mehadia. Donjon.
Fig. 5. Mehadia. Donjon.

Fig. 6. Mehadia. Vedere interioar a ferestrelor.


Fig. 6. Mehadia. Interior view of windows.

65
Fig. 7. Mehadia. Donjon. B. Valea Mare
Fig. 7. Mehadia. Donjon. B. Mare Valley

Fig. 8. Mehadia. Donjon. B. Valea Belareca.


Fig. 8. Mehadia. Donjon. B. The Belareca Valley.

66
Fig. 9. Mehadia. Detaliu de la paramentul turnului.
Fig. 9. Mehadia. Detail of the face of the tower walls.

Fig.10. Svinia. Turn locuin.


Fig.10. Svinia. Dwelling-tower.

67
Fig.11. Svinia-Tricule. Turnurile locuin.
Fig.11. Svinia-Tricule. Dwelling-towers.

Fig.12. Turnu-Ruieni. Donjonul.


Fig.12. Turnu-Ruieni. Donjon.

68
Fig.13. Turnu-Ruieni. Donjonul.
Fig.13. Turnu-Ruieni. Donjon.

Fig.14. Turnu-Ruieni. anul de aprare din jurul turnului.


Fig.14. Turnu-Ruieni. Defending ditch around the tower.

69
Fig.15. Vrac. Donjonul cetii Ersomlio.
Fig.15. Vrac. Donjon of the Ersomlio fortress.

Fig.16. Vrac. Vedere turn i cistern.


Fig.16. Vrac. View of tower and tank.

70
Fig.17. Vrac. Cetatea Ersomlio.
Fig.17. Vrac. Ersomlio fortress.

Fig 18. Novo Miloevo. Cetatea Galad.


Fig 18. Novo Miloevo. Galad fortress.

71
Fig.19. Novo Miloevo. Cetatea Galad. anul de aprare i amenajri interioare.
Fig.19. Novo Miloevo. Galad fortress. Defending ditch and interior constructions.

Fig.20. Cetatea Galad. Turnuri de col.


Fig.20. Galad fortress. Corner-towers.

72
FORTIFICAII MEDIEVALE MEDIEVAL FORTIFICATIONS
DIN BANAT FROM BANAT FROM THE 13TH-
SECOLELE XIII-XVI 16TH CENTURIES

Lista prescurtrilor List of abbreviations

s = sat v = village
c = comun c = commune
Or = ora t = town
J = jude C = county
Op. = Optina Op. = Optina

73
FORTIFICAII MEDIEVALE DIN MEDIEVAL FORTIFICATIONS
BANAT SECOLELE XIII-XVI FROM BANAT IN THE
13TH-16TH CENTURIES

ALMJ (jud.Cara-Severin, Romnia) ALMJ (Cara-Severin County, Ro-


Cetatea Almj s-a aflat n Depresiunea mania)
Almj sau Bozovici, de pe cursul mijlociu The Almj fortress was located in the
al rului Nera. Un act din 1437 a consemnat Almj or Bozovici Depression, on the middle
castra inferiora cisdanubiana Halmas, ntre course of the Nera. An act dated to 1437 reg-
cetile de frontier din Banatul de Severin1. istered castra inferiora cisdanubiana Halmas,
Ea se afla la captul unor drumuri de munte, among the frontier fortresses within Banat of
ce fceau legtura ntre Valea Dunrii i depre- Severin1. It was situated at the end of some
siunea intramontan a Almjului, din aceast mountain roads that tied the Danube Valley
perspectiv ea fcea parte din cetile de ap- by the Almj intramountainous depression.
rare ale regatului din Clisura Dunrii. A fost From this point of view, it belonged to the
zidit, probabil, odat cu o parte din cetile de defensive fortresses of the kingdom from the
la Drencova, Peth, Liboradea i Pojejena din Clisura Dunrii. It was probably built in the
prima jumtate a veacului al XV-lea, n vremea same time with part of the fortresses from
lui Sigismund de Luxemburg. Documentele Drencova, Peth, Liboradea and Pojejena in
din anul 1364 i cele ulterioare arat o stp- the first half of the 15th century during Sigis-
nire n Almj a arhiepiscopului de Calocea, dar mund of Luxembourgs rule. Documents from
nu pot fi un argument pentru existena cetii 1364 and the subsequent ones mention a rule,
n secolul al XIV-lea2. Cercetri mai vechi, dar in Almj, of the archbishop of Calocea, but
i cele recente din anul 2009, n-au identificat they can not be an argument for the existence
n teren ruinele cetii medievale Almaj. Ea a of the fortress in the 14th century2. Earlier
fost localizat n hotarul satului Dalboe, pe investigations, but also the recent ones from
dealul Grdite3. 2009, have not identified on the spot the ruins
Tradiia local care mi-a fost relatat i of the Almaj medieval fortress. It was located
n anul 2009, consemna existena unui turn in the boundary of the Dalboe village, on the
din crmid pe dealul Grdite la Dalboe. Grdite hill3.
Cercetrile de suprafa indic acum doar Local tradition about which I have
existena unei fortificaii de pmnt cu an i been informed also in 2009, registered the
val de aprare i dou incinte ce aparineau, existence of a brick tower on the Grdite hill
probabil, epocii Latene4. at Dalboe. The surface investigations have
indicated just the existence of an earthen for-
1
Csnki, 1894, II, p.13.
tification with defending ditch and wall and
2
Gyrffy, 1987, III, p.477; Engel, 1996, p.324. two enclosures that probably belonged to the
3
Trpcea, 1969, p.33. La Tne period4.
4
Cercetri, D. eicu, iunie 2009.
1
Csnki, 1894, II, p.13.
2
Gyrffy, 1987, III, p.477; Engel, 1996, p.324.
3
Trpcea, 1969, p.33.
4
Researches, D. eicu, June 2009.

74
BORZAF (j. Cara-Severin, Romnia) BORZAF (Cara-Severin County,
Cetate regal situat pe cursul superior Romania)
al rului Brzava, dup cum i sugereaz i The royal fortress situated on the supe-
numele, neidentificat nc pe teren. Apare rior course of the Brzava, as even its name
ntia oar consemnat ntr-un act din anul suggests it, still unidentified on the spot. It
1370 ce amintete de o aezare, satul lui was mentioned for the first time in an act since
Petru, fiul lui Balc, pe pmntul ce ine de 1370 that reminds of a settlement, the village
Borzafeu5. Castelanii cetii sunt cunoscui of Petru, Balcs son, on the lang that belongs
din documente emise ntre anii 1415 i 1452. to Borzafeu5. The fortress owners are known
Pipo de Ozara a ndeplinit i funcia de cas- from documents issued between 1415 and
telan n anul 1415, iar anul 1418 Iacob de 1452. Pipo of Ozara fulfilled also the func-
Abel, implicat n judeci patrimoniale ivite tion of lord in 1415. In 1418, Iacob de Abel,
ntre cnezii din valea superioar a Brzavei6. implied in patrimonial jugdements mentioned
Acelai conflict, redeschis n anul 1433, era among the knezes from the superior valley
gestionat de Petru de Kerestesz i Eberhard of the Brzava6 was lord. The same conflict,
Sax, ce ndeplineau atribuiile de castelani opened again in 1433, was run by Petru of
ai cetii de pe cursul superior al Brzavei7. Kerestesz and Eberhard Sax, who fulfilled the
Un document din 22 ianuarie 1452 nscria pe function of lords of the fortress on the superior
Egidius, castellanus de Borza, ntre martorii course of the Brzava7. A document dated to
unui proces al districtelor romneti8. January 22nd, 1452, mentioned Egidius, cas-
Cetatea s-a aflat ntre anii 14291435 tellanus de Borza, among the witnesses of a
ntre fortificaiile cedate cavalerilor teutoni9. trial of the Romanian districts8.
S-a propus o localizare a cetii pe cursul The fortress was among the fortifications
superior al rului Brzava. Milleker sugera, given up to the Teutons between 1429 14359.
pe temeiul toponimiei, identificarea acesteia It was proposed a locating of the fortress on the
la Grdite, pe platoul Semenic10. Urma unor superior course of the Brzava. Milleker sug-
ruine, pe dealul Ranchin, la Stupini, la est de gested, based on toponimy, its identification
Reia, ar pleda pentru cutarea ei i n aceast at Grdite, on the Semenic plateau10. Trace of
zon de pe cursul Brzavei11. vestiges, on the Ranchin hill, at Stupini, east
to Reia, would plead for searching it also in
BEEJ (Novi Beej, op. Zrenjanin, this region on the Brzava course11.
Serbia)
Cetate situat pe malul Tisei, ce a fcut BEEJ (Novi Beej, op. Zrenjanin,
parte din comitatul Torontal. Castrum Haznis, Serbia)
sub forma n care apare n anul 1315 ntr-o Fortress situated on the Tisa bank, that
diplom, era o stpnire regal12. Documentul belonged to the Torontal comitat. Castrum
din 1338 nscria cetatea sub ambele forme: Haznis, under the form in which it appeared
Haznas i Beche13. Ea a ajuns un domeniu in 1315 in a diploma, was a royal possession12.
A document from 1338 mentioned the fortress
5
DRH, C, XIII, p.770. under both forms: Haznas and Beche13. It be-
6
Pesty, Krass, III, p.284.
7
Pesty, Krass, III, p.344.
5
DRH, C, XIII, p.770.
8
Pesty, Szreny, III, p.64.
6
Pesty, Krass, III, p.284.
9
Joachim, 1912, p.114.
7
Pesty, Krass, III, p.344.
10
Milleker, 1915, p.48.
8
Pesty, Szreny, III, p.64.
11
eicu, 1996, p.25.
9
Joachim, 1912, p.114.
12
Engel, 1996, p.275.
10
Milleker, 1915, p.48.
13
Milleker, 1915, p.6; Engel, 1996, p.275.
11
eicu, 1996, p.25.
12
Engel, 1996, p.275.
13
Milleker, 1915, p.6; Engel, 1996, p.275.

75
al despotului srb Stefan Lazarevi, nainte came a domain of the Serbian despot Stefan
de 1414, i apoi n stpnirea lui Brankovi. Lazarevi, before 1414, and then it came into
Cetatea i trgul medieval Beche se aflau pe Brankovis possession. The medieval Beche
o insul a Tisei, aa cum reiese din mrturia fortress and borough were on an island of the
unui act din anul 144014. Ruinele cetii se Tisa, as a document from 1440 mentioned14.
identific la Novi Beej, n vecintatea cur- Ruins of the fortress are identified at Novi
sului rului Tisa. Beej, in the vicinity of the Tisa course.

CARA (c. Caraova, j. Cara-Severin, CARA (Caraova commune, Cara-


Romnia) Severin County, Romania)
Cetatea Cara se afl amplasat pe un The Cara fortress is located on a lime-
promontoriu calcaros deasupra Cheilor Ca- stone promontory above the Cara Chei. The
raului. Ruinele fortificaiei sunt situate pe ruins of the fortification are situated on the
dealul Grad la altitudinea de 480 m. i la o Grad hill at the altitude of 480 m, at a distance
distan de circa 2 km. nord-est de comuna of about 2 km north-east to Caraova. The
Caraova. Cetatea ce poart numele rului fortress bearing the name of the Cara river
Cara a suscitat discuii n istoriografie, determined discussions in historiography by
purtate pn de curnd, deoarece pe cursul soon because on the Cara course there were
rului Cara au fost dou ceti ce au purtat two fortresses that alternatively bore the same
alternativ acest nume. Cetatea timpurie de la name. The early fortress from the Cara mouth
vrsarea Caraului n Dunre este amintit n in the Danube is mentioned in diplomatic Hun-
documentele diplomatice maghiare din secolul garian documents of the 13th century under
al XIII-lea cu numele de Cara, cu toate c a the name of Cara, even if it was registered
fost consemnat n alte izvoare i cu numele also with the name Haram in other sources. It
de Haram. Ea a fost atestat cu acest nume i was certified with this name also in the 14th
n secolul al XIV-lea. Cetatea, amplasat pe century. The fortress, located on the superior
cursul superior al Caraului, ale crei ruine se course of the Cara, whose ruins can be still
vd nc la Caraova, numit n istoriografia seen at Caraova, named Krassfvr in
maghiar Krassfvr, a fost ridicat la n- Hungarian historiography, was erected at the
ceputul perioadei angevine. Informaiile din beginning of the Angevin period. Information
documentele secolului al XIII-lea referitoare from documents of the 13th century concern-
la cetatea Caraului (Krassvr) au fost foarte ing the Cara fortress (Krassvr) were very
adesea n istoriografia maghiar i romn often in the Hungarian and Romania histori-
puse pe seama cetii angevine din secolele ography assigned to the Angevin fortress from
XIV-XV de la Caraova. Au abordat problema the 14th-15th centuries at Caraova. Pesty
cetii Caraului Pesty Frygies, Csanki D., Frygies, Csanki D., Milleker, Gyrffy, Istvan
Milleker, Gyrffy, Istvan Bna, Fgedi Erich Bna, Fgedi Erich and Engel Pl dealt with
i Engel Pl15. Cel care a adus clarificri n the problem of the Cara fortress 15. That one
aceast chestiune de geografie istoric a fost who clarified that matter of historical geog-
istoricul Gy. Gyrffy16. Problema cetii tim- raphy was the historian Gy. Gyrffy16. The
purii a fost discutat de Istvn Bna. Scrierile problem of the early fortress was discussed

14
Csnki,1894, II, p.125. 14
Csnki,1894, II, p.125.
15
Pesty, Krass, II, 1, p.205; Csnki,1894, II, p.96; 15
Pesty, Krass, II, 1, p.205; Csnki,1894, II, p.96;
Milleker, 1915, p.49-50; Gyrffy, 1987, III, p.487- Milleker, 1915, p.49-50; Gyrffy, 1987, III, p.487-
488; Fgedi, 1977, p.128 Engel, 1996, p.353. 488; Fgedi, 1977, p.128 Engel, 1996, p.353.
16
Gyrffy, 1987, III, p. 487; Bna, 1994, p.380; 16
Gyrffy, 1987, III, p. 487; Bna, 1994, p.380;
Bna, 1998, p.26-27. Bna, 1998, p.26-27.

76
istorice romneti ale lui Th. Trpcea, t. by Istvn Bna. Historical Romanian writings
Pascu, t. Matei, D. eicu au luat n discuie of Th. Trpcea, t. Pascu, t. Matei, D. eicu
fortificaia de la Caraova, uneori cu confuziile took into discussion the fortification from
documentare amintite mai sus, ori discutnd Caraova, sometime with the documentary
punctual uneori doar structura arhitectural confusions mentioned above, or punctually
a monumentului17. Discuiile de pn acum discussing just the architectural structure of
asupra cetii Caraului s-au purtat i se duc the monument17. The discussions by now on
nc pe baza planurilor ruinelor ntocmite de the Cara fortress have taken place on the base
t. Matei i D. eicu. (Pl.21; Fig. 35-36) of the ruins plans drawn by t. Matei and D.
Observaiile noastre privind aceast for- eicu. (Pl.21; ; Fig. 35-36)
tificaie, publicate cu ceva vreme n urm i pe Our observations concerning this fortifi-
care le vom relua n cele ce urmeaz, au avut cation, published a long time ago, and which
la baz planul topografic realizat la Caraova- are going to be taken over on, were based on
Grad. Cetatea a fost investigat arheologic the topographical plan done at Caraova-Grad.
n anii 1998-2001, n urma campaniilor fiind The fortress was archaeologically investigated
publicate rapoarte de spturi i un studiu de in 1998-2001. As a result of the campaigns,
geografie istoric18. Informaiile livrate prin excavation reports and a study of historical
aceste rapoarte nu au fost susinute, aa cum geography were published 18. Information
era firesc i obligatoriu dealtminteri, de docu- provided by these reports were not sustained
mente grafice i foto. Metoda de cercetare cu as it would have been naturally and obliga-
seciuni foarte nguste i scurte a unei fortifi- tory, by graphical documents and photos. The
caii medievale este printre cele mai nefericite method of investigation with very narrow
opiuni. Rapoartele de spturi vorbesc de mai and short sections of a medieval fortification
multe faze de amenajare a fortificaiei, de o is among the unhappiest options. Excavation
incint mai veche cu un traseu parial diferit reports present several phases of construction
i mai scurt fa de incinta pstrat. Nu au fost of the fortification, an earlier enclosure with a
obinute arheologic materiale care s ofere re- traject partly different and shorter in compari-
pere pentru fazele de amenajare, pentru etapa son with the preserved enclosure. There were
de construcie a incintei timpurii. Cronologia not obtained archaeological materials which
monumentului de la Caraova propus n would offer reference points for the construc-
urma spturilor arheologice este construit tion stages, for the construction stage of the
pe informaia documentelor scrise materialul early enclosure. The chronology of the monu-
arheologic fiind irelevant n aceast privin. ment from Caraova proposed as a result of
Ridic semne de ntrebare, dup opinia mea, the archaeological excavations is built on the
incinta de zid mai veche, construit din piatr from information written documents because
legat cu lut i atribuit perioadei medievale19. archaeological material was irrelevant in this
n acest stadiu al acumulrii dosarului arheolo- concern. In my opinion, the earlier wall enclo-
gic cu privire la monumentul de la Caraova, sure built of stone tied with clay and assigned
pentru repertoriul arheologic ridicarea topo- to the medieval period has raised many ques-
grafic publicat de noi i discuia pe marginea tions19. In this stage of accumulation of the
elementelor de arhitectur pstrate, rmne archaeological documentation concerning the
monument from Caraova, for the archaeolog-
17
Trpcea, 1969, p.39; Pascu, Matei, 1982, p.115; ical repertory, the topographical measurements
eicu, 1998, p.211; Rusu, 2005, p.41.
18
Oa, 1999, p.22-23; Oa, 2001, p.57-59. 17
Trpcea, 1969, p.39; Pascu,Matei, 1982, p.115;
19
Oa, 2001, p.58. eicu, 1998, p.211; Rusu, 2005, p.41.
18
Oa, 1999, p.22-23; Oa, 2001, p.57-59.
19 Oa, 2001, p.58.

77
singura opiune rezonabil. Elementele exter- published by us and the discussion refering to
ne ale cetii sunt cele dou anuri tiate n the preserved elements of architecture have
stnca calcaroas. Ele au o lrgime msurat remained the only reasonable option. The two
pe fundul anului de 5-6 m. i o adncime ce ditches dug in the limestone rock are external
nu depete 2 m. Constructorii medievali au elements of the fortress. They are 5-6 m in
adaptat planul fortificaiei la caracteristicile width at the bottom of the ditch and they do not
terenului. Ea avut din aceast perspectiv surpass 2 m in depth. Medieval constructors
forma unui poligon neregulat, ce nchidea adapted the plan of the fortification at the land
accesul dinspre cele trei zone vulnerabile ale characteristics. From this point of view, it had
promontoriului. Un zid de incint lung de circa the shape of an irregular polygon that closed
32 m. mrginea extremitatea nordic, n timp the access from the three vulnerable areas of
ce zona vestic, din faa anurilor de aprare, the promontory. An enclosure wall of about 32
era nchis de un zid cu traseu uor curbat, m in length delimited the northern extremity
pstrat pe o lungime de 20 m. zidurile au fost while the western area in front of the defending
construite din piatr de calcar necat n mult ditches was closed by a wall with a slightly
mortar. Ele au paramentul din blocuri cioplite. curved traject, preserved on a length of 20 m.
Zona calcaroas a Cheilor Caraului, unde The walls were built of limestone embed in
este amplasat cetatea, a oferit din abunden lot of mortar. They have the wall face made of
materie prim i var pentru zid. Momentul carved stone blocks. The limestone region of
nlrii acestei ceti se poate nc discuta, the Cara Chei, where the fortress was located,
n stadiul actual al documentaiei tiinifice, offered abundently raw material and lime for
numai prin apelul la documentele de cancela- the wall. The moment of building this fortress
rie i el trebuie cutat la nceputul perioadei can be still discused, in the actual stage of
angevine de la debutul veacului al XIV-lea20. scientifical documentation, only through the
Fortificaia de la Caraova are de altfel extrem appeal to the chancellery documents. It has to
de multe similitudini, n privina modului de be searched at the beginning of the Angevin
construcie, cu cetile de la Jdioara, Ilidia i period of the 14th century20. The fortification
a ceea de la Boca. from Caraova has, otherwise, very many si-
militudes, as concerns the way of construction,
CHERI (c. Sacou Turcesc, j. Timi, with the fortresses from Jdioara, Ilidia and that
Romnia) one from Boca.
Cetate pustiit din comitatul Timi.
A fost consemnat n anul 1459 sub forma CHERI (Sacou Turcesc commune,
castellum Chery in comitatu Temes, castrum Timi county, Romania)
Chery 21 n anul 1473, iar castelanii cetii apar The ravaged fortress from the Timi co-
n documente ntre anii 1440-1443. Populaia mitat was registered in 1459 under the form of
colonizat i stabilit n trgul Cheri a fost cu- castellum Chery in comitatu Temes, castrum
noscut n acte din prima jumtate a veacului Chery 21 in 1473, and the fortress lords are
al XV-lea. Astfel, ntr-un act din 1417 apar mentioned in documents between 1440-1443.
hospes de Cheri, n anul 1453 sunt menionai The colonized population established in the
cives de Cheri22, n aceeai perioad aezarea Cheri borough was known in documents
since the first half of the 15th century. Thus,
20
eicu, 1998, p.211. in an act from 1417 they appear as hospes de
21
Csnki,1894, II, p.11. Cheri, in 1453 they are mentioned as cives de
22
Csnki,1894, II, p.11, 17.
Cheri22. In the same time period, the settlement
20
eicu, 1998, p.211.
21
Csnki,1894, II, p.11.
22
Csnki,1894, II, p.11, 17.

