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JOVTE, Vol. 10 No.

1, 2017
JOVTE, Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017

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JOVTE, Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017

EDITORIAL COMMENT
Knowledge is power and Vocational and Technical Education has
remained a very viable tool for empowerment of individuals for national
development.
This tenth (10th) edition of JOVTE is specially packaged with twenty-
one well researched and edited empirical and theoretical articles
contributed by well seasoned scholars in different areas.
We are sure this volume will be more enriching and satisfying to all
lovers of knowledge and researchers. We recommend it to all in
academic and business world for personal and national advancement.
The Editorial Board appreciates all the contributors, reviewers, the
consulting editors and all who have labored for the production of this
10th volume of J.O.V.T.E.

OBI EDNAH CHINWE


Editor-in-Chief

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JOVTE, Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017

NOTES TO CONTRIBUTORS
Journal of Vocational and Technical Education JOVTE, is an annual
publication of the school of Vocational and Technical Education, Nsugbe.
The Editorial Board of JOVTE welcomes scholarly written empirical research
articles, relevant to vocational education and other entrepreneurial studies.
Contributors should adhere to the following guidelines in preparing their
articles for submission.
1. Only articles not previously published or submitted for publication
elsewhere can be considered for publication.
2. Articles should not exceed 15 pages including tables, diagrams and
appendix on A4 paper, double spacing.
3. Forward two copies of the articles for peer review or sent through e-
mail.
4. Author(s) name(s), institution, phone number and e-mail, abstract of
not more than 150 words and keywords should be on the first page.
5. The latest APA (American Psychological Association) referencing
style should be adopted.
6. A final corrected copy of an accepted article should be submitted on a
re-writable CD in MS Word format or sent by E-mail as an attachment.
7. All accepted articles become the property of JOVTE Editorial Board.
8. All correspondence should be sent to:
The Editor-in-Chief, JOVTE
Nwafor Orizu College of Education,
Nsugbe

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JOVTE, Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. The Status of Agricultural Science Farm Practicals in
Secondary Schools in Awka South Local Government
Area Anambra State - Arubalueze Chidi Uzoma 1 10

2. Apprenticeship Scheme: A Strategy for Productivity in


Clothing Industries for Economic Development in
Anambra State - Ezike, P. N. 11 21

3. Towards the Transformation of E-learning in Business


Education for Global Challenges - Omemgboji J. N. &
Onyeagba J. N. 22 34

4. Effect of Students Involvement in Agricultural Science Test


Construction on their Academic Achievement: Implication
for Curriculum Innovation - Dr. Daniel C. Okeke 35 41

5. The Role of Peace Education in Resolving Conflicts between


Nomads and Farmers in the South-East of Nigeria
Nwawube Martina. C. 42 48

6. Value Re-orientation of TVET Program as a Vehicle to


Effective Sandwich Education for Sustainable development
in Nigeria -Nwokoye Chinazor Franklin 49 59

7. Problems of Effective Teaching and Learning in Secondary


Schools in Awka Education Zone: Teachers and students
Perception Dr. Patricia C. Oranefo & Dr. A. I. Nzekwe 60 73

8. Establishment of Mean Body Measurements for Drafting


Basic Patterns for Female Adolescent Students Dresses
(Large Figure) in Anambra State - 1Ezike P. N. &
2
Prof. (Mrs.) D. N. Arubayi 74 83

9. Good Governance: The Bedrock for Peace and Security in


Nigeria - Dilibe Chinonso Joachin 84 90

10. Evaluation of Teachers Qualification on Students Academic


Performance in Business Education: Case of Anambra State
Dr. Patricia C. Oranefo 91 -104

11. Challenges Encountered by the Guidance Counsellor in the


Organization and Administration of Guidance and
Counselling Services in Schools 1Dr. F. E. E. Nwankwo
& 2Dr. U. E. Eneasator 105-117

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12. Empirical Assessment of the Growth Rate Analysis of


Cassava Production in Nigeria (1961-2013)
Akarue, Blessing Okiemute 118-133

13. The Effect of Inventory Control on Profitability of


Manufacturing Companies in Nigeria - 1Nnubia, Innocent
Chukwuebuka; 2Omaliko Emeka L.; 3Okechi Netochikwu
Vanessa & 4Etuka, Chinelo Eunice 134-149

14. Mathematics Education in Nigeria: Gender and Spatial


Dimension of Enrolment - E. U. Obidigbo 150-159

15. Formal Pathway for Vocational/Career Development:


The Counselling Perspective - Dr. F. E. E. Nwankwo &
Dr. U. E. Eneasator 160-168

16. Productivity and Profitability Potentials of Upland


and Lowland Yam Cultivation in Anambra West
L.G.A. of Anambra State: A Comparative
Analysis - Okeke, Daniel C. 169-177

17. Investigations into the Poor Academic Performance of Senior


Secondary School Students of Biology in Onitsha North
L.G.A. of Onitsha Education Zone. 1Okafor, Blessing Ifeoma,
2
Okoli, Stella Obianuju & 3Ezenduka, M. M. 178-185

18. Professional Integrity in the Accountancy Profession:


An Essential Tool for National Rebirth. - Mr. Okafor, J.O 186-192

19. Computer Graphic Education: A Source of Power and


Job Creation for Reforming Communities
Onunkwo, Victoria Nranye 193-201

20. Re-Engineering Teacher Education for Sustainable


Development - Dr. Nzeako, Constance Uzoamaka 202-211

21. Administrative Strategies for Empowering the Girl-Child


in Skills Acquisition Through Entrepreneurship
Education - Dr. Nzeako, Constance U. 212-221

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JOVTE,Vol.
JOVTE, pages 110,
10 No. Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017
1, 2017

THE STATUS OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE FARM PRACTICALS


IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AWKA SOUTH LOCAL
GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE

ARUBALUEZE CHIDI UZOMA


Department of Agric. Education,
Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe, Anambra State.
arubaluezechidi@gmail.com
07034876816 or 07067434981

Abstract
The study was conducted to determine the status of agricultural science farm
practicals in secondary schools in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra
State. To achieve this objective, five research questions were designed. A structured
questionnaire was developed and used for data collection. The questionnaire was
administered on one hundred and twenty (120) respondents who were randomly
selected from the study area. The findings of the study, revealed that agricultural
science teachers in the study area are not competent in aspect of farm practicals, that
the periods assigned for agricultural practicals in the area are not adequate, that there
are poor resources and equipment for effective teaching of agricultural practicals in
the secondary school. It was recommended among others that government should
provide the necessary equipment and infrastructures that will enhance teaching and
learning of agricultural science, government should finance secondary school
agricultural practicals and school management should also provide good and
sizeable land for farm practicals.

Keywords: Status, agricultural science, farm practicals, secondary schools.

Introduction
Agricultural education is not totally new to the Nigerian culture neither
is it new to the age group now in our secondary schools age 11-17 years
(Njoku, 1999). Agriculture, provided the source of livelihood to well over
70% of the Nigerian population before independence (Oluwole, 2008). It was
an accepted part of the culture to have a child, follow the parents to farm,
even as early as six (6) years of age (Oluwole, 2008). He further stated that
the missionaries introduced formal education and it was expected that a child
goes to work on his fathers farm after school hours and at weekend. The
child thus, obtained an informal education in agriculture, through a system of
apprenticeship.
According to Nwabuisi (2003), the school farm or garden is often used
as means of providing practical experience for the students and is the process
of gaining knowledge and practical skills through observation and by doing

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farm work. Okorie, (2008) reported a low performance of students in


agricultural practical and demonstration farms in Nigeria secondary schools
especially in the recent years. Some scholars attributed this situation to a
number of factors, which among others include lack of youths adequately
trained in agriculture, low esteem of agriculture attributed to the school
curriculum and prescribed examination, which tend to be theoretical with
emphasis mainly on learning (Olaitan and Uwadike, 1993).
Slarin (2004) reported that agricultural science practicals was
integrated into secondary school curriculum, to enable the school leavers
appreciate the dignity of labour and teach them to be self reliant and
productive. In secondary schools all over Nigeria, students offer agricultural
science for six years as part of the curriculum, but much of this was geared
towards theory, memorizing the concepts and duplicating them in
examination (Agidi, 2006).
The level of agricultural farm practicals in secondary school in Awka
South Local Government Area of Anambra States should be taken into
consideration based on quality and quantity of agricultural produce derived
from the area. It is obvious that the area is a metropolis and the capital of the
state, hence, denser number of building and structure which is variable to
reduction in sizes of lands that were portioned to most schools in the area
(Okafor, 2012). In view of all these, this study therefore sought to find out the
status of agricultural farm practical in secondary schools in Awka South
Local Government Area of Anambra State. Specifically, the study sought to:-
1. Find out the level of competency of agricultural science teachers in
aspect of farm practical.
2. Find out the periods of time (duration) assigned to agricultural
practical in the study area.
3. Find out the availability of resources and equipment for effective
teaching of agricultural practical in the area.
4. Identify the factors that can militate against improvement in level of
agricultural practical in the area.
5. Make possible recommendations in improving the status of agricultural
science farm practical in the study area.

Materials and methods


Five research questions guided this study. Descriptive survey research
design was adopted. The author further stated that in survey studies, views

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and facts about things or individuals are collected through questionnaire to


collect data, analyse and interpret data.

Area of the study


The study covered Awka South Local Government Area. Awka south
local government area is made up of nine towns namely, Amawbia, Awka,
Ezinato, Isiagu, Mbaukwu, Nibo, Nise, Okpuro and Umuanwulu. In the past,
people of Awka South Local Government Area were well known for
blacksmithing. Today, they are respected among the Igbo people of Nigeria,
for their technical and business skills.

Population of the study


Population of the study was made up of all secondary school
agricultural science teachers and students of the eighteen government
secondary schools in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State.

Sample and Sampling Techniques


One hundred and twenty 120 respondents constituted the sample of the
study from both students and teachers. Simple random sampling techniques
were used for the study. Six schools were chosen from the eighteen schools.

Instrument for Data Collection


The instrument used for data collection in this study was a structured
questionnaire. The questionnaire items were generated based on the
information or based on the research questions gathered from the review of
related literature. The questionnaire was made up of two sections. Section one
solicited information on personal data of the respondents, while section two
was structured into five areas, all addressed the status of agricultural science
farm practicals in secondary schools in Awka South Local Government Area
of Anambra State.

Validation of the Instrument


The instrument was subjected to face validation. Two lecturers in
agricultural education department validated the instrument. They are served
with a copy each of the questionnaire and were requested to react to the
questionnaire items by identifying ambiguous statements or wrongly structure
statements. The experts corrections and suggestions were incorporated into
the final instrument developed.

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Reliability of the Instrument


Reliability of the instrument was determined using pearsons product
moment correlation coefficient. The reliability coefficient of 0.89 was
established.

Method of Data Collection


The questionnaire were administered to 120 respondents by the
researcher. All the copies of the questionnaire were retrieved after two weeks.

Method of Data Analysis


The data collected through the questionnaire were analysed using mean
and standard deviation to answer the research questions. A four point likert
scale was used and nominal values of 4,3,2,1 were assigned as Strongly Agree
(SA) = 4, Agreed (A) = 3, Strongly Disagreed (SD) = 2 and Disagreed (D) =
1. Then the mean for the values was determined
4+3+2+1 = 10 = 2.50
4 4
Using interval scale the lower limit of the mean was 2.50. Any item
with a mean score below 2.50 was rejected.

Results
Research question 1: What are the levels of competency of agricultural
science teachers in aspect of farm practicals?
Table 1: Mean ratings on levels of competency of agricultural science
teachers in aspect of farm practical in Awka South Local Government Area,
Anambra State.
S/N ITEMS X SD Remark
1 Teachers knowledge are limited to classroom 3.16 5.55 Accepted
2 Teachers are interested on cognitive ability than
farm practicals 3.15 5.54 Accepted
3. Some teachers dont have practical experience in
agriculture 3.07 5.47 Accepted
4 Some teachers have knowledge of crops but not in
livestock 2.95 5.36 Accepted
5. All the teachers in the area are competent in farm
practicals 1.78 4.19 Rejected
6 Teachers are periodically retrained in area of
Practicals 1.58 3.94 Rejected

The result in Table 1 showed that, items 1 to 4 with the derived mean
scores of 3.16, 3.15, 3.07 and 2.95 and standard deviation of 5.5, 5.54, 5.47

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and 5.36 respectively were all accepted, since their mean scores are greater
than 2.50 and the standard deviation equal to or above 4.95. The result also
indicated that items 5 and 6 with the derived mean scores of 1.78 and 1.58
and standard deviation of 4.19 and 3.94 respectively were rejected, since it is
below the decision rule of 2.50 and 4.95. This revealed that agricultural
science teachers in the study area are not competent in aspect of farm
practicals.

Research question 2: How many periods were assigned for agricultural


science practicals in the area?
Table 2: Mean ratings on periods assigned for agricultural practicals in the
area.
S/N ITEM X SD Remark
1 Once in a week 2.37 4.82 Rejected
2 Twice in a week 1.95 4.38 Rejected
3. Once in a month 3.13 5.52 Accepted
4 Once in two weeks 3.08 5.62 Accepted
5. Twice in three weeks 3.18 5.57 Accepted

The result presented in Table 2, indicated that items 1 and 2 with the
derived mean scores of 4.37 and 1.95 and standard deviation of 4.82 and 4.38
respectively were below the cut off point of 2.50 and 4.95 and are therefore
rejected since they are insignificant, while items 3 to 5 were accepted, since
their mean scores of 3.13, 3.08 and 3.18 and standard deviation of 5.52, 5.62
and 5.57 were all above the decision rule of 2.50 and 4.95. This revealed that
periods assigned for agricultural science practicals in the area are not
adequate.

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Research question 3: what are the available resources and equipment for
effective teaching of agricultural science practicals in the area.
Table 3: Mean ratings of the available resources and equipment for effective
teaching of agricultural science practicals in the area.

S/N ITEM X SD Remark


1 Adequate livestock and fish pond facilities
for rearing of animals and cultivating fish 1.83 4.24 Rejected
2 Sizeable land for practicals 2.38 4.83 Rejected
3. Irrigation facilities 1.81 4.22 Rejected
4 Presence of artificial insemination 1.62 4.00 Rejected
5. Presence of hatchery for poultry 1.74 4.10 Rejected
6. Presence of tractor coupled implements 1.80 4.21 Rejected
7. Artificial mulching equipment 1.48 3.83 Rejected
8. Rabbitry section 1.52 3.71 Rejected
9. Poultry section 1.53 3.89 Rejected
10. Goatry section 1.55 3.89 Rejected
11. Presence of orchard for practicing of grafting,
budding, laying and other vegetative preparation 2.14 4.59 Rejected
12. There is fewer agricultural facilities for practical
in the area 2.02 4.00 Rejected
13. Dearth of instructional resources for teaching
practicals 2.10 4.11 Rejected

The result in table 3 showed that all the items 1 to 13 with the derived
mean scores of 1.83, 2.38, 1.81, 1.62, 1.74, 1.80, 1.48, 1.52, 1.53, 1.55, 2.14,
2.02, and 2.10 respectively were all rejected. This revealed that there are poor
available resources and equipment for effective teaching of agricultural
practicals in the study area.

Research question 4: what are the factors that militate against improvement
of agricultural practicals in the area.
Table 4: mean ratings on factors militating against improvement of
agricultural practicals in the area.
S/N ITEM X SD Remark
1 Poor procurement of equipment and provision of
infrastructure for agriculture by the government 2.96 5.69 Accepted
2 Attitude of students towards farm practicals 3.10 5.50 Accepted
3. Poor motivation of students by agricultural teachers 3.00 5.42 Accepted
4 Too much emphasis on cognitive ability in order to
pass external Examinations 3.04 5.44 Accepted
5. Inadequate of viable land for agricultural in the area 3.00 5.42 Accepted
6. Lack of finance 2.88 5.28 Accepted

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The result in Table 4 showed that, items 1 to 6 with the derived mean
scores of 2.96, 3.10, 3.00, 3.04, 3.00 and 2.88 respectively were all accepted.
This revealed that these factors militated against improvement of agricultural
practicals in the area.

Research question 5: What are the recommendations that can improve the
status of agricultural farm practicals in the area?
Table 5: Mean ratings of recommendations to improve the status of
agricultural farm practicals in the area.
S/N ITEM X SD Remark
1. Provision of instructional materials, equipment
and infrastructures 2.88 5.30 Accepted
2. Government should finance secondary school
practicals in the area 3.13 5.52 Accepted
3. Good and sizeable land should be assigned for
farm practicals in the area 2.89 5.31 Accepted
4. Students should be motivated to increase their
moral on farm practicals 2.64 5.08 Accepted

The result in Table 5 showed that, items 1 to 4 with the derived means
scores of 2.88, 3.13, 2.89 and 2.64 respectively were all accepted. This
revealed that the recommendations will help to improve the status of
agricultural science farm practicals in the area.

Discussion
The first research question showed that agricultural science teachers in
the study area are not competent in aspect of farm practicals. The findings is
in line with the report of Anaso and Anene (2004), Eze (2007) and Ogbazi
(2005) that school training in agriculture is primarily limited to classroom
instructions, overloading students with masses of factual information with
little or no hard on (involving act of participation approved as opposed to
theoretical experiences in agriculture.
Second research question revealed that periods assigned for
agricultural practicals in the secondary schools in Awka South Local
Government Area are not adequate. This result corroborated with the findings
of Okeke (2000) that careless attitude to farm practicals by school
management was among the problems to effective farm practicals. This
finding is also in accordance with Uwadie (2003) who reported that most
schools have been unable to teach their student acquisition of occupational
skills rather than knowledge needed to pass prescribed examination.

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The third research question revealed that there are inadequate resources
and equipment for effective teaching of agricultural science practicals in the
secondary school in Awka South Local Government Area. This result is also
in line with the findings of Patrick (2003) that none availability of all required
tools, equipment and teaching materials necessary for the effective
implementation of curriculum affect teaching and learning process. The
findings is also in consonant with the reports of Adeife and Towel (2003) who
reported that the major problem confronting vocational and technical
education programme in Nigeria is that of providing adequate facilities,
equipment and tools.
The fourth research question revealed that attitude of school
management/teachers, lack of equipment and infrastructure, unavailability of
sizeable lands, poor motivation of students by teachers and too much
emphasis on cognitive ability in order to pass external examinations are the
factors militating against improvement of agricultural practicals in the area.
This finding is in relation with the findings of Okeke (2000) that lack of
teaching materials, tools and equipment were the major problems affecting
effective students agricultural practicals in secondary schools. It is also in line
with Nwokoye (2002) who reported that there were lack of sizeable farm and
adequate equipment for study of agricultural science practicals in secondary
schools.
The findings of the research question five indicated that provision of
instructional materials, equipment and infrastructure, provision of finance and
good land, as well as motivation of students are recommendations to improve
farm practicals in the study area. The findings are in corroboration with the
report of Mozie (2004) that government do not provide sufficient funds for
the agricultural programme, the tools and equipment used for farm practical
has negative effect in the secondary schools.

Conclusion
The study came to the conclusion that the status of agricultural science
farm practicals in secondary schools in the study area is still below the
expection due to agricultural science teachers incompetency in aspect of farm
practicals, inadequate time allocation for practicals in the area, attitude of
school management, teachers and students towards farm activities and
inadequacy of necessary resources and equipment for effective teaching and
learning.

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Educational implication of the study


The findings of the study will be of great importance to agricultural
science teachers in realizing that their duties exceed classroom work. It is also
very important to school administrators for constantly checking the
performance of agricultural science teachers in their schools. It will also be a
useful source of data and reference materials to future researchers in the area
of agriculture. Finally, the findings will enable government to provide
necessary measures that will bring about effective learning of practical
agriculture.

Recommendations
The following recommendations were made based on the findings of
the study:-
1. Government should provide the necessary instructional materials, equipment
and infrastructure, that will increase learners interest in farm practicals.
2. Teachers of Agricultural Science should be given workshop in practical
agriculture.
3. School management should provide good and sizeable land for farm
practicals in the secondary schools in the study area.
4. Teachers should motivate the students on issue of participating in farm
practicals.

References
Adeife, C.M. and Towel, R.O. (2003). The Gender Gap in Vocational
Education. International. Journal of Vocational and Technical
Education 2(2): 18-21.
Agidi, K. (2006). Complementing Agricultural Extension Effort in Nigeria
Through the Children in Agricultural Programme (CLAP). A Paper
Presented at a Conference on Nigeria Agriculture in the 21st Century.
Anaso, A.B. And Anene, C. (2004). A Guide to Teachers of Crop Protection
Colleges of Agriculture in Nigeria, Zaira.
Eze, T. (2007). Policy Constraints to the Growth of Technology Education
Programme. Implications for Technology Development in Nigeria.
Journal of Technical Education 2(2): 10-17.
Mozie, S.O. (2004). Availability and Utilization of Instructional Resources in
Teaching and Learning of Agriculture in Primary Schools in Anambra
State of Nigeria. Lead Paper Presented at Inaugural
Workshop/Orientation for Primary School Teachers Iteld at Awka 12-
16 July 2004.

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Njoku, P.C. (1999). Enhancing Youth Participation in Sustainable Agriculture


Lead Presented to the Natio Symposium on the 1999 World Food Day
Held at Congress Hall NICON HILTON Hotal, Abuja.
Nwabuisi, G.M. (2003). A Survey of Resources for Teaching and Learning
Agricultural Science in Lagos State. Journal of the St. Andrews
College of Education Oyo. 6(1): 20-27.
Nwokoye, N.N. (2002). Problems Militating Against Effective School Farm.
Farm Management Survey in Enugu South Local Government Area.
Ogbazi, J.N. (2005). The Role of Co-Operative Education in the Preparation
of the Nigeria Youth for Employment in Agricultural Occupation. In
Ehiametalor E.T. (Ed) Trends in Vocational Education in Nigeria
Benin City Nigeria Research Association.
Okafor, C.O. (2012). Youths Perceptions of Agriculture, in Enhancing
Agricultural Resource base for Youth Employment Industrial
Development Export. Proceeding of the 38th Annual Conference of
The Agricultural Society of Nigeria University of Agriculture
Abeokute Pp. 309.
Okeke, R. (2000). Introduction to Agricultural Education Management in
Nigeria Ibadan Education Consulted Press.
Okorie, L. (2008). Attitude of Secondary Schools in Abia State Forwards
Career in Agriculture. Agricultural Journal 3(1) 2-6.
Olaitan, S.O. and Uwadike, E.M. (1993). Developing Curriculum in
Agriculture. in Curriculum Development in Nigeria Ivowi U.M.O.
(Ed) Ibadan, Sam Bookman.
Oluwole, Y.A. (2008). Effective Production Agriculture in Nigeria Secondary
Schools. Issues at Stake Retrieved November 2, 2009 From
http/www.linkedin.com/answers.
Patrick, S.A. (2003). Risk in Human Management and Implications for
Extension Programming. Paper Prepared for Presentation at the
American Agricultural Economics Association. Annual Meeting
Montreal Canada.
Slarin, T. (2004). The Secondary School that Africa Needs. West Africa
Journal of Education 2(1) 77-79.
Uwadie, S.A. (2003). Rationale for Re-Thinking the Agricultural Science
Curriculum for Secondary Schools in B.G. Nworgu (Ed) Curriculum
Development Implementation and Evaluation Nsukka Association for
the Promotion of Quality Education in Nigeria (APQEN).

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pages No. 1,
21,2017
Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017

APPRENTICESHIP SCHEME: A STRATEGY FOR PRODUCTIVITY


IN CLOTHING INDUSTRIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
IN ANAMBRA STATE

EZIKE, P. N.
Department of Home Economics,
Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe, Anambra State Nigeria
08037422506

Abstract
The researcher studied the apprenticeship scheme as a strategy for productivity in
clothing industries and economic development in Anambra State. Three purposes
were formulated for the study. The study was a survey design. The population for
the study was 105 final year Home Economics students from three tertiary
institutions offering Home Economics in the state and 32 Home Economics
Lecturers Structured questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. The
collected data was analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The study
discovered that apprenticeship scheme is of great benefits for productivity in
clothing industries and economic development among others. Based on the findings,
recommendations were made among which is that seminars and lectures on the
importance of apprenticeship scheme should be organized for employers and
students respectively.

