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Food Science

Acid neutralization
January 13,16 2017
Ping Parinada Suriyaworkul
Meily Pitcha Boonachathong
Gun Tanakom Kaweewuthisinp
Wan Phuchit Bunluesak
Introduction

Scientists can separate matters by different characteristics. One of them is pH, different
solution has different pH which lead to different chemical reaction and properties. Acid is a
substance that have pH volume less than 7 which mean it will react with other substance that
have different pH volume like water and based. The chemical equation always have H or
hydrogen atom and after it react with something it will always release hydrogen atom. For
example, if acid dissolve in water it will release hydrogen(H +) or hydronium(H3O+) into the
solution. Acid has a sour taste and it affect plant in soil by make the pH volume of soil become
too low for plant to use.

According to Senesse(2015) pH is a logarithm measurement of hydrogen ion


concentration.The H is Hydrogen ions while the p means power, but it is used in the form of
logarithm which is the inverse function of exponential, then the more pH is the less hydrogen
ions instead of the more of them. It will be written in the form of 1.0 * 10^something, for
example if the solution has 1.0*10-7 hydrogen ion, then this substance has a pH of 7 which is
neutral. Hydrogen ion shows up when the aqueous is acidic solution, and it is ionized, so the less
pH number represents the more hydrogen ions are released which means it is more acidic. On the
other hand, the more pH number represents the less hydrogen ions are released which means it is
less acidic, so it can be concluded as the alkaline or basic solution.

Indicator is a chemical which determine pH scale by reaction of material to hydrogen


ion. Different indicators have a different pH points. Experimenters have to choose the indicator
that is suitable for each specific experiments.

The purpose of this lab is to neutralize the acidic solution using basic solution into the
neutral solution. When acidic solution is neutralized with the alkaline solution, the pH will be
closer to the pH of 7. (Dunn, K.& Chapple, C.) When strong acidic solution is neutralized with
strong alkaline solution, the pH result is the around 7. When strong acid is neutralized with weak
alkaline solution, the pH result is less than 7 because it is really hard for the solution to be
neutral. A large number of weak alkaline has to be added in order to be neutral. On the other
hand, when weak acid is neutralized with strong alkaline solution, the pH result is more than 7
because it is really hard for the solution to be neutral. A large number of weak acid has to be
added in order to be neutral. In this experiment, experimenters are advised to use
Phenolphthalein solution as an indicator because it has the clear colour when it is in the pH of 0-
8.2, but it will turn pink when it the solution reaches to the pH of 8.2.

Materials
-2 Buret
-Erlenmeyer Flask
-Phenolphthalein solution
-Safety goggles, gloves, and lab coat
-2 Ring stands with clamps to hold the burets
-An acid
-A base

Procedure
1. Put on lab coat, gloves, and safety goggles(to be worn throughout the whole
experiment).
2. Obtain one 50-ml buret on a ring strand that is filled with NaOH(sodium
hydroxide).
3. Obtain two Erlenmeyer flasks filled with 15 ml different concentrations of
vinegar.
4. Add 3-5 drops of the indicator phenolphthalein to the vinegar. Place the flask
under the tip of the buret containing NaOH.
5. Slowly add the NaOH to the vinegar. A pink color appears where the base first
contacts the acid. Swirl the flask until the color disappears.
6. Add the base, drop by drop, while swirling after each drop, until the base turns the
solution to a pale pink(not a bright pink) that does not disappear.
7. Record the volume of the base NaOH used from the buret.
8. Repeat procedure with the other three flasks.
9. Average for each concentration the amount of base required.

Data and Observation


Data table: Different types of alkaline solution used to neutralize the pH

Sample#1,2 Alkaline used pH value


Sample1/1 12.3ml. 9
Sample1/2 13.3ml. 8.5
Sample2/1 14.2ml. 8.3
Sample2/2 14.3ml 10.5
Photograph:

Personal result
Picture of Picture of Picture of Picture of
Gun result Wan result Ping result Meily result

Group result
Take picture as a group

Discussion
1. What was the function of the indicator in this experiment? How does it work.
- The indicator in this experiment is called Phenolphthalein, which is a chemical
compound with the formula C20H14O4. It is an acid-base indicator and used to test the pH
of a solution. It turns colorless acidic solutions into pale pink basic solution by the
process called ionization. When the solution is neutralized with the pH of 7, the solution
will turn into pale pink color.
2. Which sample of vinegar was more concentrated? Explain your answer.
- Sample two vinegar is slightly more concentrated according to amount of base
used to neutralize the acid. Neutralization can be used to observe how strong is the acidic
by add alkaline substance for chemical reaction to created balance between acid and
bases. In the end, substance will be neutralized with a pH of 7.
3. If a neutralization reaction produces salt and water, write the chemical equation for your
experiment, and the name of the salt produced (You may have to research this).
- The chemical equation for our experiment is CH3COOH + NaOH H2O +
CH3COONa. A neutralization reaction produces salt called Sodium Acetate
(CH3COONa).
4. What are some functions of the salt produced from the titration?
- The salt, Sodium Acetate, which is the liquid below melting point when mixed
with the acetic acid creates a buffer which controls the pH level; moreover, it usually
used for DNA extraction; for example, extract DNA from cells. Furthermore, it can used
to prevent the growth of bacteria in food, and to intensify the foods flavor.
5. The human body has a process for maintaining pH and regulating the amount of acid and base
present in the body. What is this process called and briefly explain some of its functions and how
it works.
This system is called chemical buffering. According to Boundless(2016), buffer solution is a
solution that can add strong alkaline and acidic solution into the blood system and will cause
slight change on its pH. It is mostly related with kidney which will take out H and OH ion out
from solution to reduce the pH scale to be normal as much as possible ,so it is suitable for our
body.

Conclusion
-In conclusion, neutralizing acidic solution by adding alkaline solution in will
cause the chemical reaction which will finally create water and salt, so the solution
will become neutral. The color of 7 pH solution is the ideal result which can be
realize by pale pink color of phenolphthalein which is already added in acidic
solution. If there is a mistake adding too much alkaline solution into the acidic
solution, then the colour of the phenolphthalein will change easily and quickly. If
this mistake occur, then the experiment will be an imperfect experiment.

References
- Senesse, F.(17 August 2015). What is pH, retrieved from
http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/acidbase/faq/what-is-pH.shtml
- Dunn, K., & Chappell, C.(13 April 2016). Neutralization, retrieved from
http://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry/Acids_and_Bases/
Acid%2F%2FBase_Reactions/Neutralization
- Boundless(07 November 2016). Chemical Buffer Systems, retrieved from
https://www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-
textbook/body-fluids-and-acid-base-balance-26/acid-base-balance-248/chemical-buffer-systems-
1217-4810/

Work log:

Name Work Date Homework Finish

Gun Introduction 19-22 Jan Reference Yes

Meily Material and 19 Jan Discuss Yes


procedure question

Ping Conclusion and 19-20 Jan Discussion Yes


reference question

Wan Result 19-20 Jan Worklog Yes

Gun Conclusion and 23 Jan - Yes


reference

Meily Discussion 23 jan - Yes


question

Ping Discussion 23 Jan - Yes


question

Wan Work log 23 Jan - Yes

Ping Work log 23 Jan - Yes