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LEOCADIA TEFWC

Culegere de

custuri populare
. . . de la lume adunate
i iari la lume date" . . .
Anton Pann

EDITURA DACIA
CUVNT NAINTE

Am ntreprins aceast culegere de custuri vechi romneti


pentru a veni n sprijinul celor ce simt c snt romni i tiu c
arta noastr popular este de neegalat, dar mai ales pentru acei
ce xntr'un fel sau altul ncearc s scape de la pierzanie acest
tezaur inestimabil care este nsi fiina neamului nostru.
Bunicile i strbunicile noastre, netiind a scrie ori a citi,
au scris totui pe pnz cu mna bttorit de munc cu acul
drept condei, cu firul de ln ori bumbcel drept cerneal minu'
nate opere de aleas i nentrecut art romneasc, opere ce ne
cinstesc numele n faa lumii ntregi, opere ce griesc pretutindeni
unde se gsesc la noi sau peste hotare despre geniul nea'
mului nostru. Multe, foarte multe din aceste vechi, btrneti
odoare au fost distruse de vremea ce nu cru nimic n trecerea ei,
multe au suferit transformri i doar foarte puine au ajuns pn
la noi aa cum au fost la nceput, nealterate de influene strine.
Tradiia a inut aprins lumina simirii artistice a strbunilor
notri.
Candela tradiiei strmoeti trebuie inut venic treaz.
Creaiile noi trebuie s valorifice izvoadele locale sau zonale,
s mbogeasc tezaurul artei populare strmoeti, aa cum le'du
valorificat generaiile trecute, n nzuinele lor spre tot mai fru
mos.
Respectul tradiiei i naivitatea inspiraiei din natur este
tot secretul custurilor noastre.
Liniile n zigzag care reprezint fie desenul de pe spinarea
unui arpe, o lab de gsc, o pasre, cocoul din ograd sau ciU'
ii, snt ornamente zoomorfe. Ca ornamente vegetale fitomorfe
inspirate din natura nconjurtoare gsim nespus de multe flori,

3
pomi cu crengile resfirate, frunze verzi, frunze de toamn czute
pe pmntul negru, via de vie cu boabe i crcei, precum i fructe
de pdure. Ornamentele skeomorfe, al cror izvor de inspiraie l
constituie forma uneltelor i obiectelor lucrate n ntregime sau n
bun parte de mina omului, ca grapa, hrleul, vrtelnia, fusul,
suveica, pieptenele; motive simbolice precum: crucea, cristelnia,
cdelnia, toate se afl pe broderiile noastre vechi, stilizate, simplu
SCURT ISTORIC
ficate, reduse la trsturi caracteristice.
Prin ndelungata lor ntrebuinare n decursul vremurilor,
aceste motive s-au perfecionat, S'au cristalizat.
Astzi un suflu de renviere a tradiiilor strmoeti de alt
dat se simte pe plaiurile romneti. Tinerele vlstare ale neamului
snt ndrumate a privi cu dragoste i respect tezaurul poporului i Poezia, cntecul i dansul, ocup un loc important n viaa
a lua pilde din el pentru viitor. de toate zilele a poporului r o m n . Ele nsoesc ranul la munc,
i nveselesc i i nvioreaz petrecerile. F o l c l o r u l romnesc are
Pentru a avea la ndemn motive vechi romneti, am cules
o tradiie milenar, iar fora creatoare a poporului romn este
an de an crpe vechi, resturi de cmi, resturi de pernie de orna'
viguroas. Tezaurul tradiional a exprimat expresia idealurilor
ment, am descifrat cu rbdare modelul i Uam ncredinat hrtiei
lui. Ca parte integrant a istoriei i civilizaiei poporului romn,
care la rndul ei s v fac s cunoatei, s apreciai i s iubii
portul popular constituie un document viu care, dinuind peste
arta popular romneasc nu privind'O n magazinele de artizanat,
veacuri, a transmis generaiilor mesajul unei creaii artistice au
ci ncercnd, n orele de odihn, s v desftai sufletul, s v
tentice. C o s t u m u l popular este un preios document artistic,
potolii nervii, miglind pe pnz motive romneti, ce snt att
social i istoric. rnimea noastr este nzestrat din fire cu atta
de multe, nct nimeni nu poate avea pretenia de a le fi strns
gust i atta pricepere nct provoac i admiraia strinilor. Pe
pe toate, aa dup cum nici eu n-am reuit.
cnd brbatul caut s mpodobeasc cu fel de fel de ornamente
nchin cu drag aceast culegere tineretului patriei noastre,
crestate sau cioplite case, mobile, unelte de lucru covoarele
cu gndul c i va fi un preios sftuitor n cunoaterea i ndr'
i briele esute pe stative i ndeosebi cmile i tergarele, ofer
girea izvoadelor vechi romneti.
femeilor familiei prilejul binevenit de a-i manifesta talentul, de
a-i arta gustul, brodndu-le cu motive bogate n cele mai vii cu
lori. Putem spune c ranca transform acul n pensul, iar
firul de a n acuarel pentru realizarea unor custuri de nalt
valoare artistic.
Obria broderiilor de pe mbrcmintea ranilor trebuie
cutat n trecutul cel mai ndeprtat. Faptul c aceste broderii
au atins la strbunii notri culmea dezvoltrii, dovedete ct de
departe trebuie s fie nceputul acestei arte naionale r o m n e t i .
ntunericul acoper ns originea i evoluia artei noastre
populare, doar ici, c o l o , gsim cte o nsemnare, care pentru noi
romnii este punctul de plecare n nelegerea dezvoltrii brode-
r i i l o r . Istoricul Herodot amintete de ubele t r a c i l o r fru
mos mpodobite. Monumentul de piatr de la Adamclisi are

5
metope care nfieaz pe daci cu cmi la fel croite c u m I. a) de-a lungul mm#Cll trai dungi verticale care au acelai
poart i azi rancele noastre, mai ales cele din Moldova i model;
Bucovina. Indicii de broderii din ara noastr auj fost gsite b) predomin dunga de la m i j l o c , pe cnd dungile de p #
i pe figurile [dacice descoperite lng Craiova, unde anumite margini snt mai nguste i mai simple. Dunga de la mijloc
semne de pe cmile femeilor dace indic broderia. Sptu meaz un fel de crac de la care se despart n dreapta i n sti.;, ';. ;

rile de la Cetatea Sucevei au dezvelit fragmente de broderii d i n uneori simultan, alteori alternativ, frunze i flori.
aecolul XVI. Arta broderiei se cultiva intens la curile voievozilor II. Dungi costiate, oblice, acelai m o d e l . J
| moldoveni i munteni, n serviciul ei punndu-se doamna, d o m Pe piept i pe spate cmaa este brodat cu dungi ngusta
niele i toate femeile curii. motive desprinse din ornamentele mnecii.
Specialiti celebri ca A . Riegel i M . Hoberland ntresc Cmaa de toate zilele este puin brodat. *|p
if posibilitatea c arta popular romn i are originea din vremuri Brbaii i mai ales flcii, au cmile brodate la
CU mult mai vechi. Rdcinile ei par a ptrunde pn n timpurile peste umr i jos la mnec. j
\ tirzil ale Imperiului r o m a n (ondulaiile n'form de S i motivele Dac desenele de pe iile femeieti snt cteodat viu col
H In form de inim). au lnujele din fir de aur i argint, fluturi i mrgele,
Nu v o m uita s a m i n t i m nruririle culturii bizantine, c a u - de pe cmile brbteti snt lucrate m a i mult c u negru, t
j| cazic, persic i chiar turceasc. rar este folosit la umplutur puin rou sau fir metalic. ,|,
I O mulime de odoare din secolele X V i X V I , ce se pstreaz tergarul c u care-i nvelesc capul femeile btrne, te
| cu sfinenie la mnstirile de pe t o t cuprinsul rii, arat nli- care se pune de ornament n cas, ca i nframa folosit cu
| mea la care a ajuns arta brodatului. nunilor, snt brodate c u motive geometrice sau flori stil
1| La expoziia din 1 9 1 0 de la Viena, care a oferit un studiu i de reinut, desenul se prezenta totdeauna pe dou fee
Comparativ, broderiile romneti prezentate s-au reliefat prin c att pe fa c t i pe d o s , modelul era acelai. Marama din :C;
Varietatea modelelor, bogia desenului, prin cromatica subtil cel este din alestur de borangic c u fir auriu, la fel c u cela
'I armonia c u l o r i l o r fiind perfect. restul Munteniei, al Olteniei i din cheii Braovului. ,,;
| Portul ranilor r o m n i din Muntenia, Oltenia, M o l d o v a i
;
Cojoacele, bundiele i bunda snt brodate cu orna
: mai ales Bucovina, n general, este bogat ornamentat. Cmaa din domeniul plantelor mai mult sau mai puin stilizate, fl
de srbtoare la femei este ncreit la gt cmaa c u brezru frunze mpreunate n mnunchi sau ghirlande. |
Ca pe metopele monumentului de la A d a m c l i s i . C u timpul, unele n cromatica romneasc alturi de alb, negru, rou,
flrance, mai mult d i n spirit practic, au nlocuit aa care ncepea tatea de culori strvechi se gsesc griuri, galben-port \
jA se rup dup un t i m p de folosin, c u un gulera m i c de 1 c m . verde de diferite nuane, albastru ca cerul, albastru de Vo
Aa apare cmaa c u ciupag. Pe ciupag se brodeaz un fragment albastru nchis. n zona Clujului se folosete destul de mult li
din modelul de pe alti. chiul m o v u l . ?
Altia acoper u m r u l . A r e dou sau trei dungi orizontale. La aplicarea culorilor, rancele in seama de regulile aS*C
/ Deasupra dungilor snt fie motive geometrice, fie zoo sau a v i - niei, pentru care merit toat lauda. Motivele nu se restrng nU
| morfe. Dungile snt desprite prin lnujele de metal fir de la contururi, c i acoper chiar i fondul motivul aprnd >k
* aur sau argint, fluturi, mrgele. fondul brodat, fiind de o rar frumusee. *t
Urmeaz ncreeala de 5 1 5 c m , care are u n ornament geo n ar se folosesc mai multe tipuri de o r n a m e n t e : geometri*
metric ntr-o singur c u l o a r e : galben, iar pentru tineret roie. c e , fitomorfe, zoomorfe, a n t r o p o m o r f e , simbolice, sociale, iar
Variate snt motivele broderiei pe mneca de j o s . Se disting dou preferinele variaz d e la o zon la alta att pentru m o t i v e , cit i
tipuri: pentru c u l o r i .