Introduction
Apprenticeship system is a means of providing training for an
individual in a particular trade or trades. According to Industrial Training
Fund (ITF) and University of Jos (2011), apprenticeship is a contractual
agreement undertaken by the master-craftsmen and the apprentice through
which the apprentice is trained for a prescribed work process through
practical experience under the supervision of the master-craftsman. It is a
form of work place learning, which enables the apprentice to have on-the-job
training.
In Nigeria and all over Africa, apprenticeship has been an age-long
method used in training young people in trades and crafts, agriculture,
business and catering. It is a common feature of the traditional setting to see
people engage in a vocation such as farming, fishing, hunting, carving,
sewing, sculpting, painting, building, decorating, smiting, catering, boat-
making, mat-making, dyeing and so on. Every child born into a family was
expected to learn his/her patrilineal craft, and it was easy to identify a young
child as a member of a lineage found to be proficient in the lineage craft,

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Obiefuna (2012); observed that with the advent of colonialism and


consequent transformation of the economy from traditional to industrial
economy, there arose the need to produce skilled labour for governance and
modern industry. Some government departments like the Nigeria railway
corporation, the then Electricity Corporation of Nigeria (ECN), among others
established a non-formal vocational training schemes (a form of
apprenticeship). The efforts of these government departments influenced a
few organized private commercial and industrial establishments like UAC,
Shell British Petroleum among others to set up skills training outfits to
generate their own required skilled labour.

Government Intervention in Skills Training


The limitations of traditional informal apprentice training and the non-
formal vocational training in the major public establishments gave much
impetus to greater devotion of attention to formal education to develop skilled
labour force (Okorie, 2000). Thus no attention was paid to improving the non-
formal skills training by way of policy or organization. Government
intervention came by way to trade testing when the labour department set up
the trade testing section. The trade testing section developed syllabi for
various training settings. Obiefuna (2012), observed that the trade tests were
not standardized nor the syllabi on which they were based. This approach has
continued even up to the modern times.
The government, through the labour Act, 1944 (as amended) provided
some features of apprenticeship as a means of regulating apprenticeship in the
country. According to ITF (2003), these features include; contract of
agreement, duration, age, minimum standard of training, entry requirements,
wages, and combination of practical on-the-job training and related trade
instruction.

Types of Apprenticeship programmes in Nigeria


Apprenticeship are available in a wide range of industry sectors with
employers from large national companies to smaller local companies. There
are different types of apprenticeships available offering over a thousand job
roles within a variety of industry sectors.
Thus: National Directorate of Employment (NDE), National Open
Apprenticeship Scheme (NOAS), School-on-Wheels Programme, Waste-to-
Wealth Scheme, Youth Employment Network (YEN), Youth Employment

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Summit, Capacity Employment Programme, and National Poverty


Eradication Programme,(Ewuga, 2012).

Dimension of Clothing Industry and National Apprenticeship Scheme


In the last decades and beyond, the textile and clothing industry
stimulated and promoted growth in the economy of Nigeria. It was the second
largest employer of labour within the private sector. Ojo (2003), reported that
the industry was capable of employing more than 3 million people with the
production capacity of up to 1.4 million meters of cloth per annum. It is
expected that in this era of globalization, the industry ought to expand locally
and internationally as well as provide employment opportunities (Ajayi,
2002).
Apprenticeship training is integrated into the production and work
process which enhances cost effectiveness of apprenticeship. Skills
development is demand driven, which contribute to productivity and
employability of workers. Opportunity costs are low since trainers teach skills
mainly during working or production hours of the day or week and
apprentices use the equipment and tools of the enterprise to practice (Nnebe,
2006).

Apprentice Execution and Productivity


There is both factual and anecdotal evidence to show the linkage
between apprenticeship and worker output and productivity improvement.
According to Ewuga (2012), apprenticeship provides the structure and
criteria for employers to assess wages fairly based upon demonstrated
competency and performance on the job. This gives employers the option to
recruit entry-level workers at low competency and low wage levels. Then,
under an apprenticeship training method, the employer enjoys the benefit of
worker productivity rising faster than wages. This creates economic value for
the employer during the training period and throughout the workers tenure
with the employer.
The four critical aspects of apprenticeship, which make it superior to the
traditional training approaches commonly used in industries today, are:
Structured on-the-job training that allows regular interaction between a
coach (journey worker) and a worker apprentice.
Clearly defined skill qualifications for which each apprentice must
demonstrate competency and receive sign-off from a coach (journey
worker).

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A measurement process showing the learning progress of each


apprentice as well as the productivity improvements of each
apprentice.
Associated classroom instruction.
Sometimes organizations fail to try on-the-job training because they fear it is
too costly. The evidence suggests otherwise. From a business standpoint, the
inclusion of on-the-job training is cost effective. Anecdotal evidence linking
apprenticeship with positive worker attitude about execution, practicality and
a results-orientation has existed for years. The ITF has helped organizations
administer apprenticeship since 1971. Consistently, ITF has observed that
people who go through apprenticeship programs tend to share the following
attributes:
They are practical, hardworking and results-oriented.
They are self-condident and have a strong work ethic due in part to the
fact that they have demonstrated an ability to achieve results even
under adversity.
They have an orientation to the practical.
They have street smarts as to what is required to get work done and
how to get it done.
They tend to be loyal to their employer.
It is not coincidental that these attributes are similar to the target qualities of
workers and managers.

Apprenticeship and Economic Development


Thus far in our discussion we have demonstrated the benefits of
apprenticeship to both employers as well as to workers. As we will see, the
adoption of apprenticeship on masse would have a positive impact on our
economy and upon our competitiveness internationally.
The proven linkage between apprenticeship and productivity improvement
allows us to transfer the potential positive impact of apprenticeship to benefits
that ripple through the entire Nigerian economy in terms of improvement in
Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
I.T.F believes that as more and more Nigerian industries, companies,
organizations, ministries, etc adopt apprenticeship systems, the aggregate
productivity of the Nigeria workforce would increase over time. The increase
in workers productivity would have several ensuing impacts over the long
term:
1. First, corporate profits would rise which would trigger an increase in
aggregate investment.

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2. Secondly, wages would increase which would trigger an increase in


aggregate consumption. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) would
increase as a result of the increase in investment and consumption.
Over the long term the combined increase in consumption and
investment would cause aggregate demand to shift upwards which
would lead to an increase in aggregate employment, which would lead
to even greater increases in consumption and ultimately GDP.
From an international perspective the increased productivity of labour
and resultant increased in corporate profitability would provide Nigeria
corporations with more leeway to bid against the traditionally lower priced
foreign competitors which would lead to increased exports. From an
aggregate perspective this too would contribute to GDP improvements over
the over the long term.
While a quantitative estimate of GDP impacts is not possible to
develop with any degree of confidence, it is clear that large-scale adoption of
apprenticeship would contribute to long term changes in the right direction
for our key economic parameters. Therefore, the study was undertaken to
assess apprenticeship scheme as a strategy for productivity in clothing
industries and economic development in Nigeria. To achieve this, benefits,
challenges and strategies for improving apprenticeship scheme need to be
identified. If they are identified, they will help to better equip the students
employment wise and financially on graduation.

Purpose of the Study


The purpose of the study therefore, was to identify;
i. benefits of apprenticeship scheme for productivity in clothing
industries and economic development.
ii. challenges of apprenticeship scheme for productivity in clothing
industries and economic development.
iii. strategies for improving apprenticeship scheme for productivity in
clothing industries and economic development.

Methodology
Design of the Study
The study adopted survey research design. Survey research design in
the opinion of Owens (2002), is that in which the same information is
gathered from an unbiased representative group of interest. It is a very

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valuable tool for assessing opinions and trends from representative group of
population being investigated.

Population of the Study


The study was carried out in Anambra State of Nigeria. The population was
163 respondents made up of 105 students from three tertiary institutions
offering Home Economics in the tertiary institutions in the state. Thus:
Nwafor Orizu College of Education Nsugbe. 12 final year students and 9
lecturers. Federal College of Education (Technical) Umunze 23 final year
students and 11 lecturers and Federal Polytechnic Oko 96 Final year
students and 12 lecturers. All was used as sample for the study.

Instrument for the Study


The instrument used for data collection was structured questionnaire. The
items had a 4 point response scale of Strongly agreed, Agreed, Disagreed, and
Strongly disagreed with a corresponding value of 4, 3, 2, and 1.
The instrument was face-validated by three lecturers; one from Nwafor Orizu
College of Education, one from Federal College of Education (Technical)
Umunze, and one from Federal Polytechnic Oko. Their suggestions were used
to improve the instrument. Split-half technique and Cronbach Alpha
reliability method were adopted to determine the internal consistency of the
questionnaire items. A Cronbach Alpha coefficient of 0.84 was obtained.

Data Collection and Analysis


One hundred and sixty three copies of the instrument were administered on
the respondents and retrieved. Mean and standard deviation were used to
analyse the data. The arithmetic mean for the values was computed as
4+3+2+1=10. 10/4 = 2.50. Any item with a mean of 2.50 or above was
regarded as accepted while items below 2.50 were regarded as rejected. Any
item with a standard deviation of between 0.00 and 1.96 indicated that the
respondents were not far from the mean and the opinion of one another.

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Results
Table 1
Mean and standard deviation of the respondents on the benefits of
apprenticeship scheme for productivity in Clothing Industries and economic
development.
S/N ITEMS SD Remark
1. Apprenticeship provides the structure and
criteria for employers to assess wages fairly
based upon demonstrated competency and
performance on the job. 2.94 0.71 Agreed
2 Apprenticeship gives employers the option to
recruit entry-level workers at low competency
and low wage levels. 2.77 0.86 Agreed
3 Under an apprenticeship training method, the
employer enjoys the benefits of workers
productivity rising faster than wages. 3.66 0.52 Agreed
4 Apprenticeship creates economic value for the
employer during the training period and
throughout the workers tenure with the
employer. 3.57 0.55 Agreed
5 Individuals who go through apprenticeship
programme are practical, hardworking and
result oriented. 3.48 0.60 Agreed
6 They are self-confident and have a strong
work ethic due in part to the fact that they have
demonstrated an ability to achieve results even 3.61 0.72 Agreed
under adversity.
7 They have an orientation to the practical. 3.41 0.73 Agreed
8 They have street smarts as to what is
required to get work done and how to get it 3.40 0.59 Agreed
done.
9 They tend to be loyal to their employer. 2.76 0.77 Agreed
10 Gain experience and skills in ones chosen 3.39 0.64 Agreed
career.
11 Get your foot in the door with local industry in
your chosen career. 3.52 0.71 Agreed
12 Keep your options open regarding continuing
education. 2.94 0.71 Agreed
13 Become self employed. 3.51 0.65 Agreed

Data in table 1 showed that the 13 items had their mean ranged from
2.76 to 3.66. This indicated that their means were above the cutoff point of
2.50. The observation implies that all the items were benefits of
apprenticeship scheme for productivity in clothing industries and economic
development.

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The standard deviation ranged from 0.52 to 0.86 indicating that


respondents were not too far from the mean and close to one another in their
responses.

Table 2
Mean and standard deviation of the respondents on the challenges of
apprenticeship scheme for productivity in clothing industries and economic
development.
S/N ITEMS X SD Remark
14. The educational level of master craftsmen and
journey men in the informal sector is very low 3.34 0.77 Agreed
15. Most workshops do not have the required modern
tools and machines. 2.77 0.86 Agreed
16. The rudiments of teaching are essentially lacking
in these master-crafts men. 3.66 0.86 Agreed
17. The financial implication that comes with skills
training as this type of training is capital 3.66 0.52 Agreed
intensive.
18. The inter related roles of institutions in the
implementation of the scheme. 3.48 0.60 Agreed
19. No general conditions of service. 3.31 0.78 Agreed

Data in table 2 showed that the 6 challenges had their means ranged
from 2.77 to 3.66. This indicated that their means were above the cutoff point
of 2.50. The observation implies that all the 6 items were challenges of
apprenticeship scheme for productivity in clothing industries and economic
development.
The standard deviation of the 6 items ranged from 0.52 to 0.86
indicating that the respondents were not too far from the mean and from one
another in their responses.

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Table 3
Mean and standard deviation of the respondents on the strategies for
improving the apprenticeship scheme for productivity in clothing industries
and economic development.
S/N ITEMS X SD REMARK
20. Creating enabling environment for
apprenticeship training. 3.28 0.77 Agreed
21. Orientation for students on the benefits of
apprenticeship training 3.50 0.70 Agreed
22. Government should encourage employers by
giving them loan for buying some machines. 3.59 0.65 Agreed
23. Part time programmes should be organized
for master craftsmen and journeymen. 3.45 0.71 Agreed
24 General conditions of service should be
provided by government agency. 3.58 0.68 Agreed
25 Explain the benefits of apprenticeship scheme. 3.33 0.72 Agreed
26 Encourage students to seriously take part in
apprenticeship scheme. 3.27 0.75 Agreed
27 Division of labour among coordinating 3.35 0.69 Agreed
agencies.

Data in table 3 revealed that the 7 strategies for improving the


apprenticeship scheme for productivity in clothing industries and economic
development had their mean values ranged from 3.27 to 3.59. This indicated
that their means were above cut off point of 2.50. The implication of this is
that all 7 items are strategies that could be followed to improve apprenticeship
scheme programme for productivity in clothing industries and economic
development.
The standard deviation values ranged between 0.59 and 0.77 indicating
less variability in the responses of respondents.

Discussion
The result of the study revealed that the respondents agreed that all the 27
items could be used towards apprenticeship scheme for productivity in
clothing industries and economic development. This result is in conformity
with the findings of Ewuga (2012), in a study on apprenticeship: a strategy for
economic growth. The author found out that apprenticeship provides the
structure and criteria for employers to assess wages fairly based upon
demonstrated competency and performance on the job. This gives employers
the option to recruit entry-level workers at low competency and low wage
levels, than, under an apprenticeship training method, the employer enjoys the

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benefit of worker productivity rising faster than wages. This creates economic
value for the employer during the training period and throughout the workers
tenure with the employer.
Okorie (2000), observed that there can be problems in implementing
the scheme which include; the educational level of master-craftsman and
journeymen, and the rudiments of teaching are essentially lacking in these
master-craftsmen. He also noted that most workshops do not have the
required modern tools and machines. They are able to carry out repairs due to
adaptations to tools and machinery. These problems are in line with the
challenges of apprenticeship scheme identified through this study.
The result of the finding is in conformity with the findings of Obiefuna
(2012) where he noted that it is time to evolve a coordinated skills trained
system which will comprehensively involve the efforts of all stake-holders
ranging from the government and its agencies, the private sector, the non-
governmental organizations to the informal sector. He aptly emphasized that
the most problematic issue of coordination is the extent to which one agency
can or should exercise a coordinating role over all training provided by other
agencies and non-governmental organization.

Conclusion
Apprenticeship scheme holds the key to any meaningful productivity and
economic development in Nigerias quest to be ranked amongst the top
twenty economies of the world by the year 2020. The present day Nigeria
economy is experiencing growth without commensurate employment as the
rate of growth of the labour force far exceeds the various employment
opportunities available. These various dimensions of unemployment reflect
the scarcity of employable skills which can easily be obtained through
apprenticeship training. Indeed the national apprenticeship scheme is the
most critical driver of the Nigerias economy as it will provide the basis for a
complete paradigm shift in the conceptualization and delivery of human
capacity development in Nigeria.

Recommendations
Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were
made;
1. More Nigerian Industries, Companies Organizations, Ministries
should adopt apprenticeship system as this will aggregate productivity
of the Nigeria workforce overtime.

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JOVTE, Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017

2. Employers of labour need motivations by state and federal


governments to enable them give the best training to the apprentice.
3. Seminars and lectures on importance of apprenticeship scheme should
be organized for employers and students respectively by Home
Economists at various levels.
4. Government should evolve a coordinated skills trained system which
will comprehensively involve the efforts of all stake-holders ranging
from the government and its agencies, the private sector, the non-
governmental organization to the informal sector.

Reference
Ajayi, A. (2002). Globalization and the Nigerian Manufacturing Sector. This
day, January 1 vol. 7.
Ewuga. D.A (2012). Apprenticeship: A Strategy for Economic Growth.
Unpublished paper delivered on the occasion of the National
Apprenticeship Scheme Seminar held at Kinic country home hotel,
Akwanga, Nassarawa state. 5th -7th june 2012.
Industrial Training Fund (ITF) (2003). Students Industrial Work Experience
Scheme and Human Resource Development in Nigeria. Jos:
Industrial Training Fund .
Industrial Training Fund and University of Jos, (2011). An Evaluation of the
Impact of Students Industrial Works Experience Scheme (SIWES) on
Technical Skills Development in Nigeria. Jos: ITF.
Obiefuna, C.O. (2012). Responsibilities of Stake Holders to the National
Apprenticeship Scheme. A paper presented at the occasion of
industrial Training fund seminar at Jos.
Ojo, B.(2003). Advancing Technology in Creativity: A Situation Report on
Design Studio in Selected Textile Industries in Nigeria. An
Unpublished seminar paper.
Okorie, J.U. (2000). Developing Nigerias Workforce. Calabar: Page
Environs Publishers.
Owens, L.K (2002). Introduction to Survey Research Design. Survey
Research laboratory (SRL). Fall 2002 seminal series. Retrieved
September 2012 from http:// www.srl.vic.edu

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JOVTE, pages
10 22
No. 1,
34,2017
Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017

TOWARDS THE TRANSFORMATION OF E-LEARNING IN


BUSINESS EDUCATION FOR GLOBAL CHALLENGES

OMEMGBOJI J.N. & ONYEAGBA J.N.


Juliben233@gmail.com onyeagbajosephatn@gmail.com
08065252877 08069630696
Department of Business Education,
Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe

Abstract
This work discusses the transformation of e-learning in business education for
global challenges. Transformation in business education is essential for effective
instruction and learning using electronic modern technologies. The paper
highlighted the concept of transformation, e-learning, business education, e-learning
types and tools for various operations and benefits of e-learning to beneficiaries of
business education, and problems affecting extensive utilization of e-learning in
business education. . The paper showcased e-learning to involves the use of
technologies such as digital collaboration, satellite broadcasting, CD-ROMs, video
and audio conferencing, mobile technology, interactive TV etc. Also e-learning tools
and activities suitable for business education are as follows; exe, flexible learning
toolboxes, iLearn, youtube, respondus, smart board interactive whiteboard and so
on. Findings shows that Business education is a course that prepares students for
entry in advancement of jobs and self-reliance; function intelligently as consumers
and citizens in the business economy. Conclusion was drawn. The study
recommended that government should map out special ICT and e-learning funds for
the management of e-learning education and there should be adequate awareness
creation on the importance of e-learning to teachers and recipients of business
education in order to compete favourably in Nigeria and beyond among others.

Introduction
The growth and development of any nation is hinged on the level of education
attained by its citizens. In other words, education is the bridge to the
development of any nation. Education is the key for positive change in the
society because of its far reaching effects on growth and development in all
sectors of the economy. It was in stressing the importance of education to man
that Peters (2010) alluded that an educated man is one whose form of life is
exhibited in his conduct, the activities to which he is committed, his
judgments and feelings, which are thought to be desirable. One who is trained
must have knowledge, skills, and an understanding of principles. The persons
form of life should exhibit some mastery of forms of thought and awareness

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JOVTE, Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017

which can be harnessed purely in a utilitarian or vocational purpose.


Electronic learning commonly called e-learning is basically the use of
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to enhance and support
learning/teaching and research (Eteng and Ntui, 2014).
The call for transformation of e-learning in business education for
global challenges is to infuse and inject efficiency and effectiveness in
curriculum implementation. In developing countries like Nigeria, e-learning
is challenged with the problem of material devices such as computer,
computer laboratories, internet and e-mail facilities, videophone systems and
teleconferencing devices, fax and wireless applications, digital library, digital
classrooms, multimedia systems and the problem of multimedia courseware
development among others. Other studies indicated that there is dearth of
trained teachers for e-learning, indequate facilities, infrastructures and
equipment (Jegede and Owolabi, 2013).
In line with the above, one can infer that change is the only constant
factor in life. Thus one form of education that equips its recipients to adapt to
the changing world is business education. According to Popham, Schrag and
Blocklus (2011) business education is an educational programme that
prepares students for entry into and advancement in jobs within business and
prepares students to handle their own business affairs and function
intelligently as consumers and citizens in a business economy. If business
education should serve this purpose of providing the needs of the learners and
the society, there should be continuous review of the curriculum to ensure that
the quality of education provided is in line with societal demands.

Meaning of Transformation
The word transformation means different things to different people, but one
may say that transformation is change of something from bad to good. To
transform means to give life or to create new life to something that has died or
something that is weak. According to Ifekudu, (2014) transformation of
business education means innovation or giving new life to business education
in other to perform its function/s to the society. Ifekudu, remarked that
transformation of business education is a vital phenomenon that would help
beneficiaries cope with the new global challenges.
Transformation in Asobie (2012) means a complete change from one
situation to another, a total departure from the old order to a new one. The
writer opined that transformation does not come accidentally, but requires

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deliberate effort; calls for practical action and goes beyond mere expression
or verbal pronouncement, and require a number of tasks to be performed.
Transformation occurs through a system of continual questioning,
challenging, exploration, discovery, evaluation, testing, and creation of an
organizations management theory and application; it embraces new learning
and taking actions based on the new discoveries (Covey, 2009).
This implies that transformation may be a fundamental shift in the
deep orientation of recipients of business education, such that the delivery is
carried out in new ways with new actions and results becoming feasible.

Meaning of E-learning
In the opinion of Pinto, Selvaggi, Sicignano, Vollono, Iervolino, Amato,
Molinari and Grassi (2008), e-learning is an abbreviation of electronic
learning; it indicates the provision of education and training on the Internet or
the World Wide Web. According to the writers, e-learning provides access to
a large amount of information previously known only to individual
specialists; it is flexible, permitting the use of images or video; and it allows
linking to Web sites on a specific subject, thus contributing to further expand
knowledge. E-learning as a sub-system within ICT, is the electronic process
which enhances the delivery and administration of learning opportunities and
support via computer, networked and web-based technology to help
individual performance and development. The basic principle of e-learning is
connectivity the process by which computers are networked to share
information which can connect people. This is provided for by what is often
called the e-learning landscape or architecture, which refers to the hardware,
software and connectivity components required to facilitate learning (Okoro,
2011). In the view of Eklund, Kay and Lynch (2013) e-learning as a
component of flexible learning involves a wide set of applications and
processes, which use all available electronic media to deliver education and
training. It provides people with a flexible and personalized way to learn and
offers learning-on-demand opportunities and reduces learning cost. Bennink
(2014) submitted that e-learning engages the use of technology to enhance
learning including digital collaboration, satellite broadcasting, CD-ROMs,
video and audio conferencing, mobile technology, interactive TV and web
based technologies. To buttressed this, e-learning technologies offer learners
control over content, learning sequence, pace of learning, time, and often
media, allowing them to tailor their experiences to meet their personal
learning objectives. E-learning presents numerous research opportunities for

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faculty, along with continuing challenges for documenting scholarship


(Olaniyi, 2006).
E-learning can be said to be the use of Internet technologies to deliver
a wide range of solutions that enhance knowledge and performance. It
improves individual customized learning and allows learners to choose and
review materials at their own pace via numerous electronic media such as
computer-based learning, web-based learning, virtual classrooms and digital
collaboration. The uses of e-learning to create, advance, deliver, and facilitate
learning in business education is likely to bring about a desired transformation
in delivery of the programme and most importantly on the recipients all things
being equal.

Meaning of Business Education


The definition of the concept of business education has evolved over time.
This is evident in the different definitions offered by various authors and
researchers in trying to make clear the meaning of business education.
Agwumezie (2009) defined business education as a course that prepares
students for entry in advancement of jobs within business; prepares them to
handle their own business affairs, and to function intelligently as consumers
and citizens in a business economy. Similarly, Amaewhule (2010) added that
business education encompasses knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed by
recipients in order to effectively manage their personal businesses and
economic system. Atakpa (2011) remarked that business education is an
embodiment of vocational knowledge and skills needed for employment and
advancement in a broad range of business careers.
Okoye (2013) broadly defined business education as an education programme
that orientate students in: art of business making (marketing), typing and
shorthand skills (currently competing with computer appreciation and
operation), service delivery, secretarial jobs, stenography, account clerking,
office information system and management. The researcher explained that
business education prepares students in two interrelated areas; 1.Education
for business and 2. Education about business
Okoye (2013) believed that Education for business provides professional
training in:
Method of business making.
Techniques in business making
Tactics to attract clients and make profit.
Scheming ideas for profitable venture

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Appropriate attitude and behaviour of a good business man.


And that Education about business prepares individual to know:
How and when to buy goods for profitable outcome (in-season and out
season).
Where to obtain goods for better sales.
Where to situate business for continued existence.
When to make best sales (increased turnover rate).
When to make sales for increased profit.
Tricks in season forecast for good business making.
Self-conviction indicator about risk taking in business.
From the forgoing definitions, one can say that business education is a
programme that prepares students for the demand of the business world both
in private public sector; the essence being to tackle poverty, which is a global
challenge. In the words of Usman (2008), business education is a vital tool in
the hand of government to combat unemployment crises. It is in keeping with
these challenges that stakeholders found it pertinent to seek strategies that will
be more practical using e-learning to prepare recipients for the demands of
business either as an employee or as a job provider.

