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INTRODUCTION

Stress is a common experience. That is a part of everyones life. The nature of


work has gone through drastic changes over the last century and it is still changing at
whirlwind speed. They have touched almost all professions, starting from an artist to a
surgeon, or a commercial pilot to a sales executive. With change comes stress, inevitably.
Professional stress of organized workers, consequently, affects the health of
organizations. Still others view stress is the terms of psychological or body reaction;
blood pressure, heart rate, hormone levels.

DEFINITIONS

The other dictionary defined stress as a state of affair involving demand on


physical or mental energy

According to Richard S Lazarus The stress is a condition or feeling experienced


when a person perceives that demand exceed the personal and social resources the
individual is able to mobilize

PERSONS-ENVIRONMENT FIT:

Changes in the work and personnel environment are inevitable. A man who
doesnt feel comfortable with his/her work environment is in what psychologist refers to
as state of disequilibrium.

In this stage the persons skills, abilities and goals do not fit with the work
environment (boss, co-workers).

The lack of fit between the person and environment can have results on several
levels: subjective (feeling fatigued), behavioral (Accident-proneness), cognitive (a mental
block), psychological (elevated blood pressure), and organization (higher absence rate).

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STRESS AND DISEASE:

Job related stress has been associated with a vast array of diseases such as
coronary heart disease, hypertension, peptic ulcers, Colitis and various psychological
problems including anxiety and depression.

Research has shown that stress directly affects the endocrine system, the cardio
vascular system, the muscular system and emotion. It also has an influence on the entire
body.

TYPES OF STRESS:

Stress can be classified into two types

1. Eustress
2. Distress

1. EUSTRESS

Good stress is called Eustress. It means what helps a person complete a report on
time or generate a good, quick problem solving procedure. It is the positive stress.

2.DISTRESS

Bad stress is called Distress. It is the negative stress. The stress which demotes
our self is called the distress.

THE DYNAMICS OF STRESS

In a challenging situation the brain prepares the body for defensive action-the
fight or flight response by releasing stress hormones, namely cortisone and adrenaline.
These hormones raise the blood pressure and the body prepares to react to the situation.
With a concrete defensive action (fight response) the stress hormones in the blood get
used up. Entailing reduced stress effects and symptoms of anxiety.

When we fail to counter a stress situation (flight response) the hormones and
chemicals remain unreleased in the blood stream for a long period of time. It results in
stress related physical symptoms such as tense muscles, unfocused anxiety, dizziness and

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rapid heartbeats. We all encounter various stressors (causes of stress) in everyday life,
which can accumulate, if not released subsequently, it compels the mind and body to be
in an almost constant alarm-state in preparation to fight or flee. This state of accumulated
stress can increase the risk of both acute and chronic psychosomatic illnesses and weaken
the immune system of the human body.

Stress can cause headaches, irritable bowel syndrome, eating disorder, allergies,
insomnia, backaches, frequent cold and fatigue to diseases such as hypertension, asthma,
diabetes, heart ailments and even cancer, in fact, Sanjay Chug, a leading psychologist,
says that 70 percent to 90 percent of adults visit primary care physicians for stress-
related problems scary enough. But where do we err?

Just about everybody-men, women, children and even foetusessuffer from


stress. Relationship demands, chronic health problems, pressure at workplaces, traffic
snarls, meeting deadlines, growing-up tension or a sudden bearish trend in the bourse can
trigger stress conditions. People react to it in their own ways. In some people, stress-
induced adverse feelings and anxieties tend to persist and intensify. Learning to
understand and manage stress can prevent the counter effects of stress.

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NEED FOR THE STUDY:

To identify the stress levels of employees in Food & Beverages and House
keeping

Use resources efficiently and reduce waste& prevent pollution.

Provide work environment that makes the employee committed and motivated for
maximizing productivity

Empower employees for enhancing commitment, responsibility and


accountability

Encourage teamwork, creativity, innovativeness and high achievement


orientation.

Provide growth and opportunities for developing skill and knowledge.

Ensure functioning of effective communication channel with employee.

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OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

To know the stress levels within the organisation.

To identify the situations that causes stress.

To remove the stress conditions.

To identify physical, emotional and mental effects of stress

To maintain the organizations environment, efficiency and productivity.

To motivate the employees in the organisation.

To take care of the employee`s problems.

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SCOPE OF THE STUDY:

Management in employees of some organization is very challenging job, because


no two person are similar in their abilities, attitude, thinking and behavior. Therefore the
stress levels also vary from person to person. My study aims at dealing with stress levels
of employees.

To be continuously growing world-class company we shall.

Harness our growth potential and sustain profitable growth.

Deliver high quality and cost competitive products and be the first choice of
people.

Create an inspiring work environment to unleash the creative energy of people.

Achieve excellent in enterprise management.

Be a respected corporate citizen, ensure clean and green environment and develop
vibrant communities around us.

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METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY

The entire researcher can tap two sources of data of investigation. They are as
follows

PRIMARY DATA

Information obtained from the original sources by researchers is called primary


data. Primary data can be gathered slowly at a high cost but is of much greater accuracy
and reliability. Primary data are those which are collected fresh and for the first time and
this happen to original in character. Primary data can be collected by three basis methods
viz. surveys, observations, and experiments. Surveys technique is used widely in our
research study.

Survey Technique

Survey research is a systematic gathering of data from respondents though


questionnaires. The purpose of survey research is to facilitate and the straining or enable
predict some of behavior of population being surveyed. The survey technique used in this
project study is personal interview.

Secondary Data:

Secondary data means data that has already been referred to the data, which have
already been collected and analyzed by someone else. It is easily available for processing.
The secondary source of information is based on the various detail retail from journals,
magazines, books and websites.

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LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Time and cost constraints

Chance of personal bias while responding to a questionnaire

It was very difficult to undertake survey from the employee during the working
hours.

The questions that are asked being personal, some of them hesitated to answer.

The study is of sensitive nature as it deals with the psychological aspect.

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INDUSTRYPROFILE

In the Indian context, the term Vegetable Oils is almost synonymous with
Edible Oils and land is not used as cooking media. However it is important to keep this
distinction in mind not all Vegetable Oils are Edible - Some including castor oil are
mostly non-edible and some of the edible oils like Ground Nut and Coconut are finding
increasing industrial applications as in cosmetic, soap making etc.

By virtue if theyre high nutritive content, Edible oils form a major source of
nutrition. The fatty acids in Edible Oils are required by the body as a vehicle for carrying
vitamins; provide oil cakes, which are by-product of the oil extraction process, are
important source of animal nutrition. These can be processed in to Edible flavors, which
are rich in proteins.

Oil seeds occupy an important position and rank second after food grains as a
farm commodity crop. India accounts for a tenth of the world output of Vegetable Oils
and fats. It is the largest producer of Ground Nut, rapeseed, mustard and sesame, second
in respect of castor seeds, third in coconut, fourth in cotton seed and fifth in line seed.

Our country has a highly developed oil based industry providing gainful
employment to nearly 15 million persons besides another half a million engaged in
milling and processing units. It is an essential food-oil industry accounting for four fifths
of the total supply of Vegetable Oils, soap paints and varnish industries from the bulk of
non-food applications.

In spite of their national importance, production of food grains has been suffering
a negative growth rate all these years. Only during the first plan period, the Targets set for
production were realized after this no impressive achievement was recorded.

The main contributory factors are twofold, first only marginal land, in rain fed
areas is being used for their cultivation resulting inevitable low productivity; second
agriculture in India is still subject to the vagaries of monsoon which makes for erratic
production. It is little wonder therefore that the annual rate; of growth of oil-seed

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production for the decade 1965-1976 was a mere 1.2 percent while that of oil seed
productivity, an equally dismal one percent.

Viewed in the global context, India has the dubious distinction of having the
highest acreage under oil seeds and recording the highest output, and yet showing the
lowest yield, at 736 kg. Indias yield per hectare is lower than that of Nigeria (1615.38
Kg) U.S.A. (91474.58 Kg), Argentina (1153.49 Kg.) and China (1148.55 kg.)

For the year 1980-81, target for oil-seed production had been fixed at 11 million
tones, actual production however lagged behind, with; provisional estimates at 10.2
million tones.

Production of live major oil seeds viz./ groundnut, rape seed mustard, sesame, line
seed and castor seed and is estimated to be around 90 lakhs tones, which is about 13
percent higher than the previous years production. Production estimates of groundnut at
57 lakh tones however show decline of 70,000 tones. At 2 lakh tones castor seed
production has also registered a decrease of 30,000 tones. Rapeseed, sesame and line
seed have however, registered increase over the previous years production levels.

The central Government therefore took various measures to increase production


of oil seeds. A centrally sponsored scheme for an intensive oil seed development
programmed was operated in 14 states with a coverage target 40.6 lakhs hectors under a
liberalized pattern of central, assistance. However actual coverage was only 36 lakh
hectares and the short fall was attributed to serve drought conditions in several states
during the kharif season.

Short falls in production persisted in the oil year 1981-82 as well. As a result,
domestic industry could not meet the consumption needs respect of edible oils. The total
edible and supplies from indigenous sources were estimated at about 30 lakh tones in
1981-82 (which however higher than the previous years levels of 25 lakhs tones). The
gap of 10 lakh tones had to be filled only through imports. Consequently, the state-trading
corporation was asked to import a million tons of Edible Oils during the oil year 1981-82.
The allotment of imported Edible Oils was also pruned in a bid to ensure more supplies
through fair price shops.

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The trend of imports in expected to continue in the year to come despite the best
efforts of the union agriculture ministry to raise oil seed output. The genera-based
international trade center has projected import f 13 million tons of Vegetable Oils in
1985. As for exports, it is anticipated that India would export 15 lakh Tons of oil
equivalent of handpicked-selected groundnut, other nuts and castor oil by 1985.

The composition of our exports is expected to undergo a change palm oil and
products (palm oil and FBD palm oil) will in further account for an increasing share of
Indian exports soybean oil and rapeseed oil will continue to be imported through their
combined share may fall to about one third of the total imports refined rapeseeds oil
could be the cheap oil for the liquid market while soybean oil is expected to the supplied
to the vanaspathi industry.

Regarding production of oils, an increase in the production of solvent extracted


oils such as rice bran oil tree oils in likely to occur the ITC reports says that the country
could make significant investments in view of its resource for this oil and the demand for
Edible Oils. The report has also forecast a rise in the de oiling of ground nuts cake and
other sun cakes the country could also produce 4.5 lakhs of tones seed oil per year.

PROFILE OF THE OIL INDUSTRY:

The power and strength of the company depends on how strong and secure it is on
the food front. In trying to achieve this goal, the oil seed scenario in the country has
undergone a substantial charge during the past few years. The country is moving away
from a situation of scarcity and huge import bills to one of self-sufficiency and possibly
even export of vegetable oils.