6 7
i de a o face accesibil tuturor, iar pe de alt parte dorind de a
Mare parte din modelele ntrebuinate s-au conservat ne
scpa de pericolul uitrii i a pierzaniei i de a salva, ct se mai
schimbate din generaie n generaie, altele au suferit n decursul
poate salva, am ntreprins aceast o p e r " . Snt cuvintele unui
vremurilor destule schimbri n form i culoare din cauza femei
austriac, care a trit i muncit ca director al unei coli de pe
lor care au dorit s le dea o not personal. Dar multe, foarte
meleagurile noastre, a cunoscut ranul romn i i-a apreciat arta
multe din aceste vechi, btrneti c o m o r i de art, ce se gseau
n aa msur, nct s-a simit obligat s o ncredineze hrtiei
rspndite pn n cele mai umile csue de sub poalele codrilor
pentru a rmne ct de ct n amintirea urmailor.
notri, au fost distruse de v r e m e . Foarte multe au fost supuse pie-
Portul naional e ca o uniform dup care ni se cunoate
irii i numai puine din ele au nfruntat vitregia vremii.
neamul, e un steag al naiunii r o m n e . Portul nostru e cel mai
Dei la nceput mijloacele tehnice au fost destul de modeste
artistic i cel mai distins dintre toate porturile populare.
ei materiile p r i m e erau produsul gospodriei rneti, totui
realizrile au fost u i m i t o a r e .
Portul popular n general se difereniaz n funcie de ano
t i m p , ocazii festive, vrst, sex, adaptndu-se prin structura sa,
ocupaiilor specifice fiecrei zone. Piesele folosite n timpul
m u n c i l o r snt mai simple, mai puin ornamentate dect costumul
ce se mbrac la hor sau mai ales la nuni, care are ornamentele
cele mai frumoase i bogate n fir metalic, mrgele, paiete (fluturi)
prinse pe cma cu o mrgic.
Costumul femeiesc este compus din cma, poale i piesa
care acoper partea de la bru n jos. Aceast ultim pies se deose
bete de la regiune la regiune.
Fota, compus dintr-o singur bucat, este purtat n zonele
subcarpatice ncepnd de la Olt i pn n nordul M o l d o v e i ,
cuprinznd zonele etnografice Arge, Muscel, Dmbovia, Prahova,
Buzu, Vrancea, Bacu, Neam i Suceava.
VUnicul, fota ncreit, este specific Olteniei.
Catrina este compus din dou piese fie egale, perechi ca
n Maramure, Nsud sau Munii Apuseni, fie una mai ngust
n fa, i alta mai lat n spate ca n G o r j i Mehedini, sau una
scurt n fa i alta mai lung n spate, ca n Pdurenii din Hune
doara.
Opreagul cu franjuri se poart n Banat iar orul, n vestul
Transilvaniei.
Costumul brbtesc se compune dintr-o cma lung, n
sudul i estul rii, i mai scurt n nord i vest. Pantalonii snt
lungi i strimi n nord i sud-vest i ceva mai scuri i largi n
nord-vestul rii.
nchei citndu-1 pe ing. Erich Kolbenheyer, autorul albumu
lui Motive ale industriei casnice de broderii din Bucovina"
tiprit la Viena n 1 9 1 2 : Din dorina de a pstra comoara aceasta

8
osebire de cmi, bundiele i cojoacele snt orna
In broderie artistic - dup desen - iar sumanele cu
ireturi. i,,..
custur au fost folosite firele vegetale - cnepi ft'r
!
le animale - prul de ln i firul de borangic - ptO*
podria rneasc. Foarte rar mai gsim cmi C
CTEVA PUNCTE DE BRODERIE FOLOSITE LA
/ i mai ales cu fire de ln lnic care prin 00
1 i-au meninut culoarea i snt de o excepio
CUSTURILE ROMNETI
jSn vechimea l o r .
pul, aceste fire au fost nlocuite cu produse indu
torul crora s-a obinut o coloristic mai pronun
industrial care a ptruns la n o i a fost arniciul, care
toate regiunile rii, urmeaz bumbacul rsucit -- ibf
Broderia popular romneasc i elementele care constituie mbacul mercerizat, mulineul i mtasea vegetal. *
tehnica de lucru - att punctul ct i cromatica, snt aproape ' le metalice au ptruns n mediul rural prin intermed ,
identice pe t o t cuprinsul rii noastre, ele atest unitatea i conti
ilor i al atelierelor de pe lng curile domneti, ele t
nuitatea de veacuri a structurii generale n ndeletnicirile casnice
e oriental. A p o i au ptruns paietele i'mrgclele
ale rncii r o m n e . Deosebirile de la o zon etnografic la alta
' Imntenit n unele regiuni ale rii. ,i
snt aproape imperceptibile, folosind aproape aceleai puncte. O
diversitate mai mare se observ la motivele ornamentale de pe
tele cele mai des ntrebuinate i care se execut 4*f
la stnga s n t :
cmile femeieti. Custura, spre deosebire de broderie, este
#

Punctul cruciulia s i m p l " . Dac ar fi s socotim C


realizat pe baza numrrii firelor esturii pe care se coase i nu
dup vrst, atunci custura n cruciuli ar trebui s
pe baza desenului, aa c u m se procedeaz n broderia artistic.
VbtTnic ncovoiat i uitat de vreme, pentru c ace
Din punctul de custur, care a primit pe parcurs diferite forme
i numr multe secole n urma ei i e rspndit l '
- fie c se repet acelai punct, fie c se asociaz diverse puncte -
popoare de pe ntinsul pmntului. D a r dup forma
se nate motivul ornamental. Punctele de custur se compun
l mbinarea culorilor poi distinge, dac ai oarecare
numai din linii drepte, fie orizontale, fie verticale sau oblice.
Prin orientarea lor n linie dreapt respectnd firele din estur, 1 ce parte a lumii a fost lucrat,
ele se acord cu motivele geometrice, proprii artei populare n ara noastr, cea mai mare parte a motivelor naionale
romneti. lucrate n cruci, uneori simple, alteori combinate cu ~
tei ceea c e d o varietate nesfrit de m o d e l e . Custuri
U r m r i n d reeaua esturii pe care coasem, punctele de cus i ae poate executa bine numai pe o pnz cu firul pe
tur se realizeaz trecndu-se peste un f i r , peste dou sau mai lat. De ce ? Fiindc pentru a lucra cruciuliele trebuie s nU
multe fire d i n estur, pe baza unui calcul precis, constant. firele pe pnz. 1

n custura popular romneasc apar nenumrate puncte, Iat cum se lucreaz: '
care prin diversitatea lor creeaz o bogie i o varietate de modele O cruciuli este format din dou puncte o b l i c e , care ii
nemaintlnit n industria casnic textil a altor popoare. La o fnttlnesc la m i j l o c . Primul ir se lucreaz de la stnga la dreapta.
singur cma din costumul popular apar i cte zece puncte dife Punctele oblice se fac peste 2, 3 , 4 fire de pnz n'lungime i
rite de custuri. Punctele de custur, miestrite i variate, f o l o lime. A c u l iese vertical mai jos pentru a ncepe din n o u . C o n t i
site n ornamentarea textilelor populare, snt legate organic de num astfel pn se termin ntreg rndul. ntoarcem custurii i
structura motivului ornamental. procedm lu fel pentru ; i compleii cruciuliele cu a doua dingo-