Objectives of Business Education


The general aim and objectives of business education as stated by Osuala
(2009) are as follows:
To make available to all students opportunities to explore and learn the
world of business and the possible interest and potential careers it has to
offer.
To develop in all students the ability to choose discriminately and to use
wisely the goods and services that business is to offer.
To assist in developing, on the part of the students, interest in the various
occupations to be found in the world of business.
To develop in all students the practical way of understanding and
appreciating the actual functioning of our economic system.
To enable students to acquire basic skills in business occupations as
beginners who expect to follow business as a career.
To prepare students to enter and succeed in business occupations as
beginners who expect to follow business as a career.
To prepare students to perform business activities common to many
professional, industrial, agricultural services and home-making careers;

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To prepare students for more effective study in the fields of business and
education beyond the secondary school education level.

E-learning Tools Suitable for Business Education


There are so many e-learning activities and tools that can be suitable
for learning in business education. The Australia Commonwealth (2007)
enumerated some of these tools, which are likely to improve the quality and
quantity of teaching and learning in business education. Some of the e-
learning paraphernalia include:
I. eXe: The eXe project is a freely available authoring application to
assist teachers and academics in the publishing of web contents
without the need to become proficient in HTML or XML mark-up.
eXe project is an environment for authoring web-based e-learning
content. With the eXe, users can develop learning structures that suit
their content delivery needs and build resources that are flexible and
easily updated. eXe is an Open Source Software project which is free
to download and use and the source code is also freely available to
allow customization to suit the teachers and students needs.
Instructions in business education can be transmitted through this
mode.
II. Flexible Learning Toolboxes: A Toolbox is a collection of high
quality resources, suggested learning strategies and supporting
material to support online delivery of recognized training packages
which could be suitable for learning. They are high quality, cost
effective interactive e-learning and assessment resources featuring
scenarios, images and activities and support online delivery of
recognized training packages for any training imaginable. Toolbox
materials come in an integrated learning programme incorporating a
number of units of competency which are available on a CD-ROM for
installation on a server or for use on a stand-alone computer and a
learning object format allowing users to download smaller self-
contained components of content for free. Use of Flexible Learning
Toolboxes in business education could motivate new students into the
programme and also help the old ones to learn at their own pace.
Teachers and trainers can use Toolbox materials to support traditional
classroom delivery or as a learning object to help them deliver
learning contents. Learning materials can also be customized to suit
different learners needs and interest at any time.

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III. iLearn: This is a scaleable, open-source e-learning platform with rich


functionality for course management, online communities, learning
management, and content management. It is an academia platform
where students can download learning content such as PDF
courseware, laboratory exercises, teaching slides, ISO DVDs.
Business education instructors can use iLearn to support their courses
or teach an entire class online. On the other hand, they can decide to
customize their use of iLearn features by combining it with other
learning materials. Business education Instructors who desires to use
iLearn can apply it to enhance teaching and learning by sharing online
resources, facilitating students interactivity and collaboration or by
appraising students performance and getting students feedback.
IV. Video Conferencing: Video Conferencing is a collaborative
communication tool which allows several individuals or groups to
communicate in real time across distances using the data network to
transfer packets of learning contents containing audio and video using
the voice network. In business education classroom, video
conferencing technology could be linked to cameras, computers and
whiteboards. It is very suitable for distance and self-paced education.
With the use of video conferencing in business education, the barrier
of traditional method of learning is removed and this goes a long way
to favour the goal of inclusive education. This is possible because
video conferencing integrates video and audio to connect users
anywhere in the world as if they were in the same classroom.
V. YouTube: YouTube is an online public communication site. The site
allows for registered users to upload and have available for the public
their videos for viewing. In this case, instructors of business education
and students who desire to use YouTube have to register online which
is usually free. The teacher thereafter prepares the desired lessons
including videos and upload online for the students to read. Anyone
who goes to the site can view the lessons and videos that are posted on
this site. The students also have the opportunities of having access to
other relevant literature worldwide.
VI. Respondus: Respondus is mainly an assessment tool which the
business education teacher can use to assess students learning
progress. Respondus is a programme that interacts with blackboard,
but is basically separate from it. Respondus can be used to compile
tests offline, which can then be exported to one or more blackboard

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courses to be completed online. The teacher can create questions on-


line using the Respondus programme or he/she can import questions
from MS-Word into Respondus and print out test questions. It
supports so many question types, including calculated and algorithmic
formats. Meanwhile the teacher can choose to import questions from
MS-Word or use the Respondus Exam Wizard to create an assessment
in minutes amongst other benefits.
VII. SMART Board interactive whiteboard: An interactive whiteboard is
a large interactive display that connects to a computer and projector.
This is highly suitable for students project presentations and
seminars. A projector projects the computers desktop onto the boards
surface where users control the computer using a pen, finger, stylus, or
other device. The board is typically mounted to a wall or floor stand.
They are used in a variety of settings, including classrooms at all
levels of education, in corporate board rooms and work groups.
Instructions in business education can be transmitted through this
mode. It is impossible to apply all these packages to business
education programme in one setting. They can be adapted to many
aspects of the programme depending on the socio-economic, cultural
and political setting where the programmes are operated.

Benefits of E-learning in Business Education


E-learning should be seen as offering solutions to several challenges currently
facing higher education globally and especially in business education
(Bassey, 2007). Through e-learning, students of business education would be
able to communicate, collaborate and cooperate with other learners worldwide
and assess worldwide libraries irrespective of their geographical locations and
bring to fulfillment the goal of business education as enshrined in the National
Policy on Education (2004). According to Panda and Swain (2009), e-learning
will benefit teaching and learning in the following ways:
for learners, e-learning knows no time zones, and location and distance are
not an issue;
in asynchronous e-learning, students can access the online materials at
any time;
synchronous e-learning allows for real time interaction between students
and instructors;

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e-learners can use the internet to access up-to-date and relevant learning
materials, and can communicate with experts in the field in which they are
studying;
situated learning is facilitated, since learners can complete online courses
while working on the job or in their own space, and can contextualize the
learning;
online materials can be updated as per the needs of the learners, and
learners are able to see the changes at once, and;
when learners are able to access materials on the internet, it is easier for
instructors to direct them to appropriate information based on their needs.

Challenges in the use of E-learning in Business Education


According to Ndume (2008) in many e-learning projects, students are faced
with challenges of bad perception during their studies: Inadequate Pedagogy
or androgogy in the curriculum, inadequate resources, inadequate users touch
and feeling in their learning platform. At home, more e-learners cannot
manage to study as they are responsible for domestic activities like caring for
children and solving some household chores (Ostlund, 2005). Furthermore,
some instructors are not knowledgeable enough in coaching or in the use of
multimedia tools, they lack telecoaching skill (Pal, 2006). Gunga (2010) in
his own contributions added that while the urge to embark on e-learning is
high in Africa, it is still a dream because of weak ICT infrastructure,
unsensitized populace and technophobia workforce. The wide gap between
the experience of ICT experts who develop e-learning systems and the slow,
and sometimes, unwilling designers of education instructional system planner
is also a challenge.
Gunga (2010) identified limited access to computer and modems as a
factor that is detrimental to success of e-learning environment and the high
cost met by the learners when connecting to internet. Connecting to internet
the writer stated might be unreliable, slow or limited and might cause
frustration and failure of learning outcome, and learning materials cannot be
accessed and downloaded in time to support efficient learning. Gunga (2010)
therefore maintained that electronic content cannot currently sustain the
qualities and multi dimensionality of the kind of tutor-student relationship that
learning in business education seems to require; more so, the high cost of
personal computer, laptop, software, internet and the technical support, power
instability, blackout in towns, and unconnectedness in rural areas, as problems

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that militate against utilization of e-learning in Tertiary Institutions and in


business education in particular.
Alu (2011) posited that the issue of computer literacy among students
and teachers and availability of personal computer (PC) among teachers and
students is lacking. There is no rigorous computer training in the process of
teacher preparation to help teacher usage. Thus a greater number of teachers
and learners are not computer literate. Alu stressed that unless technology
becomes reliable, the universe use of e-learning will be difficult, Alexander
(2000) supporting Alu said that he is not convinced that the society have
technology that is reliable enough for people to rely as heavily as its being
talked about. Again, Alu (2011) pointed out that many e-learning do not
provide enough content for good understanding of subject matter. Some of
them for example only provide power point slides of lectures and online
discussion forum which are not enough for users to obtain a good
understanding of the subject content.
These problems and others, slow down the pace of e-learning utilization in
business education and in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria as whole. To
overcome most of these problems, the business education teachers should be
constantly updating their skills in computer operation, networking, media,
communication, etc. and these will help them to cope with the new
innovations in ICT technologies for global challenges ahead.

Conclusion
The utilization of e-learning technologies in business education
instructional delivery is low despite the varied prospects. E-learning
technologies like e-lectures, e-examination, e-drill, e-books, e-library, among
others, are available for use in teaching and learning the course, however,
they are faced with diverse constraints such as shortage of staff with capacity
for e-learning application, inadequate facilities, equipment and infrastructure
for e-learning purposes, power outage, cost etc. It is believed that if this
challenges are addressed the endeared transformation would be realized to a
large extent in business education; thus competing favourably with global
challenges through her product.

Recommendations
The researchers made the following recommendations base on the findings:
There should be sensitization, and awareness creation about the potentials
and prospects of e-learning in Nigerian institutions of higher learning.

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There should be short training courses for both teachers and students on
the use of e-learning methods and procedures in business education.
Computer laboratories with internet facilities should be provided for all
business education departments in Universities, Polytechnics, Colleges of
education, and other tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
Alternative power supply should be made available in the departments of
business education in all institutions to ensure constant power supply for
internet and e-learning services.
Government should introduce a workable ICT policy and liaise with other
stakeholders in education sector to make internet connectivity and other e-
learning resources such as computers, projectors, scanners, printers, etc,
available in teaching and learning business education.
Teacher preparatory institutions should incorporate computer mediate
communication strategy in the relevant areas of the curriculum units and
so expose teachers to strategic learning.
Government should map out special ICT and e-learning funds for the
management of e-learning in business education.
There should be adequate awareness creation on the importance of e-
learning and available e-learning activities and tools to teachers and
learners in business education.

References
Agwumezie, F.U (2009). Resources management in business education programme:
Towards utilizing the great potentials of women. Business Education
Journal, 3(2), 128-136.
Alexander, S. (2000).Higher education markets and providers. In Fry, K., (Ed.), The
Business of E-Learning, bringing your Organization in the Knowledge
Economy. Sydney: University of Technology.
Alu, N. C. (2011). Utilizing E-learning in Science and Technology Education.
Problems and Prospects. In Onyegegbu, O. and Eze, U. (Eds). Optimizing E-
learning Opportunities for Effective Education Service Delivery. A
Publication of the Institute of Education, University of Nigeria Nsukka, 2011
Amaewhule,W. (2000) An introduction to Vocational Education and administration.
Owerri: Springfield publishers.
Atakpa, R.A. (2011). Entrepreneurship education: A sine qua-non in business
education in Nigeria. Business Education Journal, 1(11), 1-6.
Asobie A., (2012). Challenges of Governance: Need for Transformational
Leadership, Presented at National Conference of ANAN, Held at Abuja,
October 9.

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Bassey, U. U., Umoren, G. U., Akuegwu, B. A., Udida, L. A., & Ntukidem, E. P.
(2007). ICT-Learn2007. Presented at the Sixth International Internet
Education Conference. Ramses Hilton, Cairo, Egypt.
Bennink R. (2014). Implementing e-learning from the corporate perspective.
Retrieved October 1, 2010, from www.knowledgetree.flexiblelearning.net.au/
edition05/.../bennink.pdf
Commonwealth Australia. (2007). E-learning Tools. Retrieved October 1, 2010,
from http://trades.flexible-learning.net.au/e-learntools.html
Covey, Stephen R. (2009), The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. New
York:Simon and Schuster,
Eklund, J., Kay, M., & Lynch, H. M. (2013). E-learning emerging issues and key
trends. Retrieved October 21,2010, from http://pre2005.flexiblelearning.
net.au/research/2003/elearning250903final.pdf
Eteng, U. & Ntui, I.A. (2014). Access to e-learning in the Nigeria University System
(NUS): A case study of University of Calabar. The Information
Technologist: An International Journal of Information and Communication
Technology, 6 (2) 1-10.
Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004).National Policy on Education (4th Ed.).Lagos :
NERDC Press.
Grassi R. (2008). E-learning tools for education: regulatory aspects, current
applications in radiology and future prospects. National Center for
Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600
Rockville Pike, Bethesda MD, 20894 USA
Gunga, S. O. (2010). Challenges of Implementation of E-learning in Mathematics,
Science and Technology Education (MSTE) in African schools: A Critical
Review: Journal of Contemporary Issues in Education, 5 (1), pp. 45-51:
http://ojs.edu.valbertafundex.pjp/jcied
Jegede, P.O. & Owolabi, A.J. (2013). Computer education in Nigerian secondary
schools: Gaps between policy and practice. Meridian: A Middle School
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Ifekudu,C. (2014). The transformation of Business education through information
and communication technologies in tertiary institution in Nigeria.
Unpublished thesis.
Ndume, V. (2008). Challenge of Adaptive E-learning at Higher Learning
Institutions: A case study in Tanzania. International journal of Computing
and ICT Research.. 2 (1)
Okoro, F.N. (2011). Application of e-learning in business education instructional
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Research, 8 (1), 21- 27.
Okoye , K.R.E. (2013). Emerging issues in business, vocational and technical
education in Nigeria: The challenges and prospects. A keynote address

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presented at the 3rd annual national conference organized by school of


business education, FCE (Technical), Asaba 20th-24th May, 2013.
Olaniyi, S. S. (2006). E-Learning Technology: The Nigeria experience shape the
change. Germany: XXIII FIG Congress. Munich.
Ostlund, B. (2005). Stress, Disruption and Community Adult Learners experience
of Obstacles and Opportunities in Distance Education. European Journal of
Open Distance and E-learning (EuroDL) 2005, ISSN 1027-
5207.www.eurodol.org.material/briefostund-GBA.html
Osuala, E.C., (2009). Principles & Practice of Business Education. Obosi: Pacific
Correspondence College and Press Ltd.
Pal, J. (2006). Early Stage of Practical of Implementing Computer aided education
experience from India. Proceedings of 4th IEEE International workshop.
Panda and Swain (2009) E-Learning: From A Pedagogical Perspective.
International Journal of Information Science & Technology, 6(2), 100-107.
Peters, R.S. (2010). The concept of education. New York: Taylor and Francis e-
Library
Popham, E.L., Schrag, A.F., and Blocklvs (2011). A teaching learning system for
business education. New York: Megraus.
Pinto, A., Selvaggi, S., Sicignano, G., Vollono, E., Iervolino, L., Amato, F.,
Molinari, A., &

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JOVTE, pages
10 35
No. 1,
41,2017
Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017

EFFECT OF STUDENTS INVOLVEMENT IN AGRICULTURAL


SCIENCE TEST CONSTRUCTION ON THEIR ACADEMIC
ACHIEVEMENT: IMPLICATION FOR CURRICULUM
INNOVATION

DR. DANIEL C. OKEKE


Department of Agric Education,
Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe
08060671944, olisdon@yahoo.com

Abstract
This study investigated the effect of students involvement in agricultural science
test construction on their academic achievement. The study was carried out in
Idemili South LGA of Anambra State. A simple random sampling techniques was
employed to sample 60 SSII students from a population of 1280 SSII students. The
instrument used for data collection was Agricultural Science Achievement Test
(ASAT), which was validated by two experts and the reliability established at 0.08
using test re-test. The study was guided by one research question and one null
hypothesis. The result of the study showed that the students that were involved in
Agricultural Science test construction performed better than those not involved in
test construction. It was recommended among others that agricultural science
teachers should involve students in test construction to enhance their academic
performance.

Keywords: Agricultural Science, Test Construction, achievement, curriculum.

Introduction
One can only begin to appreciate the importance of agriculture with the
reality that, the improved standard of living and, improved medical and health
services have relatively increased life expectancy and reduced infant mortality
thereby, leading to proportional increase in world population most especially
in the developing countries. As a consequence of this, there has been a
relatively increased demand for food and allied products from agriculture. A
country is fully classified as developed when it can provide enough food that
is cheap and affordable for its citizens. Increased agricultural productivity is
one of the pre-requisites for economic progress. Rising agricultural
productivity is very necessary in countries like Nigeria as this is linked to
many of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), especially food,
security, poverty and employment (Blrisa, Shettima and Mustapha, 2010).
Agricultural education according to Osinem (2008) is the process of imparting
knowledge, skills and attitudes in agriculture to the learner at any level.
Obibuaku, (1983) in Osinem, (2008) described it as education and training

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given in agriculture from primary school through secondary and special


schools, to the university. It provides learners with sound academic
knowledge and skill as well as ample opportunity to apply this knowledge
through classroom activities, laboratory experiments, project participation and
supervised agricultural experiences.
An educational system that is innovative and responsive to the complex and
dynamic work environment is critical to ensure the effectiveness of all the
institutions that contribute to agricultural development (Meredia, (2007) in
Okeke 2011). To make education responsive however requires developing
and implementing curriculum and teaching programmes that are relevant to
the production needs and employment demands of the agricultural sector.
Curriculum according to Onwuka (1984) in Hamza and Mohammed, (2011),
is a structured series of intended learning experienced and the instrument by
which educational institutions seek to translate the hope of the society into
concrete reality, it is the sum total of the means applied by institutions of
learning to promote what society and educators consider as desirable learning.
Basic science teaching and learning has in-built strategies where the learners
are required to be involved in inquiry and related activities that can develop
critical thinking skills. Teaching strategies are effective only when they are
active, meaningful and able to equip students with knowledge, skills and
attitudes that can be useful in solving problems for better performance.
It is necessary to fashion ways to prepare learners for successful careers in
agriculture through improved classroom performance, focused on providing
learning experiences that will enhance students achievement and interest in
the subject. Such strategy will help the students to apply the basic agricultural
competencies and background knowledge of agriculture, apply the basic
learning skills in reading writing, thinking, communicating, listening and
studying. (Osinem 2008). The strategies employed will depend on the
standard and level of maturity of the learners, coupled with the objective of
the programme. The strategies include lecture method, demonstration
method, field trip, discussion method, homework, task instructional sheet,
laboratory method, project method and test construction method. Most of the
other methods have been applied in teaching and learning process. However,
the use of test-construction as a strategy is only trying to receive attention
hence, the dire need to explore this strategy as a potential for improving
students academic achievement.
Test according to Hornby (2003), is attributed to examination or trial to find
its quality, value, composition, etc. It is used not measure knowledge, powers

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and skills in performing a particular task. Tests are given often to students to
measure their intelligent, ability and, also, evaluate the extent of the teaching
learning process. There is every need to get students involved in the learning
process by stimulating their interest to enhance active participation in
classroom exercise. Nwabueze(1992), stated that, involving students in test
construction brings most students similar, in terms of academic achievement
thereby reducing to the barest minimum, much of the learning variations.
Also, in their own view, Siceci and Parker (2006), posited that involving
students in test construction helps students to learn more about assessment
formats, thereby enhancing their achievement. Test serve as a guide to
teachers when employed constructively to know how much content the
students has learnt.
It is pertinent to note that, to achieve the basic objective of agricultural
science, students must develop enough interest with modest commitment to
enhance their academic achievement.

Research Question
Does students involvement in agricultural science test construction affect
their academic achievement.

Research Hypothesis
Ho1: Students involvement in agricultural science test construction does not
affect their academic achievement

Methodology
The study adopted a quasi experimented research design. A pre-test post-test
non-randomised control group was used for the study. The study area was
Idemili South Local Government Area of Anambra State. The population of
the study was all the 1280 SSII students in the fourteen (14) government
secondary schools in the study area. A simple random sampling technique
was employed to sample five(5) students from each school to get a sample
size of seventy(70) students for the study. The sample were divided into two
groups, the experimental and the control groups, the experimental group were
the constructors while the control group were the non-constructors. The
experimental group were taught how to construct test questions from their
lessons by the teacher, while the control group were not taught that.
The research instrument used for data collection was the Agricultural Science
Achievement Test (ASAT). The instrument was validated by two experts,

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one in agricultural education from Nwafor Orizu College of Education,


Nsugbe, the other in measurement and evaluation, Nnamdi Azikiwe
University, Awka. After correction and modification, the reliability of the
instrument was established at 0.85, using test re-test method. Mean and
standard deviation were used to analyze the collected data and answer the
research question, the z-test was employed to test the hypothesis at 0.05
significant level.

Result
Research Question
Does students involvement in Agricultural science test construction affect
their achievement?
Table 1: Mean achievement score of students on Agricultural Science test
constructors and non constructors
Groups No of Pre-test Post-test Std Dev Std Mean
cases mean Mean on pre Dev on Diff
Post
Experimental Group 35 32.11 67.23 19.14 22.40 35.12
constructors

Control Group 35 31.34 40.01 15.10 17.03 8.67


non-constructors

Total 70

The result in Table 1 shows that, the experimental group (test constructors),
had a pre-test mean of 32.11 while the control group (non-test constructors)
had 31.34. Again, they had a post-test mean of 67.23 and 40.01 for
experimental and control group respectively with a mean difference of 27.22.

Hypothesis
Ho1: Students involvement in Agricultural science test construction does not
significantly affect their academic achievement.

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Table 2: Z-test of students (constructors and non-constructors) scores in


Agricultural Science
Groups No of Mean X Std Dev. df t-cal z-crit Sig.
cases
Experimental Group 35 67.23 19.14
(constructors)
68 3.79 1.96
Control Group 35 40.01 15.10
(non-constructors)

Total 70

The result in Table 2 indicated that the calculated value of Z is 3.79 while the
critical value of Z is 1.96. The result has shown that there is a significant
difference between the means scores of the experimental group and the
control group in favour of the experimental group, thereby rejecting the null-
hypothesis of no significant difference.

Discussion
The analysis revealed the performance of students in Agricultural Science
which from all indications is not encouraging when one takes cognizance of
the pre-test mean of 32.11 and 31.34 for experimental and control group
respectively. However, the post-test mean score indicate a progressive shift
on the part of the experimental group. After involving them in test
construction for assessment and evaluation, their performance actually
improved and they performed better than the control group that were not
involved in test construction as shown in their post-test mean score. The
difference in performance was actually ratified when the hypothesis was
tested at 0.05 level of significance. This result showed that there is a
significant difference between the scores of students involved in agricultural
science test construction and the non-test constructors. This result agrees with
Nwabueze (1992) who found out that test construction brings most students
similar in terms of academic achievement and reduces to the barest minimum,
much of the learning variation. Also, Siceci and Parker (2006), stated that,
involving students in test-construction helps them to learn more about
assessment formats, thereby enhancing their academic achievement. This is
so as it will help them to understand their problems more, improve their
interest, stimulate their critical thinking ability and their understanding of the
subject. This will culminate in their sustained interest in agriculture,
acquisition of basic knowledge and practical skills, integrate knowledge with

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skills, prepare students for further studies in agriculture and prepare and
expose them to occupations and opportunities in the field of agriculture.

Conclusion
Involving students in Agricultural Science test-construction will no doubt,
make them to have a wider knowledge of the subject matter which will
facilitate the participatory student-teacher learning activity. This will help
them to learn more on assessment and evaluation strategies thereby improving
their performance. Improved performance will lead to increased interest by
the students not only in the subject, Agricultural Science but, also in
Agriculture as a course of study in tertiary institutions and as a profession to
engage in after school. This development will in no small measure, engender
agricultural productivity. When we begin to have educated farmers with the
requisite modern technical knowledge engage in agricultural production and
farm management, food will be adequate, per capita income will increase,
Gross Domestic Product will increase leading to positive balance of payment,
culminating to improved standard of living for all and sundry in Nigeria.

Recommendation
The following recommendations are based on the findings
1. Agricultural science teachers in our secondary schools should as a
matter of fact involve student in test-construction in order to keep them
abreast on the assessment and evaluation strategies to enhance their
performance in the subject.
2. Colleges of Education, education faculties in our universities and,
other teacher training institutions should include the test-construction
strategy in their curriculum.
3. Workshops, short courses and conferences should be organized for
teachers to emphasise this strategy as germane to the enhancement of
students academic performance.

Educational Implications
The results of this study have obvious implications for teachers, students and
stakeholders in education.
The teachers ability to impact knowledge is measured by the performance and
the level of knowledge acquisition by the students. Students involvement in
test construction will definitely enhance their interest and hence improved
performance. Developing more interest in Agriculture will result in most of

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the students actually engaging in agricultural production even after their


studies. This will lead to reduced unemployment rate, increased food
production, reduced hunger, increased per-capita income and standard of
living of the populace.

