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Lymphocyte

-not capable of
phagocytosis
-cellular/humoral
immunity
GMCFU
-monoblast to
macrophage
-myeloblast to
neutrophils
Blast
-first recognizable
cell lines under
bone marrow
smears
a. monoblast
b. myeloblast-
basophils,
neutrophils, mast
cells & eosinophils
c. megakaryoblast-
platelets
d. proerythroblast-
HEMATOPOIESIS RBC
-continuous and regulated process of blood cell formation Myelocyte-where determination of the difference N, E, B
-cell renewal, proliferation, differentiation, and maturation

Definition of terms
Pluripotent Hematopoietic Stem Cell
undifferentiated cell producing blood cells of all lineages,
capable of self-renewal
(Myeloid Stem Cell, Lymphoid Stem Cell)

Multipotent Hematopoietic Stem Cell


multiple lineage, limited self-renewal

Committed Progenitor
one lineage; also called the Colony forming units

Hematopoietic Stem Cell


one cell capable of self-renewing

Types of Cellular Element


1. Red Blood Cells
2. White Blood Cells
3. Platelets

T-cells
-only cell that matures in the thymus
-produced in the bone marrow
-from lymphoid stem cell
B-cells
-precursor of plasma cell (different immunoglobulins)
Stages of Hematopoiesis -HbA1-begins to appear and gradually increase in
1. Prenatal Hematopoiesis concentration

A. Mesoblastic Period -EPO, G-CSF, GM-CSF, HbF, HbA2


stimulators/regulator cause of maturation of cells
B. Hepatic Period
2. Adult Hematopoiesis
C. Myeloid Period
Bone Marrow- only site of erythropoiesis,
2. Adult Hematopoiesis myelopoiesis, and thrombopoiesis
1st few years of life- delicate balance between
development bone marrow space and development
Stages of Hematopoiesis infants needs for blood cells and liver or spleen
remains available because of its hematopoietic
Prenatal Hematopoiesis activity
A. Mesoblastic Period 1. Red Bone Marrow- active-
Yolk-sac : Chief Site hematopoietic cells
2. Yellow Bone Marrow- inactive-
2nd week of fatal life, formation of blood island in yolk
consists of adipocyte
sac(mesodermal extraembryonic layer) aggregation of
primitive cells 4th year- rate of bone marrow growth exceeds the
need for blood cells therefore, active marrow sites
9th week of fatal life, development of primitive erythroblast are replaced with areas of fatty reserve and fat first
PE-produces Hb develop in the long bones
RETROGRESSION-replacing active marrow by
adipose tissue
Three Embryonic forms of Hb:
18th year of life- the only active hematopoietic sites
o Gower I- 2 zeta, 2 epsilon chains
are in the pelvis, vertebrae, ribs, sternum, skull and
o Gower II- 2 alpha, 2 epsilon chains proximal extremities of the long bone
o Portland- 2 zeta, 2 gamma chains VERTEBRA-most active site
B. Hepatic
starts on the 2nd month BONE MARROW
-develops in the embryo by the hollowing out of the skeletal bones
liver-chief site
forming a central cavity
reaches peak on the 3rd month -all blood formed elements are usually produced
a. Thymus -in this activity develops a primitive, indifferent cell known as
-first fully developed organ hemacytoblast or stem cell
-major site for T cell production
b. Kidney RED MARROW
-B cell -site of blood cell development; 50% of the marrow cavity space and
50% adipose tissue
c. Spleen- active in:
largest cell in the bone marrow- megakaryocyte
Erythropoiesis- until the end of
normal gestation(splenic) largest cell in the circulation- monocyte
Myelopoiesis- becomes dyspoiesis- escape of blood cell from the
minimal in the 5th month circulation
Lymphopoiesis- lifetime blast cells- should never be seen in blood smear
d. Lymph nodes MARROW CELLULARITY-ratio of yellow and red marrow
-Nucleated RBCs, Granulocytes, Monocytes, Hematopoietic Cells- WBC, RBC, thrombocyte
Lymphocytes, and Megakaryocytes
-detectable amounts of HbA1 Megakaryocyte-platelet producing cell; merong fragment which shed
off and squeeze out sa bone marrow
Reticulocyte- immature erythrocyte; presence of nuclear remnants;
dapat in 24 hrs. nagmamature na siya to RBC BONE MARROW
HbA hemoglobins- 2 alpha, 2 beta -for adult/majority o Fully developing precursor cell in all stages of maturation
HbA2 hemoglobins- 2 alpha, 2 delta o ONLY mature cells are released normally
HbF hemoglobins- 2 alpha, 2 gamma -in fetus/ newborn o Blast cells- first recognizable precursor in each cell line
D. Medullary/Myeloid o Marrow recedes during development of the individual and in
adult occupies only the support skeleton and proximal regions
-hematopoiesis occur in the medulla of the bone marrow
of the long bones
-Red Bone Marrow- chief site
o STERNUM and FLAT BONES-principle source of
-starts on the 5th month of fetal life production
-Development of cells increases at birth For anemia-Bone Marrow collection is done
EXTRAMEDULLARY HEMATOPOIESIS Include CFU, interferons, interleukines, lymphokines,
Blood cell production in hematopoietic tissue other than bone monokines
marrow Such as EPO, G-CSF, GM-CSF, interleukines
o Occurs when hyperplasia of marrow cannot meet physiologic REGULATION OF HEMATOPOIESIS
blood needs of tissue
1. Erythropoietin
o Principally occurs in liver, spleen, lymph nodes and thymus
-major regulator of erythropoiesis, stimulates erythroid CFU
LIVER cells and proerythroblast
CELLULAR FUNCTION r-HuEPO= Human Recombinant Erythropoietin
Synthesizes transport protiens -Synthetic blood
Bile conjugation -pharmaceutically available products
Kupffler cells- macrophages in the liver 2. Thrombopoietin
SPLEEN -increases platelet production, stimulate megakaryocyte CFU
cells
Part of the reticuloendothelial organ
3. Granulocyte CSF(G-CSF)
Power house of prominent RBC activity such as filtration,
production -increases production of neutrophils, stimulates GM-CSF
4. Granulocyte Macrophage CSF(GM-CSF)
Consist of Blood-filled organ:
-increases production of macrophage, stimulates GM-CSF
o Red pulp-RBC filtration
5. Interleukines
o White pulp-Lymphocyte processing
-stimulates T and B cells formation, functioning together with
o Marginal zones-stores WBCs and platelets G-CSF, GM-CSF
Primary function: lymphopoiesis, phagocytosis
Located in the left side of the abdomen just below the
diaphragm and behind the fundus of the stomach
Largest structure of the lymphoid system
LYMPH NODES
Acts as filter to remove blood contaminants; extremely
important part of the bodys infection defense
Contains many phagocytic cells and lymphocyte
Carry fluid called lymph
THYMUS
Ductless gland
For normal development of some of the lymphocyte
Located in the neck
Develop maximum in children and atrophies with age
Role; immunity
BURSA FABRICUS
Counterpart of thymus in lower mammal
Found in birds with possible analogous tissue in man
For normal antibody production

STEM CELL THEORY

All cells are derived from the SCP that are self-renewing
Pluripotent and multipotent SC gives rise to committed SC
Committed SC have receptors for specific growth factors
Respond to stimulation by division and maturation(precursor
cell stage) into the end-stage cell
Basophilic erythrocyte- HgB synthesis starts
CYTOKINES/Growth FACTORS
Secreted proteins that bins to cell surface