10 II
"ii"i
mm
*
mm

mm mm.
:::;
::i!
i.Wt
r - t i - - i 4 - t !!!!mm
nal. La un model diagonalele cruciulielor trebuie s aib aceeai
direcie, altfel lucrul are o nfiare dezordonat i nedibace. I 5. Punctul naintea a c u l u i " , care poate deveni i punctul de
tur pentru modelele lucrate pe dou fee.
2. Punctul de cruciuli simpl cu dou fee". A t u n c i cnd
Se iau 2, 3, 4 fire din pnz i se las tot attea fire. Se ia
obiectul de ornament necesit o mai mare finee, cnd modelul
in nou numrul de fire stabilit pentru executarea modelului,
este ntrebuinat i pe dos, de e x . la perdele, milieuri, partea de
las tot attea fire. Obinem astfel un contur incomplet. Pentru
jos a mnecii de la costumul naional, cruciulia se execut pe
1 completa i a obine o linie continu ne ntoarcem cu acul i

j ambele fee ale pnzei. n acest caz se lucreaz linii oblice att
. pe fa ct i pe d o s , pe fire numrate, apoi se revine cu firul de
1 aa napoi i lucrm invers, unde a fost firul pe fa, va fi pe
[ a pentru a completa jumtile de fire oblice rmase. n felul
I dosul pnzei, apoi invers. A v e m grij s u r m r i m modelul pentru
acesta dispar firele verticale de pe dosul pnzei. Cruciuliele snt
fauprapuse i pe d o s . a nu grei numrul de puncte. Se folosete muline negru sau o
] culoare mai nchis. Punctul de contur este folosit de obicei pentru
3. Punctul de cruciuli dubl, m u s c a " (punctul d r a c u l u i ) . | a trasa desenul ales.
Se folosete pentru a accentua cteva locuri din model sau
ntre liniile de contur se u m p l e " cu
entru a completa golul cnd lucrm pe o pnz rar sau canava,
6. Punctul de umplutur - p l i n " sau btuta pe m u c h e "
a o perni sau un peretar. Ea are un aspect foarte frumos atunci
j sau peste un f i r " . Este un punct plin c o m p a c t . C u acest punct se
| umplu golurile unor motive ornamentale. Se lucreaz pe fire
numrate, fir dup fir, c o m p a c t , deci linii paralele care pot avea

jind avem grij s suprapunem cruciuliele regulat, adic ulti


m u l fir s aib ntotdeauna aceeai direcie. n afar de liniile
blice care se suprapun formnd crucea, trasm o linie orizontal
aceeai lungime, pornind i terminndu-se la aceeai distan. De
1 alta vertical care de asemenea se suprapun.
asemenea, pot fi aliniate, tot vertical, sczndu-se un fir la un
;
4 . Punct de cruciuli stelua", buba. Este tot un fel de cruce
capt i crescnd la cellalt, mutndu-se fiecare linie cu cte un
CU opt raze i care se execut astfel:
fir spre dreapta.
Dintr-un punct central se vor lucra linii drepte i o b l i c e .
7. Punct btrnesc atranga". C u acest punct se obin mici
Revenind cu firul, se completeaz si pe dos stelua. ptrele sau csue, pe fir numrat. La acest punct faa este la
12
IU
fel ca dosul. nlocuiete cu mult miestrie cruciulia atunci cnd c o p i i , a cmilor de toat ziua, care au o ornamentaie mai puin
vrem s executm un model pe dou fee. bogat dect cele de srbtoare. Se poate executa uor pe dou
Lucrnd la culegerea de custuri de fa, am observat cu sur fee.
prindere c punctul atranga", ptrelul pe fire numrate, de la 10. Punctul;zigzag" (arpele), ca i o c o l u l " , este un punct
sfritul secolului X I X nceputul secolului X X , a fost prezent pe de ornament. Prin repetarea liniilor oblice de dus i ntors obl
tot cuprinsul de azi al rii noastre dovedind continuitatea i nem un minunat m o t i v .
Zigzagul este prima parte a cruciuliei pe dou fee.

1 1 . Punctul de lnior" (lnucul) se folosete pentru a


umple golurile ntre cruciulie la un motiv pentru alti, pernia*
unitatea poporului nostru nu numai n limb i port ci chiar i decorativ, pentru a face o monogram pe lenjerie sau chiar pentru
n felul de a folosi punctele de ornament pe custuri. a executa o broderie artistic. Se execut n sens vertical sau de
A m ntlnit punctul atranga - trancua - pe custurile la dreapta spre stnga. Se scoate acul pe fa i se mpunge exact
btrneti din toat Bucovina, din judeele Neam, Botoani, n acelai l o c , apoi se scoate la 3 - 4 fire mai departe pe model
Bacu, Ilfov, V l c e a , Braov, n zonele etnografice Brlad i Vlaca,
3 z l r 1 1 1 i m
n satul Boju din judeul C l u j i chiar pe o ie foarte veche din
m
*

1



" ^ i



satul Borsa M a r a m u r e .




1 mi
r * 1

*

m A


i:
wA





!


mA
8 . Punctul o c o l u l " este el nsui un motiv ornamental. Din






1
U


mm



aceste puncte repetate pe orizontal i vertical se obin modele
pe dou fee. trgnd acul prin bucla format de a. D i n nou se mpunge cu
acul i se trece peste 3 - 4 fire prin bucl. Acest punct seamn cu
verigile unui lan, de la care i-a luat i numele. Aa dup cum
verigile lanului snt perfect egale, la fel i lanul nostru trebuie
s prezinte bucle egale.
12. Punctul btrnesc mrunica" n Bucovina, ca dinii
ferstrului" njTransilvania, este un punct care, nlocuiete cruciu
9 . Punctul calea c i o b a n u l u i " este format din linii orizontale
lia, mai ales atunci cnd avem de executat modele pe perdele sau
i verticale care urc i coboar, alctuind diferite modele simple,
uor de executat, folosite pentru ornamentarea cmuelor pentru

pe milieuri care trebuie s se prezinte la fel pe fa ca i pe dos


- adic modele care necesit s fie lucrate pe dou fee. Se exe-

15
cut destul de uor i n combinaie cu atranga se pot face motive
frumoase. Se fac linii oblice, ca pentru cruciulie, dar la ntoar
cere nu se mai execut linii oblice ci linii verticale - adic exact
inversul primei lucrturi. Se obine acelai model pe ambele
pri, cu munc mai puin dect cruciulia pe dou fee.
13. Punctul btrnesc jumti de c r u c e " , punctul r o m
n e s c " sau butucul", nlocuiete irul de cruciulie i are un as
pect frumos i foarte ordonat. Se face economie de timp i a. 1 6 . Punctul brduul", custur folosit ca umplutur de
La acest punct, n loc s se fac primul ir de linii oblice, se ornament, const dintr-un ir de puncte oblice. Se execut prima
parte a ramurii, ducnd aa peste 4 fire n sus i 2 fire la dreapta,

traseaz dup c u m cere modelul o singur linie oblic lung apoi


se face al doilea rnd de linii oblice scurte. Iese ca un fel de cruce
regulat i mai ales dac modelul are mai multe cruci mpreun,
acest punct le nlocuiete cu mult succes.
pn realizm o succesiune de puncte oblice. La ntoarcere se
14. Punctul bnean n linie orizontal" se execut ca i
execut alturat de primul rnd, al doilea rnd. Aspectul final
punctul naintea acului. Se iau 2 fire, se las 2 fire iar se iau
este al unei crengue de brad.
2 fire i se las tot attea. Pentru a executa modelul corect, la
17. Punctul de c i o c n e l e " , folosit mai mult n sudul Tran
silvaniei zona Sibiului, ici, c o l o i n zonele nvecinate, se
caracterizeaz prin dungi verticale, n form de galoane negre. Se
[- I
K
V - ]^Ht ZL ^
t
m

era;! icrv^ic^c-iiai
|-3ir-a( 3>>*2aciM

rndul al doilea se mpart n dou cele dou fire lsate i se exe


cut ca i rndul nti. Acest fel de punct se folosete la ncreuri
i mai ales la esutul motivelor odat cu pnza, c a ' n Maramure
i n ultimul timp i n alte regiuni din ar.
execut dup principiul custurii peste fire, cu deosebire c firul
15. Punctul bnean n linie oblic pe d o s " . Se iau fire cu
unui punct se ncrucieaz cu firul punctului alturat. Se face
so, 2 sau 4 pentru custura pe fa. Cu acul se trece pe dos n
linie oblic mprind n dou linia de sus i se face pe fa din mult e c o n o m i e de a ntruct firul este trecut foarte puin pe
nou un punct pe 2 sau 4 fire. Iar se trece oblic pe dos mprind dosul pnzei.
n dou custura i iar pe fa peste 4 fire. C u aceast custur se 18. Punctul tietura", nrudit cu abacul, apare n mod
lucreaz uor i plcut peretare i pernie decorative cu motive delimitat pe suprafaa pnzei, ca un motiv principal, ncadrat de
romneti, de preferin motive geometrice. alte genuri de custur. Ca sistem tehnic, observm c nu se scot