References
Hamza, F., and Mohamed, A. U., (2011). Way Forward for the new Basic
Science and Technology Curriculum
Hornby, A. S., (2003). Advanced Oxford Learners Dictionary of Current
English. London: Oxford University Press.
Idris, Y.L., Shettima, B. G.; and Mustrapha, S. B. (2010). Effect of
Agricultural Imput on Farmers Productivity. A case study of fertilizer
among maize farmers in Kaltungo L.G.A. of Gombe State.
Proceedings of 24th Annual Conference of Faman. 194-197.
Meredia, M., (2007) Curriculum Enhancement and Reforms to meet the
Needs of small holder Farmers in Developing Countries
http://enghi138/com/1103428.
Nwabueze, B. O. (1992). The effect of Improved students Participation on the
Mathematics Achievement Level of secondary school students in
Obodo, G. C. (ed) Science and Technology Education in a Depressed
Economy. Division of General studies, Enugu State University. 16-20.
Okeke, D. C., (2011). The Prospects of Post-secondary Agricultural
Education Curriculum Reform on the Nations Agricultural
Productivity and graduate engagement. Proceeding of 52rd Annual
Conference of STAN. 134-139.
Onwuka, U; (1984). Curriculum Development for Africa. Onitsha: FEB
Publications Nig Ltd.
Osinem, E. C., (2008). Managing Agricultural Education and Training,
Resources, principles and Methods. Enugu, Belony Int Press.

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JOVTE,Vol. 10 No.
pages 42 1,48,
2017
Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017

THE ROLE OF PEACE EDUCATION IN RESOLVING CONFLICTS


BETWEEN NOMADS AND FARMERS IN THE SOUTH-EAST OF
NIGERIA

NWAWUBE MARTINA. C.
08063254131, nwawubemartina@yahoo.com

Abstract
The importance of peace education on conflict resolution between farmers and
nomads cannot be over emphasized. Lives and properties worth millions of naira
have been lost whenever conflict occurred between farmers and herdsmen. It is
against this backdrop that this paper examines peace and nomadic education in
Nigeria. Peace education can be a bridge builder over the dividing lines of conflict.
It looks at how to achieve a violence-free state through peace education if included
in the curriculum of nomadic education. Avenues through which peace education
can be promoted were also considered. Finally some recommendation were put
forward for peace education to be effectively achieved.

Introduction
There has been a tremendous increase in conflicts between Fulani
herdsmen and farmers in recent times. Such conflicts are becoming a national
issue. Down in the South-Eastern States, it is becoming very alarming as
conflicts are occurring in almost all the States. There is so much violence
among herdsmen and farmers. This has led to loss of lives and properties
worth millions of naira. There is therefore a crying need to advocate for peace
through nomadic education. This is so, given the fact that peace and peaceful
co-existence have eluded the society. Violence is triggered off at the slightest
instance. It is therefore the stand of this write up that the inculcation of peace
through nomadic education will go a long way in making the Fulani herdsmen
of the society live peaceably with those around them. When this happens,
cases of loss of lives and properties will be reduced and the society will
become a better place to live in. There will be also increase in crop and
animal production thereby alleviating the sufferings of farmers and nomads
alike.

The Concept of Peace and Peace Education


Peace has been defined from many perspectives. In general terms
however, it refers to conflict and violence-free state. Peace describes a
situation full of harmony and tranquility. It is also a situation devoid of terror,
intimidation and war. For a comprehensive understanding of peace, let us
look at various definitions of the concept by scholars.

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Peace is not merely the absence of war, of law, of order in a


government but the presence of justices (Sandy and Perkins,
2002).
Peace is a state of well being that is characterized by trust,
compassion and justice (Trostle, 2002).
Peace is the absence of violence in all its forms-physical,
social, psychological and structural (Reardon, 2002).

The world Book encyclopedia (1971) defines peace as a state of being


calm, quiet and being free from disturbances. According to the Oxford
Dictionary of current English (1998), peace is defined as quietness, serenity,
mental calm, tranquility, freedom or cessation from war, as well as freedom
from civil disorder.
From the foregoing definitions, the concept has some underlying
values:- non-violence, absence of war, absence of conflict/hostility and
presence of justice, law, order, trust, freedom and human rights. The common
synonyms for peace include tranquility, concord, harmony, repose, truce,
pacification and neutrality.
Peace has been classified into two opposite folds of negative and
positive. Negative peace according to Galtungs as cited in Sandy and Perkins
(2002), is a state requiring a set of social structures that provide security and
protection from acts of direct physical violence committed by individuals,
groups or nations; it concerns the control of violence. Negative peace is
concerned not only with the causes of violence but its manifestations.
Positive peace as defined by Woolman in Sandy and Perkins (2002),
involves the search for positive conditions which can resolve the underlying
causes of conflict that produce violence. The concern is to stop conflict and
violence.
Peace education is education promoted to enhance rewarding human
relationship. Ololubou (2000), referred to peace education as training through
controlled, planned and unplanned activities that instill in individual peace
knowledge skills, values and attitudes which help them to relate appropriately
with their environment for the ultimate good of the society. Thus one can say
that, peace education entails the inculcation of culture of justice and equity as
bases for harmony within the various facets of society paving way for
advancement.
Readon (1998), believes that peace education deals mainly
with single issue and particular cases such as the proposed
nuclear arms freeze on the war in Nicaragua with the aim of
avoiding or limiting war. In the mind of some peace
educators, failure to focus on war as an institution or on the

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way systems help to perpetuate wars create the notion that


war itself is too great a problem to tackle.

Hicks (1988) explicitly explained that peace education is not a separate


subject but the creation of a dimension across the curriculum, a concern that
may be explored in different ways with any age group and in any subject.
Peace education curriculum therefore, according to Hicks (1988), comprises
the following items:
Skill: Critical thinking, co-operation, empathy, assertiveness, conflict
resolution and political literacy.
Attitudes: Self respect, respect for others, ecological concern, open
mindedness, vision and commitment to justice.
Knowledge: Personal and global conflicts and attempts to solve them, various
concepts of peace and those individuals and groups involved in peace
movement, key issues and ethical dilemma to do conventional war, as well as
the effects of militarism on individuals and groups
Generally speaking, peace education should be taught at all levels of
education and all functional educational systems including the nomadic
system of education.
Peace education should contribute towards changing the world. Peace
education should reduce the willingness of individuals to resort to violence
and uncover and eliminate structures of violence in human relations in all
areas of society and between states. According to Lin and Stichwort (1999),
the objectives of peace education can be summarized thus:
1. Use teaching and learning methods that stress participation, problem
solving and respect for differences.
2. Enable children to put peace-making into practice in the educational
settings as well as in wider society.
3. Generate opportunities for continuous reflection and professional
development of all educators in relation to issues of peace, injustice
and rights.

Nomadic Education in Nigeria


A nomad is someone who lives by travelling from place to place.
Nomadic thus means anything that involves moving around a lot. Nomadic
hunter gatherers follow the animal they hunt, carrying tents with them. For the
purpose of this article, nomads refer to Fulani herdsmen who travel from
place to place alongside their flock/livestock in search of grazing land.
Nomads and herdsmen are used interchangeably in the context of this work.

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According to Akinpelu (1993), the contemporary definition of nomadism


refers to any type of existence characterized by the absence of a fixed
domicile. He identifies three categories of nomadic group as: hunter/food
gatherers, itinerant fishermen and pastoralists (also known as herdsmen). In
Nigeria, there are six nomadic groups: the Fulani, the Shuwa, the Buduman,
the Kwayam, the Badawi and the fishermen. The last group, the fishermen is
concentrated in Rivers, Ondo, Edo, Delta, Cross River and Akwa Ibom states
(FME Education Sector Analysis, 2000). The first five nomadic groups listed
are considered pastoralist nomads.
The introduction of the National Nomadic Education Scheme (NNES)
by the Federal Government was in attempt to enable the communities in
Nigeria, especially the Fulani nomads benefit from functional literacy
programme which eluded them since the UPE Scheme in 1976. The Minister
of Education then at the first National workshop on the education of nomads
in Nigeria held at Yola argued that the Fulani cattle rearers are Nigeria
citizens like the rest of us and therefore entitled to the same rights and
privileges as any other Nigerian (Aminu, 1986). For this reason, Government
felt justified in considering education as a right and fair deal for the nomads in
line with the national policy on education. Thus special nomadic education
programmes evolved in various parts of Nigeria to cater for nomadic society
as state policies.
Delivery of education services to these nomadic groups has tended to
follow the lines of the formal school system. Special attention was paid to
these groups by the Nigeria Government when it set up the National
Commission for Nomadic Education in 1989 (Federal Government of Nigeria,
1989).

Conflicts between Farmers and Nomads


In the South-East of Nigeria, conflict between framers and nomadic
herdsmen over agricultural land is rapidly becoming a critical issue which
needs urgent attention. This is so as it is considered a major factor responsible
for the unsustainable utilization of land and water resources. With both groups
considered as ardent land users conjoined with the existing ineffective
farming/grazing laws, conflicts between both agricultural land users appear
inevitable. Many farming communities in the country have either had or are
currently having disputes with herdsmen with most cases in some parts of
Enugu and Anambra states. Apart from human factors identified as the major
source of conflicts, natural factors such as changing climate condition and its

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ensuing depletion of land resources play key roles in the causes of conflict as
well.
Farmers lay blame on cattle rearers for destroying their farmland while
the cattle rearers accuse the farmers and their host communities of
stealing/killing their livestocks leading to clashes between both parties.
Aggression are also stirred up whenever cattle, on their feeding quest, eat up
cultivated farmlands destroying them in the process or even trampling and
compacting the soil with their hoofs thereby rendering the soil unproductive
for planting. Considering the loss incurred by the farmers as a result of these
acts, farmers often retaliated by stealing, poisoning or even killing cows. On
their part, the herdsmen readily went as far as setting villages ablaze and
killing with knives and guns anyone who tampered with their cattle.
It is necessary at this point to notice the over-whelming number of
lives and properties lost to these incessant clashes which are evident and
persistent in state such as Oyo, Delta, Kwara and Kogi but even more
persistent in Awgu, Uzowani and Ayamelum communities of Enugu and
Anambra states. These are just few of many unreported clashes that are
currently being experienced all over farming villages in the South-Eastern
states.
Gestures towards resolving the conflicts between farmers and
herdsmen are fundamental to creating sustainable peace. It is worth
mentioning that several attempts made by governments, N.G.Os and other
concerned bodies to negotiate peace deals only ended up hitting the rock.
Reasons remain unknown. To the affected communities, the fact remains that
since the respective authorities have none of their family members caught in
the clash, their anguish might remain unfelt with little or no succor for
anyone.
If the government at all levels and other concerned bodies are really
bent on achieving the millennium Development Goal numbers one, seven and
eight as initiated by the United Nations, it is necessary that it establishes an
effective and well defined master plan for an efficient and sustainable land
use. Government should also constitute a holistic and interactive stakeholders
forum to discuss ways out of the incessant conflicts. It is hoped that such
meetings and discussion will modify the existing itinerant method of cattle
rearing and possibly arrive at the ranch system which limits the movement of
cattle rearers.

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The Role of Peace Education in preventing Conflicts between Farmers


and Nomads
It is often said that it is very difficult to bring an end to conflict once it
has started. It is very necessary to prevent conflicts between farmers and
nomads. There is therefore need for peace education: to curb the incessant
clashes between cattle rearers and farmers. Most people believe that conflict
is a negative force that should be resolved in order to achieve more positive
states such as harmony, understanding and peace in our lives. Nevertheless,
conflicts exist at all levels of social interaction from personal inner conflict to
global wars and international violence. Conflict is unavoidable. It is however
the position of this paper that peace education will go a long way towards
reducing the impact of conflicts on our lives and environments. Peace
education is a possible panacea to the present destructive confrontations
between farmers and cattle rearers in Nigeria today and in the South-East in
particular.
Peace education if included in the nomadic education curriculum will
go a long way to inculcating the culture of peaceful co-existence in the
nomads. This invariably will reduce the incidence of clashes between farmers
and the nomads. Peace education when channelled through the course content
of nomadic school curriculum will help pupils and students internalize what
peace education has to offer.
The content of peace education curriculum should include tolerance,
accommodation, endurance, love, equity, human dignity, rights,
responsibilities, morality, customs and traditions among others. If these
course contents are taught and internalized, they will place the nomads on
higher pedestal of understanding why people belong to different religions and
ethnic groups. It will also instil in them the true spirit of accommodation and
tolerance for one another, respect for human rights and dignity and above all,
it will expose to them the dangers and consequences of conflicts/war.
There are avenues through which peace education can be promoted
considering the type of people involved in this type of education - the
nomads. The use of mass media will be of great importance because one
hardly sees a nomad who goes about without a little radio. In effect, the use of
radio as a means of passing information on peaceful co-existence with fellow
humans as well as posters and handbills with illustrations on peaceful co-
existence will be of great importance.

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Recommendations
The following recommendations are put forward to achieve this peace
education:
1. In every Federal and State ministries of education, there should be a
nomadic education unit with a sub-unit of peace education,
2. Since nomads are predominantly Muslims, moral instruction in Islam
should be emphasized for nomads because we believe all religions teach
peace. This will help to foster great peaceful co-existence.
3. Peace education should be included in teacher training programmes.
This is not only for the nomads but for other teachers.
4. Radio or distance education programme should be used to aid the
National Nomadic Education School (NNES) and adult education
agencies.

References
Aminu, J. (1986). Fair deal for the nomads: key-note address. In Ezeoma
.C. (ed). The Education of nomads in Nigeria: First National workshop
on Education of Nomads in Nigeria, Yola November, 4-6, Federal
Ministry of Education. Lagos.
Hicks, D. (Ed) (1988). Education for peace: Issues, principles and practices
in the classroom. London: Routledge.
Lin, M. and Stichwort, P. (1999). Education for peace: New York. Seven
stories press.
Ololobuo, C.O. (2000). Developing the self as a basis for peace Education in
the 21st century: Journal of women in colleges of Education 4.
Oxford Dictionary on Current English (1998). New York: Oxford University
press.
Reardon, .B. (1988). Comprehensive Peace Education. New York: Teachers
college press.
Reardon, B.A. (2002). Comprehensive Peace Education. The online journal
of peace and conflict resolution. 4:2:1-8.
Sandy, L.O. and Perkins, J.R. (2002). The nature of peace and its implication
for peace education: The online journal of peace and conflict resolution.
Retrieved from www.org/QJPed/42natp5, df.
The World Book Encyclopedia (1971). Peace 15. Chicago. Field enterprise
educational co-operations.

53
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JOVTE, pages
Vol. 4959,
10 No. Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017
1, 2017

VALUE RE-ORIENTATION OF TVET PROGRAM AS A VEHICLE


TO EFFECTIVE SANDWICH EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

NWOKOYE CHINAZOR FRANKLIN


Department of Agricultural Education.
Nwafor Orizu College of Education Nsugbe
chinazorfranklin@yahoo.com

Abstract
Technical and Vocational Education Training (TVET) is the training of technically
oriented personnel who are to be initiators, facilitators and implementers of
technological development of a nation by adequately training its citizenry on the
need to be technologically literate leading to self reliance and sustainable
development. The role of Technical and Vocational Education Training as a vehicle
to empowering youths for job creation and sustainable development has been
universally recognized. This paper elucidated the need for value re-orientation of
TVET sandwich programme as a vehicle to sustainable development in Nigeria. The
paper highlighted the concept of value re-orientation, sustainable development,
sandwich programme as a vehicle to sustainable development and the need for value
re-orientation in TVET sandwich programme. The challenges facing TVET
sandwich programme in Nigeria were also underscored. Consequently,
recommendations were advocated in line with the exegesis made on TVET
sandwich programme. It was recommended that government and stakeholders in
Education should not scrape the sandwich programme rather, it should be beefed up
in order to achieve its objectives of empowering the learners academically and
practically with competencies needed for self reliance and sustainable development
in Nigeria.

Keywords: Value re-orientation, TVET, Sandwich, Sustainable development,

Introduction
The National Policy on Education indicated that education is an instrument
par excellence for effective sustainable national development (Federal
Republic of Nigeria, FRN, 2004). The educational sector in Nigeria is vested
with the responsibility of preparing the learners with relevant attitudes,
competencies and skills necessary for self reliance and sustenance through the
use of effective curriculum.
It is evident that there is a current awareness among stakeholders in
educational sector concerning the critical function of technical and vocational
education and training (TVET) in achieving the objectives of self reliance

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among learners and creation of sustainable national development. TVET have


been identified as the formal strategy to alleviate the challenges of poverty,
unemployment, social vices among the youths and learners. This is in view of
the curriculum designed to enable learners acquire employable skills
competencies and attitude that is responsive to the developmental and
economic needs of the society. It is in line with the recommendation of the
United Nation Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) at
its 18th session general conference that TVET should be an integral part of the
general educational programme for most African countries (Ikeoji, 2010).
The abysmal failure in achieving the national objective of TVET is evidenced
in the inability of TVET graduates to acquire the relevant attitude,
competence and skills needed for self reliance and sustainable national
development. This is more glaring for stakeholder in most tertiary institutions
especially in the TVET programmes. Collaborating the above indications,
Nuru (2007); Okafor (2011); Asogwa and Diogwu (2007) stated that the
promotion of appropriate skills acquisition through TVET to facilitate the
spirit of creativity, self reliance and independence in learners has remained a
mirage because successive governments, curriculum planners, education
policy makers and the lecturers have not given the programme the attention it
deserves especially in TVET sandwich programmes.
In line with these challenges, this paper takes an indebt look at value re-
orientation of TVET programmes as a strategy for effective sandwich
education for sustainable development in Nigeria.

Concept of Value Re-orientation


The current influx of ideas, innovations, technology and knowledge in
the educational sector have rendered past values and ideas absolute,
consequently the need for value reorientation in over hauling the Nigeria
educational programmes especially TVET sandwich Programme. Kluchohn
(2005) rightly observed that no society is healthy, creative nor strong unless
that society have a set of common value that gives meaning and purpose to
group life. According to Nwabuisi (2002), value is a set of abstract idea,
which defines what are considered important, worthwhile and desirable within
a giving society. Kamalu and Wordu (2010) see values as socially shared
ideas about what is good, desirable or important, the normative component of
the culture
On the other hand re-orientation refers to changing once again, a position or
attitude, relative to the situation or circumstances. Re-orientation is a state

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of being redirected differently, re-arrangement or realignment intellectually or


otherwise. In the context of this paper, re-orientation therefore entails a
change in thought pattern, inclination or interest in curriculum design, and the
learning process in which case it is referring to the symbolic interaction
between the curriculum and the learning process (the teacher, teaching
methods, learners, and the learning environment) as it concerns the sandwich
TVET programmes. The imperativeness of value change and re-orientation
necessitates the need to harness educational resources towards revamping lost
values and imbibing better alternatives for effective TVET sandwich
programme. The value re-orientation which refers to those strategies that can
be adopted for effective sandwich program for sustainable development is
even more vital when roles of the sandwich students.(teachers on in-service
training) is considered. The stress is on the sandwich students who are mainly
primary and secondary schools teachers. The task of providing quality
technical and vocational Education for children and youth which will prepare
them for effective participation in the world of work and community
development has remained the challenge of teachers especially in the primary
and secondary schools. It then means that teachers on TVET sandwich
programme should be adequately trained both in theory and practice.
The strategies that can be adopted in sandwich TEVT programmes may
include;
Using demonstration teaching methods to capture all the practical
skills and competencies in technical and vocational education.
Fostering the right values, interest, attitudes and entrepreneurial skills
acquisition among the learners.
Competency based education and supervised learning experiences
should be introduced to ensure a step by step learning of jobs and tasks
in any given vocational/technical field.
Stakeholders should deemphasize lecture method in TVET sandwich
programmes and the grading system should capture proficiencies in
skills and competencies rather than core cognitive assessment which
promotes examination malpractices, sorting and certificate mentality
among sandwich students.
This is the bane of sandwich programme which had rendered the education
program ineffective and inappropriate. If Nigeria hopes to be self sustaining
in national development, then there is need for a radical value re orientation of
TVET sandwich programme.

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Concept of Sustainable Development.


Sustainable development entails the development that satisfy the need of the
present generation without compromising future generations to meet their
own needs. The environment should be seen as an asset, a stock of available
wealth because if the present generation spends the wealth without investment
for the future, then the world will run out of resources. Sustainability in
development is a dynamic approach to improving the well-being of the people
(Kayoma and Oharist 2003). These authors further postulated that there are
positive links among three major interrelated areas of development which
includes the following
Economic development - this entails growth, efficiency and stability in the
economy.
Social development - this involves the availability of full employment,
security, education and health.
Environmental development environmental development refers to the
rational use of renewable and conservation of non renewable resources.
The focal point of this paper is the achievement of sustainable development in
the social sector using TVET Sandwich education programme. The
implication for empowering, training and retraining of human resources
(teachers) in the school system cannot be overemphasized, consequently the
introduction of sandwich programme for majorly practicing teachers. Human
resource according to Otokiti (2001) comprise of human efforts in whatever
form which could be mental, skilled, unskilled, scientific or artistic which are
used in the productive process of an economy. If Nigeria hopes to achieve
sustainable development, healthy and educated/skilled workforce is needed.
The quality of the graduates from secondary schools and tertiary institutions
depend on the quality of the human resources (teachers). This is because; it is
teachers that harness other resources to achieve educational objectives and
hence national development. Effective education especially TVET has been
identified as the best tool for developing human resources in order to enhance
their capacities since no country can develop above the level of the education
of its people (Nwaokolo, 2003). As a result of this assertion sandwich
students who are majority primary and secondary school teachers should be
empowered through effective value re-orientation and re-packaging of
TVET sandwich programme for sustainable development.

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Sandwich Programme as a Vehicle for Sustainable Development


Sandwich programme is an intervention education programme designed to
provide participants with intellectual, professional and practical competencies
which is due for self employment, paid employment, entrepreneurship, further
studies or their combinations. According to Ikeoji (2011), sandwich
programmes are generally designed to help teachers of primary and secondary
schools to advance their professional competency and raise their status.
Agbata (2013) indicated that it is more or less an in-service training
programme necessary to train the teacher in essential professional and
academic skills. The provisions of sandwich programmed is in line with the
objectives of teacher education as stated by the Federal government of
Nigeria in the National Policy on Education especially section (71d): to
provide teachers with the intellectual and professional background adequate
for their assignment and make them adaptable to changing situations (FGN,
2004) It also strives to meet one of the goal of National Economic
Empowerment and Development Strategies (NEEDS) which is the training
and re-training of technical teachers for technical and entrepreneurial skill
acquisition.
Planning and implementation of sandwich programmes in Nigeria tertiary
institution will make the participants to gain more knowledge and
competencies that would make them more professionally qualified and
proficient in empowering youths at the primary and secondary school levels.
This knowledge and competencies when inculcated in the students would no
doubt bring more productive and enlightened citizens who will contribute to
job and wealth creation, poverty reduction, social vice reduction and overall
sustainable development. Ikeoji (2011) maintained that sandwich programme
courses are organized to deepen trainee knowledge and competence. It
therefore must be comprehensive, effective and competency based in order to
achieve its objectives. This paper seeks to contribute to building the society
through effective training and retraining of teachers involved in sandwich
programmes.

The Need for TVET Sandwich Programme in Nigeria


Technical and vocational education training (TVET) is offered in many
Nigeria education institution at different levels. According to Aina (2009),
there are about 40 federal and state technical colleges, 45 federal and state
polytechnics, and a number of federal and state polytechnics, federal and
state colleges of Agriculture and forestry, federal and state universities of

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technology, about 3 federal universities of agriculture spread over the 6 geo-


political region of the country. Most of these schools were vocationalized in
line with the National Policy on Education. This was a follow up to the
change in the educational sector from 6-5-2-3 system to the current 6-3-3-4
system in the 1980s (Federal Republic of Nigeria 1998; Ikeoji and
Agwubuike, 1999). As part of the target on National Policy on Education, the
TVET programme was introduced as
An integral part of general education.
A means of preparing for occupational field and effective participation
in the world of work.
An aspect of live long learning and preparation of responsible
citizenship.
An instrument for promoting environmentally sound and sustainable
development.
A method of alleviating poverty.
Abolaji and Reneau (1988) indicated some other reasons that gave rise to the
institution of sandwich programme in Nigeria. Such reasons include the need
for TVET teachers to be current with agricultural development and
technology and the teachers need to improve their knowledge and competency
on the job beyond what was required for initial certificate in order to become
effective professionals. In the same vein, Fox (1981) indicated three reasons
for organizing sandwich programme: Stimulating professional development,
improving school practice and implementing social policy. The relevance of
sandwich programme vis--vis the unprecedented boom in secondary school
enrollment in area of vocational and technical education in the last 2 decades
has been acknowledged (Abolaji and Reneau, 1988; Oranu, 1995; Agomuo,
1997; Ikeoji and Agwubuike, 1999).
Technical and vocational education is a broad educational area that requires
professional and technical competencies for teachers to function effectively.
The TVE teacher require adequate knowledge of subject matter in the
cognitive competencies, attitudinal relevance (affective competencies) and
practical skills (psychomotor competencies) to be able to teach technical and
vocational subjects to secondary school students Ikeoji, Agwubuike and Ide
(2007). According to Olaitan (1997), there is need for periodic in-service
training for serving teachers of vocational subjects to improve on their
practical skills.
However thousands of students graduate annually in various field of technical
and vocational education especially in the primary and secondary schools but

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majority of them have been found to be unemployable in the world of work as


the requisite skills have not been acquired (Olaitan, 1997; Okorie, 2000, Obi
2005; Iredia, 2006). These points have evidenced the failure of TVET to
achieve the goals of vocationalising the education system as it could not help
to develop the work skills needed for work and self-employment. This may be
attributed to the sub-optimal competencies and skill levels among primary and
secondary school teachers. Consequently, there is need for value re-
orientation in the TVET sandwich programme to be responsive to the need of
the society and re-position primary and secondary schools teachers to produce
graduates who can contribute meaningfully to wealth creation, self- reliance,
poverty alleviation and overall sustainable national development.