78
apare nscris sub forma oppidum Chery ci- was written down under the form of oppidum
vitas Chery , iar cetatea este nscris la 1473 Chery civitas Chery, and the fortress was
sub forma castrum Chery. n preajma cetii a mentioned in 1473 under the form of castrum
fost fondat, n jurul anului 1366, o mnstire Chery. In the vicinity of the fortress, in 1366,
franciscan ce a fcut parte, alturi de centrele there was founded a Franciscan monastery
de la Severin, Orova, Caransebe i Cuieti, that belonged, beside the centres from Sev-
din custodia Bulgaria23. Se remarc faptul c erin, Orova, Caransebe and Cuieti, to the
toate conventurile franciscane enumerate mai custody of Bulgaria23. It is pointed out that all
sus se aflau lng ceti importante din Banat the Franciscan convents enumerated above
din veacul al XIV-lea. Conventul francisca- were situated near important fortresses from
nilor observani din cetatea Cheri, nchinat Banat in the 14th century. The Observant
Sfintei Fecioare Maria, avea menirea evident Franciscan convent from the Cheri fortress,
de convertire a populaiei ortodoxe romneti dedicated to the Saint Virgin Mary, had the
din zona nvecinat cetii, din districtul Cheri. evident mission to convert orthodox Romanian
Cetatea Cheri, n absena unor informaii population from the neighbouring region from
documentare concludente, a fost localizat pe the Cheri district.
cursul inferior al Timiului, ori al Pogniului. The Cheri fortress, in absence of any
S-a cutat o identificare a ei undeva ntre Re- conclusive documentary information, was
ca i Berini24, alteori n zona Uliuc25, Icloda. located on the inferior course of the Timi or
Istoricul Engel Pl n contextul discutrii of the Pogni. It was searched its identifica-
informaiilor din defterele turceti din anii tion somewhere between Reca and Berini24,
1574-1579 a propus localizarea aezrii Stari other time in the area of Uliuc25, Icloda. The
irin la Sacoul Turcesc26. Ea se afla pe malul historian Engel Pl, in the context of discuss-
unui probabil afluent al Timiului de pe cursul ing the information from the Turkish defters
inferior, deoarece un act din 14 aprilie 1443 from 1574-1579 proposed to locate the Stari
meniona c Therecus et habundentia aqua- irin settlement at Sacoul Turcesc26. It was
rum castellum nostrum in Chery habitum om- on the bank of a probable affluent of the Timi
nino destruxit27. Zona Tramici de la Sacoul on the inferior course, because an act since
Turcesc prezint urme cu ziduri din crmid, April 14th, 1443 mentioned that Therecus
unde au aprut materiale arheologice i urmele et habundentia aquarum castellum nostrum
unei necropole28. in Chery habitum omnino destruxit27. The
area of Tramici from Sacoul Turcesc presents
CUIETI (or. Boca, j. Cara-Severin, traces of brick walls where archaeological ma-
Romnia) terials and traces of a necropolis were found28.
Cetate situat pe cursul mijlociu al rului
Brzava, la Boca-Buza Turcului. Dealul de la CUIETI (Boca, Cara-Severin Coun-
Buza Turcului are forma unui promontoriu ce ty, Romania)
nainta spre valea Brzavei, flancat de dou vi The fortress is situated on the middle
adnci de o parte i de cealalt, accesul facil course of the Brzava, at Boca-Buza Turcu-
lui. The hill from Buza Turcului was shaped
23
eicu, 2007, p.83.
24
Suciu, II, 1968, p.310. like a promontory that advanced towards the
25
Karcsony, 1924, p.25. Brzava valley, flanked by two deep valleys
26
Engel, 1996 a, p.41.
27
Dl 55253. 23
eicu, 2007, p.83.
28
Ilieiu, Timi, III, p.541 (mss). 24
Suciu, II, 1968, p.310.
25
Karcsony, 1924, p.25.
26
Engel, 1996 a, p.41.
27
Dl 55253.
28
Ilieiu, Timi, III, p.541 (mss).

79
spre culmea dealului se face dinspre nord i by each side. The easy access towards the hill
nord-vest. El are o altitudine de circa 250 m.29. peak is done from the north and north-west.
(Pl.25-26, Fig. 32). It has an altitude of about 250 m29 (Pl.25-26,
Cetatea are o form poligonal neregu- Fig. 32).
lat cu laturi de circa 10 m lungime, dimen- The fortress is shaped like an irregular
siunile pe axele interioare fiind de circa 29 polygon with sides of about 10 m in length.
m/32 m. Zidurile de curtin s-au conservat mai The dimensions on the interior axes are of
bine doar pe latura de nord, unde pstreaz about 29 m/32 m. The curtain walls are better
nlimea iniial de peste 10 m. Grosimea preserved only on the northern side where they
zidului este de 1,70 m, doar n zona din colul kept the initial height of over 10 m. The wall
nord-vestic i a celui de nord-est el ajunge i is 1.70 m in thickness, only in the area of the
la o grosime de pn la 3 m. Materialul de north-western corner and of the north-eastern
construcie utilizat a fost piatra de calcar. O corner it gets also at a thickness of about 3
carier de unde s-a exploatat piatra de calcar m. The used material of construction was the
s-a aflat pe cursul Brzavei, la Colani, situat limestone. A quarry from where the limestone
la circa 7 km est de cetate. Structura interioar was exploited was located on the course of the
a zidului a fost realizat din piatr de carie- Brzava, at Colani, situated at about 7 km
r, necat n mult mortar. Faada zidului, n east to the fortress. The interior structure of
schimb, era mbrcat n blocuri cioplite, tiate the wall was made of quarry stone embeded
n forme regulate, ceea ce confer un aspect in mortar. The wall facade was covered by
ngrijit zidului. Unghiurile de la coluri au fost carved blocks, regularly cut, that conferred a
realizate cu mult grij din blocuri de calcar neat aspect to the wall. The angles at corners
ecarisate. (Pl.26-27) were carefully made of squred off limestone
Cercetarea arheologic sumar din anul blocks (Pl.26-27).
1986 a identificat elementele din structura The summary archaeological investiga-
interioar a fortificaiei, confirmnd informaii tion from 1986 identfied elements from the
venite dintr-o cronic turceasc a veacului al interior structure of fortification confirming
XVIII-lea ct i din pe cele din desenele gene- information come from a Turkish chronicleof
ralului Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli din aceeai the 18th century, as ell as those from the
vreme30. Adosat curtinei nordice cetatea a avut drawings of the general Luigi Ferdinando
un turn interior cu form ptrat cu dimensiu- Marsigli from the same time period30. The
nile de 4,50/4,30 m. (Pl.29). Zidul turnului a interior tower of the fortress backing on to the
avut o grosime de 3,20 m. Noi am interpretat northen curtain was square with dimensions of
nc n momentul cercetrilor de acum zece 4.50/4.30 m. (Pl.29). The tower wall was 3.20
ani rostul acestui turn, amplasat n faa cii de m in thickness. We have interpreted even in the
acces, drept turn de poart. Colul nord-estic al moment of investigations from ten years ago
poligonului fortificaiei pstreaz nc scrile the purpose of this tower located in front of the
din piatr ce indic acolo prezena unui alt access way as a gate-tower. The north-eastern
turn. Cronica turceasc Nusretname, vorbind corner of the polygon of the fortification still
despre asediul cetii din anul 1695, menio- preserves the stone staircase that indicates the
neaz turnul de poart al fortificaiei i un alt presence of another tower in that place. The
turn interior31. Cetatea a fost distrus atunci Turkish Nusretname chronicle, relating about
the siege of the fortress in 1695, mentions the
29
eicu, 1996, p.21-22. gate-tower of the fortification and another in-
30
Sebestyen, 1984, p.46. terior tower31. The fortress was destroyed more
31
Cronici turceti, II, 1974, p.432.
29
eicu, 1996, p.21-22.
30
Sebestyen, 1984, p.46.
31
Turkish chronicles, II, 1974, p.432.

80
n anul 1695 n cea mai mare parte. Desenele than in 1695. The drawings preserved in the
pstrate n arhiva Marsigli, realizate n aceeai Marsigli archives, made in the same period,
vreme, confirm aceast structur intern a confirm this interne structure of the fortifica-
fortificaiei de la Boca-Buza Turcului. (Pl. tion at Boca-Buza Turcului. (Pl.25). The royal
25). Cetatea regal Cuieti apare menionat Cuieti fortress is mentioned in 1331, and later
n anul 1331 i mai apoi n anii 1349 i 1351, in 1349 and 1351, with the villages of the
cu satele din districtul romnesc din preajma Romanian district round the Cuieti fortress32.
cetii Cuieti32. Castrul regal i zona munilor The royal Roman camp and the region of the
metaliferi din preajma sa au ajuns nainte de metalliferous mounts around it came into the
1395 n stpnirea nobililor din familia Chaak, possession of the nobles of the Chaak family
pentru scurt vreme33. Aflat pe hotar cu ma- before 1395 for a short time33. Situated on the
rele domeniu al familiei Himfy de Remetea, boundary with the vast domain of the Himfy of
de pe valea Brzavei, acest fapt a generat un Remetea family, in the Brzava valley, this fact
permanent conflict ntre castelanii i vicecas- generated a permanent conflict between the
telanii cetii Cuieti i nobilii de Remetea. lords and vicelords of the Cuieti fortress and
Vicecastelanul de Cuieti Demetrius Parvus the nobles of Remetea. Vicelord of Cuieti,
n anul 1376 i Paulus de Zurchuk, castelan Demetrius Parvus, in 1376, and Paulus of
al cetii n anul 1381, s-au aflat implicai n Zurchuk, owner of the fortress in 1381, were
conflicte cu domeniul nobililor Himfy34. n implied in conflicts with the domain of the
preajma cetii s-a aflat un convent al fran- Himfy nobles34. Around the fortress, there
ciscanilor observani, activ n a doua jumtate was a convent of the observant Franciscans
a secolului al XIV-lea n acest sector al vii which was active in the second half of the 14th
Brzavei35. century in this sector of the Brzava valley35.

DRENCOVA (c. Berzasca, j. Cara-Se- DRENCOVA (Berzasca commune,


verin, Romnia) Cara-Severin County, Romania)
Cetatea Drencova se afla pe malul Dun- The Drencova fortress was on the Dan-
rii n depresiunea Liubcova. (Pl.30). Ruinele ube bank in the Liubcova Depression (Pl.30).
acestei fortificaii se pstrau nc bine n anul the ruins of this fortification were still well
1969, nainte de a fi inundat de apele Dun- preserved in 1969, before being flooded by the
rii, ceea ce i-a permis lui Theodor Trpcea s Danube waters that allowed Theodor Trpcea
poat face unele observaii mai ndeaproape36. to do certain observations36. The fortification
Fortificaia a avut o form patrulater, cu was shaped like a quadrilater with dimensions
dimensiunile se pare de 23/21m. Zidurile au of 23/21m. The walls were made of quarry
fost ridicate din piatr de carier necat n stone embeded in mortar while the wall face
mortar, n timp ce parametrul era realizat din was built of carefully carved stone blocks.
blocuri ngrijit cioplite. Prelund cu prudena Prudently taking over Trpceas information,
cuvenit informaiile lui Trpcea, zidurile the walls were 1.5 m in thickness remaining
aveau grosimea de 1,5 m, pstrndu-se pn at the same thickness to a height of 15 m.
la o nlime de 15 m. Probabil c fortificaia The fortification was probably fortified with
s fi fost ntrit cu elemente exterioare, urma exterior elements because the vestiges of a
unui an de aprare fiind vizibil cu trei patru defending ditch was visible three-four decades
decenii n urm. Milleker, bun cunosctor al ago. Milleker, an expert of the archaeological
32
Engel, 1996, p.352. 32
Engel, 1996, p.352.
33
Ortvay, 1896, p. 250-251. 33
Ortvay, 1896, p. 250-251
34
eicu, 1996, p.24. 34
eicu, 1996, p.24
35
eicu, 2007, p.84. 35
eicu, 2007, p.84
36
Trpcea, 1969, p.25-26. 36
Trpcea, 1969, p.25-26

81
realitilor arheologice din sudul Banatului, realities south to Banat, wrote that the fortifica-
scria c fortificaia de la Drencova avea o tion from Drencova had a quadrilater shape37.
form patrulater37. (Fig. 21-22) (Fig. 21-22)
Cetatea Drencova a fost o fortificaie The Drencova fortress was a fortifica-
ridicat imediat dup 1419, n vremea regelui tion erected immediately after 1419, during
Sigismund de Luxemburg38. Ea a fcut parte the king Sigismund of Luxembourgs reign38.
din sistemul de aprare creat pentru frontul It belonged to the defensive system created
dunrean n aceast perioad, menit s pre- for the Danube front in this time period in the
ia o parte din presiunea puterii otomane. A purpose to take over part of the pression of the
fcut parte n anii 1429-1435 din sistemul Ottoman power. It belonged to the system of
de fortificaii din Banat, aflat sub controlul fortifications from Banat in 1429-1435, when
cavalerilor teutoni39. Documentele consem- this reion was controlled by the Teutons39. The
neaz ncepnd cu anul 1439 i pn n anul documents registered, from 1439 to 1457, the
1457 cetatea Drencova, n stpnirea familiilor Drencova fortress in the possession of the
nobile romneti Cerna i Bizere. Acetia s-au noble Romanian families Cerna and Bizere.
implicat permanent n repararea i ntreinerea They permanently implied in reparation and
fortificaiilor de pe linia Dunrii. maintenance of the fortifications along the
Danube.
DUBOVAC (Dubovac, op. Pancevo,
Serbia) DUBOVAC (Dubovac, op. Pancevo,
Localitatea Dubovac se afl situat pe Serbia)
malul Dunrii ntre Kovin i Stara Palanka. The Dubovac locality was situated on
Castrum Dombo apare consemnat din anul the Danube bank between Kovin and Stara
1414, atunci cnd Pipo de Ozora ndeplinea Palanka. Castrum Dombo was registered in
i funcia de castelan al acestei ceti40. For- 1414, when Pipo of Ozora fulfilled also the
tificaia se gsete acum sub apele Dunrii, function of lord of that fortress40. The fortifi-
cercetrile recente ale lui Dimitrie Madas de cation is nowadays under the Danube waters.
la Institutul pentru Protecia Monumentelor The recent investigations of Dimitrie Madas
Istorice din Panevo nu au reuit s identifice from the Institute for Protection of the His-
urmele acesteia. Custodele muzeului din Bela torical Monuments from Pancevo have not
Crkva, istoricul Lenard Bhm, semnala n anul succeeded in identifying its traces. Custodian
1880 unul din zidurile n ruin ale fortificaiei, of the museum from Bela Crkva, the historian
fr a oferi alte detalii planimetrice41. Lenard Bhm, pointed out in 1880 one of the
walls in ruin of the fortification without offer-
CARANSEBE vezi SEBE ing other planimetrical details41.

ERSOMLIO vezi Vrac CARANSEBE see SEBE

FGET (or. Fget, j. Timi, Romnia) ERSOMLIO see Vrac


Fgetul, situat pe cursul superior al Be-
gheiului, se afl n acelai timp pe o important FGET (Fget, Timi County, Romania)
Fget, situated on the superior course
37
Milleker, 1915, p.48. of the Beghei, was in the same time on an
38
Engel, 1977, p.168;Engel, 1996, p.204.
39
Joachim, 1912,p.108. 37
Milleker, 1915, p.48
40
Engel, 1996, p.204. 38
Engel, 1977, p.168;Engel, 1996, p.204.
41
Bhm, 1880, p.64-65; Milleker, 1915, p.18. 39
Joachim, 1912,p.108.
40
Engel, 1996, p.204.
41
Bhm, 1880, p.64-65; Milleker, 1915, p.18.

82
arter ce leag Banatul de nord-est de Tran- important arterial way that linked the north-
silvania, prin valea Mureului. Cetatea de la eastern Banatul by Transylvania, through the
Fget apare consemnat trziu n documente, Mure valley. The fortress from Fget was
n anul 159542. Un plan din arhiva Marsigli registered late in documents in 159542. A plan
red o incint interioar de form rectangula- of the Marsigli archives rendered an interior
r, desprit printr-un an cu ap de incinta rectanglar enclosure separated through a ditch
mare de form dreptunghiular43. Incinta mare of water by the large rectangular enclosure43.
a cetii Fgetului a avut n exterior un val The big enclosure of the Fget fortress had
de pmnt. Cercetrile din anii 1987-1988, a earthen wall exteriorly. The investigations
iniiate de Radu Popa, au confirmat planul from 1987-1988, initiated by Radu Popa, con-
lui Marsigli din anul 1697. Cetatea interioar firmed Marsiglis plan from 1697. The inferior
de form rectangular a avut dimensiunile rectangular fortress had exterior dimensions of
exterioare de 26 m/29 m, fiind orientat 26 m/29 m, being oriented north-north-west,
nord-nord-vest, sud-sud-est. Zidurile erau south-south-east. The walls were made of
din piatr de carier i piatr de ru legat cu quarry stone and river stone tied with mortar44.
mult mortar44. Capacitatea de aprare a cetii The capacity of defending of the interior for-
interioare era ntrit de un an de aprare tress was fortified by a defending ditch with
cu limi variabile, cuprinse ntre 20 i 28 variable widths between 20 and 28 m. The
m. Materialul arheologic gsit se ncadreaz found archaeological material is assigned to
perioadei secolelor XVI-XVII45. the period of the 16th-17th centuries45.

GALAD (Novo Miloevo, op. Novi GALAD (Novo Miloevo, op. Novi
Beej, Serbia) Beej, Serbia)
Fortificaia de la Galad se afl la nord-est The fortification from Galad is situated
de Novo Miloevo, la vest de Tisa. Un act de in the north-east of Novo Miloevo, west to the
la regele Matia Corvin din 1469 consemna aici Tisa. An act issued by the king Matia Corvin
castellum cum propugnaculis, menibis, fos- in 1469 recorded here castellum cum pro-
satis et aliis necesaris edificis46. Cercetrile pugnaculis, menibis, fossatis et aliis necesaris
lui Milorad Giri au dezvelit, n parte, planul edificis46. Milorad Giris investigations
unei fortificaii de form patrulater, prevzut partly developped the plan of a rectangular
pe curtina sudic cu trei turnuri47.(Pl. 40). Ace- fortification endowed with three towers on
leai investigaii au surprins anul de aprare the southern curtain47.(Pl.40). The same in-
ale fortificaiei (Fig. 19-20). vestigations found the defending ditch of the
fortification (Fig.19-20).
HARAM (s. Stara Palanka, op. Vrac,
Serbia) HARAM (s. Stara Palanka, op. Vrac,
Cetatea Haram se identific la Stara Serbia)
Palanka, n Banatul de sud, la confluena r- The Haram fortress is identified at Stara
urilor Nera i Cara cu Dunrea. Aici se afl Palanka, in the southern Banat, at the conflu-
ence of the Nera and the Cara rivers with the
42
Suciu, I, 1967, p.225.
43
Sebestyen, 1984, p.48-49, fig.2.
44
Popa, Cpn, Rdulescu, Tomoni, 1991, p.32. 42
Suciu, I, 1967, p.225.
45
Popa, Cpn, Rdulescu, Tomoni, 1991, p.36. 43
Sebestyen, 1984, p.48-49, fig.2.
46
Milleker, 1915, p.6; Csnki, II, 1894, p.13. 44
Popa, Cpn, Rdulescu, Tomoni, 1991, p.32.
47
Giri, 1996, p.146-148. Mulumirile noastre 45
Popa, Cpn, Rdulescu, Tomoni, 1991, p.36.
colegului Giri pentru fotografiile puse la dispoziie 46
Milleker, 1915, p.6; Csnki, II, 1894, p.13.
n anul 2007 despre cercetrile de la Novo Miloevo. 47
Giri, 1996, p.146-148. We thank to our colleague
Giri for the photos provided to us in 2007
concerning the investigations at Novo Miloevo.

83
un vechi vad de trecere al Dunrii utilizat Danube. Here there is an old passage ford of
i aprat deopotriv din perioada roman i the Danube used and defended from the Ro-
pn n veacul al XVIII-lea, dup cum su- man period till the 18th century, as the ruins
gereaz ruinele fortificaiilor. (Pl.30). Ele se of the fortification suggest (Pl.30). They are
afl pe insula Sapaja, din Dunre, unde a fost on the Sapaja island in the Danube where a
cercetat un castellum din perioada roman castellum dated to the late Roman period was
trzie. Fortificaia cu plan rectangular a avut investigated. The fortification with rectangular
dimensiunile exterioare de 92/92m. Cercetarea plan had exterior dimensions of 92 /92m. The
arheologic condus de Danica Dimitrievi a archaeological investigation led by Danica
stabilit c fortificaia din perioada medieval Dimitrievi established that the fortification
este aproape identic cu planul fortificaiei from the medieval period is almost identical
antice trzii. Au disprut turnurile interioare with the plan of the late ancient fortification.
din castellum, n schimb s-a amenajat un turn The interior towers within the castellum dis-
n colul de sud-vest al fortificaiei48 (Pl.37). appeared, but a tower was built in the south-
Stratigrafia cu depuneri din secolele XIV-XV western corner of the fortification48 (Pl.37).
confirm aceast utilizare a fortificaiei49. Do- The stratigraphy with sediments from the
cumentaia arheologic publicat nu prezint 14th-15th centuries confirm this utilization of
materiale arheologice din secolele X-XIII. the fortification49. The published archaeologi-
Descoperiri din aceast perioad sunt semna- cal documentation does not present archaeo-
late din alte puncte, de la Rudine bunoar, logical materials from the 10th-13th centuries.
la Stara Palanka. Cetatea Haram este atestat Discoveries from this time period are pointed
n cronicile latine maghiare, o regsim la out in other sites, for instance from Rudine,
Anonimus, dar i n cronicile bizantine din at Stara Palanka. The Haram fortress is certi-
veacul al XII-lea, cnd cetatea Chramon este fied in the Hungarian Latin chronicles. We
menionat cu ocazia conflictelor bizantino- find it at Anonimus, but also in the Byzantine
maghiare din secolul al XII-lea 50. Sursele chronicles from the 12th century, when the
diplomatice maghiare din secolul al XIII-lea Chramon fortress is mentioned by occasion of
au consemnat cetatea de la vrsarea Caraului Byzantine-Hungarian conflicts from the 12th
n Dunre sub numele de cetatea Cara. Moii century50. The diplomatic Hungarian sources
i sate aparintoare cetii Cara, nscris sub from the 13th century registered the fortress
forma castrum Crassu, Carassu, Crassou apar from the Cara mouth in the Danube under the
n documente din anii 1177, 1230 i 1241. Di- name of the Cara fortress. Estates and villages
plomele latine din secolul al XIV-lea amintesc belonging to the Cara fortress, written down
cetatea de la vrsarea Caraului n Dunre i under the form of castrum Crassu, Carassu,
sub forma Haram51. Castelanii cetii Haram Crassou appear in documents from 1177, 1230
apar menionai documentar ncepnd cu and 1241. The Latin diplomas from the 14th
anul 1330, cnd este documentat Szeri Posa. century mention the fortress from the Cara
Au ocupat aceast funcie Benedict Himfy n mouth into the Danube also under the form of
Haram51. The lords of the Haram fortress are
48
Dimitrievi, 1984, p.60. documentarily mentioned since 1330, when
49
Dimitrievi, 1984, p.62. Szeri Posa is documented. This function was
50
Bna, 1998, p.27. occupied by Benedict Himfy two times con-
51
Gyrffy, III, 1987, p.488; Iambor, 2005, p.68-69.
48
Dimitrievi, 1984, p.60.
49
Dimitrievi, 1984, p.62.
50
Bna, 1998, p.27.
51 Gyrffy, III, 1987, p.488; Iambor, 2005, p.68-69.