17
16
firele pe toat lungimea, c i numai parial, att ct indic motivul
perforat. Se execut a s t f e l : nti vor fi cusute, c o n f o r m modelului,
toate celelalte m o t i v e realizate cu puncte pline, adic fr fire

nrmf.'H anii laiiiiiiimBPiiiiiniiiBB -Ra i ' i B


"iiiiiu m i i m aimiiiiKa-uiiiiiiuB i i n
H I - u i U I a ;r buh-p-uiiua
mm-- mm n = a = = a M
--im m i ilwiuxuo'h'ra n ^ a c i u b i lafc aannaaa
iriiiinnaeiinaa BES-aa BiiiaBir*aaiuiBBB
bbbb a-- im na > !E dt I I I
Bflfl
i i i am
aa-- mi a ==la
iiiiiiiiuijuaiiaiiJSFiiiia
aa =- =t ac
a n u a l . .aiiuaanuBBB B1BLIOQRAF1E
IUI IUI JK Jt =; BB
BBB== IUI IUI JB . , a E=ils= =; 3
aaaaa.iiiiniiiiiiiiluijjnuuiit.iiiaa aa... aiuuaijiiuBLiiuaaa
BBB BIII)lllllltlillMnii*!mT3fc/i:iB BIIJ m i B B " " ' r i i r B a B
mm--.-, nu Se aa aa = . -ic ir mmm
BBBB Bri IUI ] [ ==1 BBBB = :' =lf 3F aia

Baasaa Biiiuiiiirrr^iiiiB aB==e=aa iniBamamiaBa


BBB==BB MB== Lr B::rr~l BB
BBBsMiina a-- --a macrr-iiina a ~ a n a
BBBaiiiiuna bbiiiibb miiiii==-iiuii i bb>i a a ibb
Avtamescu, E l e n a ; 13 o b u F i o r c s c u , F i o r e a Bro
mm
BBBIIIIIIIIIIBB BllllB BBIIUI1UIIBBIIHIIII 1 BB BIIIB IBB

deriile la romni. Editura de stat, Bucureti, 1959.


B l a g a , A u r e l i e ; D u n r e , N i c o l a e Nestemate bihorenc.
scoase. Dup aceea ce face tietura, numrnd firele i fcnd calcu Editura tehnic, Bucureti, 1974.
lul amplasrii acesteia. Se ntresc marginile l o c u l u i , care u r C e a u a n u , F l o r i e a; S i m i o n e s c u , S a n d a Manual dc
meaz s fie tiate, prin punctul de drug sau prin feston. Se taie custuri i vopseli vegetale. Editura Universul, 1945.
apoi pnza n interiorul ntriturii pe lng feston, dar n aa fel C o m a , ' D i m i t r i e - Din ornamentica romn Album artistic
reprezentnd 284 broderii i esturi dup originale rneti, Sibiu,
ca la anumite distane s se lase t o t cte un grup de 2 sau 4 fire,
1904.
att n lungime ct i n lime, astfel ca s se creeze o reea. C o s m a , M i n e r v a Modele de custuri romneti. Editura Robert
Picioruele reelei v o r fi btute des cu aa cu care coasem. Beyer, Timioara, 1905.
M a i snt i alte puncte, mai puin folosite, de aceea nu le-am Grigorescu, V i c t o r i a G h . hvoade dc custuri naionale.
explicat. Cartea Romneasc, Bucureti.
Ione, E u g e n i a Tainele industriei casnice rneti. Manuscris
aflat la Muzeul din oraul Rdui Suceava^.
I o n e , E u g e n i a hvoade de custuri romneti. Editura Librriei
Ostaul Romn", Cernui, 1 9 2 3 .
Kolbenheyer, E r i c h Motive ale industriei casnice din Buco
vina. Imprimeria curii i statului, V i e n a , 1912.
Petrescu, Paul; Secoan, Elena; Doag, A u r e l i a
Custuri romneti. Editura didactic i pedagogic, 1973.
tefnuc, Leocadia; Dunre, N i c o l a e hvoade
populare din ara de Sus. Editura Dacia, Cluj-Napoca, 1974.
Tomida, E c a t e r i n a D . Custurile i broderiile costumului
popular din Romnia. Editura tehnic, Bucureti, 1972.
sos with two shades of yellow rnouMni; 3) Oblique stripcs cmplaycd In t / t e oniomen-
tation of the " a l t i a " .
PLATE 8. Very old tablccloth, made of homespun woolcn fabric. The i-mbrol-
dery has been sewn with dyed woolen thread. Techniques of stitching: "over tht
thread" and sewing "behind the needle". Colours; chestnut for the contour, rerf
A C O L L E C T I O N O F O R N A M E N T A L F O L K MOTIFS
and green-blue and blue and fraise for the filling.
PLATE 9. Patterns from Bucovina, the end of the 19th century. Thcy can b#
sewn on both sides.
PLATE 10. Man's shirt from Huedin, Cluj, the 20 th century. It Is s W f t
lllustrations
in crosses with blue cotton perle. 1) Collar; 2) The opening of the shirt; 3) Mot
sewn on the lap of the shirt and vertically on the shirt under the arm; 4) Rich o r n a .
mentation made of various points on the lower part of the sleeve; 5) Collar patterft
sewn on the sleeve across the shoulder.
PLATE 11. Ornamental pillow cases from Northern Moldavia. 1) Intrlcott
PLATE 1. Ornamentation on the sleeve of a blouse found at Boju, zone of ornament consisting of "ram horns", "snail antennae" and "host" ("prescur") s t / t c h t r f
Cluj, the beginning of the 20 th century. It combines the following stitches: "over on homespun linen, zone of Dorohoi, the end of the 19 th century. The followlnf
the thread", crosses, zigzag, beads sewn on the cloth and five beads on a string, techniques have been used: "before the needle" for contour, crosses, chain llnkt,
then sewn on the decoration of the motif. Black is predominant, alongside with othe'r "over the thread" and small beads stitched on the linem one by one; 2) CbromatlC
bright colours, as shown in the illustration. diagonal composition on an ornamental pillow case discovered in Northern Buce
PLATE 2. Richly decorated shirt, zone of Vrancea, the beginning of the 20 th vina dating from the early 20 th century. It is sewn in crosses with black and r4
century. 1) The embroidered area on the shoulder (altia) in a geometric pat- mouline.
tern is narrower than in other ethnographic zones; 2) Oblique ornaments made of PLATE 12. Blouse (ie) with " b r e z r u " f o r young girls, Breaza, zon
two kinds of geometric patterns. The colours are two shades of red, yellow and blue. of Prahova, the 20 th century. It is sewn in crosses on thin cotton cloth with sllk,
The pattern between the rows of little roses is cream-colored; one row little rosei
PLATE 3. Stitching from the subzone of Humor, Suceava. 1) A beautiful
Is bright red and pink with green leaves, the second one is blue and yellow and
embroidery sewn in crosses and filled with golden-yellow in the point of filling,
on a man's shirt for special occasions; 2) Pattern on a wall towel. green leaves again.
The sleeve is short and has an embroidered area on the shoulder (alti), fol
PLATE 4. Patterns of flowers, free-hand drawing, sewn on towels from Za- ding and oblique stripes. Itends in a honeycomb pattern and a string to help it fold,
mostea, Suceava, in the 1920 s. The pattern on the brest is displayed in angles. It has about nine row, of
PLATE 5. Three patterns of flowers and grapes, free hand drawings. They little roses. It terminates with a row of edges sewn with cream colored thread In
are sewn in crosses with various colours of mouline. These are the patterns that point "over the thread". The back of the shirt displays scattered little flowers about
occur in towels of more recent date. 5 cm apart.
PLATE 13. The ornamental composition represents: 1) Corner of a tablecloth
PLATE 6. Woman's shirt, zone of Oa, the end of the 19 th century. Cha-
racteristic of the Oa shirt is the right-angled inset (cheptar) displayed around the which has in its pattern the "spun ribbon" and various flowers; 2) Cherries with
neck; it is brightly colored and used to have geometric motifs in the past, but free-hand drawn leaves sewn on a napkin; 3) Another motif with cherries for the
nowadays floral motifs are also common. The shirt is buttoned up at the back. corner of a doily.
The loose sleeves are decorated with a single stripe and the lower part of the sleeve PLATE 14. Geometric combinations on: 1) A towel from Dej; 2) A towcl
displays a bracelet cuff sewn on the folded area, that bas the same motifs as from Bistria; 3) A pillow case from Dorohoi. It is made of sackcloth or canvas
the inset and a flounce (fodor) embroidered in a rhombic pattern. 1) Narrow col- sewn with woolen thread in "double cross point". There are three shades of red and
lar, round the neck; 2) Marginal pattern to be found on the bracelet, notshown three shades of blue.
In the illustration; 3) The main pattern on the inset; 4) The embroidery on the
PLATE 15. Stitching on a peasant tablecloth Sbdu, Bihor. This tablecloth
lower part of the sleeve which forms the flounce; 5) A single middle stripe from
has two marginal patterns and in the middle is decorated with birds and branche;
the shoulder to the cuff.
with flowers.
PLATE 7 . Blouse ( i e ) with "brezru" from Vatra Moldoviei, subzone of PLATE 16. 1) Pattern for doilies, pillows and tablecloths discovered in Bu< o
Cmpulung Moldovenesc. 1) The embroidered area on the shoulder '(alti) consists vina, Moldova and Muntenia at the beginning of the 20 th century. We have s e e / i
of an ornament with "suns"; 2) The folding is a geometric combination sewn in cros- it sewn both with beige and brown on the edge. The pattern in the corner :.ewn