Challenges Facing TVET Sandwich Programme in Nigeria


A number of challenges have been identified as hindrances to effective
implementation of TVET Sandwich in Nigeria. Such challenges may include
the poor quality of the teaching staff. It is evident that the effectiveness of any
educational programme is dependent on the quality and caliber of the teaching
staff (Asanya, 1999).
Agbata (2013) indicated lack of educational facilities and the decay of the
existing structures in most schools in Nigeria.
Obanya (1992) reported inadequate classroom space, desk and too short
programme duration. The result of short duration sandwich programme is the
tendency to rush the course contents. In most institutions where sandwich
programmes are offered, they make use of primary school and secondary
school facilities, lectures are even taken under the trees without seats and
desks. There are no functional laboratories, workshop or farm to inculcate
skills on the students who are mainly primary and secondary school teachers
that are meant to teach the younger generation the same skills.
Poor quality students admitted into TVET sandwich progrmmes due to the
dwindling enrollment rate have resulted in the production of ineffective
graduates who cannot impact maximally on the youths. Obanya (1992)
reiterated the above position when he observed that no matter how good the
teacher may be, poor quality students are not likely to benefit maximally from
the training programme in any field of learning.
According to Yalokwu (1998), the following challenges contributed a
hindrance to effective sandwich programme implementation:
Poor co-ordination of programme
Inadequate boarding facilities

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Unsuitable library and textual materials


Highly commercialized programme
Substandard classroom facilities
Communication gap between students and university authorities
Lack of teaching aid
Overcrowded timetable
Agbata (2013), through a study carried out on sandwich education in a
particular University in Delta State observed the following challenges
Sandwich programme is poorly planned and is not adequately
supervised.
Poor funding.
There is acute shortage of facilities such as lecture rooms, laboratories,
computer and accommodation.
There is no functional workshop.
Session enrolment into the programme was low
There was no effective library.
Despite the inherent challenges in the programme, candidates derive
job satisfaction from the acquisition of the certificate.
According to Ikeoji, Agwubike and Ideh (2007), the areas of inadequacy in
sandwich programme include:
Inadequacy in facilities for practical work, library, internet, classroom
and laboratory.
Teachers are constrained by time to carryout routine activities.
Poor accommodations during the program
Inadequate field trips/excursions
Much work load for lecturers
Teachers are not well integrated into the university system.
Research project writing is still a problem among sandwich students
In his own view Tseja (1998) observed that the type of course offered and the
intension of the organizers is another challenge facing sandwich programme.
Since sandwich program are organized to deepen trainee knowledge and
competence, it is imperatives for the programme to be academic and practical
in order to achieve its objectives.

Conclusion
The introduction of sandwich programme as an intervention strategy is a
welcome development especially in TVET programmes. This will no doubt

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increase the knowledge in TVET teachers, enhance the confidence of


teachers, improve the public relation ability with other members of the
society, diversity employment opportunities, enhance the social status of the
teachers, make teachers more responsible in the discharge of their duties as
teachers, and at same time achieve the objectives of the policy statement in
the National Policy on Education. This paper considered the concept of value
orientation, sustainable development, sandwich programme as vehicle to
sustainable development, the need for value re-orientation of sandwichTVET
programme and the challenges facing sandwich TVET sandwich programmes
in Nigeria. It is believed that sandwich programme is still relevant to the
achievement of national objectives on sustainable development.

Recommendations
In line with exegesis made on TVET sandwich program and the need to
achieve the educational objectives of sandwich programme, the following
recommendations are drawn for consideration by stakeholders in the
educational sector.
1. The government and management of sandwich program should ensure
adequate funding of the programme.
2. The management of TVET sandwich programme should provide
adequate educational facilities for demonstrative and practical learning.
3. It is necessary that supervision committee be constituted to discourage
sorting, examination malpractices and other sundry corrupt practices.

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Asogwa O & Diogwu, G.O (2007). Vocational and Texile Education Nigeria in the
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Vol. 60-73,
10 No. Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017
1, 2017

PROBLEMS OF EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING IN


SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AWKA EDUCATION ZONE:
TEACHERS AND STUDENTS PERCEPTION

DR. PATRICIA C. ORANEFO


DR. A. I. NZEKWE
Department of Business Education,
Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe.

Abstract
This paper examines the problems of efficient teaching and learning in secondary
schools in Awka zone with focus on teachers and students perception. To achieve
the above mentioned objectives, the study employed a descriptive survey research
design. The target population was 460 respondents consisting of 120 teachers and
340 students selected from Awka education zone. The sample size of the
respondents is made up of 90 teachers and 310 students. The data were collected
using questionnaires. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics
after data cleaning and coding. Validity of the instruments was done by experts.
Reliability was tested by subjecting the instruments to a pilot study through the split-
half technique. After the analyses, the study revealed that 98% and 80% of teachers
and students respectively viewed lack of funds as a major factor responsible for poor
academic achievement while 98% and 78% of teachers and students respectively
also revealed that both teachers and students had negative attitude towards methods
used in teaching and learning among others things. Based on the findings, Few
recommendations were made that government and various stake holders in
education should ensure that adequate structural and infrastructural facilities as well
as good learning condition should be made available for effective and efficient
learning in secondary schools.

Keywords: Effective Teaching, Learning Perception and Students Interest

Introduction
A school is an organization with many personnel performing different
functions to ensure that students were fully equipped with learning. The
teacher is a prominent and indispensable member of the school organizational
team (Okorie, 2004). The effectiveness of any system depends upon the
quality of the individual delivering the service. Brilliant teaching reflects
scholarship, personal integrity and ability to communicate with learners
effectively. (Swars, 2008) identifies top requirements for good teaching.
These include: passion and treating students as consumer of knowledge,
listening to their questions, being responsive and remembering that each
student in the class being flexible, experimenting and having the confidence

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to react appropriately to changing circumstances. A good teacher should be


humorous, caring, nurturing and developing minds and talents.
A paramount factor in the teaching and learning process is the teacher. A
sound educational system can flourish if two conditions are successfully met.
First is the constant updating, refinement in knowledge and skill of serving
teachers. The second one is equipping students and teachers with befitting
competencies and positive attitude towards the teaching profession.
Competencies are specific and demonstrable characteristics or attributes
inevitable for teaching professionals to create a convincing and learner
friendly environment.
Understanding teachers perceptions and beliefs is important because
teachers, are fully involved in various teaching and learning processes and
they are practitioners of educational principles and theories (Hamza,2006).
Teachers have a primary role in determine what is needed or what would
work best with their students. Findings from research on teachers perceptions
and beliefs indicate that these perceptions and beliefs not only have
considerable influence on their instructional practices and classroom behavior
but also are related to their students achievement ( Jerome,2010). Thus,
knowing the perceptions and beliefs of teachers enables one to make
predictions about teaching and assessment practices in classrooms. The
current revised Nigeria National Policy on educational (2008) recognizes that
the success of any educational system depends largely on teachers. According
to the policy document, teachers are the catalyst of the learning process and
on them rests the whole national education system. In the Nigeria teaching
profession, the quality of instructions is one of the most important
determinants of the level of learning achievement. Teachers are the agents of
curriculum implementation which place them at the centre of the education
system and can make or break the system. This implies that the Nigeria
education system recognizes the fact that the way teachers perceive their
responsibilities in the classroom will eventually affect the student learning
outcomes.
The worry is on the indices of poor academic achievements of secondary
school students in internal and external examination. Field work carried out
by (Chang 2012) from West African Examination Council (WAEC) results of
2010 shows that out of 1095 that registered for selected courses, 7105 (72%)
sat for the examination; 5123 (50%) with credit and above and the rest either
have ordinary pass, failed or were absent. Field work also carried out in
selected secondary schools in Anambra State, Nigeria with respect to National

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Examination Council Organization (NECO) results, West African Senior


School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) results and Basic Education
Certificate Examination (BECE) results by (Moller,2011) and the researcher
in 2012 show poor performance of students which is seriously affecting
system of education in Nigeria. Based, on the above mentioned issues the
researcher wished to examine the perception of teachers and students on the
problem of teaching and learning and students performance.

Statement of the Problem


Providing proper and efficient secondary school education to citizens is a big
task to the government. Hence, providing such education for more people
needs more money, that is, schools have to be built, teachers have to be
trained and paid, libraries have to be built and equipped, classrooms have to
be furnished with the necessary facilities, and so on. Sometimes a complete
renewal of the education system may be required. However, the Government
or the Ministry of Education alone cannot accomplish all these successfully
and therefore they seriously need the services of teachers who have an
important influence on students academic achievement So play a crucial role
in educational attainment of their students. This is so because the teacher is
ultimately responsible for translating policy into action and principles based
on practice during interaction with students. Both teaching for better learning
may naturally depend on teachers, which means that an effective teacher is
one who produces desired results in the course of discharging his duties. A lot
of studies have been carried out in most countries of the world on how pupils
learn effectively in the classroom (Goe , 2008), but little research has been
done on teachers effectiveness from the point of view of the teachers. That is
how teachers see their own capacities with regard to the process and learning
outcomes in the formal school system.
The study of teachers efficiency has gained significant attention from
educators over the past two decades because it greatly influences a broad
range of behaviours in students and teachers. According to (Omoifo 2012)
when teachers are highly efficacious, their students are found to have a high
level of academic achievement, autonomy, motivation and a firm belief in
their own efficiency. Teacher efficiency also affects a teachers levels of
aspiration, openness to new ideas and persistence in the face of difficulty
among teachers. Effective teachers are more likely to stay in teaching, put
more time into teaching and show greater effort in classroom planning and
organization and greater enthusiasm for teaching. The problem of the study

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therefore is to evaluate the ability to teach effectively depends on the


teachers knowledge, and knowledge occurs in a variety of forms. This
project attempted to justify the relevance of teaching and learning in the
development of education system. Teachers attitude plays a significant role
in the teaching and learning in the secondary schools. This project highlighted
the role of attitude of teachers to the teaching and learning. Teachers attitude
towards teaching and learning has a significant impact in shaping the attitude
of students towards learning. Students positive attitude can be enhanced by
the teachers positive attitude towards teaching and this can be done through
teachers helpful behavior. Resourcefulness, enthusiasms, good method of
presentation, concern for students and teacher knowledge of the subject
matter.

Objective of the study


The main objective of this study is to examine the problems of teaching and
learning in our secondary schools. With particular reference to Awka
education zone. The study will specifically try to:
a. identify the factors that contribute to the difficulty in teaching and
learning in secondary schools
b. examine students perception on teachers quality that account for
effectiveness in teaching and learning .

Research Questions
a. What are the perception of secondary school teachers towards teaching
and learning in Anambra State?
b. What are the students perception on teachers qualities that account for
effectiveness on teaching and learning in secondary schools

Conceptual Framework
Adekwu (2006) discussed the psychological concept of perception as the way
through which we evaluate people we are familiar with. This study is
adopting the view of Adekwu as the theoretical basis for students perception
of teachers knowledge of subject matter, attitude to work and teaching skills
in schools. For convenience, Adekwu conceived that in persons perception,
the perceiver is the judge and person perceived the other. In this paper
therefore, the secondary schools students are to serve as judges judging their
teachers professional competence and their teaching effectiveness.

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Perception
Perception refers to opinions, attitudes, views and beliefs towards a
phenomenon. The knowledge or sets of belief about something shape our
expectations and hence what we perceive.
Despite the numerous constraints to the students achievement, the teachers
perception for teaching seems to be the most important. The perception of
teachers teaching to a large extent, determine the level of understanding
reached by his /her students. Most teachers perceive teaching as boring, none
interesting and a highly none rewarding profession. In recent years, new
research (Awotua-Efebo, 2002) has demonstrated the dramatic effect that
teachers can have on the outcomes of students from all academic and social
background. In fact, studies have shown that teachers perception is the most
important educational input predicting students achievement.

Teaching
The concept of teaching is better described than defined because of variations
in definitions. Various authors have defined teaching according to their own
points of view. Because of this; it has become very difficult to accept one as
being the best. Teaching was originally the work of parents, elders and
religious leaders. The duty of these people is to teach children how they can
think positively to live a successful life. The Adults share their ideas and what
they experienced with the children who gradually acquired the knowledge. As
a result of knowledge acquired by these young ones through traditional ways,
they in turn carried out teaching. In our present day, teaching is no longer the
exclusive responsibility of parents, elders and religious leaders as it used to
be. It has becomes more sophisticated and is now the responsibility of trained
or professional teachers.
Many institutions have been opened to train people on how to teach. ( 2002)
defined teaching as the ability to guide one to gain knowledge in a classroom
setting. Teacher does the work of guiding the learner through social
interactions ( student-teacher, student-student) to gain experiences that are
worthwhile for social living in the society. Okoye (2015) defined teaching as
an activity which is aimed at presenting certain learning content by giving
instruction to someone to enable that person learn something from it. He also
viewed teaching as an activity whereby the person being taught desires to
benefit from it and wishes to acquire particular learning content.
According to Wubbels (2010), teaching should be a process of probing by the
teacher and discovery by the students. According to him, it should be a

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process whereby the teacher guides the student in searching for new facts and
truths. Rahman (2011) stated that teaching strategies that one uses will
undoubtedly affect ones philosophy of teaching. He went further stating that
Education is a cooperative enterprise that works well if the students are
permitted to contribute to it while teacher listen and respond. The teacher
should show interest in what they are teaching and do some explanations; the
teacher should also show respect and concern for students and their learning.
Pigge (2010) stated that one of the important media of realizing the
educational objectives is the appropriate teaching method. According to him
the method adopted by the teacher either promotes or hinders learning; it
may increase mental activities which are the basis of social power. According
to Muijis (2006), when competent and qualified teachers are given the right
training, then there will be quality and when one is self-motivated and
responsible as a teacher. Most disciplinary problems are solved as he
stimulates learning through cognitive and affective methods. Behind every
successful lesson is a good teacher. Effective teaching implies productive,
purposeful, result oriented, qualitative, meaningful and realistic teaching
(Chan, 2011). The essence of being an effective teacher lies on what to do to
foster student learning.

Teaching Effectiveness
A teacher is said to be effective if his approaches in the teaching-learning
process lead to attainment of educational objectives. The concept of
effectiveness suggests efficiency producing desired result. Effectiveness is
therefore, result oriented. Hollon (2012) reported that if we are to stimulate
and develop critical thinking which will be useful to students in future, the
following should be expected in our classroom: an overall teaching approach
that is essentially directive; a lesser emphasis on students compliance with
traditional classroom behavioural expectation; and a classroom climate that
encourages students participating to a large extent achievable through
effective use of wait and halt time. Ali (2005) notes that the evaluation of
teaching may be based on three distinct criteria; the outcome of teaching; and
the behavior of the teacher while teaching.

Teachers Students-learning Strategies


Learners use a variety of strategies to learn. Jivrovec (2010) put forth a
taxonomy of six categories in the cognitive domain to describe learning.
These are knowledge, comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis and

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Evaluation. The category knowledge relies on recall of information and


promotes the use of rehearsal as a learning strategy. Comprehension focuses
on the elaboration and understanding of material. Application strategies focus
on use, demonstration or organizational strategies, focus on explanation and
comparison. Synthesis requires the learner to create new ideas, and course
evaluation focuses on critical evaluation of material. (Adamu, 2011). More
effective strategies include the use of synthesis and/or evaluation techniques
Here the learner can relate ideas to previous knowledge, critically evaluate
material, and more be active and aware of their learning (Adamu, 2011)
Students need to develop effective learning strategies in order to promote life-
long learning.

Teacher characteristic as an important attribute of effective teachers


Students cited such reasons as the following for listing this characteristic as an
important attribute of effective teachers:
a. A teacher has to know about what they are to teach; they cannot teach
something they do not know;
b. If a student finds that their teacher does not completely understand the
material, there is doubt, loss of respect, and disinterest;
c. Teachers should know a lot and not just about their own subject. They
should not be dead-beats who are only book smart. It is nice to see
teachers who know what is going on with their students culture.

Problems of Students towards teaching and learning


The curriculum content being used in Nigerian secondary school presently is
so apart to cope with the challenges of 21st century strive towards educational
development.

Teaching Method
The teachers methods of teaching may go a long way in enhancing effective
learning by the students. The traditional method of teaching in the schools
involves chalk and talk activities which are fully teacher-centered. In this
case, the students are passive robots in the classrooms who regard the
teacher as the repertoire of knowledge.

Teachers Quality
The impact of the teacher in the performance of students in teaching and
learning is germane. The teacher is the facilitator who is to impart into the

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students concept expected to be learnt. Research studies (Medley,, 2011)


revealed that most teachers teaching are ignorant of the curriculum content of
the subject. The students taught by these rather incompetent teachers would
be invariably shallow in learning
To the majority of the students in the secondary schools in Nigeria, some
subjects are perceived as very difficult subject (Pigge, 2010). The impression
cuts across the gender. Most parents do not help the situation in that through
their comments and reactions, they frighten or scare their children and wards
away
The importance of instructional materials in the teaching learning process
cannot be over-emphasized. Certainly no effective teachers teaching can exist
without learning materials, equipment or practical activities
a. Curriculum Innovation: Efforts should be made to revisit the some
curriculum content with the aim of catering for the needs of the society
for which it is designed.
b. Teachers Role: The teachers should use appropriate teaching
methods that are relevant to his/her students. Obviously, no method is
the best, but the teacher needs to study the students and identify the
best teaching method for them. This calls for expertise in
methodology; hence, the need for skilled teachers. The 21st century
approaches to teaching emphasizes child-centeredness where the
teacher mainly facilitates creative thinking in the learners.
c. Government: Apart from proving adequate relevant functioning
materials and equipment for teaching and learning, the government
also has the responsibility of providing motivation for the teachers
through incentives and worthwhile allowances.
d. Students Encouragement: the students are the focus of all activities
involved in learning. The teacher has a skillful role of making the
subject (teaching and learning) interesting and captivating for the
students.
e. Teachers Training Programme: The teachers training programme
should be extensive enough to produce quality teachers. In-service
training in form of workshops and seminars can be organized regularly
for non-professional teachers so that they will be able to cope with the
present challenges of education.

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Theoretical Framework
Environmental Theories: These comprise the behavioral, ecological and
empiricists theories. They emphasize on the fact that the environment shapes
perceptions. In the behavioral theory (Pigge, 2010), the interplay between the
individual and the environment is emphasized, and that perceptions are due to
environmental conditions. According to (Stronge,2015), what is done is not
because of in-born motivation but rather because of the environmental
conditions experienced.

Cognition Theories: According to cognitive theories, stored schemata and


past experiences play an important role in perception. The term cognition
refers to individuals of mental representation to understand the job in terms
of perception, knowledge, and expected behavior. Workers seek to create
meaningful, coherent representations of their fork regardless of its
complexity. They learn what the job is all about by monitoring and checking
their own behavior. Their needs, personal beliefs, and previous experiences
become the bases for constructing organizational reality and interpreting their
work. Their motivation and cognition are influenced by such factors as beliefs
about personal control and competence; individual goals personal
expectations for failure and success work motives (Pigge 2010).

Area of the Study


This study was carried out in secondary schools in Anambra State. It
comprises of public and private secondary schools located in urban and Rural
Areas. It has also many motor parks, banks, industries, hospital, all these
places attracts people it has more than 19 local Government Areas. And its
capital is located at Awka.

Population for the Study


The population of this study comprised the SS III, II, I and students and
teachers in secondary schools in Anambra as selected. There are more than 30
secondary schools in Awka town. A total of 340and 120 students and teachers
were identified respectively.

Sample and Sampling Technique


A total of three hundred and forty (340) students and one hundred and twenty
teachers (120) were used for the study. Stratified random sampling was used

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to select different categories-males, females, rural and urban student and


teachers.

Instrument for Data Collection


The instrument for data collection was questionnaire. It was grouped into
two A and B. Section A contains person data of the respondents and section B
contains ten (10) attitude test items. The researcher used a four point scale of:
SA- strongly agree = (4points), A-Agree = (3points) , D- Disagree = (2point)s
and SD strongly disagree = (1point).

Validation of the Instrument


To ensure that instrument used for data collection was valid, the researcher
adopted the face validity techniques. The instrument was given to experts in
the Department of Measurement and Evaluation. These experts made
corrections which helped the researcher in modifying the items.

Reliability of the Instrument


The reliability of the instrument was based on that instruments ability to
elicit the same response each time the instrument is administered. The
researcher used test-re test method in doing this

Method of data Analysis


Mean and standard deviation were used to analyzed the data collected. Any
mean rating of 2.50 and above is accepted and mean below 5.0 is rejected.

Research Question 1: what factors are responsible for the difficulty in the
teaching and learning in secondary schools?
Table 1: Mean rating of the respondents on the factors for the responsible for
the difficulty in Teaching and learning in secondary schools.
S/N Items SA A D SD X REMARK
1 Lack of appropriate training. 180 110 80 10 3.16 Accepted
2 Lack of seriousness amongst 130 130 10 10 3.15 Accepted
students/teachers
3 Many parents cannot afford to 150 100 60 25 3.12 Accepted
buy textbooks for their children
4 Lack of instructional aids 180 100 30 15 3.45 Accepted
makes teaching and learning
very difficult
5 There is no incentive to 120 120 40 30 3.40 Accepted
motivate the teachers/students
to put in their best.

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From the Table 3 above, it was observed that the respondents accepted all
items numbers 1,2,3,4 and 5 with the mean responses of 3.16, 3.15, 3.12,
3.45 and 3.40 respectively showing that the factors responsible for the
difficulty in the teaching and learning in secondary schools as the main key
that affects both the students and teachers in teaching and learning in schools.

Researcher Question 2: what strategies could be adopted to enhance


teaching and learning in secondary schools?
Table 2: Mean rating of the strategies that could be adopted to enhance better
teaching and learning in secondary schools.
S/A Items SA A D SD X Accepted
6 Learning environment for 230 80 10 - 3.53 Accepted
students/teachers should be very
protective always healthy and
safe.
7 There should be provision for 200 60 20 5 3.62 Accepted
infrastructures that meet the
needs of students and staff.
8 Uses appropriate set induction 240 90 15 - 3.50 Accepted
in order to attract the attention
of students.
9 Prepare lesson plan that make 220 70 30 20 3.20 Accepted
provision for practical activities
and student participations
10 Classroom teachers should be 230 100 20 30 3.40 Accepted
friendly and very approachable
for students effective learning
outcome.
11 Students/teachers should be 200 70 30 20 3.54 Accepted
provided with adequate library
facilities and enough up to date
books for use.

From the table 2 above, it was discovered that the respondents accepted all the
items numbers 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 with the mean responses of 3.53,
3.62,3.50,3.5.20,3.40, and 3.20 respectively agreed that the strategies could be
adopted to enhance better teaching and learning in secondary schools. And
that it encouraged good education in Anambra and Nigeria as a nation.

Discussion of Findings
Summary on the problems of teaching and learning , focus on the students
perception in secondary schools: Based on the data collected and analyzed,
the following findings were made:

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a. Need for government, churches and parents to grant, allocation


and donations to enhance quality education in Anambra state.
b. Teachers need to work with parents to achieve educational goals
c. Some schools are in bad shapes and governments attention is
needed in many aspects to put things in place.

Conclusions
It is indisputable that teachers are the bedrock of students for academic
performance, national growth and development. Teachers are the producers of
individuals with critical skills for socio-economic development. They need to
be effective in order to produce competitive knowledge workers for the global
knowledge based economy. Another very important way of improving quality
teaching is by giving adequate support to teachers in particular by motivation
and encouragement. Teachers should also strive to be effective in their
teaching roles bearing in mind the challenges facing Nigeria education system
at the moment.

Recommendations
Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were
made:
1. The education sector should be transformed by re-enforcing our
teaching force. Qualified and dedicated teachers should be employed
without being biased.
2. Enough funds should be budgeted for education and utilized
judiciously without diverting it for other selfish interest. Fund is
essential for performing administrative roles, staff welfare,
procurement of instructional materials and laboratory equipment and
facilities for teaching practical and effective demonstration;
3. Teachers welfare need to be taken seriously by providing well
equipped relaxation centers for stress management, paying them
uniform salary in line with their counterparts in the other ministries in
order to boost morale and image of the profession and releasing
promotions promptly;
4. The Ministry of Education should review the curriculum to make it
relevant and flexible to the diverse needs of different regions and
background of the students; and
5. Environment for instructional delivery should be conducive for
learning with necessary teaching learning facilities put in place for

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effective learning to occur since poor academic environment leads to


distractions, lack of interest and low morale for effective teaching and
learning encounter to prevail.