84
dou rnduri, Pipo de Ozora i Talloczi Frank secutively , Pipo of Ozora and Talloczi Frank
n anul 143752. in143752.
Cetatea de la vrsarea Caraului a fost The fortress from the Cara mouth was
consemnat alternativ cu numele de Krassvr, mentioned alternatively with the name of
ct i cu cel vechi de Haram n documentele Krassvr, and with the earlier one of Haram
secolelor al XIII-lea i al XIV-lea, ceea ce a from the documents of the 13th century and
produs uneori confuzie n istoriografie, cu of the 14th century that produced sometimes
numele cetii ridicate la nceputul secolului confusion in historiography with the name of
al XIV-lea pe cursul superior al Caraului, n the fortress erected at the beginning of the 14th
hotarul actual al satului Caraova53. century on the superior course of the Cara, in
the present boundary of the Caraova village53.
HODO (c.Darova, j. Timi, Romnia)
Aezarea de la Hodo se afl la 8 km. HODO (Darova commune, Timi
sud-vest de Lugoj, pe hotar cu Darova i Bol- county, Romania)
dur. Documentele amintesc de moia Hodo The settlement from Hodo is at 8 km
aflat n stpnirea familiei Szeri Posa, un south-west to Lugoj, on the boundary with
castellum n anul 145654. Aezarea, ce avea Darova and Boldur. The documents remind
o parohie catolic n anul 1335, apare n anul of the Hodo estate found in the possession of
1428 sub forma oppidum Hodos, cnd este the Szeri Posa family, a castellum in 145654.
nscris aici i fortificaia55. The settlement, that had a Catholic parish in
1335, was mentioned in 1428 under the form
ILIDIA (sat Socolari, c. Sasca Romn, of oppidum Hodos, when the fortification was
j.Cara-Severin, Romnia) also inscribed here55.
Cetatea medieval Ilidia s-a aflat ampla-
sat pe culmea dealului Cetate (656 m.) de la ILIDIA (Socolari village, Sasca Romn
nord est de satul Socolari, la circa 8 km sud-est commune, Cara-Severin county, Romania)
de curtea feudal de la Ilidia-Oblia. Dealul The medieval Ilidia fortress was situated
de la Socolari-Cetate este un pinten calcaros on the peak of the Cetate hill (656 m.) in the
cu perei abrupi, ce trece pe alocuri de 200 north-east of the Socolari village, at about 8
m nlime vizibil aadar pe o mare suprafa km south-east to the feudal court from Ilidia-
din valea Nerei i a Caraului. Culmea acestui Oblia. The hill from Socolari-Cetate is a cal-
pinten calcaros, accesibil n panta dinspre careous spur with abrupt slopes that surpasses
sud-vest, are o form oval alungit ce msoar here and there 200 m in height visible on a
pe axe 180m/90m. Constructorii medievali large surface in the Nera and the Cara valleys.
au nchis cu un zid de curtin singura zon The peak of this calcareous spur accessible
vulnerabil dinspre sud vest. Zidul de curtin in the slope from the south-west. It has an
ridicat avea grosimea de 2,30m i o lungime elongated oval shape that measures 180m/90m
de 70m. Extremitile zidului erau flancate de on the axes. Medieval constructors closed the
dou turnuri, din care cercetarea arheologic a only vulnerable area from the south-west with
a curtain wall. The erected curtain wall was
52
Engel, 1996, p.324-325. 2.30 m in thickness and 70 m in length. The
53
Gyrffy, III, 1987, p. 488; Bna, 1944, p.380;
Bna, 1998, p.27. wall extremities were flanked by two tow-
54
Csnki, II, 1894, p.13; Milleker, 1915, p.149. ers, but only that one situated in the northern
55
Engel, 1996, p.327.
52 Engel, 1996, p.324-325.
53 Gyrffy, III, 1987, p. 488; Bna, 1944, p.380;
Bna, 1998, p.27.
54 Csnki, II, 1894, p.13; Milleker, 1915, p.149.
55 Engel, 1996, p.327.

85
investigat doar unul, pe cel situat pe marginea margin was archaeologically investigated56.
nordic56. Turnul amplasat n interior a avut The tower located inside had the dimensions
dimensiunile de 5/3m (Pl.22; Fig. 30-31). of 5/3m (Pl.22; Fig. 30-31).
Zidurile au fost ridicate n tehnica opus The walls were built in the technique
incertum, cu emplectoniul din piatr de calcar opus incertum, with limestone and mortar
i mortar, iar paramentul zidurilor a fost fcut emplecton, and the face of the walls was made
din piatr de carier cioplit. Se mai vd ur- of carved quarry stone. There still exist traces
mele unor tirani de incint pstrat (Fig.30). of some tie beams of the preserved enclosure
Documentele de cancelarie i cercetarea ar- (Fig.30). Chancellery documents and sum-
heologic sumar de la Socolari-Cetate aduc mary archaeological investigaton at Socolari-
puin lumin n privina nceputurilor cetii Cetate have brought less light as concerns
medievale Ilidia. Istoricul Pl Engel a sugerat the beginning of the medieval fortress from
c perioada de nceput a cetii trebuie fixat Ilidia. The historian Pl Engel suggested that
n a doua jumtate a veacului al XIII-lea i the beginning period of the fortress had to be
o lega de voievodul transilvnean Ladislau fixed in the second half of the 13th century.
Kn57. Voievodul Kn a fost prezent n spaiul He related it to the voivode Ladislau Kn of
sudic al Banatului, la Ilidia n anul 1248, iar Transylvania57. The voivode Kn was present
fiul su a dobndit posesiuni n zon. in the southern area of Banat, at Ilidia in 1248,
Documentele de cancelarie atest n anul and his son gained possessions in the region.
1312 districtul Ilidia, iar castelanii cetii sunt Chancellery documents certified the
cunoscui din anii 1317, 1319 i mai apoi din Ilidia district in 1312, and the fortress lords
132658. Structural fortificaia de la Socolari were known since 1317, 1319, and then since
are apropieri ce merg pn la identitate cu 132658. Structurally, the fortification from So-
fortificaiile de la Jdioara, Boca, Caraova. colari has similitudes going to identity with the
fortifications from Jdioara, Boca, Caraova.
JDIOARA (c. Criciova, j. Timi,
Romnia) JDIOARA (Criciova commune, Timi
Satul Jdioara este amplasat pe rama sud county, Romania)
vestic a munilor Poiana Rusci, la confluena The Jdioara village is situated on the
cu valea Timiului. Ea se regsete la circa 20 south-western frame of Poiana Rusci Mounts,
km. est de Lugoj, la vrsarea prului Ndrag at the confluence with the Timi valley. It is
n Timi. Fortificaia se afl pe Dealul Cetii, located at about 20 km east to Lugoj, at the
pe malul estic al Vii Ndragului, o zon cu Ndrag rivulet mouth in the Timi. The for-
pante abrupte, sub forma unui promontoriu tification is on the Cetii hill, on the eastern
accesibil doar pe latura sudic. (Pl.19; Fig. bank of the Ndrag valley, an area with abrupt
23-27). slopes under the form of a promontory acces-
Cetatea Jdioara are un plan poligonal sible only on the southern side (Pl.19; Fig.
neregulat, cu laturi rotunjite ce s-au adaptat 23-27).
structurii terenului59. Ea msoar pe axele in- The Jdioara fortress has an irregular po-
terioare 40m/22m. Se remarc latura de rsrit lygonal plan with rounded sides that adapted
a fortificaiei cu o form arcuit, ntlnit mai to the land structure59. It measures 40m/22m
on the interior axes. It is noticed the eastern
56
eicu, 1998, p.210. side of the fortification with an arching shape,
57
Engel, 1996, p.331-332.
58
Engel, 1996, p.332; Gyrffy, III, 1987, p. 485; 56
eicu, 1998, p.210.
Fgedi, 1977, p.119. 57
Engel, 1996, p.331-332.
59
Bejan, 1975, p.155. 58
Engel, 1996, p.332; Gyrffy, III, 1987, p. 485;
Fgedi, 1977, p.119.
59 Bejan, 1975, p.155.

86
rar la curtinele fortificaiilor bnene. Dou more seldom found at the curtains of the forti-
turnuri cu plan ptrat erau amplasate n spaiul fications from Banat. Two towers with square
sudic i vestic al zidului de incint. Turnul de plan were situated in the southern and western
pe latura de vest era un turn interior de form area of the enclosure wall. The tower on the
ptrat, cu latura de 5m. Zidurile turnului au western side was an interior square tower with
avut o grosime de 3-3,50m60. n spaiul de a side of 5 m. The tower walls were 3-3.50 m
sud-est al curtinei se afla un turn rectangular, in thickness60. In the south-eastern area of the
cu dimensiunile laturilor de 3,60 m/3,10m. curtain there was a rctangular tower with the
Zidurile acestui turn aveau o grosime de side dimensions of 3.60 m/3.10m. The walls
1,50m. Materialul utilizat la construcia cetii of this tower were 1.50 m in thickness. The
l constituie piatra de carier. Zidurile, cu o material used at the contrucion of the fortress
grosime de 1,80m, au nucleul din piatr ne- was the quarry stone. The walls of 1.80 m in
cat n mortar, iar pentru parament s-a utilizat thickness had the core made of stone embeded
piatr cioplit. in mortar. The carved stone was used for the
Fortificaia de la Jdioara era o cetate face of the wall.
regal, construit cndva nainte de 1320, The fortification from Jdioara was a
cnd documentele l amintesc pe Szchy Di- royal fortress built somewhen before 1320,
onisie castelan de Mehadia i Jdioara61. A fost when the documents mention Szchy Dionisie
administrat n a doua jumtate a secolului al as lord of Mehadia and Jdioara61. It was run in
XIV-lea de banii de Severin i de comitele de the second half of the 14th century by the bans
Timi, ce ndeplineau i funcia de castelani de of Severin and by the comites of Timi, ho
Jdioara. Ea a ajuns n anul 1439 n posesiunea fulfilled also the function of lords of Jdioara.
familiei Hagyms din Beregsu, prin actul In 1439, it got into possession of the Hagyms
de donaie al regelui Albert. Cetatea ajunge, family from Beregsu, throuh the donation act
n urma unor schimburi din anii 1470-1478, of the king Albert. The fortress became, as a
n stpnirea familiei Pongrcz ce se nrudea result of some changes in 1470-1478, a posses-
cu familia Corvinetilor62. Engel Pl a consi- sion of the Pongrcz family that was related to
derat cetatea de la Jdioara centrul districtului the Corvineti family62. Engel Pl considered
Lugoj63. Opinia noastr n aceast chestiune the fortress from Jdioara as the centre of the
lega cetatea de la Jdioara, un nucleu de putere district of Lugoj63. Our opinion in this matter
al regalitii maghiare n secolele XIV-XV, de connected the fortress from Jdioara, a nucleus
districtul Caran de pe valea Timiului64. Trgul of power of the Hungarian royalty in the 14th-
medieval Caran se identific la Cvran (azi 15th centuries with the Caran district in the
Constantin Daicoviciu). Timi valley64. The medieval Caran borough
is identified at Cvran (nowadays Constantin
JEBEL (c.Jebel, j. Timi, Romnia) Daicoviciu).
Aezare situat pe rama estic a Cmpiei
Timiului avnd hotar cu Ciacova, Obad i JEBEL (Jebel commune, Timi county,
Voiteg. Ea a ajuns n stpnirea lui Nicolae Romania)
The settlement is situated on the eastern
60
Bejan, 1979, p.203. frame of the Timi Plain in boundary with
61
Pesty, Krass, II, 2, p.303 i urm.; Csnki, II, 1894, Ciacova, Obad and Voiteg. It was possession
p.15.
62
Engel, 1996, p.467; Drgan, 2000, p.290.
60 Bejan, 1979, p.203.
63
Engel, 1996, p.467.
61 Pesty, Krass, II, 2, p.303 and following; Csnki,
64
eicu, 1998, p. 209.
II, 1894, p.15.
62
Engel, 1996, p.467; Drgan, 2000, p.290.
63
Engel, 1996, p.467.
64
eicu, 1998, p. 209.

87
Pl.19. Jdioara. Planul fortificaiei (sec. XIV); Harta zonei cu amplasarea cetii.
Pl.19. Jdioara. Plan of fortification (14th century);
Map of the region with fortress location.

88
Pl.20. Caraova. Plan de situaie al zonei cu amplasarea ruinelor cetii Cara.
Pl.20. Caraova. Plan of situation of the region with location
of the Cara fortress ruins.

89
Pl.21. Caraova-Grad. Planul ruinelor cetii Cara (sec. XIV).
Pl.21. Caraova-Grad. Plan of the Cara fortress ruins (14th century).

90
Pl.22. Socolari-Cetate. Planul cetii Ilidia (sec. XIV).
Harta zonei cu amplasamentul cetii Ilidia.
Pl.22. Socolari-Cetate. Plan of the Ilidia fortress (14th century).
Map of region with location of the Ilidia fortress.

91
A

Pl.23. Planul cetii i oraului Caransebe (prima jumtate a secolului XVII).


B. Reconstituirea amplasamentului fortificaiilor medievale de la Timioara.
Pl.23. Plan of the Caransebe fortress and town (first half of the 17th century).
B. Reconstitution of location of medieval fortifications from Timioara.

92
Pl.24. Vrac-Cul. Planul cetii medievale Ersomli;
Propunere de reconstituire a cetii medievale Ersomlio (sec. XIV-XV).
Pl.24. Vrac-Cul. Plan of the medieval Ersomli fortress; Proposal of reconstitution of
the medieval Ersomlio fortress (14th-15th centuries).

93
Pl.25. Boca. Buza turcului. Planul cetii medievale Cuieti (sec. XIV).
Pl.25. Boca. Buza turcului. Plan of the medieval Cuieti fortress (14th century).

94
Pl.26. Cetatea Cuieti. Vedere cu anul de aprare i zidul de curtin.
Pl.26. Cuieti fortress. View of the defending ditch and of the curtain wall.

95
Pl.27. Cetatea Cuieti. anul de aprare i curtina nordic.
Pl.27. Cuieti fortress. Defending ditch and northern curtain.

96
Pl.28. Cetatea Cuieti. Ruina donjonului.
Pl.28. Cuieti fortress. Ruin of donjon.

97
Pl.29. Cetatea Cuieti. Turnul de poart.
Pl.29. Cuieti fortress. Gate-tower.

98
Pl.30. Drencova. Harta zonei cu amplasarea fortificaiei.
Pl.30. Drencova. Map of region with location of fortification.

99
Treutul, care avea aici n anul 1402 un cas- of Nicolae Treutul, who had a castellum here
tellum65. Fortificaiile din lemn deinute de in 140265. The wooden fortifications possessed
Nicolae Treutul n anul 1402 la Ohad, Jobag by Nicolae Treutul in 1402 at Ohad, Jobag
i Jebel trebuiau distruse i pmntul nivelat. and Jebel had to be destroyed and the land
Lemnul de la castelul din Jebel trebuia trans- was levelled. The wood from the castle from
portat n cetatea de la Timioara pentru con- Jebel had to be transported in the fortress from
strucia unor case, conform aceluiai act din Timioara for building houses according to
1402, invocat mai sus66. Se pare c fortificaia the same act since 1402, invoked above66. It
a rmas intact pentru c la Jebel, n anul 1425 seems that the fortification remained intact
este consemnat un castello fortissimum de because at Jebel, in 1425 it was recorded a
ligno factum67. Tradiia local, neverificat de castello fortissimum de ligno factum67. Local
cercetri arheologice, consemnat de Nicolae tradition, that was not checked by archaeologi-
Secar, fixa urma unor ruine n locul numit cal investigation, recorded by Nicolae Secar,
Comoar din hotarul satului. set the trace of some ruins in the place named
Comoar in the village boundary.
JOBAG (j. Timi, Romnia)
Aezare disprut ce a fcut parte din JOBAG (Timi county, Romania)
arhidiaconatul catolic de Timi n anii 1333- The disappeared settlement belonged to
133568. Ea a ajuns alturi de alte moii din the Catholic archdeaconate of Timi in 1333-
aceast zon a cmpiei joase a Timiului, 133568. It got beside other estates from this
naintea anului 1400, n stpnirea lui Nicolae region of the low plain of the Timi, before
Treutul. Actul din 1402 emis de voievodul 1400, in the possession of Nicolae Treutul.
Transilvaniei Nicolae Chaak l obliga pe acesta The act since 1402 issued by the voivodeof
s demoleze castelele din lemn din Jobagy, Transylvania, Nicolae Chaak, obliged him to
Ohat i Jebel69. Castelul din Jobagy era ridicat demolish the wooden castles from Jobagy,
chiar n preajma bisericii. Aezarea disprut Ohat and Jebel69. The castle from Jobagy was
a fost localizat lng Tolvadia, alteori n built even round the church. The disappeared
apropiere de Obad sau chiar identificat cu settlement was located near Tolvadia, some
Obadul70. other times close to Obad or it was even identi-
fied to Obad70.
KOVIN (op. Panevo, Serbia)
Cetate de la Dunrea de Jos apusean, la KOVIN (op. Panevo, Serbia)
un vechi vad de trecere al Dunrii, pe malul The fortress from the western Low
sudic al fluviului aflndu-se gura de vrsare Danube, at an old passage ford of the Danube,
a rului Morava. Fortificaia medieval su- on the southern bank of the river being the
prapune, n parte, o fortificaie din perioada Morava mouth. The medieval fortification
roman trzie, din secolul al IV-lea, care a superposes, partly, a fortification from the
supravieuit migraiilor. Cetatea din vremea late Roman period, from the 4th century, that
ducelui Glad este pomenit n cronica latin would outlasted to migrations. The fortres
a lui Anonimus. Alturi de alte posesiuni, n from the time of the duke Glad is mentioned
in Anonimus Latin chronicle. Beside other
65
Csnki, II, 1894, p.64; Milleker, 1915, p.151.
66
Ortvay, 1896, p.317-318. 65
Csnki, II, 1894, p.64; Milleker, 1915, p.151
67
Engel, 1996, p.430. 66
Ortvay, 1896, p.317-318.
68
eicu, 2007, p.179. 67
Engel, 1996, p.430.
69
Ortvay, 1896, p.317-318.
68 eicu, 2007, p.179.
70
Csnki, II, 1894, p.43; Milleker, 1915, p.149;
69 Ortvay, 1896, p.317-318.
Engel, 1996, p.334.
70 Csnki, II, 1894, p.43; Milleker, 1915, p.149;
Engel, 1996, p.334.