20 21
In brown and flllcd with bright red and "Vorone blue" was particularly impiessivc; It also has "hammers" bordered by stylized leaves; 4) Ltevtt rtndered by
2) Tablecloth from Flticeni, the 19th century, sewn in ancient point. yellow, black and a few red beads; 5) Pattern sewn in crosses of black mouline'
PLATE 17. Towel, zone of Brlad, the 19th century. It is made of very thin and a zigzag of yellow beads, on the shoulder.
homespun cotton fabric. The stitching is fine, on double thread with one mouline PLATE 26. Geometric composition, and patterns of flowers sewn in crosses
thread. Patterns 1) and 3) have the contour sewn in red and are filled with black. and "over the thread" point, in various colours, on a dowry pillow case from Nort
Pattern 2) is sewn in black and filled with red. It is worth noticing the delicacy hern Moldavia.
of the embroidery consisting of points of contour, "atranga" and the point of
filling. PLATE 27. The sleeve of a costume from Hunedoara (costum de "Pdureanc"),
the 19 th century. It is made of thick hemp or cotton cloth. The ornamentation on
PLATE 18. Blouse with collar and the slit in the front, subzone of Huedin, the the sleeve is dense, sewn in the so-called "old point", "curled point" and the point
20 th century. It is sewn in crosses. The slit has an ornament of a row of half "over the thread". The ornamental area is red for girls and young women and black
crosses. The slit is pink cotton perle. 1) The motif on the collar and slit; 2) Floral for older women. The flowers and leaves are of various colours.
motifs which decorate the front of the blouse and parallel the main row on the sleeve;
3) Stylized leaves and flowers that go down from the shoulder to the end of the PLATE 28. Old stitching on blouses employed on tablecloths. 1) Pattern from
sleeve which is loose and finished in 4) the same pattern which decorates the collar. Bistria Nsud discovered on a floss kerchief. It is sewn in crosses. The colours
are black, red, golden yellow and blue; 2) Doily on which a blouse pattern from
PLATE 19. Very old patterns from Bucovina for the decorations of doilies. Ilfov has been employed. Besides black and red silver metallic thread has been used.
AII of them can be used on both sides employing the techniques of sewing indica-
ted on the plate. PLATE 29. Woman's shirt from Budieni, Gorj. It is made of thick linen sewn
in the old Romanian point with thick black cotton thread, colored beads and pail-
PLATE 20. Free-hand drawn phytomorphic patterns. There are lots of bluebells lettes. It has a narrow collar which supports the foldings of the breast, back and
and cornflowers. sleeves of the shirt. 1) The pattern on the collar; 2) Embroidery 11 cm wide on
PLATE 21. Blouse (ie) with "brezru" from Botoani, the end of the 19 th the breast on both sides of the slit; 3) The cuff called there "the collar of the shirt";
century. It is made of floss sewn with black and yellow mouline. 1) The embroide 4) The embroidered area on the back bordering the sleeves; the back is covered by
red area on the shoulder (alti) is sewn in points of contour while the edge is a a vest. The sleeves have the same geometric diagonal embroidery 30 cm wide which
row of crenellated crosses. The wreaths on the " a l t i a " are sewn in points of contour starts 8 cm below the collar and ends at the cuff. It is of a dense texture, richly
and filled with black; 2) The folding sewn in stitch following points of contour and decorated, brightly colored owing to the various beads and paillettes.
points of filling; 3) Stripes on the sleeve consisting of a middle ornament and two
PLATE 30. Man's shirt from Huedin, Cluj, the 20 th century. It is brightly
lateral rows.
and richly colored. 1) The collar one can see the festoon and the opening of the
PLATE 22. Patterns from Banat. 1) Horizontal patterns sewn on the back of shirt decorated in zigzag only; 2) Floral motif, on the shirt, across the shoulder;
the cloth. It is used for men'sshirts. 2) Pattern sewn in the Banat point, but verti- 3) Shoulder motif with brightly colored flowers, sewn on the sleeve; 4) Motif deco-
cally and the sewing on the back of the cloth is oblique. It is used for young rating the lower part of the shirt.
women's blouses. The colours are black, yellow and a little blue and green. The
old blouses have a dense decoration on the sleeve like the ones from Hunedoara. PLATE 31. Flower motifs on towels from various zones. 1) Towel from Sb-
du, Bihor, the end of the 19 th century. It has a particular stitching. The contour
PLATE 23. Elaborate ornamentation made of two distinctive patterns a smal- of the flowers is sewn in crosses with blue thicker cotton. The filling is "over the
ler one on the edge and a wide one with "cuts" ("tieturi") on a pillow case from thread" stitching closely following the pattern; 2) Squash flowers and leaves sewn
Boju, Cluj. Severa! colours are used, but mauve is predominant. on a towel from Tulcea; 3) Vine leaves and grapes on towels from the zone of
PLATE 24. Blouse (ie) for young girls, zone of Neam, the beginning of the lai.
20 th century. The techniques used are: stitch following points of contour, zigzag,
PLATE 32. 1) Pattern on a blouse made of chiffon, zone of Sibiu. It is sewn
filling "over the thread" and stitch inthechain links. It is a fine and elegant sewing.
in black and only on the "hammer joint" is it sewn in silver and golden metallic
The predominant colours are: black for the contour, light blue and golden for the
thread. In this pattern the "hammer joint" has its edges sewn in dots "over the
rest. 1) The embroidered area on the shoulder (altia); 2) The folding; 3) Vertical
thread", then long crosses sewn behind one single thread on the edge decoration.
stripes on the sleeve; 4) Stripes on the breast and the back of the shirt.
The flowers bordering the chain of hammers are sewn in finely stitehed crosses on
PLATE 25. Ornamentations on a blouse (ie) with collar (ciupag) from Boju, double thread.
zone of Cluj, the beginning of the 20 th century. On the sleeve one may see: 1) A 2) Pattern on a shirt, zone of Trnave made of chiffon, decoration across
fine motif, sewn in crosses, on the collar; 2) A stripe that resembles a little the the elbow not in stripes.
so-called "Sibiu hammers" framed in a successfully stylized grapevine the grapes 3) Shirt from zone of Fgra, made of floss. The little flowers on the edges
are rendered by three stitches only; 3) Stripes on both sides of the motif in the middle. are sewn in black mouline. The "hammer joint" is stitehed in longer crosses.