Suggestions for further Studies


1. A similar study could be carried out in secondary schools in other
states.

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Moller, M, (2011). Awakening the sleeping giant. Helping teachers as


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JOVTE, pages
10 74-83,
No. 1, Vol.
201710 No. 1, 2017

ESTABLISHMENT OF MEAN BODY MEASUREMENTS FOR


DRAFTING BASIC PATTERNS FOR FEMALE ADOLESCENT
STUDENTS DRESSES (LARGE FIGURE) IN ANAMBRA STATE
1
EZIKE P. N. & 2 PROF. (MRS.) D. N. ARUBAYI
1
Department of Home Economics, Nwafor Orizu College of Education,
Nsugbe, Anambra State, Nigeria, 08037422506
2
Department of VTE (Home Economics) Delta State University Abraka

Abstract
Mean body measurements for drafting basic patterns for female adolescent students
in urban and rural public secondary schools were established. Basic block patterns
of bodice, sleeve and skirt for large figure size were drafted. The patterns were
transferred to fresh paper and pattern instructions were marked on all the pattern
pieces. Toilers were sewn from the pattern pieces and worn by models. The study
also tested the fit of the basic dresses that were constructed. The fit of the basic
dresses on the models were evaluated by teachers, students and seam stresses. Ex-
post facto research design was adopted for this study. A sample of 960 subjects was
drawn from a population of 9,606 female adolescent students. Multistage sampling
technique was used in selecting the sample. Instruments for data collection were:
body measurement chart and evaluation chart. Findings showed that the mean hip
measurement for female adolescent students in both urban and rural secondary
schools for large figure size was 35.34 inches. The findings also revealed the mean
ratings of the judges on the fit of the basic dresses for large figure size ranged from
3.65 4.98.Recommendations were made based on the findings.

Introduction
Clothing is one of the basic human needs, meeting these needs provide
satisfaction and enjoyment in life. So clothing is a complex but fascinating
part of everyones life. Horn and Gurel (1981) defined clothing as all items of
apparel and adornment. This includes decorations such as cosmetics, tattoos,
hair colour and hair arrangement, ornaments of jewelry, badges and insignia
of office or rank, extensions of body in the form of canes, umbrellas, and
handkerchiefs as well as apparels or garments. Johnson and Foster (1990)
further defined clothing as anything placed on the body to adorn, protect or
communicate intent. Wilson (1995) also conceived clothing as a cultural
phenomenon, an aesthetic medium for the expression of ideas, desires and
beliefs circulating in the society.
The dress of an individual is a sign language that communicates a set
of information and is usually the basis on which immediate impressions are
formed. Few aspects of the self call for as much open admiration as ones
clothes, since there are rare opportunities for causal acquaintance at least, to
comment on ones gesture, facial expression, posture, speech pattern,

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intellect and other characteristic traits, even though these are all parts of self.
Lott (2001) stated that teenagers who had a high degree of confidence in their
adornment behaviour also had high self concept of their physical attributes,
Jersild (2002) was of the opinion that clothes were often mentioned in
dissipation of what children and adolescents like about themselves. Clothing
is a significant force in the enhancement of the self and when used positively,
it contributes to ones feelings of self acceptance, self respect and self esteem
(Alubayi, 2009).
An adolescent has been defined as an individual within the age range
of 12-19 years. The World Health Organization (1993) estimated that over
one billion people inhabiting the earth are adolescents. The age range of 12-
17 years coincides with the age for secondary education in Nigeria (Federal
Republic of Nigeria, 2004). Thus, a high concentration of Nigerian
adolescents are found in post-primary institutions both in urban and rural
areas.
Pattern development is the art of constructing patterns for the making
of garments, toys and other articles. Patterns drafting is a method of making
patterns using individual or average body measurements to establish desired
pattern lines. A perfectly fitted garment begins with accurate body
measurements (Iloeje and Anyakoha, 2009). Taking the correct body
measurements of an individual is very important in dressmaking.
Measurements of an individual is very important in dressmaking.
Measurements should be taken over well-fitted foundation garments. There
are basically two groups of body measurements needed for pattern drafting;
they are the round or horizontal measurements and the straight or vertical
measurements. The vertical body measurements include all the length
measurements such as back length, sleeve length and skirt length; while the
horizontal measurements include the bust, waist, hip, top-arm, chest, wrist, in
short all the width measurements.
Since the ban on the importation of textiles and clothing products,
agriculture and non-agricultural goods including clothing and textiles have
been subjected to import restrictions mainly for purposes of protecting the
domestic industries (Oyejide, Ogunkola and Bankole, 2005). They also
observed that import prohibition has been rendered virtually impotent by large
scale smuggling in spite of the stiff penalties imposed on those involved in the
importation, transportation, storage, display and sale of prohibited items.
The problem in garment construction for mass production, is that it is
obviously cumbersome for a dressmaker to embark on drafting blocks for

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each customer. Block can be developed based on average measurements


calculated by measuring large number of people. These are referred to as
standard blocks. These average measurements are grouped into sizes based on
the recommendation of the standard institution. Studies have shown that
Nigeria does not have blocks for the populace which are basic for large scale
production of garments (Kaka, 1990). The dressmaker usually engage in
custom sewing, which is making garments from start to finish for specific
individual. It is obviously difficult to satisfy the large demand for clothing by
this small scale method of production. Therefore, a tremendous expansion of
the clothing industries to cater for the clothing needs of Nigerian female
adolescents as well as reduce importation and smuggling of garments is
necessary.

Purpose of the Study


The main purpose of the study was to develop basic block patterns (large
figure size) for female adolescent students dresses and to test the fit of the
dresses that are to be constructed. Specifically, the study was designed to:
1. determine the mean body measurements of female adolescent students
(13 16 years) in urban and rural secondary schools in Anambra State
that are needed for drafting bodice, sleeve and skirt for large figure
size.
2. find out the mean ratings of the judges on the fit of the basic dress
(bodice, sleeve and skirt) for large figure size.

Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance.
H01: There is no significant difference between the body measurements of
female adolescent students (13 16 years) in urban and rural
secondary schools in Anambra State required in drafting basic block
patterns for large figure size.
H02: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of the
judges on the fit of the basic dress (bodice, sleeve and skirt) for large
figure size.

Methodology
Design of the Study
The study adopted ex-post facto research design. According to Nworgu
(2003), ex-post facto research design is similar to experimental study in the
sense that it also seeks to establish cause-effect relationships but differs from

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it in that the researcher usually has no control over the variables of interest
and therefore cannot manipulate them.

Population for the Study


The population for the study comprised all the female adolescent students
(1316 years) in the two hundred and sixty (260) public secondary schools in
the six (6) education zones in Anambra State for 2013/ 2014 academic
session.
Aguata Education Zone - - 1,182
Awka Education Zone - - 2,060
Nnewi Education Zone - - 1,730
Ogidi Education Zone - - 1,512
Onitsha Education Zone - - 2,110
Otuocha education Zone - - 1,012
TOTAL: 9,606
Source: Ministry of Education Awka.

Sample for the Study


Multi stages sampling technique was adapted. In the first stage, three (3)
education zones of Awka, Nnewi and Onitsha were randomly selected. In the
second stage, two (2) local government areas from each of the three (3)
education zones were randomly selected. The next stage, random sampling
was used to select two (2) secondary schools from each of the local
government areas making a total of twelve (12) secondary schools. In the
final stage, the class lists were used in random selection of eighty (80) female
adolescent students (13 16 years) from each of the selected secondary
schools giving a total of nine hundred and sixty (960) students which is about
ten percent (10%) of the population.

Instrument for Data Collection


Two types of instruments were used for this study. The first was the Body
Measurement Guide for Female Adolescent Students (B M G F A S) adopted
from Bray (1972) which was used in collecting data on the body measurement
of female adolescent students. The second instrument was the evaluation
instrument. The data obtained with the first instrument were used in drafting
basic block patterns of bodice, sleeve and skirt for large figure size and used
in cutting and constructing foundation dresses for the figure size of large
which were worn by models. These models were selected from the sample.
The judges critically observed the models and scored the fit of the dresses
using the instrument. The instruments were validated by three clothing
experts. Cronbats Alpha technique was used to determine the internal

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consistency of the instruments using test re-test procedure. A co-efficient of


0.85 was obtained. The body measurement of fifteen (15) female adolescent
students in a study area that did not form part of the study were taken twice on
a two weeks interval. The data collected the first time were correlated with the
data collected during the second time.

Method of Data Collection and Analysis


This involved the actual taking of body measurements of female adolescent
students, drafting of basic block patterns of bodice, sleeve and skirt, cutting
and constructing the foundation dresses, evaluating the dresses, correcting and
producing the final pattern pieces. Descriptive (mean) and inferential statistics
(t-test and ANOVA) were used to analyze the data.

Results
The results for the study were presented in line with the purposes and
hypotheses which guided the study. They are presented in tables below:
1. Body measurements of female adolescent students (13 16 years) in
urban and rural secondary schools required to draft basic block patterns
of bodice, sleeve and skirt for large figure size.
Table I Mean body measurements of respondents with large figure
S/N Body Measurements Urban Mean Rural Mean of
1 Mean 2 Urban and
N = 220 N = 220 Rural 3
N = 440
Bodice
1. Bust 34.28 33.82 34.05
2. Hips 35.83 34.85 35.34
3. Waist 26.31 27.33 26.82
4. Back width 13.98 13.07 13.52
5. Chest width 13.98 13.07 13.52
6. Shoulder length 5.24 4.98 5.06
7. Back length 15.46 15.25 15.35
Sleeve
1. Top arm 10.86 11.02 10.94
2. Sleeve length 20.69 19.86 20.27
3. Length of elbow 11.24 10.30 10.77
4. Wrist 8.25 7.29 7.77
Skirt
1. Hip depth 8.42 7.98 78.20
2. Skirt length 21.97 21.01 21.49

Data in table I revealed the difference in mean body measurements of female


adolescent students (13 16 years) in urban and rural secondary schools
required to draft block patterns of bodice, sleeve and skirt for large figure. It

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presented the average mean body measurements obtained for each of thirteen
(13) body parts measured. It ranged from 5.24 inches 35.83 inches for urban
secondary schools and 4.98 inches 34.85 inches for rural secondary schools.
2.Mean ratings of judges on the fit of the dress (bodice, sleeve and skirt) for
large figure.
Table 2: Mean ratings of judges on the fit of the dress on large figure.
S/N Dress Parts SA A UD D SD x
Bodice
1. Neckline 316 50 40 10 24 4.42
2. Shoulder seam length 432 - - - 18 4.95
3. Bust ease 156 202 12 10 60 3.87
4. Upper back 300 135 - 5 - 4.66
5. Waist ease 315 85 60 40 - 4.58
6. Waist placement in front 347 91 - 2 - 4.78
7. Waist placement in back 172 175 53 40 - 4.09
8. Front bodice waist dart length 104 270 10 20 36 3.65
9. Back bodice waist dart length 379 48 10 - 3 4.82
10. Armhole depth 302 132 3 - - 4.68
Sleeve
1. Ease at biceps 393 45 - - 2 4.88
2. Sleeve cap ease 430 - 2 - 8 4.94
3. Sleeve length 166 202 12 12 48 3.97
4. Armhole seam 150 200 10 20 60 3.82
Skirt
1. Front dart length 315 50 30 21 24 4.39
2. Back dart length 320 50 42 12 16 4.47
3. Ease at hip 372 65 3 - - 4.84
4. Ease at thigh 428 10 - - 2 4.96
5. Skirt side seam curve 292 50 40 40 18 4.27
6. Skirt side seam 379 48 10 - 3 4.82
7. Hemline 437 - - 3 - 4.98

Table 2 showed that the judges strongly agreed that seventeen (17) out of the
twenty one (21) items have mean scores that ranged from 4.09 to 4.97. The
judges also agreed that four (4) other items in the basic block dress would
give fairly satisfactory fitting to the students. The mean scores of the four (4)
items ranged from 3.65 to 3.97.

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Testing of Hypotheses
Null Hypothesis 1
H01: There will be no significant difference in the mean body measurements
of female adolescent students (13 16 years) in urban and rural
secondary schools with large figure size.
Table 3: T-test on the mean body measurements for respondents with large
figure.
Variables N SD DF t. crit. t. calc. Remark
Urban female 480 18.8 0.63
students
Ha
958 1.96 -13.3
Rural female 480 19.3 0.79
students
HA = Hypothesis accepted
Analysis on Table 3 showed that the mean scores for female adolescent
students in urban and rural secondary schools stood at 18.8 as against the
mean scores of 19.3 obtained for rural secondary schools. When these two
mean scores were treated to a t-test analysis, the calculated t-value of -13.3
was less than the critical t-value of 1.96 at 958 degrees of freedom and 0.05
level of significance. Thus, the null hypothesis 1 was accepted. The
conclusion was that there was no significant difference between the mean
body measurements for female adolescent students (13-16 years) in urban and
rural secondary schools for large figure.

Null Hypothesis 2
H02: There will be no significant difference in the mean ratings of judges on
the fit of the dress (bodice, sleeve and skirt) for large figure.
Table 4: Summary of ANOVA on the fit of the basic block dress for large
figure.
Source of Sum of Df Mean F-ratio F-ratio Decision
Variation Squares Square crit. calc.
Between groups 0.91 2 0.46
3.82 1.76 Ha
Within groups 52.86 60 0.88

The result in table 4 showed that the calculated F-ratio of 1.76 was less than
the critical F-ratio of 3.82 at 958 degrees of freedom and alpha level of 0.05.
Hence, the null hypothesis 2 was accepted as stated. This implied that the fit

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of the basic block dress (bodice, sleeve and skirt) as measured by the mean
ratings of the judges did not significantly differ for large figure.

Discussion
The mean body measurements of thirteen body parts of female adolescent
students in urban and rural secondary schools in Anambra State for large
figure size were calculated and presented in table 1. The result revealed that
the mean measurements for bust, waist and hips for large figure were 34.05
inches, 26.82 inches and 35.34 inches respectively.
The findings agreed with Bray and Haggar (1994) who stated the basic
measurements for drafting bodice, sleeve and skirt for females. Akubue
(2004) observed that some measurements are basic and essential for the
construction of every pattern, while some are supplement and may be useful
when working on a particular design or figure.
The mean body measurements were utilized in the drafting of the basic block
patterns (bodice, sleeve and skirt) for the target group using flat pattern
method. Aniekweze (2003) earlier agreed that flat pattern method is one of
the good methods of obtaining patterns used for making clothing.
Since no significant differences were found in the mean body measurements
of female adolescent students (13 16 years) in urban and rural areas tested,
one set of block patterns was developed for both. In standardizing the block
patterns, trial fitting of the patterns was made with calico fabric. The drafted
patterns were trued, cut and assembled and worn by models. The mean ratings
of the fit of the dress were satisfactory. It goes to confirm the view of
Marshal, Jackson, Stanley, Kefgal and Touchie Specht (2000) that
manufacturers of patterns toile their trial garment. The mean scores from the
judges on the fit of the dress were used for the final correction. The dresses
were loosened, ironed properly and placed on fresh paper. The patterns were
then transferred to the paper. Pattern markings were then indicated on them
and these were the basic block patterns for female adolescent students large
figure.

Conclusion
Patterns are basic necessities in the construction of dresses and garments.
They are very useful for large scale productions. The good fit obtained must
have resulted from accurate body measurements taken, precision in the
drafting of the basic block patterns (bodice, sleeve and skirt) and the

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development of the blocks as well as good construction techniques employed


in assembling the pattern pieces.

Recommendations
The following recommendations have been proffered based on the findings of
the study:
Producers of custom-made garments should use the basic block patterns
obtained from the study to make dresses and garments for female
adolescents with large figure.
Students who study clothing both at senior secondary schools and higher
institutions should use the result of the findings to produce dresses and
garments in their entrepreneurship classes.
Seamstresses should use the basic block patterns to improve their
teaching and can also use the patterns to adapt and develop different
styles for exhibitions.

References
Akubue, B. (2004). Strategies for Enhancing the Pattern Drafting Skills of
Dressmakers/ Tailors who Sew Female Dresses in Enugu State.
Unpublished M. Ed. Thesis University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
Arubayi, D. N. (2009), Home Economics Students Satisfaction and
Dissatisfaction with Learning Experiences in Clothing and Textiles in
Tertiary Institutions. Journal of Studies on Home and Community
Science. Vol. 3 (2), Pp 87-90.
Anikweze, G. U. (2003). Development of Dress Patterns for Women with
Figure Problems in Enugu State. Unpublished M. Ed. Thesis
department of Vocational Teacher education, University of Nigeria,
Nsukka.
Bray, N. (1972). Dress Pattern Designing. Bungay Suffolk: Richard Clay Ltd.
Bray, N & Haggar, A. (1994). Dress Pattern Designing. (5th Ed.) Oxford:
Blackwell Scientific Publishers Ltd.
Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National Policy on Education. Lagos:
NERDC Press.
Horn, N.J. & Gurel, L. (1981). The Second Skin: An Interdisciplinary Study of
Clothing. (3rd edition), Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Hurlock, E. (2006). Developmental Psychology: A Life Span Approach. New
York: McGraw-Hill Company.

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Iloeje, C. I. & Anyakoha, E.U.(2009), Determination of Mean body


measurements of Female Youths (15-24 years) in Tertiary Institutions
in Enugu State. Journal of Home Economics Research. Vol.11, Pp86-
94.
Jersild, W. (2002). Clothing and the Adolescents Clothing Image and Impact.
Lowa: Blackwell Publishing Company.
Johnson, I.G. & Foster, A.G. (1990). Clothing Image and Impact. Cincinnati:
Ohio South West Publishing Co.
Kaka, H.J. (1990). Comparative Study of Body Dimensions of 13 and 16
years old Beron Girls Towards the Development of Basic Patterns.
Nigeria Journal of Technical Education. Vol.7. Pp55-66.
Lott, G.S. (2001). Guide to Modern Clothing Look and be Groomed. Great
Britain: Herpes Publishing Company.
Marshal, S. C.; Jackson, H. O.; Stanley, M. S.; Kefgan, M. & Tochie-Specht,
P. (2000). Individuality in Clothing Selection and Personality
Appearance, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Nworgu, B. C. (2003). Educational Research: Basic Issues and Methodology
(second and enlarged edition). Nsukka; Trust Publisher.
Oyejide, A, Ogunkola, A. & Bankole, A.(2005). Import Prohibition as a
Trade Policy Instrument: The Nigeria Experience. The Guardian News
Paper. February, 2005.
WHO (1993). The Health of Young People: a Challenge and a Promise.
Technical Report Geneva: World Health Organization.
Wilson, S.M. (1995). Clothing: The Portable Environment. Ames: Lowa State
University Press.

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JOVTE, pages
1084-90,
No. 1, Vol.
201710 No. 1, 2017

GOOD GOVERNANCE: THE BEDROCK FOR PEACE AND


SECURITY IN NIGERIA

DILIBE CHINONSO JOACHIN


Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe
+2348034207796 dilibechinonso@gmail.com

Abstract
Nigeria have paid enormous price in terms of both human and material resources as
they undertook a long and complicated process of transition from authoritarian to
democratic governance, while considerable progress has been made in the area of
personal freedoms and liberties, flashpoints of ethnic, communal, religious and
resource conflicts persist across most of the country. This is exacerbated by the
seeming failure of government to address key issues affecting economic
performances such as poverty alleviation, access to education, employment, resource
distribution, good road network, infrastructure development and political power
contests. This has indeed robbed the country of desired peace and security, which
are necessary tools for sustainable development. The study critically observed that
democracy and good governance are the most important political concepts in the
world today. This is more so that the success of many countries have been attributed
to their practice of democracy and good governance while the collapse and failure of
several other regimes or governments have been explained mainly in terms of their
non practice of democracy and good governance.

Keywords: Good governance, democracy, peace, security, sustainable


development.

Introduction
Many scholars have seen the need to democratize and embrace good
governance as a major national priority for Nigeria. Admittedly, the rising
concern about the governance project in Nigeria cannot be explained outside
the countrys historical experience. A history that has laid the solid foundation
for the current wave of ethno-religious, communal and politico-economic
crisis in the land. This state of affairs importantly raises some serious
concerns about the question of good governance in Nigeria were politics of
embezzlement, mismanagement and deprivation of resources appears to
overshadow the principles of accountability, transparency and responsibility.
Is democracy really what everyone assumes that it is and ought to be? A
government of the people, by the people and for the people? Does good
governance and democracy have recognizable ingredients? Can we itemize
and operationalize these ingredients?

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The fact remains that good governance is the key instrument that oils and
sustains peaceful, secured and above all development of society. The survival
of the society depends on how its leadership and people are committed to the
ideals of good governance where the atmosphere of peace, justice, rule of law,
equal right and freedom of choice abounds.
It is relevant to analyze some concepts in this study.

Good Governance
The concept of good governance defies a precise single definition that
commands universal acceptability. This has given rise to different meanings
of the concept. The World Bank (2003) provided a simple definition of good
governance and an extensive detailed analysis of its major components. Here
the Bank contends that governance consists in the exercise of authority in the
name of the people while good governance according to this conception, is
said to rest on two important core values, namely: inclusiveness and
accountability. Ansah (2007) viewed governance as encompassing a States
institutional and structural arrangements, decision- making process and
implementation capacity and the relationship between government officials
and the public. According to the World Bank Report (1989) governance is the
exercise of political power in the management of a nations affairs.
In his analysis, Odock (2006:3-5), sees good governance as a system of
government based on good leadership, respect for the rule of law and due
process, the accountability of the political leadership to the electorate as well
as transparency in the operations of government. Transparency has to do
with the leadership carrying out government business in an open, easy to
understand and explicit manner, such that the rules made by government, the
policies implemented by the government and the results of government
activities are easy to verify by the ordinary citizens. Accountability as a
component of good governance refers to the fact that those who occupy
positions of leadership in the government must give account or subject
themselves to the will and desire of the society and people they lead.
Governance emphasizes leadership which suggests the way political leaders
use or misuse powers, to promote social and economic development or to
engage in those agenda that largely undermine the realization of the good
things of life for the people. Good governance is in tandem with democratic
governance which is largely characterized by high valued principles such as
rule of law, justice, accountability, participation, transparency, human and

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civil rights. These governance qualities have the capacity to provide the
development process of a country.
Governance or its absence has not been able to provide the people of Nigeria
good health care, education, electricity supply, clean water, physical security,
salutary environment and adequate transport infrastructure. Fayeye (2011)
posed a critical question as to whether its possible to have good governance
without good leadership. The reality point to the fact that the former is
logically derived from the latter because where there is effective and efficient
leadership, there is bound to be good governance.

Concept of Peace
Peace is defined as a political condition that ensures justice and social
stability through formal and informal institutions, practices and norms Miller
and King (2003). It is dangerously misleading to think that the absence of war
means the presence of peace. It is also important to know that simply avoiding
conflicts, does not mean peace, but acting in accordance to some of the
conditions that must be met to guarantee peace in any society. Balance
political power sharing in any region; legitimacy for decision makers and
implementers in the eyes of their respective groups, supported by external
parties through transparency and accountability; recognized and valued
interdependence among the agreements, normality and crises; trusted and
reliable institutions for resolving conflicts; mutual understanding of
incompatibility and every member of the community must be given a sense of
respect and belonging in principle and practice, collectively and individually
in accordance with international standards. All these conditions mentioned
above come to guarantee positive peace. Peace sought outside the premise of
social justice as mentioned above is called negative peace and it is not true
peace. Ibeanu (2005) has however attempted to explain peace in sociological
terms as a condition of social harmony in which there are no social
antagonisms. In other words, peace is a condition in which there is no social
conflict and individuals and groups are able to meet their needs, aspirations
and expectations.
Violent conflicts whether social, political or environmental have seriously
contributed to the crisis situation in Nigeria in terms of loss of human and
material capital. Nigeria in this decade especially has experienced the breach
of peace such as kidnapping, assassination, Niger Delta Avengers
vandalization, Fulani herdsmen attack, Boko haram menace, religious
violence, communal or ethnic violence and corruption.

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All these violent conflicts have contributed to the state of underdevelopment


in Nigeria. There has been loss of lives, livelihoods, destruction of
infrastructure and natural resources, employment opportunities which
coincides directly with a weakened social safety net and a decline in the
capacity of the State to provide services such as health, education and indeed
security for the people. In a sentence, the peace and security and indeed
wellbeing of the people of Nigeria has been seriously compromised.