India ranks high among the oil seeds producing countries in the world with
perhaps the largest number of commercial varieties of oil seeds such as ground nut, rape
and mustard, sesame, kardi seed, nigerseed, soya beans, sunflower seeds, linseed, castor
seed, copra, cotton seed and a number of minor seeds of tree origin oil seeds takes their
place, as the second largest agricultural crop, next only to food grains. The cultivation of
oil seeds in India is spread over various states with a distinct regional pattern covering

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about 19 to 20 million hectares, which accounts for about 11 percent of the total land
under cultivation in the country.

In India where fats of animal origin such as fish oil are seldom used as cooking
media. The term vegetable oils is used as a synonym for edible oils. However it
needs to be recommended that there are, on the one hand vegetables oils such as castor,
groundnut and coconut oils, which are finding increasing. Industrial applications such as
in cosmetics, soap making etc edible oils are a major source of nutrition for the people
in the country. Oil cakes that are by-products of the oil extraction process are an
important source of animal nutrition. They can also be processed in to protein rich edible.

India has a highly developed oil based industry employing more than 15millon
persons. However it remains essentially food oil. The industry is accounting for as much
as 83% of the total supply of vegetable oil in the country. The major non-food users of oil
are soap, paint and varnish industries.

Faced with major demand for their conventional products, FMCG majors have
been planning their hopes on branded staple foods to deliver rapid top line extension.
Negative growth in the oils and fats business has been instruments in restraining top line
growth for the FMCG.

PRODUCTS:

Broadly edible oil or fat products can be categorized as fallows.

a. Vegetable refined oil


b. Hydrogenated oil
c. Bakery fats
Expelled ground oil of good quality can be directly consumed. It can also be
refined to have higher purity other oils such as soya has to be refined to make them
edible.

Vanaspathi is obtained by hydrogenation of edible oil. It is used as a suitable for


ghee by some segments of sources and also for making sweets, snacks including biscuits,
cakes etc

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CONSUMER AWARENESS AND PENETRATION:

Among FMCG products, edible oils has one of the highest penetration of 98% in
urban as well as in rural areas penetration of all these 3 cooking medium is very high at
99.8% in urban areas as well as rural areas.

Vanaspathi penetration averages 17.4% at all India level, significantly higher at


28.8% in urban areas and 13% in rural areas. It is highest in medium size towns of 0.5-
1mm population of 34.3% in metros and towns.

In metros refined edible oil is a relatively popular cooking medium. The per
capita vegetables oil consumption in the country was 7.6kg p.a in 1997-98, significantly
lower than 8.5 kg p.a during 1996-97.

CONSUMER HABITS AND PRACTICES:

Edible oil is one form or other is consumed is almost every household, and Indian
food habits show a strong preference for fried vegetables and several other fixed snacks.

Traditionally the north and west have been milk surplus regions in the country.
This has led to surplus ghee production in these areas and higher ghee consumption. The
lower ends of the society which cannot afford ghee consume vanaspathi.

Sweet meat makers in the unorganized sector, particularly in the north represent
one of the largest user segments for vanaspathi.

In the south there has been abundant availability of edible oils, namely coconut
oil, ground nut oil, sunflower oil etc. This had led to different consumer habits southern
consumer prefer refined oil cooking medium as compared to ghee or vanaspathi.
Similarly the eastern region, which is milk deficient, has preference for vegetable oil as
cooking medium.

There are also regional and cultural differences in the type of edible oil used for
cooking. For instance Kerala uses more of coconut oil for cooking. Sesame oil is widely
used in the north, mustard oil in the north and east while there is an over whelming
preference for groundnut oil is in the west.

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Most consumers, especially in the rural areas buy edible oil in loose form.
Whereas in large metros loose oil is scarcely available as retailers find it difficult to
handle the same. In medium sized towns, loose as well as branded oil is available.

In the last few years popularity of branded oil has been increasing particularly
with the introduction of low cost poly packs with the government ordering compulsory
packaging of edible oil in the wake of dropsy deaths in the country due to use of
adulterated mustard oil, the wage of branded oils is expected to witness phenomenal
growth.

India accounts for 9.3% of world oil seed production. It has the worlds fourth
largest edible oil economy. In 1999, India ranked as the worlds largest importer of edible
oils, displacing china.

The bulk of edible oil, India imports under the open general license is RBD
palmolein of Malaysian and Indonesian origin.

India is one of the worlds leading producers of oil seeds and oil, contributing to
9.3% world oil seed production. It produces the largest number of commercial varieties of
oil seeds over nearly 28.4 million hectares of land. The major edible oils produced in
India are ground nut, rapeseed, soya, cottonseed, sesame seed, castor seed, sunflower
seed, etc. Groundnut was the most widely consumed and traded edible oil determining
edible oil economics, but is now being displaced by others. India is the worlds second
largest production of groundnut, next only to china. The govt. has set up a technology
mission on oil seeds, to increase production of other oil seeds and oil and to reduce
dependence on imports.

The strategy followed was to

Increase productivity with better inputs and practices


Increase area under oil seed crop
Encourage winter oil seed crops.

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This led to a sharp increase in oil seed production driven mainly by rapeseed,
sunflower, castor seed and soya. India is today the worlds third largest producer of
rapeseed and cottonseed and the largest producer of caster seed.

India has approximately 300 edible oil refining units, 60-70% of which are in the
small scale unlike the bigger refiners, the smaller one are unable to important huge
quantities of crude either low capacity or lack of financial resources, and may be forced
to close down or sell out to the bigger ones in the fore cable future.

Another major problem is the low capacity utilization. The installed capacity of
oil mills is around 36 million tons annually, but capacity utilization is only 40% solvent
extraction plants shows only 33% capacity utilization of vegetable oil refineries 40%
utilization.

The import of refined palm oil was put under OGC (Open general license) in
March 1994. Other edible oils were put under OGC in April 1995 when an item is
brought under OGC; it means that the item can be imported without seeking any
approval.

Originally there was no discrimination between refined and non-refined edible oil
as far as import duty was concerned. The duty on both was 65% duty was then slashed to
30% for both then to 20% in 1996 and 15 % in the 1999-2000 budgets.

In most parts of the world, import duty on the oil seeds is lower than that on oils.
But in India, it is higher 40%. That is why no import of oil seeds (or) oil-bearing material
has taken place in India. The industry wants the duty to be lowered from the present 40%
to 50%.

Edible oil prices in the Indian market have crashed owe to large imports by
multinational trading houses. The edible oil industry is one sector in India that will see
considerable reform in the foreseeable future.

Major players in refined edible oils in the organizational sector are the ITC
Agrotech, Marico Industries, Ahmed mills, Godrej foods, HLL and NDDB. The market is
highly fragmented among various brands.

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Sundrop refined Sunflower oil brand with around 13l market share/ ITC
Agrotechs other edible oil brands include Real Gold mustard oil, Crystal refined oil and
Sudan unrefined mustard oil. Sweekar sunflower oil marketed by marica has an 8.2%
share and saffola has 7.5% market share other leading edible oil brands include NDDBs
Dhara rape seed oil. Godrej foods (Godrej cooklite sunflower) with 11% market share,
HLLs flora with 2.5% market share (6% in sunflower oil segment) and Postman with
around 8% market share.

The vanaspathi HLLs Dalda is the oldest and largest brand with close to 36%
market share. Its brand extension Dalda manpasand was launched in 1996. In Feb 98,
HLL launched another brand variant dalda feel light. Other major vanaspathi
manufacturers are Wipro, Amrit Vanaspathi, IVP, Madhusudan industries Rasui and
Pioneer Agro.

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IMPORT OF EDIBLE OILS:

It has not been done away completely, but whenever import is now made is
largely a measure of precaution than out of any composition from 1988-89. The edible
oils import has been drastically cut down in 1996-97; import totaled 3 lakh tones valued
at Rs 250 crores during the next 2 years it is expected around the same level. The present
import is significant compared to the napping to 19.45 lakh tones imported value at Rs
969 crore in 1997-98.

India has signed a memorandum of understanding with Malaysia for an annual


import of two lakh tons of palm oil for two years. Besides the country is to receive
50,000 tons of soya been oil from the U.S. as a gift for meeting social objectives.

Although in the context of exceptionally large oil seeds production during the
current year, there is hardly any need for import, the country may avail the option to
import for building a buffer stock to meet the needs of public distribution system during
the lean period.

EXPORT

Export of oil mill, oil seed and minor oils and are expected to gather momentum
following the enouncement regarding the full float of rupee on the trade account,
according to the sources in the trade. The present export scenario shows that the trade is
in a beyond mood of achieving a formidable target, with increased export earnings in the
current year. This basically enacts from bumper oil seeds output of 215 lakh tones in the
offing. This expectation of a bumper crop, moreover has compelled the union ministry of
commerce to raise the current years export target for the oil seeds from Rs 1250 crore
over Rs 1300 crore.

According to the estimates made by the central coordination committee, the


exports of oil mills, oil seeds and minor oils during the current year would be more than
3.3 lakh tones with a value of Rs 1362 crore as against 30 lakhs tones with the value of
Rs 1043 crore achieved during the year 1996-97 the export of oil meals, oil seeds and

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minor oil during the period April 1996 to Jan 1998 stood at over 24 lakhs tones valued at
more than Rs 1000 crores.

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION:

Satisfaction is a persons feeling of pleasure (or) disappointment resulting from


comparing a products perceived performance in relation to his (or) her expectation.

As this definition makes clear satisfaction is a junction of perceived performance


and expectations. If the performance falls short of expectation, the customer is
dissatisfied. If the performance matches the expectations, the customer is satisfied or
delighted.

Many companies are aiming for high satisfaction because customers who are just
satisfied still find it easy to retain.

When a better offer comes along those who are highly satisfied are much less
ready to switch. High satisfaction (or) delight creates an emotional affinity with the
brand, not just a rational preference. The request is high customer loyalty.

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COMPANY PROFILE

3F INDUSTRIES LIMITED
3F Industries Ltd, Tadepalligudem are a family owned Organization. It is well
known as foods, fats and fertilizers. But the West Godavari farmers call it is a Tavudu
Factory. This organization is professionally carrying the business activity by the Goenka
family. It is having branches in Madras, Bombay, Hyderabad, Kakinada, Calcutta and
Baroda.
3F Industries Ltd, Tadepalligudem, West Godavari district was conceived in 1959,
born in 1960 and was on its feet by 1962. Today foods, fats and fertilizers Ltd has
matured into a conglomeration of 20 industrial units spread over 40 acres constantly
buzzing with activity and providing employment to over 630 persons.

MISSION:

Safety and quality are the wings of our success.

VISION:

To be the number one in edible oils and specialty. Fats Company in the country
targeting to reach 1000 crores people by 2014.

PHILOSOPHY OF THE COMPANY:

The philosophy of the organization 3F is serving the society through the


industry.

OBJECTIVES OF 3F LTD:

The main objectives of the organization are:

To serve the society through the success in the oil output.