100
anul 1885 cetatea Keve a fcut parte din dota possessions, in 1885, the Keve fortress was
primit de Margareta, fiica regelui Bela al part of Margarets dowry, who was daughter
III-lea, la cstoria cu mpratul bizantin Isac of the king Bela III, at her marriage with the
II Angelos. Actul papal din 1223 reconfirm Byzantine emperor Isac II Angelos. The papal
aceast situaie de la sfritul secolului al act since 1223 reconfirm this situation at the
XII-lea71. Castelanii cetii sunt cunoscui end of the 12th century71. The fortress lords
documentar ncepnd din anul 1362, mai apoi are documentarily known since 1362, then
la 1382 i 1388-1390, fiind atestai castelani in 1382 and 1388-1390. They were certified
n cursul veacului al XIV-lea. Cetatea a ajuns as lords during the 14th century. The fortress
un domeniu al despoilor srbi, prin donaie, became a domain of the Serbia despots y
cndva nainte de 1458, cnd a fost predat donation somewhen before 1458, when it
fr lupt turcilor72. n preajma cetii de la was surrendered fightlessly to the Turkish72.
Kovin a luat fiin, n jurul anului 1368, un A Franciscan convent was founded around
convent franciscan73. Mnstirea ortodox de the fortress from Kovin about in 136873. The
la Kovin cunoscut dintr-un act din 1579, se Orthodox monastery from Kovin known from
pare c a fost zidit dup 1458, cnd cetatea a an act dated to 1579, seems to have been built
ajuns un domeniu al despoilor srbi74. after 1458, when the fortress became a domain
Fortificaiile succesive din epoca ro- of the Serbian despots74.
man trzie i de la nceputurile evului me- The successive fortifications from the
diu au fost amplasate pe un promontoriu de late Roman period and from the beginning of
form rectangular ce nainteaz spre fluviu, the Middle Ages had been located on a rectan-
cu dimensiunile de 150/130m. Acoperit de gular promontory with dimensions of 150/130
construcii moderne, de un hotel i parcri, el m that advanced towards the river. Covered by
a fost cercetat parial n anii 1968 i 198675. modern constructions, by a hotel and parking
Colegul Dimitrie Madas a fcut cercetri de places, it was partially investigated in 1968
mic amploare n anii din urm pe terasa de la and 198675. Our colleague Dimitrie Madas led
Kovin-Grad. Materialul arheologic i numis- less ample investigations on the terrace from
matic descoperit aparine perioadei secolelor Kovin-Grad in the recent years. The archaeo-
XI-XIII i secolelor XIV-XVI. Planul fortifi- logical and numismatical material discovered
caiilor se cunoate dup desenele realizate here belonged to the 11th-13th centuries and
de Marsigli. (Pl.38). Cercetarea arheologic to the 14th-16th centuries. The pla of fortifi-
modern n-a oferit pn n stadiul actual o cations is known due to Marsiglis drawings
documentaie pe msura importanei aezrii (Pl.38). modern archaeological investigation
i fortificaiei de la nceputurile evului mediu has not offered by now a documetation con-
de la Kovin-Grad. forming to the importance of the settlement
anf of the fortification from thebeginningof
LIBORAJDEA the Middle Ages at Kovin-Grad.
Aezarea Liborajdea este situat la gura
vii cu acelai nume din Clisura Dunrii, la est LIBORAJDEA
71
DIR, C, sec. XI-XII-XIII, p.197.
The Liborajdea settlement is situated at
72
Engel, 1996, p.340-341. the mouth of the valley with the same name
73
Karcsony, II, 1924, p.109; Gyrffy, III, 1987,
p.318. 71 DIR, C, sec. XI-XII-XIII, p.197.
74
Engel, 1996 a, p.80; eicu, 2007, p.102. 72 Engel, 1996, p.340-341.
75
Brukner, Medovi, 1968, p.184-188; Bna, 1998, 73 Karcsony, II, 1924, p.109; Gyrffy, III, 1987,
p.28; Koszta, 1994, p.347; Iambor, 2005, p.68. p.318.
74
Engel, 1996 a, p.80; eicu, 2007, p.102.
75
Brukner, Medovi, 1968, p.184-188; Bna, 1998,
p.28; Koszta, 1994, p.347; Iambor, 2005, p.68.

101
de Coronini i la vest de Liubcova. Cetatea from the Danube Clisura, east to Coronini and
apare nscris ntr-un document din 1437 ce west to Liubcova. The fortress is mentoned
niruie cetile de la Dunrea de Jos apusean, ina document from 1437 that enumerated the
ea fiind amintit alturi de cetatea Drencova, fortresses from the western Low Danube. It
Pech i Sfntul Ladislau76. A fcut parte din was mentioned beside Drencova, Pech and
structura de aprare cedat ntre anii 1429 Saint Ladislau fortresses76. It was part of the
-1435 cavalerilor teutoni de regele Sigismund defending structure given up to the Teutons
de Luxemburg77. Documentele otomane din between 1429 -1435 byb the king Sigismund
anii 1554-1579 au identificat doar satul Libo- of Luxembourg77. theOttoman documents
rajdea78. Urmele cetii nu au fost identificate from 1554-1579 identified only the Libora-
n zona de confluen cu Dunrea. jdea village78. Ruins of the fortress have not
been identified in the confluence area with
LIPOVA the Danube.
Fortificaie aezat pe cursul Mureului
care controla o cale important i veche de ac- LIPOVA
ces spre Transilvania. Ruinele acesteia distruse The fortification settled on the Mure
n epoca modern, sunt cunoscute astzi n par- course controlled an important old approach
te, numai din planurile trzii de la finele veacu- way to Transylvania. Its ruins destroyed in the
lui al XVIII-lea79. Cercetarea istoric modern modern epoch, are known partly nowadays
n-a reuit identificarea incintei medievale a only from the late plans fro the end of the
cetii, ori a altor elemente ale fortificaiei80. 18th century79. Modern historical research
Un plan din 1697 din arhiva Marsigli ofer has not succeeded in identifying the medieal
indicii despre structura fortificaiei. Nucleul enclosure of the fortress or other elements of
vechi al cetii, anterior secolului al XVI-lea, the fortification80. A plan dated to 1697 from
avea o form rectangular81. the Marsigli archives provides clues about
Cetatea regal se pare c a fost ridicat the fortification sructure. The ancient core of
n veacul al XIV-lea. Documentele din veacul the fortress previous to the 16th century was
al XV-lea, ncepnd din 1456, au consemnat rectangular81.
castelanii cetii82. n jurul acestei fortificaii The royal fortress seems to have been
s-au creat complicaii patrimoniale ntre ur- built in the 14h century. Documents from the
maii familiei Hunedoretilor i cei ai familiei 15th century, since 1456, recorded the for-
Bnffy pe tot parcursul veacului al XV-lea. tress lords82. Around this fortification, there
appeared patrimonial complications between
LUGOJ the successors of the Hunedoreti family and
Fortificaia medieval de la Lugoj, those of the Bnffy family along the whole
cunoscut prin foarte puine informaii do- 15th century.
cumentare medievale i mai puin prin cele
LUGOJ
76
Dl 13137; Arch. Kz, XII, p.137. The medieval fortification from Lugoj,
77
Joachim, 1912, p.108. known from few documenary medieval infor-
78
Engel, 1996 a, p.85. mation and less from the archaeological infor-
79
Rusu, Hurezan, 1999, p.59.
80
Rusu, Hurezan, 1999, p.59.
81
Sebestyen, 1984, p.48.
76
Dl 13137; Arch. Kz, XII, p.137.
82
Engel, 1996, p.361.
77
Joachim, 1912, p.108.
78
Engel, 1996 a, p.85.
79
Rusu, Hurezan, 1999, p.59.
80
Rusu, Hurezan, 1999, p.59.
81
Sebestyen, 1984, p.48.
82
Engel, 1996, p.361.

102
arheologice a suscitat poziii contradictorii n mation provoked contradictory positions in
istoriografie83. Castelanul acestei ceti a fost historiography83. The lord of this fortress was
consemnat doar ntr-o diplom din anul 138684. recorded only in a diploma dated to 138684.
Atestrile din 1390 comitatus Lugas i cele din The attestations from 1390 comitatus Lugas
1391 i 1418, ce au menionat provincia Lugas and those from 1391 and 1418, that mentioned
i districtus Lugas, vin s confirme existena provincia Lugas and districtus Lugas, confirm
unei ceti n jurul creia s-a organizat un the existence of a fortress around which a dis-
district, care a suprapus o form mai veche trict was organized that superposed an older
de organizare romneasc. O nsemnare din form of Romanian organization. A note from
secolul al XVII-lea a cltorului turc Evlia the 17th century of the Turkish traveller Evlia
Celebi descrie cetatea interioar a Lugojului Celebi described the interior fortress of Lugoj
sub forma unei amenajri solide din piatr as a solid stone construction with one gate85.
cu o singur poart85. Un plan al Lugojului Aplan of Lugoj from the Marsigli archives
din arhiva Marsigli red nucleul vechii ceti renders the core of the old fortress under a
sub o form rectangular, amplasat pe malul rectangular shape located on the Timi bank86.
Timiului86. Cercetrile arheologice recente Recent less ample archaeological investiga-
de mic amploare n-au putut s identifice tions could not identify the medieval structures
structurile medievale ale oraului. of the town.

MACEDONIA (Ciacova, j. Timi, MACEDONIA (Ciacova, Timi county,


Romnia) Romania)
Aezare din Cmpia Timiului, situat The settlement in the Timi Plain was
pe hotar cu Ciacova, Gad, Petroman i Obad, situated on the boundary with Ciacova, Gad,
care avea n anii 1333-1335 o parohie, ce fcea Petroman and Obad. It had a parish, part of the
parte din arhidiaconatul de Timi87. Familia archdeaconate of Timi in 1333-133587. The
nobiliar de Macedonia apare n acte de can- noble family of Macedonia is recorded in the
celarie n anul 1363, fiind mereu consemnat chancellery acts in 1363, being permanently
timp de un secol i jumtate88. n jurul anului registered for a century and a half88. About
1400 aici era ridicat o fortificaie din lemn. in 1400, there was a wooden fortification in
Nicolae, fiul lui Donch de Macedonia cere su- that place. Nicolae, Donch of Macedonias
rorii sale Ecaterina, soia lui tefan de Reme- son, required to his sister Ecaterina, tefan
tea n jurul anului 1410, lemn pentru repararea of Remeteas wife, in 1410, wood to repair
castelului din Macedonia (pro reformatione the castle from Macedonia (pro reformatione
castelli seu fortalicijii)89. castelli seu fortalicijii)89.

MEHADIA (c. Mehadia, j. Cara-Seve- MEHADIA (Mehadia commune, Cara-


rin, Romnia) Severin county, Romania)
Fortificaia de la Mehadia s-a dezvoltat The fortification from Mehadia devel-
n secolele XIV-XV n jurul nucleului iniial, opped in the 14th-15th centuries around the
initial nucleus constituted by the donjon on the
83
Rusu, 2005, p. 552-553; Sebestyen, 1984, p.44-45;
Engel, 1996, p.363. 83
Rusu, 2005, p. 552-553; Sebestyen, 1984, p.44-45;
84
Csnki, II, 1894, p.13.
Engel, 1996, p.363.
85
Cltori strini, VI, 1976, p.534. 84
Csnki, II, 1894, p.13.
86
Sebestyen, 1984, p.45. 85
Foreign travellers, VI, 1976, p.534.
87
eicu, 2007, p.188. 86
Sebestyen, 1984, p.45.
88
Engel, 1996, p.363. 87
eicu, 2007, p.188.
89
Ortvay, 1896, p.301. 88
Engel, 1996, p.363.
89
Ortvay, 1896, p.301.

103
constituit de donjonul de pe dealul Grad. Grad hill. The narrow elongated promontory
Promontoriul ngust i alungit a fost nchis cu was closed with walls of 1.50 m in thickness
ziduri groase de 1,50 m., prevzute cu turnuri endowed with defending towers. The western
de aprare. Latura de vest era aprat de un side was defended by a rectangular tower of re-
turn rectangular, de mici dimensiuni, i pe duced dimensions. A similar tower developped
latura de vest a fost amplasat un turn similar inside was placed on the western side (Pl.10).
dezvoltat n interior (Pl.10). Un turn cilindric, A cylindrical tower, backing on to the eastern
adosat curtinei estice, domina vrful promon- curtain, dominated the promontory peak. The
toriului. Turnul cilindric avea diametrul de cylindrical tower was 2.20 m in diameter. The
2,20 m i grosimea zidurilor de 2,10 m. Turnul walls were 2.10 m in thickness. The gate-tower
de poart, cu plan rectangular, a fost amplasat with rectangular plan was placed behind the
n spatele anului de aprare, ce demarca spre defending ditch delimiting the promontory
nord promontoriul dinspre Grad. Ridicarea from Grad towards the north. Those curtains
acestor curtine s-a fcut, dup opinia lui tefan were built, in tefan Mateis opinion, in one
Matei, ntr-o singur etap, foarte probabil n stage, very probably in the 4th-5th decades of
deceniile patru-cinci ale secolului al XV-lea. the 15th century.
Cetatea de la Mehadia a avut un rol esen- The fortress from Mehadia played an
ial, alturi de cetile de la Dunre, n cursul important role, beside the fortresses along the
veacului al XV-lea n frontul antiotoman creat Danube, dring the 15th century in the anti-
pe linia fluviului n vremea regelui Sigismund Ottoman front created along the river during
de Luxemburg. Era situat pe o arter vital the king Sigismund de Luxembourgs reign.
de comunicaii spre centru Banatului i spre It was situated on vital artery of communica-
Transilvania. A ajuns n stpnirea cavalerilor tions towards the centre of Banat and towards
teutoni ntre anii 1429-1435 i avea la momen- Transylvania. It entered the possession of the
tul respectiv capacitatea de aprare bine eva- Teutons between 1429-1435. At that moment,
luat90. Cetatea Mehadia s-a aflat n anul 1439 it had a well estimated defending capacity90.
n stpnirea lui Iancu de Hunedoara, implicat The Mehadia fortress was in possession of
n organizarea defensivei de pe Dunre91. Iancu of Hunedoara in 1439, implied in orga-
nizing the defensive along the Danube91.
OBAD (c. Ciacova, j. Timi, Romnia)
Aezare cu o parohie catolic n anii OBAD (Ciacova commune, Timi
1333-1335, situat ntre Jebel i Ciacova. A county, Romania)
ajuns n stpnirea lui Nicolae Trentul na- The settlement had a Catholi parish in
inte de 1400, care a ridicat aici un castel din 1333-1335. it was situated between Jebel
lemn92. El era obligat n anul 1402, conform and Ciacova. It became possession of Nico-
unei scrisori a voievodului Transilvaniei Ni- lae Trentul before 1400, who erected here a
colae Chaak, s demoleze castelele din Jobag, wooden castle92. In 1402, according to a let-
Obad i Jebel93. ter from the voivode of Transylvania Nicolae
Chaak, he was obliged to demolish the castles
OROVA (or. Orova, j. Mehedini, from Jobag, Obad i Jebel93.
Romnia)
Cetate regal atribuit epocii arpadiene. OROVA (Orova, Mehedini county,
Romania)
90
Joachim, 1912, p.109, 114, 115. The royal fortress was assigned to the
91
Engel, 1996, p.367.
92
Csnki, II, 1894, p.54. 90
Joachim, 1912, p.109, 114, 115.
93
Engel, 1996, p.380. 91
Engel, 1996, p.367.
92
Csnki, II, 1894, p.54.
93
Engel, 1996, p.380.

104
Informaiile din documente amintesc n anul Arpadian epoch. The information from docu-
1349 Orova n contextul unui privilegiu ments mention, in 1349, Orova in the context
comercial eliberat negustorilor genovezi. of a commercial privilege issued to the Geno-
Fortificaia a fost reparat n anul 1372 sub ese traders. The fortification was repaired in
conducerea lui Benedict Himfy, fostul ban al 1372 under the rule of Benedict Himfy, ex-ban
Bulgariei94. Aezat la confluena Cernei cu of Bulgaria94. Settled at the confluence of the
Dunrea ea a jucat un rol important n veacul Cerna with the Danube, it played an important
al XV-lea n strategia rzboiului defensiv de role in the 15th century in the strategy of the
pe Dunre, purtat de regele Sigismund de Lu- defensive war between the king Sigismund of
xemburg i Iancu de Hunedoara. S-a remarcat Luxembourg and Iancu of Hunedoara along
n anii 1429-1435 ntre fortificaiile dunrene the Danube. In 1429-1435, it was pointed out
cedate cavalerilor teutoni. Cetatea a suportat among the Danube fortifications given up to
reparaii i lucrri de ntreinere n anii 1439- the Teutons. The fortress suffered repairings
1440 alturi de fortificaiile dunrene de la and maintenance workings in 1439-1440
Severin i Mehadia, reparaii susinute finan- beside the fortifications on the Danube from
ciar de Iancu de Hunedoara i de ali nobili95. Severin and Mehadia. The repairings were
Ea este nscris dealtminteri n anul 1457 ntre financially supported by Iancu of Hunedoara
stpnirile familiei hunedoretilor. Fortificaia and by other nobles95. Otherwise, in 1457, it
medieval nu a fost identificat i cercetat pe was part of the possessions of the Hunedoreti
teren. Petru Iambor, fcnd recurs la planurile family. The medieval fortification has not been
lui L. F. Marsigli i Fr. J. Rutendor, sugera identified and investigated yet. Petru Iambor,
c aceast cetate medieval s-a ridicat peste appealing to L. F. Marsiglis and Fr. J. Ru-
ruinele castrului roman din secolul al IV-lea, tendors plans, suggested that the medieval
suferind adugiri i refaceri pn n secolul fortress was built over the ruins of the Roman
al XVIII-lea96. Cltorul turc Evlia Celebi camp of the 4th century suffering modifica-
descria fortificaia de la Orova cu plan ptrat, tions and being rebuilt till the 18th century96.
avnd turnuri i ziduri din piatr. Refolosirea The Turkish traveller Evlia Celebi depicted the
cetii romane trzii de tip quadriburgium fortification from Orova with a square plan
de la Orova, alturi de alte fortificaii de pe and with stone towers and walls. Reusing the
culoarul dunrean, precum cele de la Covin i late Roman fortress of quadriburgium type
Haram, a fost susinut cu argumente arheolo- from Orova, beside other fortifications along
gice i topografice i de Istvn Bna97. the Danube corridor, as for example those
from Covin and Haram, was sustained with
PETH archaeological and topographical arguments
Informaiile documentelor scrise au lsat also by Istvn Bna97.
deschis discuia n legtur cu aceast cetate
de la Dunre. Dou documente invocate, o PETH
list a fortificaiilor inventariate n 1430 de Information from the written documents
cavalerii teutoni i un act din 1438, amintesc have not closed the discussion concerning this
n spaiul Dunrii de Jos apusene dou fortifi- fortress on the Danube. Two invoked docu-
ments, a list of the fortifications catalogued
in 1430 by the Teutons and an act dated to
94
Suciu, II, 1968, p.20; Engel, 1996, p.383.
95
Pesty, Szreny, III, p.40, 42. 1438, mention two fortifications with iden-
96
Iambor, 2005, p.64. tical names in the area of the western Low
97
Bna, 1998, p.25. 94
Suciu, II, 1968, p.20; Engel, 1996, p.383.
95
Pesty, Szreny, III, p.40, 42.
96
Iambor, 2005, p.64.
97
Bna, 1998, p.25.

105
caii cu nume identice98. Inventarul teutonilor Danube98. The Teutons inventory mentions a
amintete o fortificaie Peczsch ntre cetile fortification Peczsch between the Orova and
Orova i Svinia i o alt cetate Peczsch, fapt Svinia fortresses and another Peczsch fortress
menionat chiar n acest fel, undeva n apropi- in the vicinity of the Saint Ladislau fortress at
ere cetii Sfntul Ladislau de la Coronini99. Coronini99. In the proposed reconstitution, En-
Engel Pl accept mrturia acestor izvoare i gel Pl accepted the testimony of these sources
plaseaz n reconstituirea propus dou forti- and placed two fortifications with this name
ficaii cu acest nume la Dunrea de Jos apu- at the western Low Danube, one belonging to
sean, una aparinnd Banatului de Severin, Banat of Severin, the other one belonging to
cealalt aparintoare de comitatul Cara100. the Cara comitat100. Csankis historical geog-
Geografia istoric a lui Csanki, invocnd un raphy, invoking a document from 1528, men-
document din 1528, menioneaz ntre cet- tioned two Pedt fortresses amog the fortresses
ile de la Dunre, Orova, Sfntul Ladislau i along the Danube, Orova, Saint Ladislau and
Liborajdea, dou ceti Pedt101. S-a propus o Liborajdea101. It was proposed a locating of the
localizare a cetii n apropiere de Coronini, fortress in the vicinity of Coronini, somewhere
undeva ntre Sfnta Elena i Moldova Veche. between Sfnta Elena and Moldova Veche.
Cealalt localizare a cetii Peth a fost fixat The other location of the Peth fortress was es-
la Dubova. Harta lui Lazarus Secretarius din tablished at Dubova. Lazarus Secretarius map
anul 1528 confirm informaiile din cele dou from 1528 confirm the information from the
documente invocate mai sus din anii 1430- two documents invoked above dated to 1430-
1438. Sunt redate pe aceast hart n culoarul 1438. Two fortresses with identical name are
dunrean dou ceti cu nume identic. Cetatea rendered on that map in the Danube corridor.
Pedt a fost amplasat ntre cea de la Sfntul The Pedt fortress was settled between that one
Ladislau i Liborajdea iar cealalt cetate n- from Sfntul Ladislau and Liborajdea, and the
scris sub forma Petie se afl ntre Liborajdea other fortress written down under the form of
i Severin. Informaiile cartografice i cele din Petie was between Liborajdea and Severin.
izvoare diplomatice din secolul al XV susin The information from maps and those from
n egal msur existena a celor dou ceti the diplomatic sorces from the 15th century
peth pe culoarul dunrean uphold, in an equal measure, th existence of
Cercetrile arheologice n aceast zon the two Pedt fortresses in the Danube corridor.
din anii 1970-1971, conduse de D. V. Rosetti, Archaeological investigations in this re-
n-au adus clarificrile ateptate ale relaiei gion done in 1970-1971, led by D. V. Rosetti,
dintre ruinele semnalate pe dealul ucaru Mare did not bring the expected clarifications of the
i fortificaia de pe malul Dunrii, acum sub relation betwee theruins pointed out on the
ape, de la Petera Piskabara102. ucaru Mare hill and the ortification on the
Danube bank, nowadays under waters, from
POJEJENA (c. Pojejena, j. Cara-Seve- the Piskabara cave102.
rin, Romnia)
Satul Pojejena este situat n extremitatea POJEJENA (Pojejena commune, Cara-
vestic a zonei depresionare Moldova Veche Severin county, Romania)
The Pojejena village is situated in the
98
Joachim, 1912, p.108-109; Dl 13137.
99
Joachim, 1912, p.109.
western extremity of the Moldova Veche
100
Engel, 1996, p.391.
101
Csnki, II, 1894, p.96.
98
Joachim, 1912, p.108-109; Dl 13137.
102
Rosetti, 1978, p.146-153; Rusu, 2005, p.564;
99
Joachim, 1912, p.109.
Milleker, 1915, p.150.
100
Engel, 1996, p.391.
101
Csnki, II, 1894, p.96.
102
Rosetti, 1978, p.146-153; Rusu, 2005, p.564;
Milleker, 1915, p.150.