22
PLATE 33. Towel from Moneasa, Arad, woven around 1850. Peculiar to it crosslng, stitch "before the needle". Tht cofourt an black, two shades of red and
Is the fact that il has one pattern at one end and a different one at the other. The yellow. Patterns 1 and 2 can also be used for tablecloths.
weaver used red, black and orange thick cotton thread. PLATE 42. Old towel, zone of Cluj, the beginning of the 20 th century. It
PLATE 34. Phytomorphic motifs on towels from the beginning of the 20 th Is made of thicker cotton fabric. At both ends the towel has red woven stripes. The
Century. 1) and 2) Motifs sewn in crosses on towels from Brlad; 3) Flowers sewn remaining white section is embroidered with stylized geometric motifs sewn with
O f ) a towel from Roznov, Neam; 4) Grapes sewn with black mouinle on an old black and red "pesant cotton thread". Patterns specific to this zone are sewn with
towel from Brlad. red and black "peasant cotton" on the red stripes.
PLATE 43. Hungarian stitching from Transilvania. They are sewn exclusively
i PLATE 35. Ornamental composition to be found with the Saxon population in crosses; the colour is red. 1) The patterns represents a towel with birds and
9f Transylvania. branches in blossom, sewn with red cotton; 2) Pattern for a pillow case or towel;
PLATE 36. The atranga sewing technique discovered on kerchiefs from 3) Pattern for towels.
Brlad patterns 1) and 2); Patterns 3) and 4) selected from "Custuri romneti"
PLATE 44. Blouse (ie), zone of Gorj, the end of the 19 th century. Made of
by Minerva Cosma, Timioara, 1904; 5) Pattern found in Boju, Cluj, sewn on a
homespun cotton. It is embroidered with black cotton thread, golden or silver metallic
papkin-kerchief in 1900; 6) Stripes on a blouse from Mleti, zone of Dolj; 7)
thread and paillettes. 1) The embroidered area on the shoulder; 2) The folding;
Stripes on a blouse from the zone of Vlaca, the end of the 19th century; 8) and
3) The motif on the sleeve is one single row of sewing following the pattern of the
9) Patterns for men's shirts selected from "Izvoade de custuri naionale" by teacher
"alti". The breast and the back of the blouse are decorated with squares that follow
Victoria Gh. Grigorescu from Maia, Ilfov, Editura Cartea Romneasc.
the same pattern.
We have selected them for their beauty and craftsmanship, too. The "atranga"
$ewing requires harder work than the crosses but it is more exquisite. It is also PLATE 45. Pattern discovered on the velvet that covers the lectern in the Roma-
easily sewn on both sides. nian Orthodox Chapel, the Cemetery of Deva. Considering the fabric and the exclu
PLATE 37. Sewing in crosses of blue cotton on a blouse (ie) with collar (ciupag) sive sewing in crosses it seems to go back to the end of the 19th century and it
from Boju, zone of Cluj, the 20 th century. 1) and 4) Ornamental motifs on the was specially made for the church. The golden thread is predominant, alongside with
collar and the lower part of the sleeve, which is loose. The sleeve is decorated with black and red.
three stripes that go down from the shoulder; 2) Main pattern of stylized leaves
and flowers; 3) On both sides of the central pattern there are two rows of leaves PLATE 46. Woman's shirt "sptoi" "spcel" from Brusturi, Bihor, the
and grapes. end of the 18 th century, made of cotton. 1) The narrow collar, which is a "stripe"
(benti), supportsthefoldings of the shirt; 2) Sewing with a double role: it strengt-
PLATE 38. Boy's shirt from Huedin, Cluj, the 20 th century. It is made of hens and hides the piece of cloth attached to the shoulders of the shirt (spete) meant
cotton sewn in crosses. The colours are black and red. 1) A straight collar sewn for long wear; 3) Geometric style embroideries on the spete or spcel; 4) Three
In the "ram-horn patern"; 2) The opening of the shirt has the same pattern; 3) A rows of ornaments on the sleeve from shoulder to cuff; 5) Cuffs (pumnarii) 10 cm
row of "bent flowers" displayed from the collar to the breast; 4) "Bent-flower-orna- wide, buttoned up with colored buttons sewn on the foldings of the sleeve at about
ment" on the sleeve across the shoulder; 5) Geometric motif on the lower part of 10 cm higher than the lower end.
the sleeve and on the lap of the shirt.
PLATE 47. Hungarian motif belived to belong to the 18 th century, according
PLATE 39. Old towel, zone of Cluj, the beginning of the 20 th century. It
to collector from where it has been reproducea. It is used in decorating pillow cases
Is made of thicker cotton fabric. At both ends the towel has red woven stripes. The
remaing white section is embroidered with stylized motifs of leaves sewn with red or wall towels.
and black "peasant cotton thread" while the red sections have geometric motifs spe PLATE 48. Specific Hungarian motif sewn in crosses with red cotton thread,
cific to this zone, also sewn with white and black thick cotton thread in the point the end of the 19 th century. The pattern is used in decorating dowry pillow cases
"over the thread". or wall towels.
PLATE 40. Braids of stitching from Suceava. 1) Stitching on a boy's shirt;
PLATE 49. Patterns. 1) and 2) discovered in the zone of Cluj, on men's
2) Pattern employed on shirts, but also for doiIies; 3) Oblique stripes employed
shirts are sewn in crosses with black and red mouline; 3) Geometric coronets con-
for little girls' blouses; 4) Embroidery on a man's shirt. Besides the predominant
taining "flower wreaths" embroidered on girls' dresses and doilies zone of Rd
black other colours have been introducea
ui, Suceava. Black mouline is used, the flower can be sewn in red or blue; 4) Frag
PLATE 41. Blouse (ie), zone of Vllcea, the end of the 19 th century. 1) Embro ment of a very old blouse from Dorohoi. The pattern is part of the ornamentation
idered area on the shoulder (alti); 2) Stripes; 3) The cuff; 4) The collar; 5) The called "the tree of life". The stripes on the sleeves and breast have been reproducea.
opening of the shirt; 6) The breast of the shirt; several "old points" have been used: It is sewn in crosses with black and red. This pattern, the middle of it and a part
crosses, half crosses filling points over double thread, points of contour and lines, criss- or all the "branches" can be embroidered on tablecloths and doilies.
P L A T E 50. Ornamental composition with: 1) "Spun ribbon"; 2) Geometric PLATE 5 8 . Man's shirt, zone of Sibiu, the beginning of the 20 th century,
motif; 3) Ancient stitching In "over the thread" point sewn on both sides; 4) 1) The ornamentation on the opennlag of the short displays the same pattern a% on
Corner of a doily sewn in crosses. If it is to be used on both sides the stitch fol a narrow collar. Particular to this zone are the combinations of sewings which form
lowing points of contour (atranga) and the point of filling have to be employed. a trapezium on the chest; 2) Stripes on the sleeve two only one toward tho
PLATE 51. Blouse ( i e ) with collar (ciupag) from Zhreti, Suceava, the be breast, the other toward the back. The stripes start on the shoulder, where the same
ginning of the 20 th century. 1) The embroidered area on the shoulder ( a l t i ) ; 2) pattern is embroidered and go down to the lower part of the sleeve where a Iar ger
The folding, an alternation of horizontal and vertical lines; 3) Oblique stripes; pattern is to be found; 3) The pattern on the lower part of the sleeve. The somt .
4) The pattern on the "ciupag" a little collar; 5) The flowers on the breast of pattern is to be found on the lap of the shirt, which is rather short.
the blouse.
PLATE 59. Braids of embroidery for little boys and girls' shirts, zone
PLATE 52. Blouse (ie) with "brezru", zone of Vlaca, the end of the 19 th Suceava. It is usually sewn in crosses with black mouline for boys and red
century. 1) The embroidered area on the shoulder (altia) with the "ram-horn pat girls. |
tern", the rows divided by chains sewn with golden metalic thread; 2) The folding
which is sewn in the weaving point with yellow or red thread; 3) Stripes of motifs PLATE 60. Blouse (ie) with "brezru", zone of Bacu. The simple geoffjft
on the sleeve; 4) Theway the motif in the embroidered area on the shoulder is emplo ornamentation confers elegance. 1) The embroidered area on the shoulder (altl
yed on the breast and the back of the shirt. 2) The folding that may be sewn in red for young girls and yellow for oldcr W O K f

3) Oblique stripes; 4) Flowers on the lower part of the sleeve; 5) The way th
PLATE 53. Blouse (ie) from Neam, the beginning of the 20 th century. It has
wers are displayed on the breast of the shirt.
a simple geometric ornament and it is worn on special occasions. 1) The embroi
dered area on the shoulder (altia) bordered by rows of chains sewn in metalic thre PLATE 61. Blouse (ie), zone of Muscel, the end of the 19 th century, v

ad; 2) Vertical stripes on the sleeve; 3) The narrow collar (ciupagul) which supports made of thin cotton fabric sewn thin cotton thread, silk thread, silver and f ,
the foldings of the blouse; 4) The ornamentation on the breast of the blouse; 5) The thread and paillettes.
ornamentation on the back. The sleeve: 1) The embroidered area on the shoulder (altia) has an orna
PLATE 54. Blouse with foldings ( i e cu brezru) from Bistria-Nsud, the motif made of two elements. The upper side with "fir trees", the lower sld
20 th century. 1) The embroidered area on the shoulder (altia) consists of oblique "starlets" emerging from the black area; 2) The folding consists of a geo
stripes sewn in crosses with black mouline and enclosed by cherry-colored red; 2) pattern with paillettes; 3) Vertical stripes which are to be found on the rest f ;
The breast of the shirt; 3) The back. We should mention that the blouse with fol blouse, too.
dings and embroidered area on the shoulder is an influence from Moldavia. The PLATE 62. Ornaments from Dorohoi, the beginning of the 20 th century,
old local shirt is the one with "bracelet" (fodor) and patterns across the elbow com- ornaments are sewn in crosses and points of contour, the colour is prcdomlnQ
mon to the neighbouring Transylvanian zones. black. 1) Vertical stripes on the sleeve of a work shirt, the pattern consists of "b
PLATE 55. Blouse ( i e ) from Arge, the beginning of the 20 th century, sewn ches". The pattern is called "the tree of l i f e " ; 2) Stripes on a child's shirt; 3)
in crosses, stitch following points of contour and "fir trees". 1) The embroidered embroidered area on the shoulder (alti) of o shirt for special occasions; 4) Ool
area on the shoulder, where the "fir trees" are to be found; 2) The folding sewn in stripes on the sleeve. f,
points of contour; 3) The sleeve geometric motif obliquely displayed; 4) The
PLATE 63. Four corners of doilies. The patterns are old, the end of the f
cuff with zigzag ornamentation; 5) The openning of the blouse; 6) The breast of
century. *:
the shirt which has an easy pattern successfully employed in decorating tablecloths,
too; 7) Skirts. PLATE 64. Man's shirt with ancient stripes from Dmbovia, the 19 th centUf ,.
1) The collar and the opening of the shirt; 2) A wider pattern employed on :