The objective towards the organization include
Concern
Commitment
Integrity
Quality

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3F Industries Ltd have completed 40 years of existence where it has seen lots of
ups and downs.

As the company has incorporated its name as, 3F Industries Ltd it has given 3F
as the brand name to all the products it produces.

The wheel of the fortune has turned a full circle for Mr. B.K.Goenka, the architect
of 3F Industries Ltd Born and Bred in Burma the Goenka family established and
respected in industry and trade.

They had a flourishing textile business and a large rice mill. The rice bran from
Mr. Goenkas mill was avidly sought as animal feed and his observant eyes used to notice
thin deposit of oil in the wrapping papers used for sampling could this oil be extracted?
What would be its quality? These questions had to wait because in 1942 the Japanese
invaded Burma andMr. Goenka had to abandon his business and return to India.

Being an optimist, he transformed the adversity into opportunity by this got and
determination. After brief spell in his native land in Rajasthan, his restless enterprising
zeal brought, Mr. Goenka to madras in 1943 where he is with his brothers, started export
of handloom fabrics. In due course he established a large textile business.

In 1959 Mr. Goenka read in an article by Dr. Raghunath Prasad of central and
visited Burma with him to study the relevant technologies though he found that east
German technology better, he was not fully satisfied and asked his brother Ms. G.S.
Goenka who was in Japan to study in detail about the Japanese process and another
brother Mr. S.N. Goenka in Europe, to study the process of Hugo of Germany and Dr.
Smith of Belgium mean while he concerned searching for an ideal location to set up his
industry in India.

Technology was selected and Tadepalligudem, the rice bowl of A.P. was finalized
as the location for the proposed extraction plant, the first in India to process rice bran.

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This group associates modesty garments and golden needle apparels in garments
and fabrics and Sanyak Udyog in plastic products constantly strengthen their group
activities.

A NEW ERA BEGINS:-


In collaboration with M/S Yoshino seisakusho company Ltd, a renowned
engineering house in Japan we learned a unique technology for refining high FFA. Rice
bran oil to induce large production of rice bran oil by providing diversified outlets and
better realization to the solvent extraction plants to achieve the potential production of 0.6
million tons from the present 0.25 million tones and almost nothing in 1960.

FUNCTIONAL PROFILE:-
PRODUCTION:VARIOUS PLANTS IN 3F INDUSTRIES LTD:-

Solvent Extraction: - (Lurgi, West Germany)

Installed and commissioned in 1962 with production capacity 2400 tones pa. This
plant process is exclusively for rice bran. Rice bran is tempered and palletized by the use
of hexane; the oil in the bran is extracted. The de oiled bran thus obtained is packed for
export. According to the quality of the oil is extracted is used for edible and non-edible
purposes.

Solvent extraction Plant II: - (Desment, Belgium, India)

Installed and commission in 1972 production capacity 36000 tones PA process. In


thus plant is similar to plant-I however this plant is equipped with preparatory.

Solvent- extraction plant III:-


Installed and commissioned in 1983 production capacity 45,000 tones pa.
(Fabricated and installed by engineering division of 3F Industries Ltd. This plant is also
versatile to process various seeds oiled cakes and kernels. It is designed, fabricated by 3F
Industries ltd, engineering division short coming of the other plant.

Its uniqueness is the incorporation of minimize the Hexane loss and facility for
low temperature extraction.

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Refinery:-
Installed and commissioned in 1965 production capacity of 4500 tones p.a. Our
refinery is equipped with both batch and continuous neutralizes. Refining process
consists of benumbing, caustic neutralization, Bleaching and deodorization. Deodorized
oil is passed through polishing filters and sent to packing section.

Solvent extraction plant IV:-


(Fabricated and installed by oil ex India and their engineering division)

It was installed and commissioned in 1985 with a production capacity of 45000


tons per annum. These four extraction plants provide variability of operation in oil seeds
and oil cakes and at the same time has advantages in marketing. The plants have facilities
to process a wide varieties of oil seeds, oil cakes like rice bran, soybean, sunflower,
ground nut, rape seed, sesame, mangosal, Niger etc.,

Due to non-availability of sufficient bran and export-import policies of Indian


government, forced the company to stop two solvent plants.

Fat Splitting plant:-

Installed and commissioned in 1967 into a production capacity of 4500 tones pa.
Oil consists of fatty acids and glycerin. It can be separated from the oil by high pressure
splitting under high pressure and temperature, reaction taxes place, slitting the oil into
crude fatty acid and sweet water which is the dilute from the glycerin is obtained.

Glycerin plant:-
UNIT NO: 1 installed and commissioned in 1967 with a production capacity of
300 tons per annum. Sweet water obtains from the fat splitting plant is set to multi effect
vacuum evaporators, where it is evaporated into crude glycerin. The crude glycerin is
further concentrated, deodorized and bleached to yield refined glycerin.

Hydrogenation plant:-
UNIT NO: 1 commissioned in 1979, UNIT NO 2 in 1982 into a production
capacity of 6000 tons per annum. Rice bran oil bounds in unsaturated fatty acids to render
this oil suitable for making good quality soaps it has to be hydrogenated for increasing its

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melting point. Hydrogenated plants consists of cell house, compressor room and
hydrogenation auto claves. This oil is hydrogenated under high temperature and pressure
using a catalyst.

To obtain better products for premium soaps this hydrogenated rice bran oil is
split and distilled to give hardened distilled fatty acid.

Physical Refinery:-

Installed in 1986, into production capacity of 9000 tons per annum. This is
fabricated by the engineering division of foods, fats and fertilizers Ltd. The conventional
process of refining consists of specifying the free fatty acid in the oil by the use of an
alga. In physical refining the free fatty acid is directly distilled out under high vacuum
and temperature.

Waste oil recovery plant:-


Installed and commissioned in 1986. In this plant waste oil from present
bleaching earth and spent nickel catalyst is recovered.

Vanaspathi Shortening:-
Production of Vanaspathi shortening high quality bakery fats, margarine from
refined oils fractionation. This division produces high quality olives and steering
from various edible fats for use in manufacture of chocolate confectionery and cosmetics
leading manufacturers this yields of activity all over the world are their consumers.

Turnkey Engineering:-

In collaboration with yashino-seisakush co. Ltd. Japan who has done pioneering
work in developing process and technical know how far refining high fat rice bran oil.
The engineering division has installed and commissioned five plants into a total project
cost of Rs 1.70 millions in south India.

India is the second largest producers of rice and has large potentials for crude rice
bran oil to be processed and turned into a cooking medium to satisfy their requirements
of an immense Indian market.

23
International Trading:-

Besides the export of the manufactured products, with large ware houses for dry
cargo, bulk storage installation for liquid infrastructures at their command and the rich
international trading experience of over 40 years.

They have set up high standards and achieved substantial growth is international
trading of commodities like rice, industrial fats, maize, tapioca, HPS ground nuts,
kernels, oils and chemicals, new products like natural foods, cobs, oleoresin and high
quality waxes are proposed to be added to their export baskets.

Through R&D new products and value addition to the existing products is being
done in a continuous basis for enriching the international trading both quality and
volume.

ADMINISTRATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

Board of Directors:

Sri B.K.Goenka Chairman and M.D.


G.S.Goenka whole time Director
S.B.Goenka whole time Director
Bharat Kumar Goenka whole time Director
P.Goenka
Sita3F Industries Ltd Ram Goenka.
Sushi Goenka
FINANCIAL RESULTS:-

Financial performance:

24
During the years 2002-2003 and 2001-2002, the company was mainly engaged in
trading of imported vegetable oils and achieved a turnover of Rs 279.17 crores as
compared to Rs 327.25 crores previous year.

After that in the year 2003-2004 the turnover is Rs 285.66 crores the decrement is
due to Govt. policies imposed lower customs duty on raw oils. Further export impressive
with resumption of rice and other agri-product exports. The increase in export
performance is due to enhanced manufacturing export from Rs.7.87 crores to
Rs.19.13 crores .

YEAR EXPORTS (Crores)

2011-2012 56.28

2010-2011 61.32

2009-2010 41.65

2008-2009 43.31

AWARDS:-

The company received the SEA RICE BRAN OIL award in 2001-2002 from the
solvent, extraction association of India.

PROJECTS:-

2000-2001, a terminal at Gopalpur in Orissa was commissioned and started


marketing imported oils in the linter lands of orissa.2001-2002 palm, solvent, refining
and purification of plant.

2002-2003, Balancing of equipment has been by adding a cooling tower to


various plants.2003-2004, Complete Deodorization plant III has been commissioned with
installed capacity of 18000 TPA in order to improve the productivity.

25
MANUFACTURE OF QUALITY PRODUCTS:

1) Tandul (Rice Bran Oil)


2) Surabhi (Vanaspathi)
3) Bakers pet (Bakery shortening)
4) 3F (Vanaspathi)
5) Mello (Margarine)
6) Mellocreme (Margarine)
7) Biscreme (Aerated Shortening)
8) Palmdelite
9) Golden spread (Margarine)
10) 3F Sunflower
11) Royal Delight
12) Trim.

Tandul:

Premium quality refined Rice bran Oil


Packing: 1 ltr x 10 pouches, 2 ltr can, 5 ltr can, 15 ltr can, 15
kg tin.

Visit website www.heartoil.com

Surabhi:

Refined Rice bran Oil

Packing: 15 kg tin

Bakerspet (bakery shortening)Application:

A general purpose frying and cooking medium used by the


baker. Bakerspet also finds its application in the confectionery

26
products.
Packing: 15kg BIB, 15kg tins

3F VanaspatiApplication:

A granular all-purpose cooking medium.

Packing: 200ml, 500ml 1ltr pouches and 15kg tin

Mello (Margarine) Application:

For voluminous and soft cakes, pastries and plum cakes.


Packing: 15kg BIB & plastic buckets

Mellocreme (Margarine) Application:

Used as filling cream and for cake icings.


Packing:15kg BIB

Biscreme (Aerated Bakery Shortening)


Application: A special product for cookies and the creamy-
centers of biscuits.

Packing: 14kg BIB

Palmdelite
Refined Palm Olein.

Packing: 1 ltr x 15 pouches per carton, 15 kg tin.

27
Golden spread (Margarine) Application:

A very popular brand for crispy & flaky puffs and kharis.
Packing: Oil 15kg BIB

3F Sunflower Packing:

1 ltr pouch x 10, 1 ltr x 20 pouches per carton.

Royal Delite

Premium quality Refined Palm Olein

Packing: 1 ltr x 15 pouches per carton, 15 kg tin.

TrimApplication:

General purpose cooking fat especially for parathas & biryani.

Packing: 15kg BIB

STEARIC ACID:

28
This product is derived from vegetable oils like Palm Fatty Acid Distillate, Rice
Bran Oil, Rice Bran Acid Oil and Crude Palms terrine. We also manufacture tailor-made
stearic acid to suit customer's specification.