Security
Security is broadly viewed as freedom from danger or threats to an individual
or a nation. It is the ability to protect and defend oneself, be it an individual or
a nation it cherished, values and legitimate interests and enhancement of
wellbeing Imobighe(1990),Mijah(2007). McNamara (1968) and Mijah (2007)
see security as tantamount to development. Security is not just about the
presence of a police or military force, although this is encompassed. There
can be no development without security. The nonconventional conception of
security lays emphasis on human security. It also according to Fayeye (2011)
implies the maturation of the structures and processes that can engender and
guarantee political space and sufficient conditions for the realization of
among other things, personal, group or national aspirations.
Aligwara (2009) submit that security of the individual citizens is the most
important thing. He argued that security is for the citizens and not citizens for
security. Thus, for the citizens to live in peace, the basic necessities of life
such as food, good health, job opportunities, justice, freedom and all other
ingredients of life must be provided.

Interface between Good Governance, Peace and Security


It is an incontestable fact that there is a strong correlation between the nature
of governance and the state of security in any society. But the case in Nigeria
appears to be problematic. From 1999 till date, the country has experienced
considerable erosion of domestic security arising from inherent deficit in
governance. This is evidenced by the increasing proliferation of private
security firm Mijah(2006; 2009) to curb the problem of insecurity in the
country. In point of fact, the nature of governance in Nigeria has not instituted
sufficient policies and programmes to alter the structures of imbalance and
insecurity entrenched by colonialism and prolonged authoritarian military rule
Ibrahim(2002). These structures are exclusionary and ill-suited especially in a
democratic system of governance.

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The current democratic governance in Nigeria has continued to witness


repeated abuses of state power that has manifested in different forms and
guises. No doubt, the political elites still see politics as an avenue for
primitive accumulation of wealth. This conclusion which has been reached by
scholars like Anifowose (1982), Ake (1985), Joseph (1987) and Ikpe (2000) is
still the order of the day. According to Tell Magazines October 17, 2005,
many public office holders in Nigerian especially State Governors, Ministers,
Senators etc are stupendously wealthy. These public officers according to the
magazine have huge investments both at home and abroad which cannot be
explained. This basically explains why corruption has remained endemic in
the country. When public officers who are supposed to be the vanguard in the
fight against corruption now elevates the abject practice to statecraft,
democracy, good governance, peace and security cannot but be at risk.
Corruption no doubt undermines and hampers the governance process and
development.

How to Evolve Good Governance in Nigeria


i. Viable and Virile Civil Society: The evolution of a viable democratic
system of governance in Nigeria has to do with the development of an
active and virile civil society. Civil society refers to the peoples own
organisation outside government that interacts and relates on the basis
of social values and culture of the society.
ii. Sound Economic Base: Another element central to the evolution of a
good governance in Nigeria is the development of a self-reliant
developed economy. These are values that concern the need for self-
reliance in development anchored on the pillar of economic stability
and growth encompassing the following: the rule of law, and enabling
environment for productive investment, long term planning and
accountability, the development of, and the reliance on indigenous
resources and the restoration as well as the development of critical
infrastructure.
iii. Accountability and Responsiveness in Governance: There is need
for a higher level of ethics and accountability in governance and
administration of affairs in Nigeria as a prerequisite for a democratic
system of governance.
iv. Leadership: To evolve good governance in Nigeria involves also how
to find a high quality leadership. Lack of adequate leadership
accounted largely for the feelings of aimless drift and purposelessness

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in general that sometimes in the past was felt by Nigerians. Nigeria


needs capable and competent leaders imbued with a high sense of
nationalism, foresight, dedication, integrity, patience, accommodation
and firmness.

Conclusion
We have argued that good governance is a critical element for peace, security
and sustainable development. We also established that the historical
experience of Nigeria has affected the nature of governance that has failed to
effectively address the development needs and aspirations of the citizens. This
has further created problems of insecurity in the country. Clearly, there is
deficit in good governance. And these deficits can be corrected through viable
and virile civil society, revamping of the economy, accountability and
responsiveness and finally, high quality leadership.

Reference
Aligwara, P.O (2009) National Security and the Challenges of the 21st
Century in Mbachu, O. and Eze. C.M (eds) Democracy and
National Security: Issues, Challenges and Prospects. Kaduna:
Medusa Academic Publishers.
Anifowose, R (1982) Violence and Politics in Nigeria: The Tiv and Yoruba
Experience. Lagos: Nok Publishers.
Ansah, A.B. (2007) Globalization and its Challenges: The need for Good
Governance and Development in Africa in African Journal of
Indigenous Development, Vol. 3 Nos. 1 and 2, January December.
Fayeye, J.O. (2011) Role of the Security Sector in Promoting Democratic
Governance in Nigeria in Akanji, T.A, Danjibo, N.D, Eselebor,
W.A (eds) Challenges of Democratic Governance in Nigeria. Ibadan:
John Arches Ltd.
Ibrahim, J (2002) Consolidation of Democracy and Minority Rights in
Nigeria: Religion, Sharia and the 1999 Constitution Paper for
Politics of Development Group (PODSU), Department of Political
Science, University of Stockholm Book on Rights of Groups and
Differentiated Citizenship.
Ibeanu, O (2005) Conceptualizing Peace in Gaya Best S (ed) Introduction
to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa. Tbadan: Spectrum
Books.

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Ikpe, U.B (2000) Political Behaviour and Electoral Politics in Nigeria: A


Political Economic Interpretation. Lagos: Concept Publication Ltd.
Miller, C and King, M. (2003) A Glossary of Terms and Concepts in Peace
and Conflict Studies in West Africa. Ibadan: Spectrum Books.
Mijah, B.E (2009) Democracy, Internal Security and the Challenges of
Policing in Nigeria in Mbachu, O. and Eze, C.M (eds) Democracy
and National Security: Issues, Challenges and Prospects. Kaduna:
Medusa Academic Publishers.
Odock, C.N (2006) Democracy and Good Governance. Lagos: NOUN
World Bank (2003) Better Governance for Development in the Middle East
and North Africa, Washington DC, World Bank.
World Bank (1989) Governance and Development, Washington DC.

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JOVTE, pages
10 91-
No. 104, Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017
1, 2017

EVALUATION OF TEACHERS QUALIFICATION ON STUDENTS


ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BUSINESS EDUCATION: CASE
OF ANAMBRA STATE

DR. PATRICIA C. ORANEFO


Department of Business Education,
Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe

Abstract
The study evaluates the impact of teachers qualification on academic performance
of students in Business education in colleges of education in Anambra state. This
research employed the descriptive survey design. Two research questions and one
null hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The researcher employed census
sampling techniques for lecturers and stratified random sampling techniques for the
students to select two hundred students from the entire population of the study. Data
were collected through a 15times structured questionnaire of a four likert point
scale. The analysis of data collected was done using the mean rating and t-test. The
study revealed that teachers qualification are major determinant of students
performance in secondary schools. The result also disclosed that there is significant
difference between the performance of students taught by professional and
experienced teachers and those taught by non-professional teachers.
Recommendations made include retraining all teachers who have no professional
training and also school supervisor should be strengthened so as to check the square
pegs that are in the round holes in secondary schools, especially in the area of
teachers and their respective qualification. Suggestion for further study was also
stated.

Keywords: teachers Qualifications, Academic Performance and Learning


Process

Introduction
The quality of education of a nation could be determined by the quality of her
Teachers. The most important factor in improving student performance in
economics is by employing seasoned, experienced and qualified Teachers in
all schools, especially in Colleges of Education. According to Okuruwa
(2009) Policy invested on quality of teachers is related to improvement in
students performance. Specifically, the measurement of teachers preparation
and certification are correlates of students achievement in business education
and other subject of the study. It is further reported that, teachers
characteristics such as certification status and degree in area of specialization
are very significant and positively correlated with students learning outcomes
in business education.

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Okoye (2013), was of the opinion that, a teaching qualification or teacher


qualification is one of a number of academic and professional degree that
enable a person to become a registered teacher in primary or secondary
school. According to him, such qualification includes the following post-
graduate certificate in education (PGDE), the professional Diploma in
Education (PDE), Bachelor of Education (B.ED) and National Certificate in
Education (NCE). However Teachers who are academically qualified and
those that are professionally qualified are said to have students impact on the
academic performance of students in teaching and learning process.
Okuruuwa (2009), opined that students do not understand a subject when it is
taught by an ineffective teacher. Oladele (2012), buttress that teacher quality
is the most important among other critical factors like quality curricular,
funding, small class size and learning situation. Besides, George (2004)
attributed poor achievement in their subjects to teacher qualification,
inadequacy of materials as well as administrative factors.
Fafuwa (2005), in adesina (2012) was of the opinion that with an exception of
holders of minimum of B.sc in a subject matter, many other teachers will be
confronted with problem of teaching secondary school subject syllabus
effectively. Hence, Lussa (2014) argued that no one gives what he does not
have. He further said that if we do not have well trained, qualified and
motivated teachers we may not achieve the desired goals in student academic
performance. In view of this, a teacher is someone, who has been exposed to a
good measure of training subject areas as in professional education; such
professionally qualified teachers according to the federal ministry of
Education (2004) fall into a number of academic categories. Thus,
Mkpa(2007), regards the trained teacher as someone who underwent and
complete his education in a formal teachers training institution or in a planned
programme of training teachers for example NTI. Other such area of training
may include principles and practice of education as well as been exposed to
an observed period of internship either after or as part of the period of
training. People who fall within this category will under normal circumstance
at all time fulfil the various functions expected of them as teachers within and
outside the four walls of the class room.
Nevertheless, this paper examines the effect of teachers qualification on
student academic performance in business education, in view to observe the
extent to which teachers qualification and experience determines the
academic performance of students in subject matter specifically business
education.

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Statement of the Problem


The performance of students in Business Education has been very poor for a
very long time. And this poor performance attracted a lot of concern from
both parents and educators. Researches have shown that most students in
Colleges of education in Anambra State see business education as a difficult
subject to pass. The poor performance of students both in primary, secondary
and tertiary institutions has confirmed it. The issue is whether to attribute this
poor performance to lack of qualified and experienced teachers in the subject
matter or one may ask if the qualified teachers, available use adequate
instructional materials in teaching the subject. This paper therefore, seeks to
determine the effect of teachers qualification on the academic performance of
students with focus on Colleges of Education in Anambra state.

Objectives of the Study


The main objective of this paper is to determine the effect of teachers
qualification on academic performance of students in business education.
This paper has other specific objectives:
- To determine the effect of teachers qualification on students
academic performance in business education;
- To evaluate the differences between the performances of students who
were taught business education by professionally qualified teachers
and non-professionally qualified teachers of business education

Research Question
(i) To what extent does teachers qualification influence students
performance in Business Education in Anambra State?
(ii) What are the differences between the performance of students who
were taught business education by professionally qualified teachers
and those taught by non- professionally qualified business education
teachers.

Research hypotheses
In line with the objectives and the research questions above the researcher
formulated two hypotheses to guide the study
H01: there is no significant influence on teachers qualification and the
students performance in Business Education in Anambra State.

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Ho2 there is no significant difference between the performance of


students who were taught Business Education by professional and non-
professional Business Educators

Conceptual Framework
Qualified Teachers
Academically, qualified teachers refer to those who have academic training as
a result of enrolment into educational institution and obtained qualifications
such as B.Sc., H.N.D, B.A, M.A among others; while professionally qualified
teachers are those who got professional training that gave them professional
knowledge, skill, techniques, aptitudes as different from the general education
(Edu and Kalu, 2012). They hold degree like B.Ed, B.Sc., ED, M.A, B.A,
among others. On the other hand, there are study that have found no
significant to relationship between teacher educational qualification and
students academic achievement. This will be discussed later in this paper.
According to Adieze (1986), non-qualified and non-professional teachers in
teaching profession are killing the profession because they are not really
teacher. He regarded them as bird of passage that create unnecessary
vacuum whenever they see greener pasture and better prospect in the
profession they are originally trained for. Comparing of students scores in
accounting achievement test based on teachers qualification becomes
necessary in other to know if formal teaching method has any significant
effect or influence on student performance in the subject matter or not.
Teachers qualification therefore, is the accreditation that enables a teacher to
teach in government approved schools. In other words they are educational
certificate that confirms a teacher as a professional in the act of teaching and
learning (Okoye 2013), according to National Policy on education of Nigeria
(Reviewed Edition, 2004), the minimum qualification of a teacher is Nigeria
Certificate in Education (NCE).
Federal Ministry Education (2004), defines teacher as someone who has been
exposed to a good measure of training in a teaching subject area as well as in
professional education; such professional qualified teachers may fall into a
number of academic categories. Mkpa (2007) regarded the training teachers
as someone who underwent and complete his education in a formal teachers
training institution or in a planned programme of training. According to him
such areas of training include principles and practice of education as well as
an observed period of internship either after or as part of the period of
training. People that fall under this categories should under normal

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circumstances be able to fulfill the various function expected of teachers


within and outside the four walls of classroom.
Nevertheless, in view of this, in teaching of business education as far as other
subjects, Adesina (2009) opined that with an exception of holder of minimum
of B.Sc. in subject area (mathematics). Many other teacher will be confronted
with the problem of teaching secondary school syllabus effectively.

Students Performance
Students performance is a good indicator of a student growth over time and it
pin point a students strength and weakness. Students performance can be
define as a specific statement about what a student should be able to do as a
result of instruction he receives. Okoye et al (2013). In other words students
performance is what a student has shown he can do in a certain subject or
course. It can be determined by looking at the end of grade or end of course
assessment.
Furthermore, students performance is a specific statement about what student
had been able to do or achieve after been administered with one test or the
other on areas of subject they had been taught. Students performance is a
how well a student is doing in class. Sometimes it could mean how they are
doing and how close they are coming to achieving their goals.
Agbo(2006), defined students performance as the outcome of education, the
extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational
goals. Academic achievement is commonly measured by examination or
continuous assessment but there is no general agreement on how it is best
tested or which aspects is most important procedural knowledge such as skills
or declarative knowledge such as facts.

Theoretical framework
Two theories were reviewed in this study which includes:
(i) Operant conditioning of behavioral learning theory by B.F. skinner
(1939);
(ii) Attribution theory by Osokoye (2009) and Weiner (1979).

Operant Conditioning of Behavioral Learning Theory by B.F. Skinner


(1939).
We can find examples of operant conditioning at work all around us, such as
in children or students completing their assignment to earn a reward from a
parent or teacher or employee finishing projects to receive praise or

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promotions. In these examples, the promise or possibility of rewards causes


an increase in behavior, but operant conditioning can also be used to decrease
a behavior. The removal of an undesirable outcome or the use of punishment
can be used to decrease or prevent undesirable behaviours. For example,
children may be told that they will lose going out for recess, if they make
noise in the class. This potential warning of punishment may lead to decrease
in disruptive behaviours.

Relevance of Operant Conditioning theory to this paper


Operant conditioning provides other factors that can influence students
performance such as reward and punishment. Thus, the principles emphasize
that behavior that is positively reinforced with reoccur intermittent
reinforcement will generalize across stimuli (stimulus generalization)
producing secondary conditioning.

Attribution Theory
Attribution theory according to Osokoye (2009) deals with an explanation of
the motivation that focuses on how people explain the causes of their own
success and failures. Weiner (1979) on the other hand pointed out that people
attributed their success and failure to internal or external causes. Thus,
attribution theory contains the underlying principles by which a person
decides the causes of another persons behavior. These perceived causes can
be dispositional and internal or situational and external. The theory explains
that students often attribute their success and failures to causes such as ability,
effort, task difficulty and luck. (Weiner 1979) cited in Ezeokenna Jude et al
2009 edited. He also maintained that people who are internally oriented have
internal locus of control. These people attributed their success and failures to
their own abilities or efforts or both. Such people assume individual
responsibility for their performance. On the other hand, Weiner taught about
the second group of people, those who are externally oriented as those who
have external locus of control. This group of people attribute their
performance to factors for which they have know the responsibility and such
they have no control over them either. Such factors include: luck or tax
difficulty. If a person in this group fails an examination, he assumes that it is
because the subject is too difficulty, or the teacher has not taught him well or
he was unlucky among others.

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Relevance of the Attribution Theory to this paper


According to Nwachukwu (2004), attribution theory deals with the notion of
students perception. It suggests that the courses students gives for their
success and failure have a strong effect on their academic performance in
future. To encourage learning therefore, teachers should use intrinsic
motivation, set goals that are challenging, help students to attribute success
and failure to controllable courses and to believe in their ability to improve
through their handwork. Students should be made to think positively and to
have positive self concept. It emphasizes that negative self concept contribute
as factor that affect students performances in school. In other words, that a
students self concept of himself affect his learning. According to Anene
(2009), a child who is constantly told how bad or how incompetent he is ,
begins to accept this picture of himself as true and behaves accordingly.
Therefore, teachers should stop labeling students or using negatives
comments on them. they should rather encourage the students through their
remarks to put in more efforts.
The theory also emphasize that lack of control affects learning. Also, the way
a student sees himself has been affected in the learning process determines
how he learns to some extents. The issue of attributing failures to external
forces rather than personal inadequacy may be the critical decides of progress
in the learning situation so teachers should help students to develop positive
self concept to enable them tackle a given problem or learning task.

Empirical studies
Nevertheless, Awe (2013) conducted research on the impact of teachers
qualifications on students academic performance in economics: A case study
of Nnewi North Local Government Area. Survey research was used for the
study, Two hundred and twenty (220) copies of questionnaire were distributed
as instruments for data collection. Simple random sampling technique was
also used and weighted mean as well as chi-square as method of data analysis.
Findings revealed that teachers qualification is one of significant factors that
influence students academic performance in business education in secondary
schools; that qualifications that qualifies a teacher to teach business education
include NCE (economics), B. Sc in education (economics), a B.Sc economics
teacher with post-graduate Diploma in education (PGDE) or professional
Diploma in Education (PDE); the study also found out that highly qualified
teachers in economics tend to increase students performance in economics
than non-qualified teachers.

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Apata (2014), carried out a research on the effect of teachers qualifications on


students performance in mathematics, questionnaire was used as instrument
for data collection and the results shown that a significant difference existed
in the performance of students taught by professional teachers and non-
professional teachers, between students taught by NCE teachers and B.Sc
education on teachers and also between B.Sc teachers and B.Sc education
teachers, the study confirm that students who were taught by NCE and B.Sc
education teachers perform better academically than students taught by B.Sc
teachers without education qualification. Apata(2014) in his study
investigated the influence of teachers qualification on academic performance
of students in science subject in Kano state. The study found no significant
relationship between teachers qualification and students performance.
George (2004) attributed poor achievement of students in school to teacher
qualification, inadequacy of materials as well as administrative factors.

Summary of the literature review


Two theories were reviewed in this paper namely the attribution theory ant the
operant conditioning of behavioral learning theory by B.F Skinner. This is
because the emphases of the two mentioned theories predicated on cause or
effect of problem. The attribution theory dwells on the cause of the problem
while the theory of operant conditioning of behavioural learning dwells on
the effect of the problem.. Teachers role and teaching methodology that
improves students performance. Empirically, many studies were reviewed for
the study, and their findings supported that teachers qualification has
significant influence on students performance.

Area of the study


The study was situated in Anambra state in Nigeria with a view to identifying
the impact of using qualified teachers on students academic performance.
Based on that two Colleges of Education in Anambra were used. Nwafor
Orizu College of Education Nsugbe and Federal College of Education
Technical . Umunze.

Population of the study


The target population for the study is all the lecturers and final year students
from the above mentioned institution in the Business Education department.
A total of 600 students and 30 lecturers were identified through a pre-study
survey of these institutions.

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Sample size
The sample of the study was determined objectively using Taro yamani
formular.

Instrument for Data collection


The research instrument used for this study is basically questionnaire and text
books.

Validation of the Instrument


The instrument used for data collection were validated by two experts from
the business Education department.

Reliability of the Instrument


The reliability of the instrument for the data collection was obtained through
test-retest method.

Data Analysis
Data collected were presented and analyzed using distribution table and
arithmetic mean (X) on four likert scale for clear analysis and discussion.

Decision Rule
Since the calculated mean is 2.50 this implies that the mean response that is
up to 2.50 and above will be agree and any mean response which is below
2.50 will be disagree.

Data Analysis
Analysis of results from the data collected from the respondents. The analysis
is based on the research questions.

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Research question one: to what extent does teachers qualification influence


students performance in Business education in Anambra state?
S/N Items SA A D SD F REMARK
1 Students taught by 100 150 20 60 300 910 3.0 Accepted
qualified teachers 400 450 80 60
perform better than
those taught by non-
qualified teachers
2 Qualified teachers 160 140 100 60 300 870 2.9 Accepted
make learning 640 840 200 60
permanent in the
students because they
relate teaching with
instructional materials.
3 Students performance
in business education
tend to be low
because they were
taught by non-
Professional teachers
4 Students perform high 90 160 30 20 300 920 3.0 accepted
in Business education 360 480 60 20
when they are taught
by B.Sc. education
teachers than OND,
HND and B.Sc.
5 Teachers 10 30 110 150 300 500 1.6 rejected
qualifications have no 40 90 220 150
input on Students
performance in
Business Education

Considering the analysis in the above table 1, items 1-4 with their
corresponding means of 3.0, 2.9, 2.8 and 3.0 were all accepted because they
were up to the acceptance level of 2.5, while item 5 with the corresponding
mean value of 1.6 was rejected. This was because it was not up to the
acceptance level of 2.5.
Therefore, the result show that Teachers qualification have greater input on
students performance. Professional teachers are more qualified teacher than
non-professional teachers because they tend to relate teaching with
instructional materials and thereby make learning permanent in the students.

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Hypothesis one:
H01: There is no significant difference between the performance of students
who were taught Business education by Professional teacher and those who
are taught by non-professional Business education teachers.
S/N ITEMS SA A D SD CT
1 100 150 20 30 300
(80) (145) (44) (31)
2 80 140 50 30 300
(70) (145) (44) (31)
3 70 145 50 35 300
(80) (145) (44) (31)
4 90 160 44 20 300
(80) (145) (44) (31)
5 140 130 90 40 300
(80) (145) (44) (31)
RT 400 725 220 155 1500

Using the above analysis of H01 , the calculated or table value is 87. 969 while
critical value or table value is 21.026. there calculated value is greater than
critical value. This implies that we reject the null hypothesis and accepted the
alternative hypothesis. Thus, there is significant effect of parents income on
educational performance of students in Nigeria institution.

Findings in accordance with the research question is as follows:


Research Question One: This evaluate the impact of teachers qualification
on the students performance in Business education in secondary schools in
Anambra state. Five (5) items were constructed for data collection. The data
collected were organized in a table and analysis with mean. All the five items
were accepted hence they were up to and above 2.5 which is the acceptance
level. The findings therefore revealed that:
a. Teachers qualifications have serious impact on students performance
in Business education because students who were taught Business
education by teachers with N.C.E and B.Sc. in education as well as the
PDE or PGDE tend to perform better than those without education or
professional training in teaching and learning methodology, and vice
versa. On the other hand, these findings were supported by the view of
Abe and Adu (2013) that the important factor in improving students
achievement in academic is by employing seasoned qualified teachers
in all secondary schools. Thus, they were in one way or the other

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emphasizing the impact of teachers qualification and experience in


teaching and learning on students performance in schools.

Conclusion
This paper evaluate the impact of teachers qualification on students
performance in Business education in senior secondary school in Anambra
Students performance in Business education in senior secondary school. And
impediment to high performance of Business education students in the subject
matter is attributed to lack of qualified teachers in the field of Business
education who can handle the course with professional skills and
methodology. Thus, there are qualified and non-qualified teachers in business
education. Therefore, students performance can improve when the subject
matter is placed or handled by qualified, professional and experienced
teachers who know the technique of pedagogy.

Educational Implications
This paper has the following educational implications:
1. There will be improvement in the performance of students when qualified
teachers are mostly employed to handle teaching and learning task.
2. There will be improvement and standardization of educational system as a
result of the findings of this research work if implemented.

Recommendations
The following recommendation can be considered as a way forward:
- There is need for an urgent need to employ or replace the non-
qualified, non-professional teachers in senior secondary schools in
Anambra state.
- Government should ensure that the school supervisors and inspectors
are well paid and monitored in their work so as to avoid being
exploited and birded by some of the so called private proprietors of
secondary schools who would indulge in employment of non-qualified
teachers in teaching and learning; and
- Thirdly, there is need for proper legislation against employment of
non-professional teachers in secondary schools with level of sanctions
against defaulters by the government through the ministry of education
in Anambra state.

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Suggestion for Further Studies


Other researchers, students in Business education or its equivalents can carry
out further research on this topic so as to bleach the level of its educational
gaps. They can equally conduct research on the extent of the use of
instructional materials in teaching and learning of Business education by
teachers in secondary schools in Anambra State

Summary of Major Findings


The major findings of this paper are:
- There is significant difference between the performance of students
who were taught Business education by professional and experienced
teachers and those who were taught by non-professional teachers.
- Teachers qualification are major determinant of students performance
in Business education among others.