PLATE 56. Blouse (ie) with embroidered area on the shoulder (alti) and fol
lap of the shirt, the lower part of the sleeve and across the shoulder.
dings at the neck from Mehedini, the end of the 19 th century. The embroidery on
the shoulder is quite wide, sewn in black, Romanian stitch. The folding is sewn PLATE 65. Blouse (ie) from Slite, zone of Sibiu. It is sewn in black moull \
in crosses, the colours are yellow, red and black. From the folding down on the on chiffon. The sleeve is loose. 1) It has a narrow co,'/or(ciupag) decorated wl _
sleeve there are three stripes that follow the pattern on the shoulder. little flowers, then follows 2) the fold-sewing on the edges of the foldings. There foK,
lows a vertical ornamentation made of: 3) wider "hammers" bordered by 4) and 6)
PLATE 57. Blouse with foldings (ie cu brezru) from Bistria-Nsud, the
beginning of the 20 th century. The embroidered area on the shoulder (altia) and floral motifs; 5) There is only one row ornament on the shoulder, called "umera";

the stripes on the sleeve are finely stitehed in crosses, on a double thread, with 7) Below the elbow there is a fold with sewing on the edges of the foldings. There
cherry coloured and light red mouline. There is no cuff on the sleeve, it is only follows the "bracelet" (fodor).
folded like around the neck. The same stripes are to be found on the front. The PLATE 66. Blouse ( i e ) with "brezru", Ilfov, the end of the 19 th century.
pattern on the back is made of stripes of rhombuses or the rhombuses employed in 1) The embroidered area on the shoulder where instead of stripes there is a tlny
the embroidered area on the shoulder. pattern which frames the main geometric motif. In the middle there is a star sewn

2(! '.7
In point "over the thread". Other points are crosses and stitches following points
of contour; 2), 3) Stripes on the sleeves. The main motif is the "ram-horn pattern";
4) The pattern of the cuff; 5) The collar; 6) The opening of the shirt; 7) Pattern displayed
in rows on the breast and in squares on the back; 8) Pattern for the skirt.
PLATE 67. Ornaments from different parts of the country. 1) Ornament dis
covered on a house from Rdui; 2) Motif sewn on the folding of the sleeve zone
of Cluj; 3) and 4) Motifs sewn on men's shirts from Rlmnicul Srat; 5) Embroi
dery sewn in Romanian stitch on a man's shirt for special occasions Dorohoi;
6) and 7) Sewings in crosses on little children's shirts zone of Vaslui.
PLATE 68. Ancient stitchings, zone of Cmpulung Moldovenesc, the end of the
19 th century. 1) Sewing in crosses for a man's shirt; 2) and 3) Patterns that can
be embroidered on kerchiefs, too; 4) Another pattern that decorates a shirt for spe
cial occasions.
PLATE 69. Stitching patterned after phytomorphic free-hand drawings, zone
of Cluj. 1) Leaves to decorate a tablecloth; 2) A bunch of daises with leaves for
the corner of a tablecloth. The illustration is in black only so that it can also be
used for lace, but other colours cna be employed.
PLATE 70. Plate selected from the album "Motive ale industriei casnice din
Bucovina", Vienna 1912 to prove that the "atranga" in the Romanian stitching has
been employed all over present day Romnia.
PLATE 71-. Patterns sewn in crasses on towels and scarveszone of Cluj.
PLANA 1. O r n a m e n t pe m i n e c la o cma femelatc de la n c e p u t u l aecolulul XX, flit
In satul Boju xona C l u j .
Ea are c u i t u r l m b i n a t e d i n p u n c t e l e : p e i t e u n f i r , c r u c i . i ' | x a g . m r g e l e p r i m e d i r e c t p*
plnx al u n n u m r de 5 m r g e l u t e nirate pe u n f i r de | | , apoi p r i m e In d e c o r u l m o t i v u l u i .
P r e d o m i n i iul.i ea n e u r . a l t u r i de o c r o m a t i c v i a . a i * cum aa r . h . . . - i aie
P L A N A 2. C m i bogat o r n a m e n t a t , d e la n c e p u t u l s e c o l u l u i X X , d i n z o n a Vrancea.
I) A l t i a cu c t m p o r n a m e n t a t g e o m e t r i c e s t e m i c o r a t fa de alte z o n e . 2) O r n a m e n t e costisate
o r m a t e din dou feluri de modele g e o m e t r i c e . Culorile folosite snt: rou de dou nuane, galben
i albastru.
m
- :

ti :

P L A N A 4 . Modele de flori, liber desenate, cusute prin deceniul al treilea al s e c o l u l u i X X


tergarele din zona Zamostea, judeul Suceava. P L A N A S. Trei m o d e l e de flori i struguri, liber desenate. Elesnt cusute n c r u c i , foia
iiuihnr ,,- d e d i f e r i t e c u l o r i . C u a c e s t e m o d e l e s n t m p o d o b i t e t e r g a r e l e m a i n o i .
P L A N A 6. C m a femeiasc d e la s f r i t u l s e c o l u l u i X I X d i n z o n a O a . P o r t u l d i n O a
n aspect tineresc ia t o a t e vrstele. C m a a a r e o n o t caracteristic, dispus n jurul g t u l u i
>rma unei platei d r e p t u n g h i u l a r e c h e p t a r " , viu c o l o r a t , cu o r n a m e n t e g e o m e t r i c e in t r e c u t , PLANA 7. le cu b r e z r u d e la s f r i t u l s e c o l u l u i X I X d i n c o m u n a Vatra Moldoviel. iubi<
i f o l o s e s c i o r n a m e n t e f l o r a l e . C m a a s e n c h e i e l a s p a t e . M n e c i l e l a r g i , s n t d e c o r a t e c u
Cmpulung Moldovenesc. 1) A l t i a . alctuit d l n t r - u n o r n a m e n t cu s o r i " . 2) I n c r e u l , mbin
incot nnlirarS oeste ncret. H,,s n u a n e de m u l i n e g a l b e n . 3) Ruri c o s t i a t e , d e s p r i n s e d i n or|
P L A N A 8. F a i d e m a s f o a r t e v e c h e l u c r a t p e s t o f d e l n alb e s u t n cas. M o d e l u l
e x e c u t a t cu f i r d e l n v o p s i t v e g e t a l . P u n c t e f o l o s i t e : p e s t e f i r e " si c u s t u r a n a p o i a a c u -
C u l o r l l e f o l o s i t e : c a s t a n i u p e n t r u c o n t u r , r o u , v e r d e - a l b a s t r u , a l b a s t r u i f r e z p e n t r u u m p l u t u r .
P L A N A 1 0 . C m a brbteasc secolul X X , d i n H u e d i n C l u j . Este l u c r a t n cruci cu
c o t o n p e r l e a l b a s t r u . 1 ) G u l e r . 2 ) G u r a c m i i . 3 ) M o t i v e x e c u t a t la p o a l e l e c m i i si v e r t i c a l s u b
b r a , p e c m a . 4 ) O r n a m e n t a i e b o g a t , d i n d i f e r i t e p u n c t e la m i n e c j o s . 5 ) M o d e l u l d e la g u l e r ,
executat la m i n e c a cmii peste u m r .
!l!!IIH!!!f!!il!lff!l:!fLI:-rxi:l!"l= '-ft-.'-i EllH:;:-.'!'-!!'!!''!!!!!

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P L A N A 1 1 . R e p r e z i n t p e r n i e de o r n a m e n t din a r a de Sus. 1) O r n a m e n t c o m p l i c a t cari


a r e n c u p r i n s u l l u i c o a r n e l e b e r b e c u l u i " , c o r n i e l e m e l c u l u i " , p r e s c u r a " , r e a l i z a t p e p n z d e ii
e s u t n c a s , la s f r i t u l s e c o l u l u i X I X , n z o n a D o r o h o i . S n t f o l o s i t e p u n c t e l e : n a i n t e a a c u l u i -
d e c o n t u r . c r u c e a , l n u j e l u l , p e s t e u n f i r i m r g e l e m i c i , p r i n s e p e p n z c t e u n a . 2 ) C o m p o
ziic c r o m a t i c realizat n diagonal, pe o perni de o r n a m e n t din p r i m e l e decenii ale secolului
X X , a f l a t n n o r d u l B u c o v i n e i . E s t e l u c r a t i n c r u c i , cu m u l i n e n e g r u i r o u .
P L A N A 1 2 . le cu b r e z r u p e n t r u t i n e r e l e f e t e , d i n B r e a z a z o n a P r a h o v a , s e c o l u l X X ,
l u c r a t n cruci pe pnz t o p i t cu m t a s e filoflos m t a s e D . M . C . j u r u b i e . Este folosit c r e m u l
p e n t r u m o d e l u l d i n t r e r n d u r i l e d e t r a n d a f i r a i , p e n t r u t r a n d a f i r a i u n i r c u r o u a p r i n s i r o z .
f r u n z a v e r d e , a l d o i l e a r n d b l e u cu g a l b e n i d i n n o u f r u n z a t o t v e r d e .
M n e c u a s c u r t a r e a l t i , i n c r e i r u r i o b l i c e ( c o s t i a t e ) . S e t e r m i n c u lucrtur de fagure
apoi cu u n nur c a r e o ncreete.
P i e p t u l a r e m o d e l u l d i s p u s n u n g h i . Se l u c r e a z c i r c a n o u r n d u r i d e t r a n d a f i r a i . Jos se
t e r m i n cu u n r n d de c o l u r i , lucrate cu c r e m n punct peste u n fir. Spatele a r e f l o r i c e l e r a r e , la
aproximativ S cm.
I