106
de la Dunre. (Pl.31). Cetatea de frontier de depressionary region at the Danube (Pl.31).
pe linia Dunrii a fost ridicat n vremea lui The frontier fortress on the Danube line was
Sigismund de Luxemburg, dup 1419. S-a aflat erected during Sigismund of Luxembourgs
ntre anii 1429-1435 ntre cetile cedate de rule, after 1419. It was among the fortresses
Sigismund de Luxemburg cavalerilor teutoni given up by Sigismund of Luxembourg to the
pentru a apra frontul dunrean mpotriva Im- Teutons between 1429-1435 to defend the
periului Otoman103. Ruinele fortificaiei, acum Danube front against the Ottoman Empire103.
acoperite complet de apele Dunrii, s-au aflat The ruins of the fortification, completely
n locul numit Zidina. Ele erau grav deteriorate covered by the Danube nowadays, were in he
de apele fluviului nc n anul 1880, cnd au place named Zidina. They were badly dete-
fost cercetate de L. Bhm, care a lsat o descri- riorated by the river waters even since 1880,
ere sumar i un desen104. (Pl.32/B). Cetatea a when they were investigated by L. Bhm, who
avut o form rectangular, asemntoare celei made a summary description and a drawing104.
de la Drencova. Se pstra la momentul 1880 (Pl.32/B). The fortress was rectangular similar
doar unul din zidurile fortificaiei, lung de 16m to that one from Drencova. In 1880, only one
i nalt de 8m. of the fortification walls was maintained. It
was 16 m in length and 8 m in height.
RECA (or. Reca, j. Timi, Romnia)
Recaul este situat la confluena Cmpiei RECA (Reca, Timi county, Romania)
Timiului cu prelungirile sud vestice ale dea- Reca is situated at the confluence of
lurilor Lipovei. Aezarea a ajuns trg n anul the Timi Plain with the south-western pro-
1470105. Nobilii romni Nicolae i Vasile de longations of the Lipova hills. The setlement
Cerna mpreun cu Musina i Sandor de Den- became a borough in 1470105. The Romanian
su i Nicolae Bizere, pentru implicarea lor nobles Nicolae and Vasile of Cerna together
precuniar n repararea i ntreinerea cetilor with Musina and Sandor of Densu and Nico-
de la Dunre, au primit n anul 1443 moia lae Bizere, for their financial implication in
Reca106. Castelul din Reca a fost consemnat repairing and maintaining of the fortresses
documentar n anul 1476 i 1479107. on the Danube, received the Reca estate in
1443106. The castle from Reca was documen-
SARAD ( jud. Timi, Romnia ) tarily recorded in 1476 and 1479107.
Aezarea Sarad este cunoscut docu-
mentar din anul 1330 108. Ea a ajuns un trg SARAD (Timi county, Romania )
din comitatul Timi, aprnd n documente The Sarad settlement is documentarily
aceast form administrativ n anul 1479. known since 1330108. It became a borough
Castellum Sarad i satele aparintoare apar from the Timi comitat. This administrative
menionate n actul din 17 aprilie 1479 emis form apeared in documents in 1479. Castel-
de cancelaria regal a lui Matia Corvin109. lum Sarad and the belonging villages appear
mentioned in the act dated to April 17th 1479
issued by the royal chancellery of Matia Cor-
103
Csnki, II, 1894, p.97; Engel, 1977, p.143; Engel,
1996, p.393.
vin109.
104
Bhm, 1880, p.64.
105
Suciu, 1968, II, p.73. 103
Csnki, II, 1894, p.97; Engel, 1977, p.143; Engel,
106
Pesty, Szreny, III, p.45. 1996, p.393.
107
Millleker, 1915, p.150. 104
Bhm, 1880, p.64.
108
Suciu, II, 1968, p.399. 105
Suciu, 1968, II, p.73.
109
Pesty, Krass, III, p.449, 458. 106
Pesty, Szreny, III, p.45.
107
Millleker, 1915, p.150.
108
Suciu, II, 1968, p.399.
109
Pesty, Krass, III, p.449, 458.

107
SNGEORGE (Gtaia, jud. Timi, SNGEORGE (Gtaia, Timi county,
Romnia) Romania)
Aezare situat pe cursul inferior al The settlement is situated on the infe-
Brzavei, n Cmpia Timiului. A fcut parte rior course of the Brzava in the Timi Plain.
din stpnirile familiei Jnki de Ndlag care It belonged to the possessions of the Jnki of
au ridicat aici un castel anterior anului 1427. Ndlag family who built a castle here before
Castelul i locul de vam peste Brzava ajung 1427. the castle and the custom-place over
n stpnirea familiei Nagymihlyi. Iancu de the Brzava became part of the possession of
Hunedoara a demolat castelul n anul 1445, the Nagymihlyi family. Iancu of Hunedoara
care a fost cumprat n prealabil de la familia demolished the castle in 1445, when it was
Nagymihlyi110. F. Milleker a propus locali- purchased from the Nagymihlyi family110. F.
zarea castelului pe malul Brzavei, undeva Milleker proposed a locating of the castle on
la est de satul Sngeorge, unde se mai vede the Brzava bank, east to the Sngeorge vil-
traseul unui an circular 111. lage, where the traject of a circular ditch can
be still seen111.
SEBE (Caransebe, jud. Cara-Seve-
rin, Romnia) SEBE (Caransebe, Cara-Severin
Oraul modern Caransebe a acoperit county, Romania)
complet structurile medievale ale trgului The modern town of Caransebe com-
Sebe, incluznd aici i nucleul cetii me- pletely covered the medieval structures of
dievale Sebe. Bisericile medievale, mns- the Sebe borough, including here also the
tirea franciscan, cetatea medieval se afl nucleus of the medieval Sebe fortress. The
sub fundaia oraului recent i doar prin des- medieval churches, the Franciscan mon-
coperiri fortuite, n absena unor cercetri de astery, the medieval fortress are under the
arheologie urban, au ieit la lumin ruinele foundation of the recent town. Only through
unora din monumentele medievale112. Ceta- fortuitous discoveries, in lack of investiga-
tea medieval apare n documente din anul tions of urban archaeology, the ruins of some
1325, dei aezarea Sebe era consemnat n- medieval monuments were uncovered112. The
tr-un act din 1290113. Identificarea nucleului medieval fortress appears in documents since
iniial al cetii regale din secolele XIII-XIV 1325, even if the Sebe settlement had been
s-a fcut pe baza unor documente cartografi- recorded in an act from 1290113. Identifica-
ce trzii din secolele XVII-XVIII, ceea ce a tion of the initial nucleus of the royal fortress
generat discuii n istoriografie pn la mo- from the 13th-14th centuries was achieved
mentul actual114. (Pl.23A). Istoricul Pl Engel on the base of some late cartographic docu-
a propus localizarea acesteia la Turnu Ruieni, ments from the 17th-18th centuries, that gen-
ceea ce n opinia noastr este inacceptabil115. erated discussions in historiography by the
Documentele cartografice din a doua jumta- present moment114. (Pl.23A). The historian
te a secolului al secolului XVII ct i descri- Pl Engel proposed to locate it at Turnu Rui-
eni, what is unacceptable in our opinion115.
110
Engel, 1996, p.426. Cartographic documents from the secod half
111
Milleker, 1915, p.48-49.
of the 17th century, as well as the description
112
Bona, 1993, p.101.
113
DIR, C, XIII, 2, p.316.
114
Anghel, 1972, p.119; Bona, Gum, Groza, 1990, 110
Engel, 1996, p.426.
p.34-36; Popa, 1989, p.361-362. 111
Milleker, 1915, p.48-49.
115
Engel, 1996, p.407. 112
Bona, 1993, p.101.
113
DIR, C, XIII, 2, p.316.
114
Anghel, 1972, p.119; Bona, Gum, Groza, 1990,
p.34-36; Popa, 1989, p.361-362.
115
Engel, 1996, p.407.

108
erea cltorului turc Evlia Celebi ofer pui- of the Turkish traveller Evlia Celebi provided
nele informaii la care putem astzi raporta few information to which we can report our
discuia despre castelul regal de la Sebe. discussion concerning the royal castle from
Astfel, conform descrierii cltorului turc, Sebe. Thus, according to the Turkish travel-
cetatea avea un plan n cinci laturi, fiind solid lers description, the fortress had a five sided-
construit. Documentele cartografice prezin- plan. It was solidly built. Cartographic docu-
t o fortificaie poligonal cu zece laturi, cu ments present a ten sided-fortification with a
un turn rectangular adosat unei laturi116. rectangular tower backing on to one side116.

STANILOWCZ STANILOWCZ
Cetate regal ridicat la nceputul seco- The royal fortress was built at the be-
lului al XV-lea, cndva imediat dup 1419. ginning of the 15th century, immediately af-
S-a numrat ntre fortificaiile cedate cava- ter 1419. It was among the fortifications giv-
lerilor teutoni de ctre regele Sigismund de en up to the Teutons by the king Sigismund of
Luxemburg ntre anii 1429-1435117. George Luxembourg between 1429-1435117. George
Desew de Stanylowcz apare consemnat ca Desew of Stanylowcz was recorded as a wit-
martor n anul 1451 ntr-un proces de pro- ness in a process of property in 1451118. It
prietate118. A fost localizat n Valea Dun- was located in the Danube valley, somewhere
rii, undeva ntre Svinia i Drencova, dei between Svinia and Drencova, even if to-
toponimia nu i-a pstrat amintirea. A existat ponimy does not mention it. There was a wall
o fortificaie din zid la Stncilova pe rama fortification at Stncilova on the south-west-
de sud-vest a Depresiunii Almj , care a ern frame of the Almj Depression, that was
fost demantelat n jurul anilor 1971-1972. dismantled in about 1971-1972. Stncilova
Stncilova este situat pe un vechi drum de is situated on an ancient connection way that
legtur, care unea Depresiunea Oravia, prin tied the Oravia depression, through the Nera
Valea Nerei, cu Depresiunea Almj, fcnd valley, to the Almj depression, making, in
n acelai timp legtura cu Valea Dunrii pe the same time, the connection with the Dan-
Valea Boneagului. ube valley along the Boneag valley.

SVINIA (com. Dubova, jud. SVINIA (Dubova commune,


Mehedini, Romnia) Mehedini county, Romania)
Documentele din prima jumtate a vea- Documents from the first half of the
cului al XV-lea nscrie cetatea Svinia n linia 15th century include the Svinia fortress in
de aprare a Dunrii, alturi de fortificaiile the defending line of the Danube beside the
de la Orova, Peth, Drencova, Zenthlaszovar fortifications from Orova, Peth, Drencova,
i Pojejena. A fost sub controlul cavalerilor Zenthlaszovar and Pojejena. It was under the
teutoni n anii 1429-1433. Documentele cu- control ofthe Teutons in 1429-1433. the doc-
noscute din aceast perioad nu aduc infor- uments from this time period do not brong
maii despre extinderea sau evoluia acesteia information concerning its development and
fa de perioada anterioar 119. Actul din 12 evolution in comparison with the anterior pe-
martie 1443 face dovada eforturilor pecuni- riod119. The act dated to March 12th 1443 is
are ale nobililor romni Mihail i Vasile de proof of the financial efforts of the Romanian
116
Anghel, 1972, p.119; Popa, 1989, p.363; Rusu, 116
Anghel, 1972, p.119; Popa, 1989, p.363; Rusu,
2005, p.507. 2005, p.507.
117
Csnki, II, 1894, p.14; Milleker, 1915, p.56; En- 117
Csnki, II, 1894, p.14; Milleker, 1915, p.56;
gel, 1996, p.435. Engel, 1996, p.435.
118
Pesty, Szreny, III, p.65-66. 118
Pesty, Szreny, III, p.65-66.
119
Joachim, 1912, p.108. 119
Joachim, 1912, p.108.

109
Cerna, andru de Densus i Nicolae Bizere nobles Mihail and Vasile of Cerna, andru
pentru repararea i ntreinerea cetilor du- of Densus and Nicolae Bizere to repair and
nrene Severin, Gewryn, Orova, Peech, Svi- maintain the Severin, Gewryn, Orova,
nia, Caransebe i Mehadia 120. Peech, Svinia, Caransebe and Mehadia for-
tresses120.
EMLACU MARE (oraul Gtaia, jud.
Timi, Romnia) EMLACU MARE (Gtaia , Timi
Informaiile din izvoarele diplomati- county, Romania)
ce medievale aduc n conul de lumin dou Information from medieval diplomatic
aezri i fortificaii medievale cu nume foar- sources present two medieval settlements and
te asemntoare, Erdsomlio i Mezsomlyo, fortifications with similar names, Erdsomlio
ceea ce a provocat adeseori confuzii n scrie- and Mezsomlyo, that often determined con-
rile istorice. Aezarea Erdsomlio, numit mai fusions in the historical writings. The Erd-
trziu i Vrac se identific n hotarul actual al somlio settlement, later named also Vrac, is
oraului Vrsac, n timp ce Mezsomlyo medi- identified in the actual boundary of the Vrsac
eval s-a aflat pe malul Brzavei. S-au purtat town, while medieval Mezsomlyo was situ-
n istoriografie opinii diverse chiar n ceea ce ated on the Brzava bank. There have been
privete localizarea aezrii i a cetii medi- different opinions in historiography even as
evale Mezsomlyo n hotarul actual al satelor concerns location of the medieval Mezsom-
emlacu Mare i emlacu Mic121. Aezarea lyo settlement and fortress within the actual
de la Mezeusumlov, care ajunge n secolul al boundary of the emlacu Mare and emlacu
XIV-lea centrul de ntrunire al congregaiilor Mic villages121. The settlement from Mezeu-
nobiliare ale comitatului Cara avea deja n sumlov, which became the meeting centre
anul 1152 o biseric nchinat regelui tefan, of the noble congregations of the Cara co-
o mnstire, capel i alte posesiuni regale. mitat in the 14th century, had already had a
Cetatea regal a fost ridicat la o dat ante- church dedicated to the king tefan in 1152,
rioar anului 1319, castelanii acestuia fiind a monastery, a chapel and other royal posses-
consemnai n cursul secolului al XIV-lea122. sions. The royal fortress was erected before
Actul din 22 august 1386 nscria Somlya i 1319. Its lords were recorded during the 14th
Ersomlyo alturi de cetile din Lugoj i Se- century122. The act since August 22nd 1386
be123. A ajuns n stpnirea familiei Huniade mentioned Somlya and Ersomlyo beside the
cndva nainte de 1454, cnd Iacob Pongrcz fortresses from Lugoj and Sebe123. It became
era castelan al cetiilor Jdioara i Sumlow124. possession of the Huniade family before
A existat aadar n aceast zon a Cmpului 1454, when Iacob Pongrcz was lord of the
umigului, care este o cmpie subcolinar, Jdioara and Sumlow fortresses124. Thus, the
aezarea medieval atestat la 1370 Civitas medieval settlement certified Civitas Mezeu-
Mezeusumpylio i cetatea regal. Ruinele ce- sumpylio in 1370 and the royal fortress ex-
tii medievale sunt plasate pe dealul umig, isted in this region of the umig Plain, which
unde Milleker a mai vzut naintea anului is a plain at the foot of a hill. The ruins of the
1915 o groap adnc circular, probabil un medieval fortress are located on the umig
turn, ai crei perei erau zidii125. Dealul u- hill, where Milleker discovered, before 1915,
120
Pesty, Szreny, III, p.44. also a deep circular pit, probably a tower,
121
Pesty, Krass, II, 2, p. 175; Csnki, II, 1894, p. 97;
Milleker, 1915, p.52-55. 120
Pesty, Szreny, III, p.44.
122
Engel, 1996, p.342. 121
Pesty, Krass, II, 2, p. 175; Csnki, II, 1894, p. 97;
123
Pesty, Krass, III, p.164. Milleker, 1915, p.52-55.
124
Pesty, Krass, III, p.400. 122
Engel, 1996, p.342.
125
Milleker, 1915, p.55. 123
Pesty, Krass, III, p.164.
124
Pesty, Krass, III, p.400.

110
mig este un con bazaltic situat n nord-estul whose walls were built125. The umig hill is
Cmpului umigului cu o nlime de 198m. a basalt cone situated in the north-east of the
Zona de la poala dealului se numete umi- umig Plain with a height of 198 m. the area
ga126. Fortificaia medieval n-a fost cercetat at he foot of the hill is named umiga126. The
arheologic i nu exist un raport topografic medieval fortification has not been archaeo-
ntre aezarea medieval i fortificaia din se- logically investigated and there is not a topo-
colul XIV-XV. Toponimia local ofer singu- graphic report between the medieval settle-
rele repere n aceast privin, emlacu Mic ment and the fortification from the 14th-15th
fiind numit Vrsomlyo, ceea ce a dus la loca- centuries. The local toponiy offers the oly
lizarea fortificaiei n aceast zon127. reference points, emlacu Mic being named
Vrsomlyo, that determined the locatingof
TIMIOARA the fortification in this region127.
Aezat ntr-o zon mltinoas, Timi-
oara medieval a suferit transformri radica- TIMIOARA
le n secolul al XVIII-lea, la introducerea ad- It is situated in a swampy region. Me-
ministraiei austriece, pe de o parte prin asa- dieval Timioara suffered radical transforma-
nrile fcute i n egal msur prin amenaj- tions in the 18th century during the Austrian
rile urbane introduse de austrieci. Topografia administration when they did sanitations and
medieval a Timioarei a fost reconstituit pe urban constructions. Medieval topography
temeiul planurilor cartografice din anul 1596 of Timioara was reconstituted on thebase of
i a celor austriece128. Cercetrile de arheolo- the cartographic plans from 1596 and of the
gie urban mai vechi, ori cele recente din anii Austrian plans128. The investigations of urban
2006-2009 au adus puine elemente, unele archaeology, earlier or later from 2006-2009,
nc n curs de prelucrare129. (Pl. 23/B). have brought few elements, part of them still
Astfel n zona actual a Muzeului Ba- being analyzed129. (Pl. 23/B).
natului s-au identificat urme de construcii Thus, in the actual area of the Museum
atribuite epocii lui Carol Robert i alte ziduri of Banat, traces of constructions assigned to
plasate n vremea lui Iancu de Hunedoara130. Charles Roberts epoch and other walls as-
S-a sugerat nc de Borovsky i istoriografia signed to Iancu of Hunedoaras period were
pozitivist existena unei ceti de pmnt, identified130. The existence of a rectangular
de form rectangular, care a fost socotit earthen fortress, considered to be the initial
castrul iniial i amplasat la nord de Muzeul Roman camp located north to the Museum of
Banatului131 Banat, was suggested even by Borovsky and
Privit cu suspiciune, aceast amena- the positivist historiography131.
jare iniial a arhitecturii de fortificaii de la Regarded suspiciously, this initial con-
Timioara poate fi asimilat castrului regal struction of architecture of fortifications from
arpadian ridicat aici132. A doua etap recon- Timioara can be assimilated to the royal Ar-
stituit grafic n amenajrile de fortificaii era padian castrum erected here132. The second
plasat n vremea regelui Carol Robert, care stage graphically reconstituted in the con-
structions of fortifications was placed during
126
Ardelean, Zvoianu, 1979, p.25; Crean, Fril,
2007, p.55-57.
125
Milleker, 1915, p.55.
127
Engel, 1996, p.342.
126
Ardelean, Zvoianu, 1979, p.25; Crean, Fril,
128
Rusu, 2005, p.538 ; Opri, 2007, p.26. 2007, p.55-57.
129
Draoveanu et ali.
127
Engel, 1996, p.342.
130
Iambor, 2005, p.71-72; Petrovics, 2008, p.33.
128
Rusu, 2005, p.538 ; Opri, 2007, p.26.
131
Opri, 2007, p. 26.
129
Draoveanu et ali.
132
Rusu, 2005, p.538; Iambor, 2005, p. 71.
130
Iambor, 2005, p.71-72; Petrovics, 2008, p.33.
131
Opri, 2007, p. 26.
132
Rusu, 2005, p.538 ; Iambor, 2005, p. 71.

111
a zidit aici un castel situat la sud n raport cu the king Charles Roberts rule, who built here
castrul iniial133 . a castle situated in the south compared with
Castelanii de Timi sunt atestai n acte the initial Roman camp133 .
ncepnd din 1322, cnd a fost consemnat The lords of Timi are certified in acts
Nicolae Trentul134. since 1322, when Nicolae Trentul was regis-
tered134.
THORNISTA
Aezare pustiit i cetate din comitatul THORNISTA
Keve. A fost o cetate din sistemul de aprare The devastated settlement and fortress
al Dunrii, organizat ntre Severin i Panevo was situated in the Keve comitat. It was a for-
la nceputul secolului al XV-lea. Cetatea apa- tress of the defending system of the Danube
re ntre fortificaiile Keve i Belgrad n docu- organized between Severin and Panevo at
mentul din 1437, care niruie fortificaiile de the beginning of the 15th century. The for-
la Dunrea de Jos apusean. Nu se cunoate tress appears among the Keve and Belgrad
localizarea ei pe teren135. fortifications in the document from 1437, that
F. Milleker, pornind de la informaia to- enumerates the fortifications from the west-
ponimiei, a sugerat cutarea ei pe malul Du- ern Low Danube. Its location on spot has not
nrii, la sud de Banatski Brestovac , n locul been known135.
numit Trnavista Bara, unde se afla o movil F. Milleker, starting from the informa-
ce ar putea acoperii ruina cetii pustiite136. tion of the toponimy, suggested to search it
on the Danube bank, south to Banatski Bre-
VRAC (Vrac, op. Vrac, Serbia) stovac, in the site named Trnavista Bara,
Cercetrile arheologice recente ale lui where there was a mound that could cover
Marin Brmboli au stabilit planimetria ce- the ruin of the ravaged fortress136.
tii Ersumlio, dezvoltat n cursul veacului
al XIVlea n preajma nucleului iniial re- VRAC (Vrac, op. Vrac, Serbia)
prezentat de donjonul de la Vrac137. Plato- The recent archaeological investiga-
ul pe care a fost ridicat donjonul are forma tions done by Marin Brmboli established
unui promontoriu ce msoar 58 m/2 km, the planimetry of the Ersumlio fortress, de-
el fiind nchis cu ziduri de curtin. Un turn veloped during the 14th century around the
semicircular se afl la vest de donjon. El a initial nucleus represented by the donjon
avut diametrul de 10m, cu ziduri din roc i from Vrac137. Plateau on which the donjon
mortar groase de 1,60 m. Donjonul i turnul was erected had the shape of a promontory
semicircular sunt unite cu zid de curtin la measuring 58 m/2 km, closed with curtain
nord i la sud, nchiznd n felul acesta spa- walls. A semicircular tower was west to don-
iul platoului138. Spaiul interior al cetii este jon. It was 10 m in diameter. The tower had
compartimentat n dou structuri printr-un rock walls and mortar of 1.60 m in thick-
zid ce unete cele dou curtine. Cisterna este ness. The donjon and the semicircular tower
are tied with curtain wall in the north and in
133
Opri, 2007, p.26, fig. 10.2. the south closing the plateau area138. The in-
134
Engel, 1996, p.441. terior area of the fortress is divided in two
135
Engel, 1996, p.446.
136
Milleker, 1915, p.19.
structures through a wall that ties the two
137
Brmboli, 2007, p.22-23.
138
Brmboli, 2007, p.22-24.
133
Opri, 2007, p.26, fig. 10.2.
134
Engel, 1996, p.441.
135
Engel, 1996, p.446.
136
Milleker, 1915, p.19.
137
Brmboli, 2007, p.22-23.
138
Brmboli, 2007, p.22-24.