Application:
This product is used in various industrial applications like cosmetics, metallic
stearates, PVC Resin Pipes, Rubber, Metal Polishing, Plastics, Cement Paints, Water
proofing Cements, Tyre Sector etc.

Packing:
In flake form, packed in 50kg HDPE woven bags.

International Trading:-

Besides the export of the manufactured products, with large ware houses for dry
cargo, bulk storage installation for liquid infrastructures at their command and the rich
international trading experience of over 40 years.

They have set up high standards and achieved substantial growth is international
trading of commodities like rice, industrial fats, maize, tapioca, HPS ground nuts,
kernels, oils and chemicals, new products like natural foods, cobs, oleoresin and high
quality waxes are proposed to be added to their export baskets. Through R&D new
products and value addition to the existing products is being done in a continuous basis
for enriching the international trading both quality and volume.

29
ORGANIZATION CHART

Director

Commerci ADM
G.M al
Stores Productio Manage manage
manag r
officers n r Engg
(H.R.D er Sales
manag
G.M ) manag
er
er
Commerc
(Finance ial officer
Purchase Maintenan Administrati
on
Person Manager ce
) engineer
al Officer
Marketin Refinerie
Deputy officer g s
Manag manager Office
er Stores LASO
Commerci
al assistan Deputy IV
assistan ce Manag
Sales Mainte
Welfare er
Assistance Repres nance
Manag entativ Junior engine Supervisio
Manager er e stores er n&
administrat
officer boiler or
Junior
plant
Sales Junior
Security officer
assistants Plant engine
Junior officer er
operato
executive r
accountant
Time
officer
Accountan
t

30
Organizational structure:

The General Manager is the main administrating and controlling and head of the
3F ltd. On behalf of the board of directors under him there will be one Deputy (Finance
and Administration) five heads of the Departments representing the 3F ltd.

Man Power Position:-


To continue the day by day operations the company has adopted a systematic
manpower poison.

1) Managerial Staff:

The managerial staff consists of 75 members and they belong to all departments
of the organization.

2) Staff:

Staff consists of 100 members. It includes clerical and non-clerical staff.

3) Technical Staff:

The technical staff consists of 245 members. It includes plant engineers, plant
supervisor, plant operators etc.

4) Bata:

Bata otherwise known as piece rated workers, they are 92 in number.

5) Trainers:

Trainers consist of 98 members. Trainers are those persons who take training from
the organization.

6) Act apprentices:

An act apprentice consists of 20 members. Industrial training colleges send some


students to the organization to pursue trainings in different branches.

31
MARKETING:-

The FFF ltd has a strong marketing network spread in all the country where it is
existed. Various dealers and consignment agents are been appointed every year to
increase the network and have a strong command over the market.

The company has also increased the size of the basket of the products that are
offered to the industrial customers by adding various new products.

Capital sources:

Sales include garments (inclusive of transportation) Rs 171.23 lacs.


Sales are stated at gross value inclusive of taxes and freight.
Investment subsidy 20% of fixed capital investment subject to a selling of
Rs2million.
Power subsidy 25% rebate in power bills for a period of 3years subject to a limit
of Rs 5million.
Capital reserve represents the amount of principle waiver by the bank and
financial institutions.
Other receipts includes Rs 3.45 lacs being difference of sale value of mould Rs 14
lacs over its purchase value Rs 10.55 lacs made during the year.
The amount shown in balance sheet, profit loss accounts are not strictly
comparable with previous year due to demerger of the company in the previous
year as the turnover and expenses of resulting company up to 30-09-2008 are
included in the financial statements.

Bankers:

State Bank of India (Chennai)


State Bank of Hyderabad (Chennai)
Andhra Bank (Tadepalligudem)
Central Bank of India (Chennai)
Industrial Development Bank of India (Chennai)
Karur Vysya Bank ltd (Tadepalligudem)

Capital Structure:

32
The company is a closely held industrial house (with no public investment)
following is the capital structure as 31-3-09.

Particulars Rs in crores

Share capital(including reserves) 74.92

Loaned funds(secured loans) 109.34

Unsecured loans 29.93

Deferred tax 1.84

TOTAL 228.03

SWOT Analysis:

The SWOT analysis provides information that is helpful in matching the firms
resources and capabilities to the competitive environment in which it operates. As such, it
is instrumental in strategy formulation and selection.

A scan of the internal and external environment is an important part of the


strategic planning process environmental factors internal to the form usually can be
classified as strengths(s) and weaknesses (w) and those external to the firm can be
classified as opportunities (o) and threats (t) such as analysis of the strategic environment
is referred to as a swot analysis.

Strengths of 3F:

It has efficient management which takes effective decisions.


Well trained and disciplined work force.
Plant location which is proximity to labour, raw material, and transportation.
H.R.policy of the company which is concentrated on enhancing productivity and
result oriented performances.
It has 3F as a brand name, which is a valuable intangible asset.
Will positioned in attractive market segments
It has adopting the latest technology
Strong financial condition ample financial resources to develop the business.

Weaknesses of 3F:

33
A weakness is limitation is deficiency in resources skills and capabilities that
seriously in speeds effective performance. Coming to the company side it has no
weaknesses. Particularly but some challenges are there. In front of the company there are
as follow.

Underutilization of capacity.
Too much debt.
High cost structure.
A weak brand name.
Lack of quality raw material.

Opportunities of 3F:

Falling trades barriers in attractive foreign markets.


Expanding the companys product line.
High market share of the company.
Openings to exploit new technologies.
The FFF has subsidiary companies like
i. Arker International Ltd, Singapore
ii. Eylon specialty Fats pvt Ltd, Srilanka
iii. Ghana Ltd, Ghana, West Africa.
Ability to grow rapidly because of sharply rising buyer demand for the industries
product.

Threats of 3F:

Increasing intensity of competition among industry competitors may squeeze


profit margin.
Changes in buyers tastes and preferences away from the industrys product.
Shortage to supply of raw materials due to natural calamities.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

INTRODUCTION

Stress is a common experience. That is a part of everyones life. The nature of


work has gone through drastic changes over the last century and it is still changing at
whirlwind speed. They have touched almost all professions, starting from an artist to a
surgeon, or a commercial pilot to a sales executive. With change comes stress, inevitably.

34
Professional stress of organized workers, consequently, affects the health of
organizations. Still others view stress is the terms of psychological or body reaction;
Blood pressure, heart rate, hormone levels

DEFINITIONS

The other dictionary defined stress as a state of affair involving demand on


physical or mental energy

According to Richard S Lazarus The stress is a condition or feeling experienced


when a person perceives that demand exceed the personal and social resources the
individual is able to mobilize

PERSONS-ENVIRONMENT FIT:

Changes in the work and personnel environment are inevitable. A man who
doesnt feel comfortable with his/her work environment is in what psychologist refers to
as state of disequilibrium.

In this stage the persons skills, abilities and goals do not fit with the work
environment (boss, co-workers).

The lack of fit between the person and environment can have results on several
levels: subjective (felling fatigued) behavioral (Accident-proneness), cognitive (a mental
block), psychological (elevated blood pressure) and organization (higher absence rate).

35
STRESS AND DISEASE:

Job related stress has been associated with a vast array of diseases such as
coronary heart disease, hypertension, peptic ulcers, colitis and various psychological
problems including anxiety and depression.

Research has shown that stress directly affects the endocrine system the cardio
vascular system the muscular system and emotion. It is also has a general around
influence on the entire body.

TYPES OF STRESS:

Stress can be classified into two types

1. Eustress
2. Distress

1. EUSTRESS

Good stress is called Eustress. It means what helps a person complete a report on
time or generate a good, quick problem solving procedure. It is the positive stress.

2. DISTRESS

Bad stress is called Distress. It is the negative stress. It means which stress
demotion our self is called the distress.

THE DYNAMICS OF STRESS

In a challenging situation the brain prepares the body for defensive action-the
fight or flight response by releasing stress hormones, namely cortisone and adrenaline.
These hormones raise the blood pressure and the body prepares to react to the situation.
With a concrete defensive action (fight response) the stress hormones in the blood get
used up. Entailing reduced stress effects and symptoms of anxiety.

When we fail to counter a stress situation (flight response) the hormones and
chemicals remain unreleased in the blood stream for a long period of time. It results in
stress related physical symptoms such as tense muscles, unfocused anxiety, dizziness and

36
rapid heartbeats. We all encounter various stressors (causes of stress) in everyday life,
which can accumulate, if not released subsequently, it compels the mind and body to be
in an almost constant alarm-state in preparation to fight or flee. This state of accumulated
stress can increase the risk of both acute and chronic psychosomatic illnesses and weaken
the immune system of the human body.

Stress can causes headaches, irritable bowel syndrome, eating disorder, allergies,
insomnia, backaches, frequent cold and fatigue to diseases such as hypertension, asthma,
diabetes, heart ailments and even cancer, in fact, Sanjay Chugh, a leading psychologist,
says that 70 percent to 90 percent of adults visit primary care physicians for stress-
related problems. But where do we err?

Just about everybody-men, women, children and even fetusessuffer from stress.
Relationship demands, chronic health problems pressure at workplaces, traffic snarls,
meeting deadlines, growing-up tension or a sudden bearish trend in the bourse can trigger
stress conditions. People react to it in their own ways. In some people, stress-induced
adverse feelings and anxieties tend to persist and intensify. Learning to understand and
manage stress can prevent the counter effects of stress.

STRESSORS:

The stress is caused by their pressures or conditions. It is called stressor.

TYPE OF STRESSORS

BIOLOGICAL STRESSORS
ENIVRONMENTAL
COGNITIVE OR THINKING
PERSONAL BEHAVIOUR
LIFE SITUATIONS

37
1. BIOLOGICAL:-

Mental or physical illness

Ex. being blind, breaking an arm

2. ENVIRONMENTAL

Poverty, pollution, crowding, noises and natural disaster

3. COGNITIVE OR THINKING

The way you perceive a situation

4. PERSONAL BEHAVIOR-

Negative reaction of the mind and body because of drugs, alcohol etc.

5. LIFE SITUATIONS

Having someone or something die, divorce, trouble relationships

SOURCES OF STRESS

Stress is a reality we face in our everyday life. There are both eustress and distress
that come from our work and non-work lives. Distress could be organizationally induced
environmental and that coming from the work to non-work interface. Let us examine
each of these.

ORGANISATIONAL STRESSORS

1) Role-related factors, which are subjectively experienced including evaluation


anxiety, mergers and transfers:
2) The nature of the job(i.e., its inherent characteristics);
3) Factors related to interpersonal and group dynamics:
4) Structural factors such as reporting relationship;
5) Interfacing with the external environment of the organization and
6) Stressors from other non-work spheres.

38
1. ROLE RELATED FACTORS

Individuals may experience such role-related stresses a role conflict, role


ambiguity and role overload. Role stagnation, Role erosion, role isolation, inter role
dilemmas, inadequacy of resources to do the job and personal inadequacy are related to
the role. In some jobs, there may be stresses emanating from facing ethical dilemmas as
all.