P L A N A 1 4 . im binari g e o m e t r i c e r e a l i z a t e p e : 1) U n t e r g a r d i n D e j . 2 ) U n t e r g a r d i n Bis
t r i a . 3) O perni de o r n a m e n t din D o r o h o i . Pernia e s t e c u s u t pe p n z d e sac sau c a n a v a , cu
l n , n p u n c t u l c r u c e d u b l " . A u f o s t f o l o s i t e t r e i n u a n e d e r o u i t r e i n u a n e d e a l b a s t r u .
P L A N A 15. Custur pe o fa de mas rneasc din c o m u n a Sbdu - Bihor. Aceast
f a d e m a s a r e d o u m o d e l e m a r g i n a l e , iar n i n t e r i o r p s r i i r a m u r i c u f l o r i .
m ,A P L
* N A 1
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u m p l u t e u r o u a p r i n s i a l b a s t r u d e V o r o n e , a v e a o d e o s e b i t d i s t i n c i e .
r a t c u m a r o >

2) Faa d e m a s a d i n Flticeni secolul X I X , l u c r a t n p u n c t b t r n e s c .


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P L A N A 1 7 . tergar din zona Birlad, secolul X I X . Este lucrat pe pnz de bumbac esut
I n cas, f o a r t e s u b i r e . C u s t u r a este m r u n t , r e a l i z a t pe d o u f i r e , cu u n fir d e m u l i n e . M o d e l e l e
1 i 3 a u c o n t u r u l c u s u t cu r o u i s n t u m p l u t e cu n e g r u . M o d e l u l 2 , d i n m i j l o c , e s t e l u c r a t cu
n e g r u i u m p l u t cu r o u . Este de a d m i r a t gingia lucrturii r e a l i z a t d i n p u n c t u l d e c o n t u r , atrngi
i punctul de u m p l u t u r i .
P L A N A 1 8 . C m a f e m e i a s c c u g u l e r a m i c i c u d e s c h i z t u r a g u r i i n f a , d i n s e c o l u l X X
d i n s u b z o n a H u e d i n . Este l u c r a t n c r u c i . La g u r a c m i i a r e c a o r n a m e n t u n ir d e j u m t i d e
c r u c i . M a t e r i a l u l f o l o s i t la c u s t u r e s t e c o t o n p e r l e d e c u l o a r e l i l i a c h i e . 1 ) M o t i v u l d e l a c i u p a g
i g u r a c m i i . 2 ) M o t i v e f l o r a l e c a r e m p o d o b e s c f a a c m i i i n s o e s c p e m n e c i r u l p r i n c i p a l .
3 ) F l o r i i f r u n z e s t i l i z a t e , c a r e p o r n e s c d i n u m r p n la b a z a m i n e c i i , c a r e e s t e l i b e r i t e r m i n a t
cu 4 ) a c e l a i m o d e l c a r e m p o d o b e t e g u l e r a u l , s e a f l i j o s la m n e c .
P L A N A 19. M o d e l e foarte vechi bucovlnene pentru ornat milieuri. T o a t e se pot realiza pe
dou fee, folosindu-se punctele indicate pe plan.
P L A N A 2 1 . l e c u b r e z r u d e la s f r i t u l s e c o l u l u i X I X din Botoani. Este lucrat pe pnz de
b o r a n g i c c u m u l i n e n e g r u i g a l b e n . 1 ) A l t i a este lucrat n punct de c o n t u r , d o a r pe m a r g i n e a r e
u n i r c r e n e l a t d e c r u c i u l i e . R o t o c o a l e l e _ d e la a l t i s i n t l u c r a t e n p u n c t d e c o n t u r i umplute
t o t cu n e g r u , n p u n c t d e u m p l u t u r : 2 ) n c r e u l , l u c r a t n a t r n g i i p u n c t d e u m p l u t u r . 3 ) R u r i
p e m t n e c c o m p u s e d i n t r - u n o r n a m e n t c e n t r a l i d o u i r u r i laterale;
P L A N A 2 2 . M o d e l e b n e n e . 1 ) M o d e l c u s u t p e d o s o r i z o n t a l . Se f o l o s e t e la c m i l e
b r b t e t i . 2 ) M o d e l c u s u t t o t n p u n c t b n e a n , d a r v e r t i c a l si cu c u s t u r a p e d o s o b l i c . E s t e
f o l o s i t la i i l e t i n e r e t i . C u l o r i l e f o l o s i t e s n t n e g r u , r o u , g a l b e n , p u i n a l b a s t r u i v e r d e . m b i n a r e a
culorilor d u n aspect de ceva foarte pastelat, ginga, iile vechi snt lucrate pe mnec compact,
ca c e l e d i n z o n a H u n e d o a r a .
P L A N A 2 4 . le p e n t r u t i n e r e t d e la n c e p u t u l s e c o l u l u i X X , z o n a N e a m . Se r e m a r c i p r i n
c u s t u r a d e c o n t u r , z i g z a g , u m p l u t u r p e s t e u n f i r , a t r a n g a si l n i o r u l . C u s t u r a , n a n s a m b l u
a r e o m a r e f i n e e i d i s t i n c i e . C u l o r i l e p r e d o m i n a n t e s n t : n e g r u p e n t r u c o n t u r , a l b a s t r u d e s c h i s
i a u r u l p e n t r u r e s t . 1 ) A l t i a . 2 ) t n c r e u l . 3 ) R u r i v e r t i c a l e p e m n e c . 4 ) R u r l p e c m a i n
f a i p e s p a t e .
P L A N A 2 5 . O r n a m e n t e p e o ie cu g u l e r a c i u p a g , d e la n c e p u t u l s e c o l u l u i X X d i n s a t u l B o j u
zona C l u j . Pe m n e c s e d i s t i n g : 1) M o t i v m r u n t , lucrat n c r u c i , p e g u l e r a . 2) U n ru c a r e se asea
m n p u i n cu c i o c n e l e l e " siblene n c a d r a t de o stilizare reuit a viei de vie b o a b e l e d e s t r u g u r i
s n t r e d a t e d o a r p r i n t r e i m p u n s t u r i . 3 ) R u r i d e o p a r t e i a l t a a m o t i v u l u i d i n m i j l o c . A r e i
e l la m i j l o c c i o c n e l e m r g i n i t e d e f r u n z e s t i l i z a t e . 4 ) F r u n z e r e d a t e cu a j u t o r u l m r g e l e l o r deculoare
g a l b e n , n e a g r i p u i n r o u . 5 ) M o d e l r e a l i z a t d i n c u s t u r n c r u c i c u m u l i n e n e g r u l u n z i g z a g
d i n m r g e l e g a l b e n e , la n l i m e a u m r u l u i .
P L A N A 2 6 . C o m p o z i i e g e o m e t r i c i f l o r a l l u c r a t n c r u c i , i p u n c t u l p e s t e un fir" cu
d i v e r s e c u l o r i , a f l a t la c p t i u l u n e i p e r n e d e z e s t r e d i n M o l d o v a d e n o r d
P L A N A 27. M i n e e a u n u i costum de Pdureanc" - H u n e d o a r a din secolul X I X . Este lucrat
d i n p t m groas de cinep sau b u m b a c . O r n a m e n t u l d e pe m n e c este cusut c o m p a c t foloslndu-se
p u n c t u l b t r n e s c , p u n c t u l b u c l a t , p u n c t u l p e s t e u n f i r . P e n t r u c m p e s t e f o l o s i t c u l o a r e a r o i e la
f e t e si f e m e i t i n e r e , n e g r u p e n t r u f e m e i l e b t r n e . F l o r i l e i f r u n z e l e au d i v e r s e c u l o r i .
P L A N A 28. Custuri vechi de ii, folosite pentru fee de mas. 1) M o d e l din Bistria Nsud,
gsit pe o n f r a m de borangic. Este lucrat n cruci. C u l o r i l e folosite snt n e g r u , rou, galben-auriu
i a l b a s t r u . 2 ) M i l i e u , la c a r e s-a f o l o s i t m o d e l d e ie d i n j u d e u l I l f o v . Pe l n g c u l o a r e a n e a g r
i r o i e s-a f o l o s i t f i r u l m e t a l i c a r g i n t i u .