112
zidit n colul de sud-est al curii interioare, curtains. The tank is built in the south-east-
imediat sub donjon. A avut o form circular ern corner of the interior yard immediately
cu diametrul de 6,50 m, avnd o adncime de under the donjon. It was circular with a di-
2,20 m139. De-a lungul curtinei sudice a fost ameter of 6.50 m and a depth of 2.20 m139.
identificat o construcie de form dreptun- along the southern curtain a rectangular con-
ghiular, cu dimensiuni de 18,70 m/5,20 m. struction with dimensions of 18.70 m/5.20 m
Ea ocup spaiul sudic ntre cistern i zidul was identified. It occupies the southern area
median al curii, intrarea fcndu-se printr-un between the tank and the median wall of the
spaiu pe latura de nord. Aceast construcie court. The entrance was done through a space
cu rol rezidenial, avea n interior o camer in the northern side. This construction with
de mai mici dimensiuni140. (Pl.24; Fig. 16-17) residential role comprised a smaller room in-
Cetatea de la Vrac cu structurile sale side140. (Pl.24; Fig. 16-17)
interioare i gsete analogii n fortificaii- The fortress from Vrac with its interior
le din secolul al XV-lea de pe linia Dunrii. structures finds analogies with the fortifica-
Curtinele, cu turnul semicircular i palatul tions from the 15th cenury on the Danube line.
interior au fost ridicate, n opinia lui M. Brm- The curtains, with semicircular tower and in-
boli, la scurt vreme dup nlarea donjo- terior palace were erected, in M. Brmbolis
nului, fiind ns evident o etap distinct n opinion, at short time after building the don-
amenajarea fortificaiei de pe dealul Cul de jon. It was obviously a distinct stage in the
la Vrac. Materialul arheologic gsit nu ofe- fortification construction on the Cul hill
r repere pentru datarea celor dou etape de from Vrac. The found archaeological mate-
construcie. Datarea fortificaiilor s-a fcut rial does not provide referenc points for dat-
prin recursul la sursele scrise n perioada de ing the two stages of construction. Dating of
nceput a secolului al XV-lea, cndva nainte the fortifications was done through the ap-
de 1439 i a fost opera despotului Branko- peal to the written sources at the beginning of
vi141. Fortificaia de la Vrac se identific cu the 15th century, sometime before 1439 and
cetatea Ersomlio din comitatul Cara, ai crei it was the work of the despot Brankovi141.
castelani cunoscui au fost consemnai n acte The fortification from Vrac is identified with
ncepnd cu anul 1323142. Cetatea Ersumlia the Ersomlio fortress from the Cara comi-
de la Vrac a fost construit la nceputul seco- tat, whose known lords were recorded in acts
lului al XIVlea, la foarte scurt vreme dup starting from 1323142. The Ersumlia fortress
zidirea donjonului. Opinia noastr pornete from Vrac was built at the beginning of the
de la informaiile documentelor de cancela- 14th century, at hort time after building the
rie referitoare la castrul Ersomlio din primele donjon. Our opinion is determined by the in-
decenii ale secolului al XIV-lea. Ea contro- formation from the chancellery documents
la un vechi culoar de legtur ce pornea din concerning the Ersomlio castrum in the first
Haram de pe Dunre, pe Valea Caraului i a decades of he 14th century. It controlled an
Ciornovului spre Timioara. old connecting corridor starting from Haram
Cetatea Ersumlia a ajuns n patrimo- on the Danube, on the Cara valley and of the
niul familiei despoilor srbi Brankovi ante Ciornovului valley towards Timioara.
1431, recuperat pentru scurt vreme de Ian- The Ersumlia fortress entered the pat-
rimony of the family of the Serbian despots
139
Brmboli, 2007, p.52-53. Brankovi ante 1431, recuperated for a short
140
Brmboli, 2007, p.49, fig. 25.
141
Brmboli, 2007, p.124. 139
Brmboli, 2007, p.52-53.
142
Gyrffy, III, 1987, p.493; Engel, 1996, p.309. 140
Brmboli, 2007, p.49, fig. 25.
141
Brmboli, 2007, p.124.
142
Gyrffy, III, 1987, p.493; Engel, 1996, p.309

113
cu de Hunedoara i din nou redat la 1448 time by Iancu of Hunedoara and given again
familiei Brankovi143. to the Brankovi family in 1448143.

ZENTHLAZLOVARA (com. Coro- ZENTHLAZLOVARA (Coronini c.,


nini, jud. Cara-Severin, Romnia) Cara-Severin County, Romania)
Cetatea Coronini de pe malul Dunrii The Coronini fortress on the Danube
se identific cu fortificaia medieval ce purta bank identifies with the medieval fortification
numele regelui Sfntul Ladislau, fiind meni- that bore the name of the king Saint Ladis-
onat n documente ncepnd din anul 1430 lau, mentioned i documents since 1430 un-
sub diverse forme: Zenthlerzlowara, Zenth der different forms: Zenthlerzlowara, Zenth
Lazlovara, Sand Ladislaem, Santus Ladisla- Lazlovara, Sand Ladislaem, Santus Ladis-
us144. (Pl.33). Ea a jucat un rol strategic de laus144. (Pl.33). it played a strategical role
prim importan n sistemul defensiv de pe of main imortance in the defensive system
Dunre, conceput n vremea regelui Sigis- on the Danube, conceived during the rule of
mund de Luxemburg. Cercetarea arheologic the king Sigismund of Luxembourg. The ar-
a confirmat dealtminteri c fortificaia de la chaeological investigation confirmed that the
Coronini, alturi de cea de la Severin, repre- fortification from Coronini, beside that one
zint elemente defensive majore ale liniei de from Severin, represent major defensive ele-
aprare a Dunrii la mijlocul secolului al XV- ments of the defensive line of the Danube at
lea. Incinta din veacul al XV-lea a fost ampla- the middle of the 15th century. The incincts
sat pe vrful mamelonului, racordat fiind la from the 15th century was situated onthe
fortificaia mai veche din veacul al XIII-lea, peak of the rounded hillock, being related to
amplasat la baza platoului de la Cul. Incin- the earlier fortification from the 13th century
ta exterioar a reprezentat un zid din piatr placed at the base of the plateau from Cul.
cu o grosime de 2,80-3 m. El are un traseu The exterior incincts represented a stone wall
elipsoidal care nconjoar, la baz, platoul that was 2.80-3 m in thickness. It had an el-
de pe dealul Cul. (Pl.34). A fost ridicat din lipsoidal traject that surrounds, at base, the
piatr de calcar de carier, cu faade de blo- plateau on the Cul hill. (Pl.34). it was built
curi ngrijit lucrate. Observaiile stratigrafice of quarry limestone with facades of blocks
au evideniat o cantitate apreciabil de arsur carefully worked. Stratigraphical observa-
ce proveneau de la suprastructura din lemn a tions pointed out an appreciable quantity of
incintei. Capacitatea de aprare a fost nt- burning coming from the wooden superstruc-
rit cu un an de aprare pe zona de nord i ture of the incincts. The defending ability
nord-est a incintei exterioare. Incinta elipsoi- was strehngthened with a defensive ditch in
dal din zid de la Coronini a fost construit la the northern and north-eastern area of the ex-
jumtatea secolului al XIII-lea. Ea nchidea terior incincts. The ellipsoidal wall incincts
o suprafa ce msura pe axe 190 m / 100 m. from Coronini was built at the middle of the
n interiorul acestei suprafee, pe culmea pla- 13th century. It closed a surface measuring
toului de la Cul, s-a ridicat n anul 1428 o on axes 190 m / 100 m. Within this surface,
fortificaie din zid de dimensiuni mai mici, on the peak of the plateau from Cul, a wall
n vremea regelui Sigismund de Luxemburg. fortification of reduced dimensions was built
Fortificaia are un plan poligonal neregulat, in 1428 during the rule of the king Sigismund
of Luxembourg. The fortification has an ir-
Engel, 1996, p. 309.
143
regular polygonal plan endowed with five
Csnki, II, 1894, p.96; Pesty, Krass, II, 2, p.208-
144

211.
Engel, 1996, p. 309.
143

Csnki, II, 1894, p.96; Pesty, Krass, II, 2, p.208-


144

211.

114
prevzut cu cinci turnuri de interior i turnuri interior towers and flanking towers145. (Pl.34-
de flancare145. (Pl.34-35; Pl.32A; Fig. 38-40) 35; Pl.32A; Fig. 38-40)
Latura de nord a platoului, care era de- The northern side of the plateau, which
altminteri i cea mai expus, celelalte laturi was otherwise the most exposed, the other
ale fortificaiei fiind protejate natural de pan- sides of the fortification being naturally pro-
tele foarte abrupte spre Dunre, a fost ntrit tected by the very abrupt slopes towards the
cu trei din cele cinci turnuri. Ea este flancat Danube, was fortified with three of the five
de un turn ptrat i un turn cilindric masiv. towers. It is flanked by a square tower and
Acesta din urm are zidurile groase de 5 m a massive cylindrical tower. The latter has
i diametrul interior de 5m. Turnul de form walls of 5 m in thickness and the interior di-
ptrat are dimensiunile interne de 3,45/3,25 ameter of 5 m. The square tower has intern
m. Latura de nord a fost ntrit i cu un turn dimensions of 3.45/3.25 m. The northern side
poligonal de la exterior. Marginea sudic a was fortified also with a polygonal tower to
fortificaiei, ntre turnul cilindric i cel din the exterior. The southern margin of the for-
colul sud-vestic, a fost ocupat cu cldiri tification, between the cylindrical tower and
pe dou nivele ce serveau pentru garnizoa- the south-western tower, was occupied with
n, castelani i ali oficiali aflai n incint. two leveled buildings that served for the
Beciurile aflate sub aceste ncperi erau n- garison, lords and other officials found in the
velite cu boli din crmid. Zidurile incintei enclosure. The basements under these rooms
au fost ridicate din piatr de calcar, aflat din were covered with brick vaults. The enclo-
abunden n pereii calcaroi care strjuiesc sure walls were built of limestone which
aceast zon de strmtori ale Dunrii. Un do- was abundently in the calcareous walls that
cument al regelui Sigismund de Luxemburg guarded this region of gorges of the Danube.
din 1430 dovedete c fortificaia de la Coro- A document of the king Sigismund of Lux-
nini a fost ridicat n vremea sa n anul 1428. embourg from 1430 proves that the fortifica-
Cavalerii teutoni au preluat fortificaia ntre tion from Coronini was built during his rule
anii 1429-1435146. in 1428. The Teutons took over the fortifica-
tion between 1429-1435146.

145
Matei, Uzum, 1973, p.154. Matei, Uzum, 1973, p.154.
145

146
Joachim, 1912, p.109; Engel, 1996, p.427. 146 Joachim, 1912, p.109; Engel, 1996, p.427.

115
Pl.31. Pojejena. Harta zonei cu amplasarea fortificaiei.
Pl.31. Pojejena. Map of region with location of fortification.

116
Pl.32. Coronini. Ruina turnului de la cetatea Sfntul Ladislau;
Pojejena. Ruina zidului cetii (1885).
Pl.32. Coronini. Ruin of tower of the Saint Ladislau fortress;
Pojejena. Ruin of the fortress wall (1885).

117
Pl.33. Coronini. Harta zonei Dunrii cu amplasarea cetii Zenthlaszlovr.
Pl.33. Coronini. Map of the Danube region with location
of the Zenthlaszlovr fortress.

118
Pl.34. Coronini. Plan de situaie al fortificaiei.
Pl.34. Coronini. Plan of situation of fortification.

119
Pl.35. Propunere de reconstituire a cetii Zenthlaszlovr de la Coronini.
Pl.35. Proposal of reconstitution of the Zenthlaszlovr fortress from Coronini.

120
Pl.36. Stara Palanka. Plan din arhiva Marsigli.
Planul fortificaiilor de la Sapaja, din anul 1716, arhiva Mercy.
Pl.36. Stara Palanka. Plan from Marsigli archives.
Plan of fortifications from Sapaja, in 1716, Mercy archives.

121
Pl.37. Sapaja A. Zidul fortificaiei 1. faza antic; 2. refacerea medieval.
B. Planul fortificaiei n epoca medieval.
Pl.37. Sapaja A. Wall of fortification 1. ancient phase; 2. medieval rebuilding.
B. Plan of fortification during the medieval period.

122
Pl.38. A. Planul minelor fortificaiei din arhiva Marsigli .
B. Amplasarea cercetrilor din 1968 i 1986.
Pl.38. A. Plan of mines of fortification from Marsigli archives .
B. Location of investigations in 1968 and 1986.

123
Pl.39. Novo Miloevo. Planul cetii Galad.
Pl.39. Novo Miloevo. Plan of Galad fortress.

124
Pl.40. Ciacova. Fereastr de la donjon, plan i vederi.
Pl.40. Ciacova. Donjon window, plan and views.

125
Pl.41. Turnu Ruieni. Fereastr. Plan i seciuni.
Pl.41. Turnu Ruieni. Window. Plan and sections.

126
Pl.42. Turnu-Ruieni. Vedere a strii donjonului din anul 1910.
Pl.42. Turnu-Ruieni. View of donjon in 1910.

127
Pl.43. Turnu-Ruieni. Vederi cu contraforturile donjonului.
Pl.43. Turnu-Ruieni. Views of donjon buttresses.

128
Pl. 44. Turnu-Ruieni. A. Vederea faadei nordice a donjonului.
B. Vedere dinspre sud-vest a turnului.
Pl. 44. Turnu-Ruieni. A. View of the northern facade of donjon.
B. View from south-west of tower.

129
Fig.21. Drencova.
Fig.21. Drencova.

Fig.22. Ruinele cetii Drencova aflate n Dunre.


Fig.22. Ruins of the Drencova fortress in the Danube.

130
Fig.23. Jdioara. Cetatea sec. XIV.
Fig.23. Jdioara. Fortress of the 14th century.

Fig.24. Jdioara. Vedere exterioar a curtinei estice.


Fig.24. Jdioara. Exterior view of eastern curtain.

131
Fig.25. Jdioara. Curtina estic.
Fig.25. Jdioara. Eastern curtain.

Fig.26. Jdioara. Curtina nordic.


Fig.26. Jdioara. Northern curtain.

132
Fig.27. Jdioara. Vedere dinspre nord i nord-est a curtinei.
Fig.27. Jdioara. View from the north and north-east of curtain.

Fig.28. Jdioara. Curtina de vest i nord.


Fig.28. Jdioara. Western and northern curtain.

133
Fig.29. Socolari. Dealul Cetii.
Fig.29. Socolari. Cetii hill.

Fig.30. Socolari. Zidul de incint.


Fig.30. Socolari. Enclosure wall.

134
Fig.31. Socolari. Dealul Cetii. Vederea incintei.
Fig.31. Socolari. Cetii hill. View of enclosure.

Fig.32. Boca. Buza-turcului. Cetatea Cuieti.


Fig.32. Boca. Buza-turcului. Cuieti fortress.

135
Fig.33. Boca. Curtina de nord i urmele scrilor de la turnul interior.
Fig.33. Boca. Northern curtain and vestiges of the staircase of interior tower.

Fig.34. Boca. Valea Brzavei; Zidul nordic de curtin al cetii Cuieti.


Fig.34. Boca. The Brzava Valley; Northern wall of curtain of the Cuieti fortress.

136
Fig.35. Caraova-Grad. Zidurile de incint ale cetii Cara (sec.XIV-XV).
Fig.35. Caraova-Grad. Enclosure walls of the Cara fortress (14th-15th centuries).

Fig.36. Caraova-Grad. Vedere dinspre nord-vest a curtinei cetii Cara.


Fig.36. Caraova-Grad. View from the north-west of curtain of the Cara fortress.

137
Fig.37. Caraova-Grad. Curtina de sud-est a cetii.
Fig.37. Caraova-Grad. South-eastern curtain of fortress.

Fig.38. Coronini. Turnul circular al fortificaiei din secolul al XV-lea.


Fig.38. Coronini. Circular tower of fortification from the 15th century.

138
Fig.39. Coronini. Turnurile de nord i nord-vest ale curtinei.
Fig.39. Coronini. Northern and north-western towers of curtain.

Fig.40. Coronini. Cetatea Zenthlaszlovr.


Fig.40. Coronini. Zenthlaszlovr fortress.

139
PROBLEME ALE CETILOR ME- PROBLEMS OF MEDIEVAL FOR-
DIEVALE DIN BANAT TRESSES IN BANAT

I Arhitectura de fortificaii medievale I. Architecture of medieval fortifica-


ntr-un spaiu de frontier tions in a frontier area

Repertoriul fortificaiilor medievale din Repertory of medieval fortifications


Banat a identificat circa 37 de ceti i castele in Banat identified about 37 fortresses and
atestate de izvoarele scrise i cele arheologice castles certified by written and archaeological
din secolele XII-XVI. Ele sunt dispuse inegal sources from the 12th-16th centuries. They are
ntr-un spaiu de circa 29.000 km2. Repartiia unequally arranged within an area of about
teritorial delimiteaz n zona montan i 29,000 km2. Territorial dividings delimited
deluroas a Banatului un numr de 24 de for- 24 fortifications in the mountainous and hilly
tificaii. Ele aparineau de structura adminis- region. They belonged to the administrative
trativ a fostului comitat Cara i a Banatului structure of the ex-comitat of Cara and of
de Severin1. Alte 13 fortificaii se regsesc n Banat of Severin1. Other 13 fortifications were
spaiul de cmpie al Banatului2. Dispunerea found in the plain of Banat2. Spatial arrange-
spaial a fortificaiilor, cu precdere a celor ment of the fortifications, especially of those
din sudul provinciei, ct i volumul n ansam- from the south of the province, as well as the
blu al cetilor din cadrul acesteia trebuie pri- general volume of fortresses within it should
vite i nelese prin prisma poziiei geografice be regarded and understood from the angle
a Banatului n cadrul Regatului Maghiar medi- of geographical position of Banat within the
eval. Banatul a fost pe tot parcursul perioadei medieval Hungarian Kingdom. The region of
medievale un spaiu de frontier la Dunrea Banat was, along the whole medieval period,
de Jos apusean. Tema frontierei medievale a frontier area at the western Low Danube.
i spaiilor de frontier au o lung tradiie n The theme of the medieval frontier and of the
istoriografia european i american a ultimei frontier areas has long tradition in the Euro-
jumti de veac. Temele abordate au vizat pean and American historiography of the last
chestiuni diverse, conceptuale ct i practice half century. The approached themes aimed
legate de istoria medieval. Sunt abordate aici at different conceptual and practical matters
teme legate de funciile militare ale spaiilor de related to medieval history. We approached,
frontier, de expansiunea militar i frontier, in this work, themes referring to the military
activitatea misionar n spaiile de frontier, functions of the frontier area, to the military
confruntrile confesionale i liberti colective and frontier expansion, to the missionary
dobndite n aceste spaii3. Raporturile militare activity in the frontier area, confessional con-
i confesionale la frontiera Banatului, Caran- frontations and collective liberties acquired in
sebeului i Lugojului, frontiera i nobilimea those areas3. Military and confessional rap-
ports at the frontier of Banat, Caransebe and
1
Csnki, II, 1894, p.95-96; 115.
2
Csnki, II, 1894, p.11-15.
3
Toubert, 1992, p.9-15; Berend, 2002, p.7 i urm.
1
Csnki, II, 1894, p.95-96; 115.
2
Csnki, II, 1894, p.11-15.
3
Toubert, 1992, p.9-15; Berend, 2002, p.7 and
following.