Stress from role conflict is experienced when two or more significant other in the
organization expects different things to be done by the individual. For instance, Mr.
Sivas immediate supervisor might want him to credit the days receipts to one particular
account and the department manager to another, Mr. Siva would then experience role
conflict since there are conflicting directions from his two bosses. Stresses from role
ambiguity arise when an employee does not know what is expected of him or her, or how
to go about doing the job. For example if an employee just joining an organization is left
to figure out for him what he is supposed to be doing without any guidance as to what
expected of him(i.e. his role), the newcomer would experience a high level of role
ambiguity. Even an old timer might be required to shoulder a new responsibility without
being offered much information. For instance, a production manager might tell a foreman
the he needs 500 units of steel rods to be manufactured in days time and leave town
immediately. He might go without specifying there in due, the design details, cost
constraints, if any, and the type of additional resources that will be provided. The foreman
is now left in an atmosphere of ambiguity and does not know how he should go about
doing his job. The entirely new position an individual is placed in also causes him anxiety
until such time as he takes to settle down in the new role.

2. NATURE OF THE JOB ITSELF:

Common, work related stress emanated from task demands. Time pressures and
so and so forth. The nature of the job performed by the individual can offer cause stress.
If a job or travel, dull and boring, or happens to be excessively demanding, or involved
frequent transfers or travel, curtailing the time that can be spent with the family, the
individual is likely to experience stress. Lack of planning and organizing at the workplace

39
can also produce stress. Some jobs, by their very mature, can also be hazardous or
morally conflicting to the individual who interfaces with it such as when a staunch
believer in and an advocate of place, has to work, for lack of other suitable job
opportunities, in an explosives manufacturing factory. He is forced to work in this
environment, which is a constant source of severe stress and anguish to him. In addition,
some duties and responsibilities have built-it stresses, such as those of the firefighter, the
hostage negotiator, or the police squad that defuses bombs. Thus, the very nature of the
job can induce stress.

3. INTERPERSONAL AND GROUP FACTORS:

Interpersonal and group-relate stressors include factors such as lack group


cohesion, interpersonal conflicts, poor communication, unpleasant relationships, and the
fear of being ostracized from the group as a valued member. Working with superiors,
peers or subordinates who are difficult to get along with can be a constant of stress. Some
people can deal with misunderstandings and conflicts in an open way and resolve issues
as they arise. Most, however, find this difficult and build up internal stress.

When individuals have to face conflicts, poor communication and unpleasant


interactions at the work place, they try to avoid the stress by frequent absenteeism, and
look out other job opportunities. Another factor is sexual harassment at work, where
unwanted advances or physical is made by the opposite sex. These can be extremely
stressful and have an adverse impact on the individuals work performance.

4. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURAL FACTORS:

Environmental factors at work, such as noise, heat, poor lighting, radiation and
smoke are stress inducting agents. Insufficient resources such as time, budget, raw
materials, space or manpower are additional stressors in the work environment. When
employees have to produce and perform with inadequate resources on a continuous basis,
stress and strain are naturally imposed on those whose responsibility it is to get the job
done. In addition, other structural factors in the organizational setting, such as staff rules
and regulations, and reward system not palatable to members, may act as stressors.
Organizationally induced stress result in low job satisfaction for individuals. The lack of

40
carrier paths may act as an additional organizational stressor. For many aspiring to
become managers or executives, the lack of progress can be a constant source of stress.
Thus, several stressors result in a state where the em0ployee seen no ratification in sight
and experiences physical, emotional and exhaustion (Etziini, 1984).

In sum, task difficulty and complicity, uncertainty regarding the outcome of


results of performance, evaluation tension, fear of failure, a recently acquired job
position, mergers, unclear career path and all such phenomena a lot of stress.

5. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS:

Certain types of interactions with significant factors in the external environment


of the organization can also be sources of stress. These stresses may arise out of the
unreasonable expectations of external agents, as for instance, when the outside party
demands some special inducements in the form of unrecorded money or gifts for their
cooperation. Governmental or other agencies might also give, those with the interface, a
hard time by not keeping up appointments and routinely following red-tape procedures.
Other environmental include sudden and unexpected changes in the marketplace, the
financial market and soon, which catch to manager off-guard.

6. WORK-NON-WORK INTERFACE

As pointed out by near, rice and Hunt (1980) and Sekaran (1986d), among other,
the work domains of ones life are closely intertwined. The stresses and strains
experienced in one domain spillover to the other. Thus, if one experiences much distress
at work, it will be carried over to the home, heightening the sense of an awareness of
even small distresses experienced in the family sphere. For example, if an employee has a
nasty argument with his supervisor at work at the end of the day, which bodices a lot of
stress, he might find even the normal crying of his child at home that evening the
extremely hard and stressful to bear. Likewise, stresses experiences at home or friend or
from other non-work facets can be carried over to the workplace, which heighten and
compound the stresses experienced at work. Since work spheres are not-work spheres are
not tightly compartmentalized.

41
PERSONAL PROBLEMS THAT CAN CAUSE STRESS INCLUDE:

Your health, especially if you have a chronic illness such as heart disease,
diabetes, or arthritis.
Emotional problems, such as anger you cant express, depression, grief, guilt, or
low self-esteem.
Your relationships, such as having problems with your relationships or feeling a
lack of friendships or support in your life.
Major life changes, such as dealing with the death of a parent or spouse, losing
your job, getting married, or moving to a new city.
Stress in your family, such as having a child, teen, or other family member who
is under stress, or being a caregiver to a family member who is elderly or who has
health problems. For more information, see the topic Quick Tips: Reducing the
Stress of Care giving.
Conflicts with your beliefs and values. For example, you may value family life,
but you may not be able to spend as much time with your family as you want.

CAUSES OF STRESS AT WORK

These are typical causes of stress at work:

. Bullying or harassment, by any one, not necessarily a persons manager

. Feeling powerless and uninvolved in determining ones own responsibilities

. Continuous unreasonable performance demands

. Lack of effective communication and conflict resolution

. Lack of job security

. Long working hours

. Excessive time away from home and family

. Office politics and conflict among staff

. A feeling that ones reward is not commensurate with ones responsibility

42
. Working hours, responsibilities and pressures disrupting life balance (diet,
exercise, sleep and rest, play, family-time etc.)

EFFECTS OF DISTRESS

Distress experienced by individuals has negative consequences for them, their


families and the organizations they serve. As we saw, excessive stress could paralyze the
individual via burnout, with its negative consequences on various on various facets of the
persons life.

CONSEQUENCES FOR THE INDIVIDUAL

Distress has a subjective, cognitive, physiological, and behavioral and health


impact on individuals, the subjective or intrapersonal effects of stress on an individual are
feelings of anxiety, boredom, apathy, nervousness, depression, fatigue, anger, irritability
and some times, aggressive behavior. The cognitive effects are poor concentration, short
attention span, mental block and inability to make decision. The physiological effects can
be seen in increased heart and pulse rate, high bold pressure, dryness of throat, depression
and excessive sweating. The behavioral consequences are manifest in such things as
accident proneness, drinking, excessive eating, smoking, nervous laughter, impulsive
behavior and withdrawal symptoms. The manifest health effects could be stomach
disorders, asthma, eczema, and other psychosomatic disorders. In addition, mental health
(the ability to function effectively in ones daily life) will also decline as excessive stress
is experienced.

CONSEQUENCES FOR THE FAMILY

Distress that is handled by individuals in dysfunctional ways, such as resorting to


drinking or experiencing withdrawal behavior, will have an adverse effect on their home
life. Spouse abuse, child abuse, alienation from family members and even divorce could
result from dysfunctional coping mechanisms.

Stressors in the steadily increasing number of dual-career families, where both


spouses pursue careers, which demand a lot of personal commitment from both to their
jobs and the family, are varied in nature. The stresses experienced by the couple stem

43
from role overload since both partners have to manage their careers as well as keep the
family running on an even keel. Additional stress is experienced while handling the
personal, social and cultural dilemmas of balancing work and family, discharging
parenting responsibilities, handling competition at the workplace and within the family
and being dual-career families and effective. For a complete discussion on the stresses
experienced in dual-career families and effective coping strategies for dual-career
spouses, refer to Sekaran (1986d).

CONSEQUENCES TO THE ORGANIZATION

The organizational effects of employee stress are many. The adverse


consequences include low performance and productivity, high rates of absenteeism and
turnover, lost customers because of poor worker attitudes, increased alienation of the
worker from the job, and even destructive and aggressive behavior resulting in sabotage.
The stress experienced by employees who rake on critical societal and are responsible for
public safety, can sometimes be detrimental to the well of the constituents served. For
instance, the stress experienced by attain driver or railway guard, or that of an airline
pilot, navigator, or air traffic controller can result in several hundred lost lives. Needless
to say that the costs of employee stress to the organization in terms of lost profits,
declining assets, bad image projection, poor reputation and loss of future business are
enormous

IMPACT OF STRESS ON INDIVIDULS

The phenomenon of stress is highly individualistic in nature. Some people have


levels of tolerance for stress and thrive will in the face of several stressors in the
environment; as for example, working under deadlines and time pressures, meeting high
expectations of performance, and working with inadequate resources. In fact, some
individuals are not able to perform well except when subject to a level of stress that
activates and energizes them to put forth their best efforts. Yet, other may have very low
levels of tolerance for stress and become paralyzed when they have to interface with
commonly experienced everyday factors that appear noxious to them; as for example;
having to deal with two customers who arrive and ask for assistance at the same time.

44
For every individual there is an optimum level of stress for performance at full
capacity. If the stress experienced is below this optimum. Then boredom results, the
motivation to work reaches a low point, and apathy sets in. A person operation in a very
low stress environment and experiencing frequent boredom is likely to psychologically or
physically withdraw from work. Psychological withdrawal results in careless and
repeated mistakes, forgetting to do tasks and mental distractions at work. Physical
withdrawal manifests itself in increased rates of tardiness and absenteeism, which may
ultimately lead rates of tardiness and absenteeism, which may ultimately lead to turnover.
If, on the other hand, the stressors in an individuals environment are too many too
intense, as for instance, when one is constantly being picked on by the boss, has too
many conflicts with the supervisor or disagreeable or disagreeable coworkers, or is
engaged in a job that is exposed to high health hazards (such as working in a nuclear
plant), the effects on performance will again be adverse. The error rate will increase, bad
decisions will be made and the individual may experience insomnia, stomach problems,
psychosomatic illnesses and burnout. Job performance and individual health are at
optimum levels of experienced stress, as shown by the inverted U-shaped curve depicted.
Though the optimum stress level varies with individuals, each can determine how stress
is functional for good performance

StressLevel Low stress Optimum Stress High stress

45
Behaviors Low High Anxiety

Motivation, careless motivation and nervousness

mistakes, heightened indecisiveness

psychological perception high dad judgment

withdrawal, physical involvement

withdrawal, inactivity

Performance Low performance High performance Poor performance

Health effects Dull health Good health Psychosomatic illnesses

PERSONALTY PREDIPOSITIONS AND EXPERIENCED STRESS

Research indicates that those who seem to effectively handle what ordinary
persons might consider as a high level of stress possess one or more of the personality
predispositions of high tolerance for ambiguity, internal locus of control and self-esteem.
A high tolerance for ambiguity allows individuals to experience very little anguish
operating under of insufficient information or in an environment of uncertain outcomes.
People with an internal control can only handle well since they feel they are in control of
the situation and are not themselves controlled by it. This makes it possible for them to
manage their environmental stress without experiencing its noxious effects. Those with
high self-esteem also handle with ease since a sense of high self-concept and confidence
in their abilities allows them to develop positive towards the management of stress and
keep themselves cool and collected under stressful. The successfully one handles a
stressful situation, without panicking being overwhelmed by it, the more confidently one
be able to effectively deal with further stressful situations. Thus, it is possible to raise
ones capacity to handle stress as one encounters each successive situation.