140
romneasc n secolul al XV-lea sunt cteva Lugoj, frontier and Romanian nobles in the
din temele recente abordate n istoriografia 15th century are few of the recent themes ap-
romneasc4. Cel mai amplu discurs pe tema proached in Romanian historiography4. The
frontierei medievale n spaiul medieval amplest speech on the theme of the medieval
romnesc a fost propus de erban Turcu5. frontier within the medieval Romanian area
Problema spaiului de frontier n lumea me- was proposed by erban Turcu5. The problem
dieval romneasc, instituiile agregate n of the frontier area in the medieval Romanian
acest teritoriu de frontier, apelul frecvent la world, the institutions aggregated in this fron-
situaii de caz din lumea cretin central i vest tier territory, the frequent appeal to case situ-
european confer discursului istoric propus ations from the Christian world of the central
de Turcu consisten i credibilitate6. El a and western Europe confers consistency and
integrat, n acest fel, o problem romneasc credibility to the historical speech proposed
ntr-o dezbatere global, de mare amploare, a by Turcu6. He integrated, in this way, a Ro-
scrisului istoric contemporan. manian problem in an ample global debate of
Problema fortificaiilor medievale tre- the historical contemporaneous writing.
buie circumscris din aceast perspectiv Problem of medieval fortifications has
problemei spaiului de frontier al Banatului to be circumscribed, at this prospect, to the
medieval. Aezat pe culoarul dunrean, spaiul problem of the frontier area of medieval Banat.
bnean a avut din vechime rolul unei plci Situated in the Danube corridor, Banat had,
turnante, care a fcut legtura ntre spaiul from ancient times, the role of a turning point
central european, cel al sud-estului Europei i, that did connection among the central Euro-
n egal msur, cu spaiul pontic. Dunrea, pean area, the south-east of Europe, and, in an
de-a lungul limitei sudice a provinciei, i-a equal measure, the Pontic area. The Danube,
fierestruit n lanul carpatic o cale extrem de along the southern limit of the province, cut
anevoioas, cu zone de strmtoare alternnd an extremely difficult way in the carpath-
cu cele depresionare, care au creat n acelai ian chain, with gorges areas alternating with
timp un vad de trecere al fluviului. Dunrea depressionary areas, that created, in the same
nu a fost hotar, a fost mai degrab o punte de time, a passage ford of the river. The Danube
legtur cu spaiul sud est european7. Aceste was not a boundary, it was rather a link with
vaduri ale Dunrii, de la confluena Caraului south-eastern European space7. Those fords
i Nerei, a rului Cerna, cele din depresiunea of the Danube, at the confluence of the Cara
Moldova i Liubcova, prin care se stabilea and of the Nera, of the Cerna, those from the
legtura cu depresiunile intramontane i cu Moldova depresion and Liubcova, through
zona de cmpie din nord, au fost controlate which it was established the connection with
cu ceti, unele ridicate la nceputurile evului intramontane depressions and the plain region
mediu, altele la nceputul secolului al XV-lea, from the north, were controlled with fortresses
n vremuri de criz militar profund. Docu- which had been built either at the beginning
mente emise de cancelaria regal maghiar of the Middle Ages or at the beginning of the
recunosc dealtminteri n mod explicid rostul 15th century, in times of profound military
unora din cetile medievale bnene. Cetatea crisis. The documents issued by the royal Hun-
de la Mehadia, aezat ntr-o zon strategic garian chancellery recognized explicitely the
purpose of certain of medieval fortresses from
4
Achim, 2006, p.31; igu, 1999, p.240; Drgan,
2000, p.295-296.
Banat. The fortress from Mehadia, located in
5
Turcu, 2001, p.132-144.
6
Turcu, 2001, p.142-144.
4
Achim, 2006, p.31; igu, 1999, p.240; Drgan,
7
Vslan, 1926, p.3-6; Vslan, 1928, p.1-2. 2000, p.295-296.
5
Turcu, 2001, p.132-144.
6
Turcu, 2001, p.142-144.
7
Vslan, 1926, p.3-6; Vslan, 1928, p.1-2.

141
extrem de sensibil, ce i-a pstrat aceast ca- an extremely sensible strategical region, that
racteristic pn n vremurile foarte recente, a maintained that characteristic till the very re-
fost ridicat pentru a sta mpotriva bulgarilor, cent times, was erected to stand against the
a lui Basarab, voievodul transalpin, a regelui Bulgarians, against Basarab, the transalpin
schismatic al Rasciei i a ttarilor ce nvleau voivode, of the schismatic king of Rascia
nencetat cu dumnie, atacnd hotarele rega- and against the Tatars who were unceasingly
tului nostru, dup mrturia unui document din invading by attacking the boundaries of our
anul 1329, ce l-am invocat adeseori. Donjonul kingdom, according to a document dated to
de la Mehadia, ridicat n deceniul al optulea 1329, that was often invoked. The donjon from
al secolului al XIII-lea, dup opinia lui PL Mehadia, built in the 8th decade of the 13th
Engel, ori numai la nceputul secolului al XIV- century, in PL Engels opinion, or only at the
lea, dup cum sugereaz materialul arheologic beginning of the 14th century, as the found
gsit, a avut de la bun nceput rostul unei archaeological material suggested, had the
ceti de grani ntr-un spaiu de frontier. purpose, from the very beginning, of a frontier
Ea i-a pstrat pe tot parcursul evului mediu fortress within a frontier area. It maintained
aceast destinaie, iar n deceniul al patrulea that destination along the entire Middle Ages.
al secolului al XV-lea aceast dimensiune In the 4th decade of the 15th century, this
strategic a fortificaiei a fost amplificat prin strategical dimension of the fortification was
adugarea unei curtine i a unui turn cilindric amplified by adding a curtain and a cylindri-
de flancare. Fortificarea spaiului de frontier cal flanking tower. The fortification of the the
al Banatului este evident odat cu veacul al frontier area of Banat became evident from the
XIII-lea, cnd regalitatea arpadian a creat n 13th century, when Arpadian royalty created a
sud estul provinciei o formaiune militar de military frontier formation Banat f Severin
grani Banatul de Severin8. in the south-east of the province8.
Provincie de frontier a Regatului A frontier province of the Arpadian
arpadian, Banatul de Severin ilustreaz n Kingdom, Banat of Severin illustrated very
mod extrem de convingtor aciunea politic, convincingly the political, military and con-
militar i confesional n direcia sud est fessional action in the south-eastern European
european. Pierderea frontierei dunrene de direction. The lost of the Danube frontier
ctre Imperiul Bizantin n anul 1185 a creat by the Byzantine Empire in 1185 created
premisele prelurii controlului asupra acestui the premises of taking over control on this
segment al fluviului de ctre Regatul arpadian. river segment by the Arpadian Kingdom. The
Disputa cu nou creatul stat romno-bulgar al dispute with the newly created Romanian-
Asanetilor va confirma rolul de mare putere Bulgarian state of the Asaneti would confirm
jucat n cursul veacului al XIII-lea de regatul the role of important power played during the
Sfntului tefan9. Fortificaiile ridicate de-a 13th century by the Saint tefans kingdom9.
lungul frontierei maghiare a Dunrii n seco- The fortifications built along the Hungarian
lul al XIII-lea au rspuns aciunii militare i frontier of the Danube in the 13th century an-
confesionale n direcia sud estului european swered to the military and confessional action
promovat de regii arpadieni. in the direction of the south-eastern Europe
Fortificaiile din secolul al XIII-lea promoted by the Arpadian kings.
amenajate la Severin, Orova, Coronini, Stara The fortifications from the 13th cen-
Palanka i Kovin dovedesc controlul celui mai tury built at Severin, Orova, Coronini, Stara
important culoar european i, n egal msur, Palanka and Kovin prove the control of the
most important European corridor and, in an
8
Achim, 2006, p.31-33.
9
Achim, 2006, p.31. 8
Achim, 2006, p.31-33.
9
Achim, 2006, p.31.

142
ilustreaz modul de organizare a frontierei equal measure, they illustrated the way of or-
sud estice a Regatului apostolic ungar. Mi- ganization of the south-eastern frontier of the
litarizarea spaiului de frontier se regsete apostolic Hungarian Kingdom. Militarization
de altfel ntre temele cel mai des dezbtute n of the frontier area has been among the most
abordrile istoriografice pe temele frontierei10. debated themes in the historiographical ap-
Chestiunea trebuie nuanat, pe de o parte, i proaches on the frontier themes10. The problem
reconstituirea trebuie fcut secvenial, pe has to be moderated, on one side, and recon-
spaii geografice bine delimitate i pe inter- stitution has to be done sequentially on well
vale cronologice clar alese. Funcia militar delimited geographical areas and on clearly
a spaiilor de frontier a generat, nu de puine chosen chronological intervals. The military
ori, opinii divergente, apelul la document function of the frontier areas generated, not
fiind ,n opinia mea, esenial11. Rmnnd for few times, divergent opinions. The appeal
cu discuia in domeniul evoluiei arhitecturii to documents was, in my opinion, essential11.
ntr-un spaiu de frontier constatm, n cazul Continuing on the discussion in the domain
Banatului, adoptarea de regalitatea arpadian of evolution of architecture within a frontier
a unor soluii ingenioase, apelul la tradiie, la area we notice, in the case of Banat, that the
ruine de fortificaii antice bine conservate i Arpadian royalty adopted some ingenuous
reactivate la nceputurile evului mediu. S-a solutions, appeal to tradition, to well preserved
adoptat aceast soluie pe culoarul dunrean ruins of ancient fortifications and reactivated
la Turnu Severin, Orova, Sapaja, lng Stara at the beginning of the Middle Ages. This
Palanka i la Kovin. Ruinele castrelor romane solution was adopted in the Danube corridor
bine pstrate ce au supravieuit migraiilor, at Turnu Severin, Orova, Sapaja, near Stara
bine poziionate la vaduri ale Dunrii, de la Palanka and at Kovin. The ruins of the well
Visegrad, Orova, Haram, Gyr i pn la Alba preserved Roman camps outlasted to migra-
Iulia, pe Mure, au oferit soluia ideal pen- tions. They were well positioned in the fords
tru constructorii medievali de la nceputurile of the Danube from Visegrad, Orova, Haram,
evului mediu, din Regatul arpadian12. Recursul Gyr and to Alba Iulia, on the Mure. Those
la tradiie, la fortificaiile antichitii trzii n-a ruins offered the ideal solution for the medi-
fost o noutate deoarece n acelai spaiu al eval builders at the beginning of the Middle
Dunrii de Jos apusene Imperiul bizantin n Ages of the Arpadian Kingdom12. The appeal
momentul stabilirii frontierei sale nordice pe to tradition, to the fortifications of the late
Dunre a recurs la aceeai situaie neutiliznd antiquity was not something new because, in
i reamenajnd fortificaiile antichitii trzii the same area of the western Low Danube,
ori cele paleobizantine. Cercetrile recente cu the Byzantine Empire resorted to the same
privire la fortificaiile bizantine din secolele situation in the moment of establishment of
XI-XII de la Dunre ale lui Marko Popovi its northern frontier on the Danube. It did
au dovedit acest fapt. Arheologia medieval not use, but rebuilt the fortifications of the
are un aport nu prea consistent la cunoaterea late antiquity or of the paleo-Byzantine ones.
arhitecturii de fortificaii din spaiul de fronti- Recent investigations led by Marko Popovi
er al Dunrii de Jos apusene, n ciuda marilor concerning the Byzantine fortifications at
ateptri n aceast privin, uneori motivate the Danube from the 11th-12th centuries
proved this fact. Medieval archaeology has
10
Berend, 2001, p.8. had not very consistent contribution to the
11
Berend, 2001, p.9-10.
12
Bna, 1998, p.24-30.
knowledge of architecture of fortifications in
the frontier area of the western Low Danube
10
Berend, 2001, p.8.
11
Berend, 2001, p.9-10.
12
Bna, 1998, p.24-30.

143
chiar naional. Se remarc aici cercetrile de despite of great expectations in this respect,
avengur i valorificarea lor pe msur de la sometimes even nationally motivated. We
castrul roman de pe insula Sapaja din Dunre observed the far-reaching investigations and
ale Daniei Dimitrievi13. O oportunitate ra- their corresponding valuation done by Danica
tat au reprezentat-o cercetrile de la Orova Dimitrievi in the Roman camp on the Sapaja
derulate n perioada de construire a barajului island of the Danube13. A failed opportuniy
de la Porile de Fier. Se cunoate doar planul represented the investigations from Orova
castrului din veacul al IV-lea, asemntor celui developed during the period of construction
de la Gornea, care a fost refolosit i reparat n of the barrage from the Iron Gates. Only the
perioada medieval. Descoperiri monetare din camp plan from the 4th century is known. It
secolul al X-lea i din secolul al XI-lea, odat was similar to that one from Gornea, that was
cu revenirea frontierei Imperiului Bizantin pe reused and repaired in the medieval period.
culoarul Dunrii, aduc puine mrturii despre Monetary discoveries from the 10th century
reluarea vieii la Orova la nceputurile evului and the 11th century, when the frontier of the
mediu14. Byzantine Empire was again on the Danube
Fortificaiile de pe malul Dunrii de la coridor, have brought few accounts about
Turnu Severin, investigate n repetate rn- life at Orova at the beginning of the Middle
duri de Grigore Tocilescu, Grigore Florescu, Ages14.
Alexandru Brccil i, mai recent, de Miu Fortifications on the Danube bank at
Davidescu, au suscitat discuii privitoare la Turnu Severin, investigated in repeated times
cronologia lor, la momentul zidirii unora dintre by Grigore Tocilescu, Grigore Florescu, Alex-
ele i a direciei impulsului ce a determinat andru Brccil and, more recently, by Miu
apariia lor n aceast zon a Dunrii15. Dosarul Davidescu, determined discussions concern-
cercetrii arheologice la cetatea Severinului ing their chronology, the moment of building
cuprinde o descriere sumar a unei fortificaii part of them and direction of the impulse that
din lemn i pmnt mai veche dect prima determined their appearance in this region
incint de piatr a acesteia, fr o plasare cro- of the Danube15. The records of the archaeo-
nologic adecvat. Momentul ridicrii incintei logical investigation from the Severin fortress
de zid a cetii Severinului i construirii aces- comprised a summary description of a wooden
teia au generat poziii contradictorii n scrisul and earthen fortification older than its first
istoric, ele fiind plasate n secolele XIII-XV stone enclosure without an adequate chrono-
i atribuite cavalerilor ioanii, stpnirii bul- logical position. The moment of construction
greti ori a celei ungare16. of the wall enclosure of the Severin fortress
Fortificaia poligonal amenajat ntre and of its building generated contradictory
ruinele castrului roman de la Severin, prin positions in the historical writing. They were
materialul arheologic gsit, a fost atribuit placed to the 13th-15th centuries and assigned
veacului al XIII-lea. Amenajarea fortificaiei to the Ioanit knights, to the Bulgarian domina-
este legat de momentul organizrii Banatului tion or to the Hungarian one16.
The polygonal fortification built among
13
Dimitrievi, 1984, p.59-60. the ruins of the Roman camp at Severin,
14
Iambor, 2005, p.66. through the found archaeological material,
15
Cantacuzino, 1981, p.81.
was assigned to the 13th century. The con-
16
Cantacuzino, 1981, p.95; Rusu, 2003, p.63.
struction of the fortification is related to the
13
Dimitrievi, 1984, p.59-60.
14
Iambor, 2005, p.66.
15
Cantacuzino, 1981, p.81.
16
Cantacuzino, 1981, p.95; Rusu, 2003, p.63.

144
de Severin n veacul al XIII-lea17. S-a adop- moment of organizing Banat of Severin in
tat n cazul Severinului utilizarea n parte a the 13th century17. In the case of Severin, it
fortificaiei antice romane, soluie folosit was adopted utilization of part of the ancient
n vremea arpadienilor din secolul al XIII- Roman fortification. This solution was used
lea la cetile de la Haram, Keve i Orova. during the Arpadian rule in the 13th century at
Monedele gsite mpreun cu arme n turnul the fortresses from Haram, Keve and Orova.
circular din interiorul fortificaiei poligonale The coins found together with weapons in the
din colul sud-vestic al castrului roman de la circular tower inside the polygonal fortifica-
Turnu Severin, de la Ioan Asan II (1218-1241) tion in the south-western corner of the Roman
i de la Andronic II Paleologul (1295-1327), camp from Turnu Severin, from the time of
ofer jaloane pentru cronologia fortificaiei18. Ioan Asan II (1218-1241) and of Andronic II
Cetatea de la Coronini este amplasat the Paleologue (1295-1327), provide mile-
la extremitatea vestic a depresiunii Moldova stones for the fortification chronology18.
Veche din Clisura Dunrii. Dealul Cul, unde The fortress from Coronini is located at
a fost amplasat fortificaia din secolul al the western extremity of the Moldova Veche
XIII-lea, domina zona depresionar ct i cea depression in the Danube Clisura. The Cul
de strmtoare, care exist n valea fluviului hill, where the fortification of the 13th century
n acest loc. soluia adoptat n acest caz de was placed, dominated both the depression-
constructorii medievali a fost aceea a amena- ary region and the gorges region that existed
jrii unei incinte de zid dublat de un an de in the river valley in that place. The solution
aprare. Fortificaia de la Coronini-Cul, din adopted in this case by the medieval build-
veacul al XIII-lea, poate fi pus ntr-o conexi- ers was that of constructing a wall enclosure
une direct cu amenajarea frontierei sud-estice doubled by a defending ditch. The fortification
a Regatului arpadian n aceast perioad, cu from Coronini-Cul, from the 13th century,
promovarea unei politici ofensive n direcia can be put in direct connection with drawing
sud-estic a continentului. the south-eastern frontier of the Arpadian
Politica ofensiv a Regatului arpadian la Kingdom in that period by promoting an of-
sfritul secolului al XIII-lea a fost marcat pe fensive policy in the south-eastern direction
de o parte de acutele contradicii interne i n of the continent.
mod evident de presiunea extern exercitat de The offensive policy of the Arpadian
invaziile mongole repetate. Scderea influenei kingdom at the end of the 13th century was
ungare n regiunile de la sud i est de Carpai marked, on one side, by the accute internal
urmate de agregarea formaiunilor romneti contradictions, and evidently by the external
n forme statale vor duce la reorientarea po- pression exerted by the repeated Mongol inva-
liticii ungare sub noua dinastie angeviv n sions. Decreasing of the Hungarian influence
cursul veacului al XIV-lea. in the regions south and east to the Carpathians
Documentele de cancelarie de la nce- followed by the aggregation of the Romanian
putul secolului al XIV-lea relev o nou di- formations in statal forms would lead to reori-
mensiune a arhitecturii de fortificaii n spaiul entation of the Hungarian policy under the new
provinciei. Apar acum n conul de lumin prin Angevin dinasty in the 14th century.
consemnarea castelanilor, a districtelor din ju- Chancellery documents from the be-
rul cetilor de la Jdioara, Sebe, Cuieti, Ilidia ginning of the 14th century point out a new
dimension of the fortification architecture
17
Cantacuzino, 1981, p.95; Rusu, 2003, p.65.
18
Cantacuzino, 1981, p.95; Rusu, 2003, p.65. in the province. There were recorded lords,
districts around the fortresses from Jdioara,

17
Cantacuzino, 1981, p.95; Rusu, 2003, p.65.
18
Cantacuzino, 1981, p.95; Rusu, 2003, p.65.

145
i Cara. Castelanii de la Jdioara i Mehadia Sebe, Cuieti, Ilidia and Cara. The lords
apar consemnai n documente n anul 1320, from Jdioara and Mehadia were recorded in
cei de la Caransebe n 1325, de la Beej n documents in 1320, those from Caransebe
anul 1315, iar districtul cetii Ilidia este cu- in 1325, those from Beej in 1315, and the
noscut dintr-un document din 131219. Cerce- district of the Ilidia fortress is known from a
tarea arheologic a fortificaiilor a surprins n document dated to 131219. The archaeological
puine cazuri momentul apariiei noii generaii investigation of the fortifications surprised in
de ceti din zid n veacul al XIV-lea. S-a acu- few cases the moment of appearance of the
mulat n aceast privin o documentaiemai new generation of wall fortresses in the 14th
consistent cu privire la planimetria i arhi- century. It was gathered more consistent docu-
tectura monumentelor de la Vrac-Ersumlio, mentation concerning planimetry and archi-
Ilidia, Caraova, Mehadia i Jdioara. Cetile tecture of monuments from Vrac-Ersumlio,
cunoscute, ridicate n aceast etap, au fost Ilidia, Caraova, Mehadia and Jdioara. The
amplasate pe cursurile superioare ale rurilor, known fortresses built in this stage, were
pe promontrorii aprate natural, de obicei cu located on the superior courses of the rivers,
o singur cale de acces, care a fost fortificat. on promontories naturally defended usually
Se plaseaz n astfel de poziii cetile de la with one way of access, that was fortified. The
Caraova, Socolari, Jdioara i cea de la Vrac. fortresses from Caraova, Socolari, Jdioara
Zidurile au un aspect ngrijit, cu paramentul and from Vrac are located in such positions.
din blocuri cioplite din piatr de carier i The walls have a neat aspect, with the face
emplectonul realizat din piatr brut necat made of blocks of carved quarry stone, and the
din abunden n mortar (Fig.23, 30). Acolo emplecton was made of raw stone abundantly
unde fortificaia a avut un plan poligonal, la embeded in mortar (Fig.23, 30). There where
mbinarea zidurilor de cutin, constructorii the fortification had a polygonal plan, at the
au utilizat piatr de carier ecarisat, ceea fixed joining of the walls with the curtain, the
ce conferea un aspect ngrijit i chiar elegant builders used squared off quarry stone that
construciei. ntlnim o astfel de situaie bun- confered a neat and even elegant aspect to the
oar la curtina nordic a cetii Cuieti (Pl.25). construction. We found such a situation, for
Carierele pentru materialele de construcie i instance, at the northern curtain of the Cuieti
piatra de var s-au gsit n apropierea cetilor. fortress (Pl.25). Quarries for the construction
Zona calcaroas din sudul Banatului a oferit, materials and the lime stone were discovered
n aceast privin, resurse bogate. Cariera closed to the fortresses. The calcareous region
de la Colani, de pe valea Brzavei, aflat in the south of Banat provided, in this respect,
la 7 km est de Boca, a oferit materia prim rich resources. The quarry from Colani, in the
pentru piatra de construcie, dar i pentru Brzava valley, at 7 km east to Boca, provided
var. Constructorii medievali au beneficiat de the raw material for the construction stone, but
resurse i mai apropiate n cazul cetilor de also for the lime. Medieval builders benefited
la Socolari i Caraova, amplasate direct pe of much closer resources in the case of the
masive calcaroase, ce au fost exploatate pe loc. fortresses from Socolari and Caraova, placed
O situaie identic se regsete la Mehadia, iar directly on calcareous massifs, that were ex-
la Vrac s-au utilizat gnaisurile locale. Zidurile ploited right there. An identical situation was
fortificaiilor au grosimi cuprinse ntre 1,70 m, at Mehadia. At Vrac there were used local
la Boca bunoar, i pn la 2,30 m ntlnii gneisses. The walls of the fortifications were
la cetatea Ilidia, de lng Socolari. Doar n 1.70 m in thickness, at Boca for instance, and
to a thickness of 2.30 m at the Ilidia fortress
19
eicu, 1998, p.208. near Socolari. Only in more vulnerable areas

19
eicu, 1998, p.208.