A personality characteristic that induces is the type A (versus the type B) trait
discussed in Chapter3. The Type A person is seen to engage in several simultaneous,

46
parallel (rather than sequential) activities with a heightened sense of (in contract of the
Type B individual who takes things easy). Further, the Type A individual also tends to be
competitive by nature, and is likely, as a consequence, to impose a lot of self-induced
stress on them. However, Friedman and Rose man (1974) point out that it is only the
Type A person who is also very hostile, that experiences adverse health effects such as
heart attacks. We might conjecture that the non-hostile type A person who has or more of
the predispositions of high relevance for ambiguity, high internal locus of control, and
high self-esteem, will not actually exotically experience under stresses, though the
individual might appear as if she is adding on some self-imposed burdens, especially
when compared to the type B personality. Thus, certain personality predispositions, as we
have seen, have an impact on stress and how individuals handle it.

In sum, the stressors will be perceived, acted upon and handled differently, by
differently, by different people with different personality characteristics. Support system
that are available and wiliness and ability of individuals to handle stressful by trying out
different strategies make a big difference in how people handle stress.

STRESS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

STRATEGY #1: AVOID UNNECESSARY STRESS

Not all stress can be avoided, and its not healthy to avoid a situation that needs to be
addressed. You may be surprised, however, by the number of stressors in your life that
you can eliminate.

. Learn how to say no Know your limits and stick to them. Whether in your
personal or professional life, refuse to accept added responsibilities when youre close to
reaching them. Taking on more than you can handle is a surefire recipe for stress.

. Avoid people who stress you out If someone consistently causes stress in your
life and you cant turn the relationship around, limit the amount of time you spend with
that person or end the relationship entirely.

47
. Take control of your environment If the evening news makes you anxious,
turn the TV off. If traffics got you tense, take a longer but less-traveled route. If going to
the market is an unpleasant chore, do your grocery shopping online.

. Avoid hot-button topics If you get upset over religion or politics, cross them
off your conversation list. If you repeatedly argue about the same subject with the same
people, stop bringing it up excuse yourself when its the topic of discussion.

. Pare down your to-do list Analyze your schedule, responsibilities, and daily
tasks. If youve got too much on your plate, distinguish between the should. Drop task
that arent truly necessary to the bottom of the list or eliminate them entirely.

STRATEGY#2: ALTER THE SITUATION

If you cant avoid a stressful situation, try to alter it. Figure out what you can do to
change things so the problem doesnt present itself in the future. Often, this involves
changing the way you communicate and operate in your daily life.

. Express your feeling instead of battling them up. If something or someone is


bothering you, communicate your concerns in an open and respectful way. If you dont
voice your feelings, resentment will build and the situation will likely remain the same.

. Be willing to compromise. When you ask someone to change their behavior, be


willing to do the same. If you both are willing to bed at least a little, youll have a good
chance of finding a happy middle ground.

. Be more assertive. Dont take a backseat in your own life. Deal with problems
head on, doing your best to anticipate send prevent them. Off youve got an exam to
study for and your chatty roommate just got home, say up front that you only have five
minutes to talk.

. Manage your time better. Poor time management can cause a lot of stress. When
youre stretched too thin and running behind, its hard to stay calm and focused. But if
you plan ahead and make sure you dont overextend yourself, you can alter the amount of
stress youre under.

48
STRATEGY #3: ADAPT TO THE STRESSOR

If you cant change the stressor, change yourself. You can adapt to stressful situations and
retain your sense of control by changing your expectations and attitude.

. Reframe problems. Try to view stressful situations from a more positive


perspective. Rather than fuming about a traffic jam, look at it as an opportunity to pause
and regroup, listen to your favorite radio station, or enjoy some alone time.

. Look at the big picture. Take perspective of the stressful situation. Ask yourself
how important it will be in the long run. Will it matter in a month? Is it really worth
getting upset over? If the answer is no, focus your time and energy elsewhere.

. Adjust your standards. Perfectionism is a major source of avoidable stress. Stop


setting yourself up for failure by demanding perfection. Set reasonable standards for
yourself and others, and learn to be okay with good enough.

. Focus on the positive. When stress is getting you down, take a moment to reflect
on all the things you appreciate in your life, including your own positive qualities and
gifts. This simple strategy can help you keep things in perspective.

Adjusting your Attitude: How you think can have profound effect on your
emotional and physical well-being. Each time you think a negative thought about
yourself, your body reacts as if it were in the throes of a tension-filled situation. If you
see good things about yourself, you are more likely to feel good; the reverse is also true.
Eliminate words such as always, never, should, and must. These are telltale
marks of self-defeating thoughts.

STRATEGY #4 ACCEPT THE THINGS YOU CANT CHANGE

Some sources of stress are unavoidable. You cant prevent or change stressors
such as the death of a loved one, a serious illness, or a national recession. In such cases,
the best way to cope with stress is to accept things as they are. Acceptance may be
difficult, but in the long run, its easier than railing against a situation you cant change.

49
Dont try to control the uncontrollable. Many things in life are beyond our
control-particularly the behavior of other people. Rather than stressing out over them,
focus on the things you can control such as the way you choose to react to problems.

Look for the upside. As the saying goes, what doesnt kill us makes us stronger.
When facing major challenges, try to look at them as opportunities for personal growth. If
your own poor choices contributed to a stressful situation, reflect on them and learn from
your mistakes.

Share your feelings. Talk to a trusted friend or make an appointment with a


therapist. Expressing what youre going through can be very cathartic, even if theres
nothing you can do alter the stressful situation.

Learn to forgive. Accept the fact that we live in an imperfect world and that
people make mistakes. Let go of anger and resentments. Free yourself from negative
energy by forgiving and moving on.

STRATEGY # 5: MAKE TIME FOR FUN AND RELAXATION

Beyond a take charge approach and a positive attitude, you can reduce stress in
your life by nurturing yourself. If you regularly make time for fun and relaxation, youll
be in a better place to handle lifes stressors when they inevitably come.

50
Healthy ways to relax and recharge

Go for a walk.
Spend time in nature
Call a good friend
Sweat out tension with a good work out
Write in your journal
Take a long bath
Light scented candles
Savor a warm cup of coffee or tea
Play with a pet
Work in your garden
Get a massage
Curl up with a good book.
Listen to music
Watch a comedy

Dont get so caught up in the hustle and bustle of life that you forget to take care
of your own needs. Nurturing yourself is a necessity, not a luxury.

Set aside relaxation time. Include rest and relaxation in your daily schedule. Dont
allow other obligations to encroach. This is your time to take a break from all
responsibilities and recharge your batteries.

Connect with others. Spend time with positive people who enhance your life. A
strong support system will buffer you from the negative effects of stress.

Do something you enjoy every day. Make time for leisure activities that bring you
joy, whether it be stargazing, playing the piano, or working on your bike.

Keep your sense of humor. This is the ability to laugh at you. The act of laughing
helps your body fight stress in a number of ways.

51
.Learn the relaxation response

You can control your stress levels with relaxation techniques that evoke the
bodys relaxation response, a state of restfulness that is the opposite of the stress
response. Regularly practicing these techniques will build your physical and emotional
resilience, heal your body, and boost your over fall feelings of joy and equanimity.

Read stress relief: Relaxation practices that reduce stress

STRATEGY #6 ADOPT A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE

You can increase your resistance to stress by strengthening your physical health.

Exercise regularly. Physical activity plays a key role in reducing and preventing
the effects of stress. Make time for at least 30 minutes of exercise, three times per week.
Nothing beats aerobic exercise for releasing pent-up stress and tension.

. Eat a healthy diet. Well-nourished bodies are better prepared to cope with stress,
so be mindful of what you eat. Start your day right with breakfast, and keep your energy
up and your mind clear with balanced nutritious meals throughout the day.

. Reduce caffeine and sugar. The temporary highs caffeine and sugar provide
often end in with a crash in mood and energy. By reducing the amount of coffee, soft
drinks, chocolate, and sugar snacks in your diet, youll fell more relaxed and youll
sleep better.

. Avoid alcohol, cigarettes, and drugs. Self-medicating with alcohol or drugs may
provide an easy escape from stress, but the relief is only temporary. Dont avoid or
mask the issue at hand; deal with problems head on and with a clear mind.

. Get enough sleep. Adequate sleep fuels your mind, as well as your body. Felling
tired will increase your stress because it may cause you to think irrationally.

52
LYNDSAY SWINTONS BEST STRESS MANAGEMENTTECHNIQUES:

The best stress management techniques are those that are easy to use. Quick to
learn and quick to implement, you can use them to manage your own stress levels or teak
them to help others manage theirs.

Stress management techniques help you control of your stress and be a healthier,
happier and more pleasant person to be around. Lets cut to the chase and spell out the
best ones I know.

1. ACKNOWLEDGE STRESS IS GOOD

Make stress your friend! Based on the bodys natural fight or flight response
that burst of energy will enhance your performance at the right moment. Ive yet to see a
top sportsman totally relaxed before a big competition. Use stress wisely to push yourself
that little bit harder when it counts most.

2. AVOID STRESS SNEEZERS

Stressed people sneeze stress germs indiscriminately and before you know it, you
are infected too! Protect yourself by recognizing stress in others and limiting your contact
with them. Or if youve got the inclination, play stress doctor and teach them how to
better manage themselves.

3. LEARN FROM THE BEST

When people around are losing their head, who keeps calm? What are they doing
differently? What is their attitude? What language do they use? Are they trained and
experienced?Figure it out from afar or sit them down for a chat. Learn from the best
stress managers and copy what they do.

4. PRACTICE SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE HEAVY BREATHING

You can trick your body into relaxing by using heavy breathing. Breathein slowly
for a count of 7 then breathe out for a count of 11. Repeat the 7-11 breathing until your
heart rate slows down, your sweaty palms dry off and things start to feel more normal.

53
5. GIVE STRESS THOUGHTSTHE RED LIGHT

It is possible to tangle yourself up a stress knot all by yourself. If this happens,


then that might happen and then were all up the creek! Most of these things never
happen, so why waste all that energy worrying needlessly? Give stress thought-trains the
red light and stop them in their tracks. Okay so it might go wrong how likely is that and
what can you do to prevent it?

6. KNOW YOUR TRIGGER POINTS AND HOT SPOTS

Presentations, interviews, meetings, giving difficult feedback, tight deadline. My


heart rate is cranking up just writing these down!

Make your own list of stress trigger points or hot spots. Be specific. Is it only
presentations to a certain audience that get you worked up? Does one project cause more
stress that another? Did your drink too much coffee?

Knowing what cause you stress is powerful information, as you can take action to
make it less stressful. Do you need to learn some new skills? Do you need extra
resources? Do you need to switch to de-car?

7. BURN THE CANDLE AT ONE END

Lack of sleep, poor diet and no exercise wreaks havoc on our body and mind.
Kind of obvious, but worth mentioning as its often ignored as a stress management
technique. Listen to your mother and dont burn the candle at both ends!

And those are the best stress management techniques I know! Learn them, use
them and teach them, and be a great stress manager.

UNHEALTHY WAYS OF COPING WITH STRESS

These coping strategies may temporarily reduce stress, but they cause more
damage in the long run.

Smoking
Using pills or drugs to relax

54
Drinking too much
Overeating or underrating
Sleeping too much
Zoning out for hours in front
Procrastination of the TV or computer
Filling up every minute

STRESS CAN BE POSITIVE;

The words positive and stress may not often go together. But, there are
innumerable instances of athletes rising to the challenge of stress and achieving the
unachievable, scientists stressing themselves out over a point to bring into light the most
unthinkable secrets of the phenomenal world, and likewise a painter, a composer or a
writer producing the best paintings, the most lilting of tunes or the most appealing piece
of writing by pushing themselves to the limit. Psychologists second the opinion that some
stress situations can actually boost our inner potential and can be creatively helpful.
Sudha Chandran, an Indian dancer, lost her legs in an accident. But, the physical and
social inadequacies gave her impetus to carry on with her dance performances with the
help of prosthetic legs rather than deter her spirits.

Experts tell us that stress, in moderate doses, are necessary in our life. Stress
responses are one of our bodys best defense systems against outer and inner dangers. In a
risky situation (in case of accidents or a sudden attack on life et al), body releases stress
hormones that instantly make us more alert and our senses become more focused. The
body is also prepared to act with increased strength and speed in a pressure situation. It is
supposed to keep us sharp and ready for action.

Research suggests that stress can actually increase our performance. Instead of
wilting under stress, one can use it as an impetus to achieve success. Stress can stimulate
ones faculties to delve deep into and discover ones true potential. Under stress the brain
is emotionally and biochemically stimulated to sharpen its performance.

A working class mother in down town California, Erin Brokovich, accomplished


an extraordinary feat in the 1990s when she took up a challenge against the giant
industrial house pacific Gas & Electric. The unit was polluting the drinking water of the

55
area with chromium effluents. Once into it, Brokovich had to work under tremendous
stress talking on the dig wigs of the society. By her own account, she had to study as
many as 120 research articles to find if chromium 6 was carcinogenic. Going from door
to door, Erin signed up over 600 plaintiffs, and with attorney Ed Masry went on to
receive the largest court settlement, for the town people, ever paid in a direct action
lawsuit in the U.S history-$333 million. Its an example of an ordinary individual
triumphing over insurmountable odds under pressure. If handled positively stress can
induce people discover their inherent talents.

Stress is, perhaps, necessary to occasionally clear cobwebs from our thinking. If
approached positively, stress can help us evolve as a person by letting go of unwanted
thoughts and principle in our life. Very often, at various crossroads of life, stress may
remind you of the transitory nature of your experiences, and may prod you to look for the
true happiness of life.

STRESS THROUGHOUT EVOLUTION

Stress has existed throughout the evolution. About 4 billion years ago, violent
collision of rock and ice along with dust and gas, led to the formation of a new planet.
The planet survives more that 100 million years of meltdown to give birth to microscopic
life. These first organisms endured the harshest of conditionslack of oxygen, exposure
to suns UV rays and other inhospitable elements, to hang on to their dear life. Roughly
300,000 years ago, the Neanderthals learnt to use fire in a controlled way, to survive the
Glacial Age. And Neanderthals learnt to use fire in a controlled way, and then survived
the Glacial Age. And around 30,000 years, Homo sapiens with their dominant gene
constitutions and better coping skills, won the game of survival. Each step of evolution a
test of survival, and survival, a matter of coping with the stress of changing conditions.

Millions of trials and errors in the life process have brought men to this stage.
Coping with events to survive has led men to invent extraordinary technologies,
beginning with piece of sharpened stone.

Form the viewpoint of microevolution, stress induction of transposition is a


powerful factor, generating new genetic variations in populations under stressful

56
environmental conditions, passing through a bottleneck, a population can rapidly and
significantly alters its population norm and become the founder of new, evolved forms.

Gene transposition through transposable Elements (TE)jumping genes, is a


major source of genetic change, including the creation of novel genes, the alteration of
gene expression in development, and the genesis of the genome to challenges, the Nobel
winning scientist Barbara McClintock, characterized these genetic phenomena as
genomic shock. This occurs due to recombination events between TE insertions (high
and low insertion polymorphism) and host genome. But, as a rule TEs remain
immobilized until some stress factor (temperature, irradiation, DNA damage, the
introduction of foreign chromatin, viruses, etc.) activated their elements.

The moral remains that we can work a stress condition to our advantage or protect
ourselves from its untoward follow-throughs subject to how we handle a stress situation.
The choice is between becoming a slave to the stressful situations of life and using them
tour advantage.

OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AND JOB PERFORMANCE

People react to stress in different ways. Some are copping much better than others
and suffering fewer of the harmful effects of stress. Just as stress differs as a function of
the individual, it also differs as a function of ones type of occupation. Some occupations
are, of course, inherently more stressful than others. All of the stress-strain-health
relationships have an obvious impact on the organization and industry. Both physical and
mental illness renders the employee unlit for work, and combine both to lessen the
satisfaction obtained from work and reduce job performance and productivity levels.
There are various ways that stress symptoms or outcomes are reflected in the workplace.
Evidence from growing body of research suggests that certain individuals, in a variety of
occupations, are increasingly exposed to unacceptable levels of job-related stress (Schultz
& Schultz, 2002). Occupational stress is any discomfort which is felt and perceived at a
personal level and triggered by instances, events or situations that are too intense and
frequent in nature so as to exceed a persons coping capabilities and resources to handle
them adequately (Malta, 2004)

57
Occupational stress can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional
responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities,
resources or need of the worker (Sauter and Murphy. 1999).

Performance is defined as the outcomes and accomplishments valued by the


organization or system that one works in.

Each individual is exposed to a range of stressors both at work and in their


personal lives which ultimately affect his or her performance. Pressure at work can be
positive leading to increased productivity. However, when this pressure becomes
excessive it has a negative impact. The individual perceive themselves as being unable to
cope and not to possess the necessary skills to combat their stress is acknowledged to be
one of the main causes of absence from work (Mead, 2000). The occupational stressors
can be categorized into four major groups. Firstly, the working conditions, including shift
and week-end work, inadequate remuneration, hours of work, discrimination and safety at
the work environment. Secondly, relationships at work including quality of relationships
with peers, subordinated and supervisors. Thirdly, role conflict and ambiguity including
ill-defined role, functions, expectations, and duties. Fourthly, organization structure and
climate which includes communication policy and practice, major changes in the
workplace, culture of the organization, and lack of participation in decision-making.
Another cause is career development including underutilization of skills of failing to
reach full potential. Another contributing factor is the nature of the job which might
amount to an immense amount of physical and emotional exhaustion (Parikh & Taukari,
2004)

The main objective of the research is to identify role of different contributing


factors of job stress and to investigate level of stress on those factors among different
departments of Wallsunilever Pakistan. And also to find that how job performance is
affected by job stress. There are different factors of job stress i.e. work overload, work
under load, supervision role conflicts, career development, physical environment
repetitive work, work family conflict and coworkers.

CONCLUSION:

58
Workload, co-workers and repetitive work are identified as the major factors
causing stress. It is concluded that there is moderate level of stress with no significant
difference in different departments however no effect of stress is found on job
performance in the selected organization.

59
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
1. Are you aware of word stress?

Options Opinions Respondents Percentages


A Yes 49 98%
B No 1 2%
Total 50 100%

Interpretation:

Majority of the respondents were aware of word stress 98% of the respondents opinioned
yes and 2% of the respondents opinioned no and 2% of respondents not agree for the
aware of word stress.

RESPONDENTS
RESPONDENTS

49

Yes No Sometimes
0 Don't0know

60
2. Do you feel stress at your work?

Options Opinions Respondents Percentages


A Yes 8 16%
B No 11 22%
C Some times 31 62%
Total 50 100%

Interpretation:

Most of the respondents expressed that they undergo stress at their work due to various
reasons.16% of the respondents opinioned yes and 22% of the respondents opinioned no,
62% of the respondents opinioned some times

RESPONDENTS
RESPONDENTS

31

11
8

Yes No Sometimes Don't0know

61
3. If you feel stressed, what is the reason for your stress?

Options Opinions respondents Percentage


A Long working hours 7 14%
B Nature of work 23 46%
C More responsibilities 16 32%
D Lack of coordination 4 8%
Total 50 100%

Interpretation:

It is observed that majority of the respondents are facing stress due to nature of
work and multiple unclear responsibilities.14 % of the employees said to stress of the
reason long working hours, 46% of the employees said to stress of the reason nature of
work, 32% of the employees said to stress of the reason more responsibilities 8% of the
employees said to stress of the lack of coordination.

RESPONDENTS
RESPONDENTS
23

16

7
4

62
4. Do you work for long hours by your own choice?

Options Opinions Respondents Percentages


A Yes 22 44%
B No 28 56%
Total 50 100%

Interpretation:

Majority of the respondents suggested that they are not working for long hours by
choice 44% of the respondents opinioned yes and 56% of the respondents opinioned no.
So the high percentage of respondents says they dont work for long hours in the
organization.

RESPONDENTS
RESPONDENTS
28

22

Yes No

63
5. Is work Environment comfortable?

Options Opinions Respondents Percentages


A Yes 36 72%
B No 14 28%
Total 50 100%

Interpretation

Majority of the respondents feels comfortable in the present work environment


72% of the respondents feels comfortable in present work environment, 28% of the
respondents feels comfortable in the present work environment.

RESPONDENTS
RESPONDENTS

36

14

Yes No

64
6. Do you think you are over loaded with work?