146
zonele mai vulnerabile de la mbinri, ziduri- of joinings, the walls were to 3 m in thickness.
le ajung la grosimi de pn la 3 m. Turnurile The interior towers from the gate were massive
interioare de la poart sunt masive cu ziduri with thick walls of 3 m, found at Boca and at
groase de 3 m, ntlnite la Boca i la cetatea the Jdioara fortress (Pl.29, 19).
Jdioara (Pl.29, 19). The external defending elements that
Elementele externe de aprare care pu- could increase the capacity of resistance are
teau s mreasc capacitatea de rezisten se found at the fortresses from Boca, Caraova,
ntlnesc la cetile de la Boca, Caraova, Me- Mehadia and Jdioara. They usually were
hadia i Jdioara. Aceastea au de obicei forma shaped like a defending ditch arranged along
unui an de aprare dispus de-a lungul cilor the ways of access. The defending ditch of the
de acces. anul de aprare al cetii Cuieti, de Cuieti fortress from Boca cut transversally
la Boca taie transversal promontoriul pe care the promontory on which the fortress was
este amplasat cetatea. El are o lime cuprins settled. It is 15-20 m in width and 4 m in depth.
ntre 15-20 m i o adncime de 4 m; secio- It sectioned the way of access constructed on
nnd n acest fel calea de acces amenajat pe the northern curtain where the gate-tower was.
curtina de nord unde se afla turnul de poart. The promontory from Mehadia was cut by a
Promontoriul de la Mehadia a fost tiat de un defending ditch north to the donjon. An identi-
an de aprare le nord de donjon. O situaie cal situation is at the Jdioara fortress where the
identic ntlnim la cetatea Jdioara unde anul defending ditch was dug west to the fortifica-
de aprare a fost spat la vest de fortificaie. tion. The Cara fortress on the Grad hill had
Cetatea Caraului de pe dealul Grad avea dou two defending ditches cut in the calcareous
anuri de aprare tiate n stnca calcaroas. stone. The preserved ruins or the little consis-
Ruinele pstrate ori dosarul de sptur puin tent excavation records provided few elements
consistent ofer puine elemente din structura of the interior structure that can be identified
interioar ce pot fi identificate i delimitate. and delimited. The Ersumlio fortress on the
Cetatea Ersumlio de pe dealul Cul de la Vrac Cul hill from Vrac offers, in this respect,
ofer n aceast privin documentaia cea mai the most consistent documentation that has
consistent, recent publicat. A fost delimitat been recently published. The interior court,
curtea interioar, palatul, cisterna de ap20. the palace, the water tank were delimited20.
Puuri de ap de plan circular la Caraova i Water wells of circular plan at Caraova and
rectangular la Socolari se delimiteaz n struc- of rectagular plan at Socolari were delimited
tura interioar a cetilor. Planimetria a dou in the interior structure of the fortresses. The
turnuri interioare a putu fi stabilit la cetatea panimetry of two interior towers could be es-
Cuieti (Pl.28). tablished at the Cuieti fortress (Pl.28).
Perioada de nceput a secolului al XV- The period of beginning of the 15th
lea, marcat de personalitatea activ i im- century, marked by the active and implied
plicat a regelui Sigismund de Luxemburg, personality of the king Sigismund of Luxem-
va marca etapa de reorganizare a frontierei bourg, would mark the stage of recognition
dunrene a Regatului maghiar. Au fost ridicate of the Danube frontier of the Hungarian king-
ceti noi, acum la nceputul secolului al XV- dom. New fortresses were built at Pojejena,
lea, la Pojejena, Liborajdea, Peth, la Drencova, Liborajdea, Peth, at Drencova, at Stanilwocz
la Stanilwocz , i s-au reparat i extins cetile at the beginning of the 15th century, and the
de la Orova, Mehadia i Almj. Militarizarea fortresses from Orova, Mehadia and Almj
spaiului de frontier bnean a atins apogeul were repaired and extended. Militarization of
n prima jumtate a veacului al XV-lea. Dun- the frontier area of Banat came to a head in
rea a devenit un front european vreme de un the first half of the 15th century. The Danube

20
Brmbolici, 2009, p.22-23. 20
Brmbolici, 2009, p.22-23.

147
secol i jumtate, pn la prbuirea acestei became an European front for a century and a
linii de aprare i integrarea unei pri a Bana- half till the breaking down of that defending
tului n frontierele Imperiului Otoman la 1551. line and integration of one part of Banat in
Confruntrile militare ale Regatului the frontiers of the Ottoman Empire in 1551.
maghiar cu Imperiul Otoman au nceput The military confrontations of the Hun-
nc de la finele veacului al XIV-lea. Aflat garian kingdom with the Ottoman Empire
pe frontiera sud-estic, Banatul a cunoscut started at the end of the 14th century. Situated
efectele confruntrii militare cu otomanii on the south-eastern frontier, Banat knew the
nc din anul 1392, cnd a fost consemnat o effects of the military confrontation with the
expediie otoman n sudul Banatului. Cetatea Ottomans even since 1392, when an Ottoman
Timioarei a fost expus unui atac otoman n expedition was recorded in the south of Banat.
anul 1397, acestea cunoscnd o amploare i un The Timioara fortress was exposed to a Ot-
ritm crescut la nceputul secolului al XV-lea21. toman attack in 1397. The attacks developed
Rolul cetii ntr-un spaiu de frontier aflat and knew an increased rhythm at the beginning
ntr-un permanent conflict a devenit esenial. of the 15th century21. The role of the fortress
Trecerea n stpnirea otoman a cetilor in a frontier area which was in a permanent
Turnu i Giurgiu, n urma confruntrilor din conflict became essential. The passage under
anii 1394-1395 i acelei din 1405, a pus n the Ottoman domination of the Turnu and
eviden vulnerabilitatea frontului cretin din Giurgiu fortresses, as a consequence of the
acest segment al Dunrii de Jos rsritene. confrontations from 1394-1395 and of that
one from 1405, emphasized vulnerability of
II. Nobilitate i confesiune n frontiera the Christian front from this segment of the
bnean a veacului al XV-lea eastern Low Danube.

Spaiile de frontier aflate de obicei la II. Nobility and confession in the frontier
periferia statului, ndeprtate de nucleul cen- of Banat in the 15th century
tral al puterii, au beneficiat de liberti mai
mari, care nu se ntlnesc de obicei n alte The frontier areas usually at the purlieus
spaii. Aceste liberti erau exercitate n mod of the state, far from the central nucleus of the
colectiv i pentru meninerea lor se invocau power, benefited of liberties that were not usu-
riscurile pe care i le asumau ce-i ce triau n ally encountered in other areas. Those liberties
spaiile de frontier. Cetenii i oaspeii din were collectively exerted. To maintain them,
trgul Caran, aflat n depresiunea Caransebe- there were invoked risks assumed by those
ului, au invocat ntr-un proces cu episcopia who were living in the frontier areas. The
Cenadului riscurile asumate i sacrificiile pe citizens and guests from the Caran borough, in
care le fac ntr-un spaiu de frontier pentru the Caransebe depression, during a trial with
care au beneficiat de anumite faciliti fiscale the Cenad diocese, invoked the risks assumed
i care vor s le fie respectate22. and the sacrifices that they did to benefit of
Documentele de cancelarie relev efortul certain fiscal facilities that they wanted to be
financiar fcut de Iancu de Hunedoara, dar respected on22.
i de nobilii romni din Banatul montan n The chancellery documents pointed
deceniile al treilea i al patrulea din secolul al out the financial effort done by Iancu of
XV-lea pentru ntreinerea i repararea ceti- Hunedoara, but also by the Romanian nobles
lor de la Dunre. Actul din 21 septembrie 1437 from mountainous Banat in the 3rd and 4th
decades of the 15th century for maintenance
21
Milleker, 1914, p.2 i urm.
22
Pesty ,Szreny, III, p. 129-131.
21
Milleker, 1914, p.2 and following.
22
Pesty ,Szreny, III, p. 129-131.

148
recunoate eforturile precuniare ale lui Iancu and repairing the Danube fortresses. The act
de Hunedoara, care a cheltuit 4000 florini dated to September 21st, 1437 recognized the
aur pentru ntreinerea cetilor de la Dunre, financial efforts of Iancu of Hunedoara, who
primind n schimb districtul Icu. Un docu- spent 4000 golden florins for maintenance of
ment al regelui Albert din 1438 recunoatea the Danube fortresses receiving in exchange
efortul aceluiai aprtor al cauzei cretine, the Icu district. A document of the king Al-
Iancu de Hunedoara, care a cheltuit 2757 de bert from 1438 recognized the effort of the
florini pentru ntreinerea trupelor din cetile same defender of the Christian cause, Iancu of
de la Severin, Orova i Mehadia23. Eforturile Hunedoara, who spent 2757 florins for main-
nobililor romni Nicolae de Bizere, Mihail tenance of the troops from the fortresses from
Vasile Cerna Muina i Sandu de Densu, care Severin, Orova and Mehadia23. The efforts
au cheltuit 5000 florini aur pentru aprarea of the Romanian nobles Nicolae of Bizere,
cetilor Severin, Orova, Mehadia i Sebe, Mihail Vasile, Cerna Muina and Sandu of
au fost recunoascute printr-un act din 12 Densu, who had spent 5000 golden Florins
martie 144324. Puinele informaii din actele to defend the Severin, Orova, Mehadia and
de cancelarie de mijlocul secolului al XV-lea Sebe fortresses, were recognized through an
sugereaz totui ferm faptul c gesturile de act from March 12th 144324. The few informa-
loialitate i curaj militar din spaiul de frontier tion from the chancellery acts from the middle
au fost recompensate de regalitate. S-a nscut of the 15th century firmly suggested that the
n aceeai vreme o condiionare evident a loyalty and military courage gestes within the
accederii la nobilitate, a recunoaterii unor st- frontier area were rewarded by the royalty. In
pniri funciare mai vechi, deinute de cnezii i the same time, an evident conditioning of ac-
nobilii romni din Banat. Condiionarea dintre ceding to nobility, of recognition of some older
serviciul militar i nobilitatea romneasc n landed possessions held by Romanian knezez
spaiul de frontier de la Dunrea de Jos apu- and nobles in Banat appeared. Conditioning
sean a veacului al XV-lea a fost evident25. between the military service and Romanian
Spiritul de sacrificiu i loialitate se ma- nobility in the frontier area from the western
nifest cu mult mai mult pregnan n spaiul Low Danube of the 15th century was evident25.
de frontier, unde strile conflictuale i rzbo- The spirit of sacrifice and loyalty was
iul creaz premisele manifestrii curajului i manifested more pregnantly within the fron-
loialitii. Documentele emise de cancelaria tier area where the conflictual states and the
regal n vremea lui Sigismund de Luxemburg war created the premises of manifestation of
i a urmilor si au recunoscut curajul, vr- courage and loyalty. The documents issued
sarea de snge i loialitatea nobililor bneni by the royal chancellery during Sigismund
participani alturi de rege i ali demnitari la of Luxembourgs rule and of his successors
luptele din spaiul de frontier n prima ju- recognized courage, bloodshed and loyalty of
mtate a veacului al XV-lea. Diploma regelui nobles from Banat who had been participants,
Sigismund de Luxemburg din 19 octombrie beside the king and other high officials, in the
1428 reconfirm nobililor de Mcica stp- fights within the frontier area in the first half
nirea unor moii nscrise n elitele militare, of the 15th century. The diploma of the king
spiritul de sacrificiu de care au dat dovad Sigismund of Luxembourg dated to October
Roman i Mihail de Mcica, mori pentru 19th 1428 confirmed again to the Mcica
nobles the possession of some estates part of
23
Pesty, Szreny, III, p.35-36.
the military elites, the spirit of sacrifice proved
24
Pesty, Szreny, III, p.35-36.
25
Drgan, 2000, p.401-403. by Roman and Mihail of Mcica, dead for
23
Pesty, Szreny, III, p.35-36.
24
Pesty, Szreny, III, p.35-36.
25
Drgan, 2000, p.401-403.

149
salvarea regelui n btlia din acel an de la saving the king in the battle from that year
Goluba26. Actul invocat recunoate serviciul at Goluba26. The invoked act recognized the
de fidelitate al nobililor romni din familia fidelity service of the Romanian nobles of
Mcica. Aflat n noiembrie la Caransebe the Mcica family. Being at Caransebe in
regele Sigismund recunoate actele de curaj November, the king Sigismund recognized
i fidelitate ale nobililor din familia Bizere, the acts of courage and fidelity of the nobles
de pe valea Bistrei, de care au dat dovad n of the Bizere family, in the Bistra valley, that
conflictele sngeroase din acelai an de la ce- they proved in the bloody conflicts from the
tatea Golubului27. Actul din 9 mai 1439, prin same year at the Golub fortress27. The act
care se confirma stpnirile nobililor Mihail i from the 9th of May 1439, that confirmed the
Vasile de Cerna asupra unor moii de pe valea possessions of the nobles Mihail and Vasile
Cernei, meniona fidelitatea acestor nobili, of Cerna over some estates in the Cerna val-
faptele de curaj i sngele vrsat n luptele cu ley, mentioned those nobles fidelity, acts of
turcii pentru aprarea credinei cretine ( cum courage and the blood sheded in the fights
sanguinis eorum effusione non modica )28. against the Turks for defending the Christian
Implicarea nobilimii romne din Banat faith (cum sanguinis eorum effusione non
n aprarea frontierei Regatului maghiar n modica)28.
secolul al XV-lea a fost evident i deseori Implication of the Romanian nobility
discutat n istoriografie29. Sngele vrsat, lo- from Banat in defending the frontier of the
ialitatea de care au dat dovad, mereu invocate Hungarian Kingdom in the 15th century was
n actele de recunoatere a unor stpniri, au evident and often discussed in historiogra-
avut consecine att individuale, pentru famili- phy29. The sheded blood, loyalty that they
ile nobile implicate ct i consecine colective. proved, always invoked in the acts of recogni-
Menionm n aceast privin diploma din tion of some possessions, had both individual
anul 1457 prin care regele Ladislau al V-lea consequences for the implied noble families,
a confirmat privilegiile celor opt districte ro- and collective consequences. We mention in
mneti din Banat. this respect, the diploma from 1457 through
Spaiul de frontier bnean a cunoscut which the king Ladislau V confirmed the privi-
manifestri specifice i n plan confesional. leges of eight Romanian districts from Banat.
Constatm n aceast privin o dualitate a The frontier area from Banat knew
raporturilor fa de puterea central regal. specific manifestations also on confessional
Presiunea politic i militar din vremea plan. We see, in this respect, a duality of the
regelui Ludovic I (1340-1382) a fost dublat rapports towards the central royal power. The
i de una confesional, exercitat asupra blo- political and military pression during the king
cului ortodox romnesc din sudul Banatului. Ludovic Is rule (1340-1382) was doubled
Regele a sprijinit n anii 1366-1369 activitatea also by a confessional one exerted over the
clugrilor franciscani n spaiul de frontier Orthodox Romanian block from the south of
bnean, patronnd nfiinarea unor conven- Banat. The king supported, in 1366-1369, the
turi ale franciscanilor. activity of the Franciscan monks within the
Sedii ale franciscanilor se regsesc n a frontier area of Banat, patronizing foundation
doua jumtate a secolului al XIV-lea n preaj- of Franciscan convents.
ma cetilor de la Severin, Orova, Caranse- Residences of the Franciscans were
be, Haram i Kovin. Privilegiile obinute n found in the second half of the 14th century
26
Pesty, Krass, III, p.328. 26
Pesty, Krass, III, p.328.
27
Pesty, Szreny, III, p. 23. 27
Pesty, Szreny, III, p. 23.
28
Pesty, Szreny, III, p. 37. 28
Pesty, Szreny, III, p. 37.
29
Drgan, 2000, p.402; Motogna, 1944, p.460-472. 29
Drgan, 2000, p.402; Motogna, 1944, p.460-472.

150
vremea regelui Ludovic vor fi confirmate i de around the fortresses from Severin, Orova,
Sigismund de Luxemburg spre sfritul dom- Caransebe, Haram and Kovin. The privileges
niei sale. Constatm totodat faptul c n prima gained during the king Ludovics rule would
jumtate a secolului al XV-lea i fac apariia, be confirmed also by Sigismund of Luxem-
n acelai spaiu de frontier, mnstiri orto- bourg to the end of his rule. We ascertain,
doxe. Documentele otomane de la mijlocul in the same time, that Orthodox monasteries
secolului al XVI-lea au consemnat mnstiri appeared in the same frontier area in the first
ortodoxe la Svinia, la Sirinia, la Moldova Ve- half of the 15th century. Ottoman documents
che, la Mraconia, la Bazia n spaiul Dunrii from the middle of the 16th century registered
de Jos apusene. Plasarea lor geografic, n the Orthodox monasteries from Svinia, at
preajma unor ceti medievale, nu credem c Sirinia, at Moldova Veche, at Mraconia, at
poate fi ntmpltoare. Clugrii constructori Bazia in the area of the western Low Danube.
au adus aici, venind din mediul monahal sr- Their geographical location, around some
besc, planul triconc la bisericile mnstirilor medieval fortresses, was not fortuitous. The
amintite mai sus30. Privilegiile mnstirii Vo- builder-monks brought there, coming from
dia, confirmate prin actele regelui Sigismund the monachal Serbian area, the triconc plan
de Luxemburg n anii 1418 i 1428, denot o at the churches of the monasteries mentioned
stare de relaxare n raport cu mnstirile lumii above30. Privileges of the Vodia monastery,
ortodoxe din sudul Banatului31. confirmed through the acts of the king Si-
Reconstituirea habitatului medieval pre- gismund of Luxembourg in 1418 and 1428,
supune cercetarea fortificaiei, alturi de vatra denoted a relaxing state in comparison with
propriu zis a aezrii, necropola i biserica the monasteries of the Orthodox world in the
parohial. Interesul pentru cetile medievale south of Banat31.
ale Banatului a fost limitat. Reconstituirea Reconstitution of the medieval habitat
istoriei medievale a acestei provincii, una de supposes investigation of the fortification,
frontier, nu poate fi realizat n ntregul ei fr beside the core of the settlement, necropolis
o cercetare de ansamblu, coerent i de lung and the parish church. Interest in the medieval
durat a cetilor medievale. Biserica i cetatea fortresses of Banat was limited. Reconstitu-
au reprezentat elementele eseniale, dominan- tion of the medieval history of this province,
te, ale peisajului medieval. Geneza acestor one of frontier, can not be achieved entirely
dou categorii de monumente la nceputurile without a general coherent and long-termed
evului mediu a avut loc sub determinarea investigation of medieval fortresses. The
factorilor de putere zonal i local i, nu n church and the fortress represented dominant
ultimul rnd, de poziionarea geografic a pro- essential elements of the medieval scenery.
vinciei bnene la Dunrea de Jos apusean. Genesis of these two categories of monuments
at the beginning of the Middle Ages took place
determined by the factors of regional and lo-
cal power, and, not finally, by geographical
positioning of the province of Banat along the
western Low Danube.

30
eicu, 2007, p.34. 30
eicu, 2007, p.34.
31
eicu, 2007, p.34. 31
eicu, 2007, p.34.

151
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AAASH = Acta archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungariae, Budapesta


Acta MN = Acta Musei Napocensis, Cluj-Napoca
Acta TS = Acta Terrae Septemecastrensis, Sibiu
Arh. Preg. = Arheoloki Pregled, Belgrad
AM = Arheologia Medieval, Reia
AO = Arhivele Olteniei, Craiova
BMI = Buletinul Monumentelor Istorice, Bucureti
BR = Budapest Rgisgei, Budapesta
CA = Cercetri Arheologice, Bucureti
CCA = Cronica Cercetrilor Arheologice, Bucureti
CCAR = Cronica Cercetrilor Arheologice din Romnia, Bucureti
IBI = Internationales Burgen-Institut Bulletin, Mnchen
KMTL = Korai Magyar Trtneti Lexicon (9-14 szzad), Budapesta, 1994 red. Gyula Krist
Pl Engel, Ferencz Makk
MIOGF = Mitteillungen des Instituts fr stereichische Geschichttsforschung, Innsbruck
RMM-MIA = Revista Muzeelor i Monumentelor. Monumente istorice i de art, Bucureti
RMNM = Revista Muzeului Militar Naional, Bucureti
RVM = Rad Vojevodanskih Muzeja,
SCIVA = Studii i cercetri de istorie veche i arheologie, Bucureti
St IB = Studii de istoria Banatului, Timioara
St RI = Studii. Revist de istorie, Bucureti
TRT = Trtnelmi s Rgszeti Ertesit, Timioara

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Surse pentru ilustraii
Sources for illustrations

CARANSEBE: Pl. 23
Popa, 1989, p. 326

CIACOVA: Pl. 9
Merschendorf, 1997, p. 85,87

CORONINI: P. 34; P. 32
Matei, 1982, p. 107; Bhm, 1880

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KOVIN: Pl. 38
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MEHADIA: Pl. 11
Bhm, 1880

NOVO MILOEVO: Pl. 39


Giri, 1996, p. 153

POJEJENA: Pl. 32
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STARA PALANKA: Pl. 36


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SVINIA: Pl. 14
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TIMIOARA: Pl. 23
Opri, 2007, p. 26

VRAC: Pl. 17
Petrovi, 1976, p. 57

VRAC: Pl. 18
Petrovi, 1976, p. 54-55

VRAC: Pl. 24
Brmboli, 2007, p. 22-23

157