Options Opinions Respondents Percentages


A Yes 28 56%
B No 22 44%
Total 50 100%

Interpretation:

Majority of the respondents feels that they are over loaded with work. Because of the feel
more stress. 56% of the respondents feels that they are over loaded with work, 44 % of
the respondents not felt that they are over loaded with work.

RESPONDENTS
RESPONDENTS
28

22

Yes No

65
7. Have you ever face any difficulties of disagreements with your colleagues?

Options Opinions Respondents Percentages


A Yes 16 32%
B No 34 68%
Total 50 100%

Interpretation

There is great co-ordination between the employees in their departments in steel plant
VSP. They face difficulties and disagreements with their colleagues rarely 32 % of
respondents opinioned yes and 68% felt no.

RESPONDENTS
RESPONDENTS

34

16

Yes No

66
8. Do you agree the uncertainty increase stress?

Options Opinions Respondents Percentages


A Yes 29 58%
B No 21 42%
Total 50 100%

Interpretation:

Majority of the respondents expressed that uncertainty in tasks and job result into stress
some times 58% of the respondents opinioned yes and 42% of the respondents felt no.

RESPONDENTS
RESPONDENTS

21

4.3

Yes No

67
9. Would you like to undergo stress for rewards?

Options Opinions Respondents Percentages


A Yes 37 74%
B No 13 26%
Total 50 100%

Interpretation:

Majority of the respondents are ready to put etc. efforts for rewards. However could not
be a wise decision 74% of the respondents opinioned yes and 26% of the respondents felt
no.

RESPONDENTS
RESPONDENTS
37

13

Yes Category 2

68
10. Do you feel that your stress level is affecting your family members?

Options Opinions Respondents Percentages


A Yes 5 10%
B No 24 48%
c Some times 18 36%
D Not applicant 3 6%
Total 50 100%

Interpretation

There are percentage of respondents who expressed that, stress level because of their
professional is effective their family lifes too.10% of the respondents opinioned yes
48% of the respondents opinioned no.36%of the respondents opinioned sometimes .6%
of the respondents opinion not applicants .

RESPONDENTS
RESPONDENTS

24

18

5 4.5

Yes No Sometimes Not applicant

69
11. How would you rate the level of your stress?

Options Opinions Respondents Percentages


A Mild 8 16%
B Moderate 28 56%
C Severe 7 14%
D Not applicant 7 14%
Total 50 100%

Interpretation

The response shows that most of the employees are undergoing stress situation due to
some or other reason. Though it is not alarming, steps should be taken to improve
employee work condition

RESPONDENTS
RESPONDENTS
28

8
7 7

Mild Moderate Severe Not applicable

70
12. Do you think that your immediate superior is the best counselor to you?

Options Opinions Respondents Percentages


A Yes 34 68%
B No 16 32%
Total 50 100%

Interpretation

Majority of the respondents expressed that they are comfortable with the immediate
supervisors 68% of the responding expressed yes, 32% of the respondents opinioned no.

RESPONDENTS
RESPONDENTS

34

16

Yes Category 2

71
13. Do you feel lonely in work place?

Options Opinions Respondents Percentages


A Yes 14 28%
B No 36 72%
Total 50 100%

Interpretation

The study source that most of the employee are working in teams and have not problems
of loneliness at work place 38% of the respondents opinioned yes 72% of the respondents
opinioned no

RESPONDENTS
RESPONDENTS

36

14

Category 1 No

72
14. Do you take your weekly off?

Options Opinions Respondents Percentages


A Yes 43 86%
B No 3 6%
c Some times 4 8%
Total 50 100%

Interpretation

Most of the respondents take their weekly offs. However exceptions are their depending
upon emergency services 86% of the respondents opinioned yes. 6% of the respondents
opinioned no. 8% of the respondents opinioned sometimes

RESPONDENTS
RESPONDENTS

43

3 3.5

Yes No Sometimes

73
15. Do you feel that the shift system reduces stress?

Options Opinions Respondents Percentages


A Yes 35 70%
B No 11 22%
c Not applicable 4 8%
Total 50 100%

Interpretation

The study shows that most of the employees agreed for the fact that shifts system
provides the flexibility to work.70% of respondents opinioned yes 22% not the
respondents opinioned no.8% of the respondents opinion not applicable

RESPONDENTS
RESPONDENTS

35

11

3.5

Yes No Not Applicable

74
16. Are you aware of various diseases that can occur due to stress?

Options Opinions Respondents Percentages


A Yes 36 72%
B No 14 28%
Total 50 100%

Interpretation

Most of the respondents are aware of various consequences result from stress worked
conditions.75% of the Respondents opinioned yes. 28% of the respondents opinioned no.

RESPONDENTS
RESPONDENTS

14

4.3

Yes No

75
17. Do you have any of the following problems?

Vision
Backache
Blood pressure
Hair fall
Headache

Options Opinions Respondents Percentages


A Yes 35 70%
B No 15 30%
Total 50 100%

Interpretation

Most of the respondents are not facing any problems related to stress presently, 70% of
the respondents opinioned yes.30% of the Respondents opinioned no.

RESPONDENTS
RESPONDENTS

35

2.5

Yes No

76
18. What do you suggest to overcome stress?

Options Opinions Respondents Percentages


A Meditation 12 24%
B Sleep 23 46%
C Playing games 9 18%
D Other suggestions 6 12%
Total 50 100%

Interpretation

Most of the respondents suggested Meditation to overcome stress at work place24% of


the employees suggest to overcome stress. Do the meditation.46% of the employees
suggested sleep 18% of the employees suggested playing games, 12% of the employees
suggested playing games 12% of the employees suggested other suggestions

RESPONDENTS
RESPONDENTS
23

12
9
6

Meditation Category 2 playing games Other suggestion

77
78
FINDINGS
o It has been found that majority of the employee are facing stress because
of nature of their job.
o It is found that the work load increases sometimes, thereby causing stress
to employees.
o It is observed that the strict, long and unpredictable working hours leads
to stress in the employees.
o It was detected that some employees are unable to reach the work spot in
time because of inflexible timings or staying at far off places, which adds
stress to their minds.
o It was witnessed that most of the employees felt that their stress level is
affecting their family members.
o It was found that employees feel that too many responsibilities associated
with their jobs as the basic reason for their stress.
o It was seen that some employees are facing stress related problems like
backache, hair fall blood pressure etc.
o It was witnessed that mostly the top level executives are facing mental
stress, whereas Employees at lower levels are facing physical stress.
o The outcome showed that except few, all are having negative feelings
towards stress
o It has been found that some of the employees feel that working overtime
to meet the deadlines gets rather stressful.
o It was seen that some of the employees are interested in working for long
hours by their own choice.
o It was detected that for the sake of promotions and rewards some
employees are prepared to undergo stress.
o It was observed that most of the employees are comfortable with the
climate of the organization.

79
SUGGESTIONS

Stress should be curbed at the initial stages before it reaches Burn Out stage
measures should be taken to overcome stress. Some of the suggestions are:

It is suggested that since stress is inevitable, employees should be trained to cope


with stress i.e., to take it in a positive sense. They must view stress as a challenge
but not as an obstacle.
It is recommended that effective time management is one way to reduce stress.
It is recommended that employees must associate with people with whom they
enjoy and share problems with those who support them.
It is recommended that employees should take short breaks to refresh their minds.
It is recommended that meditation helps the employees to avoid stress related
problems.
It is recommended that though cigarettes, alcohols and sleeping pills give relief
from stress, they should be avoided because they are hazardous to health.
It is recommended that employees must see to it that, they do not carry work
problems to home.
It is recommended that persons suffering from distress or burnout should express
themselves.
It is recommended that employees should not work overtime unless they feel it is
necessary.
It is recommended that proper sleep, watching TV, cracking jokes, listening to
music; playing Games are some tips to overcome stress.
It is recommended to the company to organize frequent camps or programson
meditation, yoga, transcendental meditation and stress management.
It is recommended to the company to initiate a few changes at the workplace
such as timely targets, distributed workload, flexible work hours and
periodic relaxation.

QUESTIONNAIRE
SAMPLE SURVEY ON AWARENESS OF STRESS MANAGEMENT IN

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3F INDUSTRIES LTD, TADEPALLIGUDEM.

SECTION A:

Name of the Employee Employee ID No.

Department: Designation:

SECTION B:

Please tick mark the appropriate option.

1. Are you aware of the term stress?

(a) Yes (b) No (c) Sometimes (d) Dont know

2. Do you feel stress at work?

(A) Yes (b) No (c) Sometimes (d) Dont know

3. If you feel stressed, what is the reason for your stress?

(a) Long work hours (b) Nature of work (c) More responsibility (d) Lack
of co-ordination

4. Do you work for long hours by your own choice?

(a) Yes (b) No (c) Sometimes (d) Dont know

5. If your work environment comfortable?

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(a)Yes (b) No (c) Sometimes (d) dont know

6. Do you think that your work is over loaded?

(A) Yes (b) Some extent (c) No (d) Dont know

7. Do you face any difficulties or disagreements with our colleagues?

(A) Yes (b) Some extent (c) No (d) Dont know

8. Do you feel that your stress level is affecting your family members?

(a) Yes (b) some extent (c) No (d) Not applicable

9. Do you feel lonely in work place?

(A) Yes (b) Some extent (c) No (d) Dont know

10. Do you take your weekly off?

(A) Yes (b) Some extent (c) No (d) Dont know

11. Do you feel that the shift system reduces stress?

(A) Yes (b) Some extent (c) No (d) Dont know

12. Do you have any of the following problems?

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(a) Vision (b) Back ache (c) Blood pressure (d) Hair fall

13. What do you suggest to overcome stress?

(a) Meditation (b) sleep (c) playing games (d) other suggestions

14. When something forces you to change your life style, you?

A) Accept the changes (b) Learn how to deal with the changes c) complain about it

15. Do you have the time you want with your family each week?

(a) Yes (b) Some extent (c) No

16. Do you have the personal time you would like each day?

(a) Yes (b) Some extent (c) No

17. Do you plan your life each day, and work out that plan?

(a) Yes (b) Some extent (c) No

18. Do you proactively respond with positive power to stressors?

A) Yes (b) Some extent (c) No (d) Dont know

19. When you are interrupted at an activity, do you respond with anger?

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A) Yes (b) Some extent (c) No (d) Dont know

20. When you are asked to do something unplanned do you respond angrily?

A) Yes (b) Some extent (c) No (d) Dont know

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Author: K.ASWATHAPPA
Title of text book: Organizational Behavior (Revised edition)
Publisher: Himalaya Publishers.

Author: STETHEN P. ROBBINS


Title of text book: Personal Human Resource Management (III Edition)
Publisher: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Limited

Author: DR. P. SUBBA RAO


Title of text book: Essentials of Human Resource Management and Industrial
Relations
Published in year: 1996

WEBSITES:

www.google.com

www.hrmguide.uk

www.mahalibrary.com

www.managementstudyguide.com

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