Reference
Ade & Adu et al (2013) Influence of Qualification on Development and
Assessment of Computer Programmed Instructional Package on
Energy. Concept in Upper Basic Technology in Ekiti State. April
Science Technology 3(6) 611-612
Adieze L. C. (1986). Killing the teaching professional daily times Thursday
22nd May.
Agbo, J. N. (2009), Factors that contribute to the Poor Performance of
Secondary School students in Anambra Educational Zone in School
Certificate and Ordinary Chemistry PGDE Project, Institute of
Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, p.13
Apata S. F. (20014). Influence of teachers academic qualification and
physics in kwara state (unpublished Master thesis) University of IIorin,
llorin.
Awe, A. F. (2013). Parental Influence on students Performance in
agricultural science in Ihebu-East Local Government Area of Ogun
State. Undergraduate project UNIBEN.
Edu, D. O. and Kalu I. M. (2012). Influence of Academic Qualification on
Gender on Teachers Perception of Difficult Concept in Primary
Science in Ikom, Educational Zone of Cross River. Greener and
Journal of Educational Research 2(2). Retrieved from http.
Fafuwa, F. A. (2005). History of Education (2004): National Policy on
Education: Lagos, NERDC.

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George. H. (2004). Issues in Teacher Education in England and Wales.


London: Greenwood press
Okoye, O. A. (2013). The impact of Teachers Qualification on Students
Academic Performance in Business Education: A case study of
Onitsha South Local Government Area. An unpublished Project work,
Department of Business Education, Nnamdi University Awka.
Okuruwa T. O. (2009). The effect of some Teachers Character on Pupils
Performance in Primary Science (Unpublished M.Ed. dissertation,
University of Ibadan, Ibadan.
Oladele J. O. (2012). The Effect of Early Qualification on the Achievement of
Pre-ND students in Kaduna Polytechnics (unpublished Post graduate
Diploma Dissertation) University of Ibadan, Ibadan.
Osokoye M. M.(2009). Some Determinants of Secondary School Students
Academic Achievement in Chemistry in Oyo State (unpublished Ph.D
Thesis University of Ibadan.

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JOVTE,pages 105-117,
Vol. 10 Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017
No. 1, 2017

CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED BY THE GUIDANCE


COUNSELLOR IN THE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION
OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS

1
DR. F. E. E. NWANKWO & 2DR. U. E. ENEASATOR
1
0703 168 9518, nwankfez@gmail.com
2
0803 222 0208, uevereva@yahoo.com
1,2
Department of Educational Psychology/Guidance & Counselling,
Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe, Anambra State.

Abstract
The numerous challenges encountered by guidance counsellors in the organisation
and administration of guidance and counselling services in schools are capable of
determining the success or failure of school guidance and may constitute the indices
for evaluation. This paper examines the following as sources of challenges: the
counsellor characteristics and quality; the school environment; the students; the legal
and ethical issues; and the perceptions of the counsellor and guidance services in the
school; by parents and the society. Some of the recommendations made include that:
Counselling Association of Nigeria [CASSON] should ensure that the counselling
programmes at different universities produce quality counsellors; the Federal
Government of Nigeria through the instrument of the National Policy on Education
should adequately provide for the school guidance programme. The synergy of
CASSON and the Ministry of Education at all levels to create public awareness and
enlist the commitment of parents to the school guidance programme.

Keywords: challenges; guidance counsellors; National Policy on Education;


Counselling Association of Nigeria (CASSON)

Introduction
The challenges encountered by guidance counsellors in the
organisation and administration of guidance and counselling services in
schools are so many and varied that they have assumed the capability of
determining the success or failure of school guidance. Viewed from another
perspective, they may constitute the indices for evaluating guidance and
counselling services in schools. The counsellor characteristics are pivotal to
professional practice as a guidance counsellor in the school. The amount of
counselling know-how, the pattern of projection of self as a model, and the
behaviour therapy and modification skills possessed contribute to his overall
readiness for the performance of guidance and counselling duties in the
school as well as his effectiveness in professional practice. The school
environment possesses both human and physical components that have

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tremendous bearing on the guidance services. The physical infrastructures, the


school management, the teaching and non-teaching staff need to interact in
ways and manners for optimum service delivery to the students. The students
who are the main clientele of the guidance services have varied problems but
may not easily present themselves for guidance or counselling.
There are legal and ethical considerations of the job and within the
confines of which the school guidance counsellor should operate without
encumbrances. The perceptions of the counsellor and the guidance and
counselling services in the school may tell the extent to which he can perform.
The management, staff and students of the school see the counsellor in
different lights some of which may be so divergent as to bring about non-
performance. Finally, the perception of guidance and counselling as a
profession by parents and the wider society is not helping matters. The fact
that the consequence of failure to take counselling advise is not strikingly
obvious and the public not willing to give help to sustain the poor public
perception of guidance and counselling as a helping profession even in the
school setting. This paper proceeds to highlight how these elements constitute
challenges.

The Challenges of the Counsellor Characteristics and Quality


The challenges of the counsellor characteristics and quality may be
view from the following perspectives: counselling know-how possessed;
individuals counselling framework; counsellor education/preparation
programmes; the counsellor as a behaviour modifier; the counsellor as a
model; and as social commentator an public relations person.

Counselling Know-How possessed


The counselling know-how possessed by the counsellor is the sum of
the theories, skills and techniques of counselling at his/her disposal for
application in individual and group counselling situations in professional
practice. Although, there is a dearth of qualified school counsellors in both
primary and secondary schools in the country, there should be standards or
benchmarks for service delivery (Oramah, 2015). Of the nine theories of
counselling, Achebe (1988) found relevant to Nigeria and fully reviewed by
various contributors, she notes wide variations and considerable overlap. She
advocates no rigid adherence to any of them. Therefore, counsellors are
challenged to continue to produce new and modified models for field practice

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as times change (Achebe, 1988). They must cultivate the habit of wide
reading, creativity and innovativeness.
As a counsellor he/she does not need to adhere to a particular
counselling view point in order to be an adept at helping people solve their
own problems, he/she needs to draw from the thinking of others, from both
the past and the present to sort out more relevant theories which at best
approximate his/her needs (Achebe, 1988). In other words, the counsellor
must be eclectic in his/her approach. As Ivey (1981) puts it, theories are only
constructions of reality as seen by eminent thinkers pointing out that most
constructions (theories) have tended to underplay the importance of culture,
language and person-environmental interaction. Therefore, Achebe (1988)
emphasizes the need for a counsellor to continually expose himself to a
variety of world counselling approaches in order to discover the different
perspectives from which others explain how humans become disturbed and
how to alleviate their difficulties.

Individual counselling framework


According to Achebe (1988), the counsellor should develop his/her
own individual counselling framework to enable him to understand human
nature and conditions as well as procedures for helping to solve problems.
Such a counselling framework should provide the guideline for understanding
what an individual is made of, how he operates and what may be responsible
for both his normal and faulty behaviour pattern and perhaps, steps to be
taken to encourage the former and alleviate the later. Given the array of
western counselling approaches and their different cultural settings, Achebe
1988) noted that the Nigerian counsellor must critically examine existing
approaches to find out how applicable they are for solving human problems in
Nigeria. Thus the counsellor has to be knowledgeable of the ethnic diversity
of Nigeria and multiplicity of problems bothering the Nigerian school child.
Achebe is of the opinion that the appropriate framework developed by
the counsellor will help him/her minimize guess work and personal bias
which often occur without systematic planning. The framework nevertheless,
will be flexible enough to offer many pathways to deal with problems more
successfully.

Counsellor education/preparation programmes


Counsellor education/preparation programmes in Nigeria have subtle
differences. However, they should make a conscious effort to include courses

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on the world views of various groups in Nigeria so as to prepare a counsellor


to work more effectively with a variety of ethnic groups other than his/her
own. Besides, professionalization of counselling practice should help to
streamline the different counselling programmes at different universities
(Oramah, 2015) in addition to NUCs accreditation efforts.
It is regretable that the 4-year counselling preparation programme
demands a teaching subject that necessitates teaching practice and counselling
practicum. The 3-year programme student is deemed to have had a teaching
subject at the NCE-level. In all, according to Oramah (2015), the preparation
programme is carried out in conjunction with teaching courses which tends to
make student-counsellors appear more like teachers rather than counsellors.
This may explain why some principals send the guidance counsellor to the
classroom to teach.
The content of counsellor training should give a truly interdisciplinary
focus to enhance an understanding of the individual in a cultural perspective
as the quality of the counsellor depends on the quality of the training received
(Achebe, 1988). Moreover, counsellor education in Nigeria will have to be
very thorough regarding counselling records as they have clinical, ethical and
legal dimensions (Oramah, 2015).

The Counsellor as a behaviour modifier


According to Okoye (2001) behaviour therapy and behaviour
modification techniques are indeed therapeutic and employed by the
counsellor to help mankind drop undesirable behaviours but strengthen
desirable ones. Okoye sees words as powerful and possess some therapeutic
and cathartic properties in behaviour therapy, whilst rewards, satiation and
flooding are powerful behaviour modification techniques. The counsellor can
rightly be called a behaviour therapist and modifier if he/she makes
appropriate choice of words and techniques.
The behaviour modification technique employed by the counsellor
should be ethically viable, feasible and transparently humane, and should not
inflict any physical or psychological injury on the client (Okoye, 2001).
Besides, Essuman, Nwaogu and Nwachukwu (1990) seriously cautioned that
counsellors should avoid all forms of exploitation be they economic, sexual
or whatever.

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The counsellor as a model


According to Wolman (1975) the self strives for consistency, introjects
the values of others and changes as a result of motivation and learning. Thus
the self of the counsellor will have some influence on the behaviour pattern of
significant others with whom he comes in contact.
On the counsellor as a model: Shaffer and Shoben (1956:536) observe
that the counsellor behaves to the client as a person of worth and thus sends
a silent message of copy me to the client. Thus the various worthwhile
behaviours the counsellor portrays to the client will form the nucleus for the
client to model. Thus Okoye (2001) advises counsellors to be selective in the
behaviours which they present to the client because the self of the counsellor
should generate positive attitude from the client to himself. In addition, the
counsellor with high self-comportment will send out some aura of personality
importance that makes him/her very important person to be associated with.
The dressing mode and appearance of the counsellor (tied with the
self) elicits some feeling of likeness or dislikeness about himself (Okoye,
2001). The counsellor can demonstrate how seriously his statements can be
taken by manipulating his body language, facial movements, tones etc.

The counsellor as both a social communicator and public relations person


In discussing the counsellor as both a social communicator and public
relations person, Okoye viewed his use of communication as the key to
interpersonal understanding. He builds cooperative interactions in the
coordination of efforts among individuals to achieve mutual goals. To Okoye
(2001) the counsellor can express this cooperative interaction process by
means of verbal and non-verbal messages. Nwoye (1993) cautioned the
counsellor to watch the way he dresses, speaks and bargains for favours that
come his way. In effect, the counsellor needs to develop a sensitive mind with
which to deal with the feelings of others and to be humble and respectful of
both the high and the low. He should shun the tendency to look for cheap
popularity among students and the temptation to wear or carry about the air of
being the most important professional available to listen to the students
needs. Expectedly, possession and deployment of the following counselling
competences: counselling; consultation; coordination; placement and follow-
up; referrals; research competencies would put him/her in good stead as social
communicator and public relations person.

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The Challenges of the School Environment


The physical component
The school environment has both physical and human components.
The physical component of the school has to do with the availability and
adequacy of the counselling centre and the requisite furniture and furnishing.
Insurance of privacy and confidentiality as well as all the physical facilities
that will help make a working counselling centre. In Nigerian schools
observations have shown that schools lack the above facilities and this makes
it difficult for the administration and organization of Guidance and
Counselling services in schools. It is noteworthy that in situations where the
classrooms are overcrowded with little or no laboratory facilities, the
counselling facilities do not hope to fare any better. This goes to echo the
criticism of the National Policy on Education for not addressing the issue of
adequate provisions for the school guidance programme. The National Policy
on Education (FGN, 2004) in its policy statement stated that proprietors of
schools shall provide adequate number of guidance counsellors in each
primary and post-primary school. Have they been provided?
There is also lack of systematic procedures for collecting information
concerning educational and vocational opportunities that can be made
available to the students. At times, the bulletin boards to display such
information may not be there and the counsellor has to make do with just
pasting such information on the wall.
Nwoye (1993) declares that no effective counselling or guidance can
be achieved by mere sit and talk process without the support or aid of
audio-visual devices and materials. These counselling aids, he categorized
into: (i) counselling process related aids (ii) counselling setting related aids,
and (iii) counselling support services related aids. The non-availability of
referral agencies again affects the school counsellor adversely. The New
National Policy on Education (FGN, 2004) prescribed that students who
complete JSS shall be streamed into: i) the senior secondary school; ii) the
technical college; iii) the out of school vocational training centres; iv) and
apprenticeship scheme. The streaming shall be based on the result of testee to
determine academic ability, aptitude and vocational interest. In a nutshell,
there are few places where the pupil can be referred to, and this seems to
nullify the work of the School Counsellor.

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The Human Component of the school


The human component of the school environment has to do with the
cooperation and support of the principal, the school management board and
the entire staff to the school counselling programme. This has led to the
criticism of the National Policy on Education for not streamlining the
relationships and chain of command. This situation has led to unfavourable
attitude to the guidance programme, thus making appropriate use of para-
professionals and other related supporting personnel difficult because of shifts
in allegiances.
This situation leads the school guidance counsellor to literally curry
as much favour as he/she could thus prompting Nwoye (1993) to caution
against the tendency for cheap popularity and to watch the way he/she
dresses, speaks, and bargains for favours that come his/her way.
In all, he/she has to provide the following counselling services:
Orientation Services; Information Services; Counselling Services; Placement
Services; Consulting Services; Referrals; Evaluation of Guidance Services;
Follow-up Services. The counsellor cannot work without the full support and
assistance from the entire complement of school staff. The staff, according to
Umezulike and Eneasator (2012), should refer students with problems to the
counsellor for assistance.

The Challenges Associated with the Students


Okoye (2001) identified the various problems through which the
school child passes in the process of being exposed to the educational system
as: Personal; Social; Academic; Vocational and Economic; Religion-spiritual
problems. The best way to help the school child solve such problems now and
in the future remains the challenging responsibility of the school counsellor
with the assistance and cooperation of the school personnel.
Generally, the procedures for appraisal of individual students as to
determining those who need counselling may not be very comprehensive.
Okobiah (1992) suggests the administering of personality assessment test,
need assessment, observation and use of cumulative folders and referrals from
support staff. These, Nwoye (1993) classify as process-related aids and
support-related aids which are not adequately available and in some cases
absent completely. With what then can the counsellor use in his work.
Okobiah (1992) identifies obtaining the client, the nature of clients and
the nature of clients problems as some of the challenges besetting the school
counsellor particularly as shy and reluctant students stay clear of the

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counsellors. Nwoye (1993) observes that individual counselling approach is


not only unbeneficial to the solitary student but also cost ineffective and thus
a problem to the counsellor.
The nature of the clients problem may overstretch the school
counsellor. Common behavioural problems of the school child include
dropouts, stealing, truancy, fighting, bullying, promiscuity, hyperactivity
among others. Okobiah (1992) has noted that under normal circumstances,
the school counsellor is taught to deal with the normal child but in the school
there are many types of clients including the handicapped and those with
behavioural problems who may have to constitute his referrals.
There are few vocational centres or sheltered workshops or homes for
him to refer his clients to. Okoye (2001:27) asserted that personnel, social and
religio-spiritual problems of the school child take on stronger dimensions in
the pubertal and adolescent period of development and subscribes to
behaviour modification therapy. In doing so, the school counsellor should not
tamper with the clients belief system. Guidance counselling is no situation
or opportunity for converting clients from one religion to the other and so,
should respect the clients right to religious faith. This brings to fore the legal
and ethical considerations in counselling.

Legal and Ethical Issues of the Counselling Profession


Ethical codes are necessary instruments that act as checks and balances
toward entrenching good conduct and professionalism; and to institutionalize
accountability, quality assurance and best professional practices (Oramah,
2015). Although there are aspects of legal privileges and ethical rights of the
qualified counselling practitioners Nwoye (1993) lists a number of legal and
ethical considerations that govern the conduct of the counsellor including: i)
the law about confidential relationship and privileged communication, and ii)
the issue of malpractice and the law about negligent actions in counselling.
Nwoye (1993) observes that there are occasions when, counsellors
misconduct or omission may well be actionable by aggrieved clients and that
occasions do exist too, when certain things they do in counselling can be
adjudged as un-ethical that may warrant proscription from practice in Nigeria.
A confidential relationship exists making the professional person
involved to become obliged to protect the best interest of the client by
maintaining it. In fact, the school counsellor may come under considerable
pressure to make public details of sensational cases in schools. Thus, the
counsellor should always bear in mind the legal implications of his actions

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and utterances as any misconduct bothering on slander or libel may on certain


conditions listed by Nwoye (1993) warrant litigations and claims for
damages.
Therefore, every care ought to be taken in the issue of preparation,
handling and storage of counselling records and notes; and the counsellors
aught always to weigh fully and consider whatever they say regarding
individuals who seek their help in counselling, more especially the context in
which such remarks are made (Nwoye, 1993). Indeed one area of biggest
threat of privacy which has been entertained against counsellors in the issue
of use of personality test in counselling. To avert this, Nwoye advocates that
the consent of the client must be sought before administering the tests.
Nwoye (1993) sees malpractice as any professional misconduct or
any unreasonable lack of skill or fidelity in the performance of professional
duties, and so is actionable. The counsellor will be held for (1) criminal
liability when his actions give encouragement to the students/clients in
matters of which the school authority (law) is clearly opposed to. Therefore,
the counsellors utterances, behaviours and actions must be fully in line with
the provisions of the law and meet the ethical standards of the profession
(Nwoye, 1993). The Counselling Association of Nigeria (CASSON) should
address the issue of professional ethics.

Perceptions of the Counsellor and Guidance Services in the School


Inappropriate internalization of the proper meaning and place of
guidance and counselling in a typical school setting has made the principal
and teacher to underestimate the quantity and quality of time, attention and
support to be given to the counsellors for their professional role in the school
to be fully felt (Nwoye, 1993). To Nwoye, professional jealousy can easily
arise between the counsellor and other members of staff when they assume
that their positions among the students are being significantly undermined by
the presence and unguarded influence of the counsellor in their midst. Nwoye
cautions that the worst thing a Nigerian counsellor can allow to arise in the
school is the development of such jealousy. Otherwise, he is finished, both
himself and his guidance effort.
There is no way he can pretend to effectively survive in his job without
the positive attitude and unflinching cooperation of these personnel supporters
to his services in the school (Nwoye, 1993). Enhancing the cooperative
attitude of the head and those of other professionals, would ultimately
improve the funding for the school guidance services. Therefore, the presence

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of these counselling aids and devices can only be possible when the
counsellor first succeeds in carrying the support of these professional
colleagues to his side.

Perception of Guidance and Counselling as a Profession by Parents


Very often, parents of physically and mentally normal children tend to
believe that naturally their children would one day become responsible
irrespective of misbehaviours exhibited along the way. They seem to wait for
time for the natural transformation to take effect without any prodding. They
send their children to school to receive the kind of training they cannot give
them at home. They tend not to see their child in the wrong and therefore
over-protect the child. Parents are yet to fully appreciate the purpose and
benefit of counselling. To create the awareness and enlist the commitment of
parents to the school guidance programme, Umezulike and Eneasator (2012)
seek the use of the Parents Teachers Association (PTA), parents workshop,
and home visits, among others.

Perception of Guidance and Counselling as a Profession by the Society


The overall public or societal perception of guidance and counselling
as a profession has a strong bearing on the performance of the school
guidance counsellor as a professional. Counselling practice in Nigeria
contends with public ignorance of counselling and its benefiets (Oramah,
2015). As a result, counsellors must be ready to put up with the cynicism and
possible indifference from the public for some time. The change in public
perception requires massive campaign and advertisement through posters,
electronic and print media to create awareness in the minds of the people
(Oramah, 2015). Regrettably, the confinement of counselling to school
environment for a long period seems to have contributed to its palpably
unknown or non-existent status in the larger society (Oramah, 2015).
The society does not see the consequence of failure to take counselling
as strikingly obvious as in medicine or law. So the student with academic or
social problems may pass through the school system without caring about the
effect of those problems on his adult life. So the effect of counselling appears
not tangible enough for the society to bother about.
There is also lack of immediate response to counselling intervention.
In medicine, relief comes immediately, in law, court verdict is immediately
acted upon but the urgency seems not to be fully associated with counselling
even in the school setting.

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The public does not seem to be willing to pay for counselling services
as they do in other professional services. Many Nigerians still have recourse
to the traditional indiginous helpers to solve their problems (Oramah, 2015).
The religious groups offer free counselling services and the school
counselling services are free. The society appears to attach some value to
what they pay for.
The counsellor appears all knowing as one counsellor attends to the
multifarious needs of the students. The public does not seem to appreciate that
there are specializations necessitating referrals in counselling. They do not
seem to appreciate that the specialization attracts requisite trainings to make
counselling an integrated profession. So the problems of the school
counselling services are mere reflections of what the society seems to hold
forth.

Conclusion
The individual counsellors vary in their quality and characteristics.
This may have resulted from their subtle institutional preparation
backgrounds.
The physical and human components of the secondary school setting
pose varying challenges. The National Policy on Education has neither
streamlined the inter-relationships among the various school services
[guidance and counselling inclusive] nor made adequate provisions for
guidance and counselling services.
The multiplicity of students problems may overwhelm the school
guidance counsellor. The counsellor-student ratio of 1:1000 is challenging
without bothering to take into account the specialized needs of the students.
There are legal and ethical considerations of the job within which the
school guidance counsellor should operate without encumbrances. The
perceptions of the counsellor and the guidance and counselling services in the
school are such that the management, staff and students of the school may see
the counsellor in different lights some of which may be so divergent as to
bring about non-performance. Finally, the perception of guidance and
counselling as a profession by parents and the wider society is not helping
matters.

Recommendations
1. Professionalization of counselling practice demands that Counselling
Association of Nigeria [CASSON] should ensure that the different

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counselling programmes at different universities be streamlined, in


addition to NUCs accreditation efforts.
2. The Federal Government of Nigeria through the instrument of the
National Policy on Education should adequately provide for the school
guidance programme.
3. The National Policy on Education should ensure the availability of
referral agencies such as the technical colleges, the out of school
vocational training centres, and apprenticeship schemes into which
students who complete JSS shall be streamed as viable alternatives to
the senior secondary school option.
4. The National Policy on Education should appropriately fit the school
guidance services to streamline the school inter-relationships and chain
of command to give a new impetus to the guidance programme.
5. The school staff should be made to refer students with problems to the
counsellor for assistance and also encourage them to seek counselling.
6. The Counselling Association of Nigeria (CASSON) should address the
issue of professional ethics in the effort towards proffessionalization.
7. The Counselling Association of Nigeria (CASSON) and the Ministry
of Education at all levels should synergize to provide massive
enlightenment campaigns to create public awareness and enlist the
commitment of parents to the school guidance programme.

References
Achebe, C.C. (1988) (Ed) Theories of counselling: relevance to the Nigerian
situation. Amhest: Five College Black Studies Press
Essuman, J.K., Nwaogu, P.O. & Nwachukwu, V.C. (1990). Principles and
techniques of behaviour modification. Owerri: International
Universities Press.
Ivey, A. (1981) Counselling and psychotherapy: Toward a new perspective in
cross-cultural counselling and psychotherapy. New York: Pergamon.
Federal Govt. of Nigeria (2004). National policy on education (4th ed) Lagos:
NERDC Press
Nwoye, A. (1993). Introduction to Counselling Practicum (3rd ed) Jos: FAB
Education Book.
Okobiah, O.C. (1992) Practicum in counselling:training and supervision.
Nsukka: Hallman.
Okoye, N.N. (2001). Therapeutic skills in psychology and counselling. Awka:
Erudition Publishers.

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Oramah, E. U. (2015). Professionalization of counselling practice in Nigeria


through the Bill of the National Assembly: A Reflection of possible
implications. The Counsellor, 34 (1) pp. 78-87
Shaffer, L.F. & Shoben E.J. (Jr) (1956). Psychology of adjustment. Boston:
Houghtan Mifflin Company.
Shertzer, B. & Stone, S.C. (1980). Fundamentals of counselling (3rd Ed).
Boston: Houghtan Mifflin Company
Umezulike, R. Q. E. & Eneasator, E. U. (2012). Organization and
administration of SSSSS counselling services for the special
nd
needs (2 ed.). Onitsha: Ofona Publishers.
Wolman, B.B. (1975). Dictionary of behavioural sciences. Middlesex:
Penguin Books Ltd.

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JOVTE,Vol. 10 118-133,
pages No. 1, 2017
Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017

EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE GROWTH RATE ANALYSIS


OF CASSAVA PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA (1961-2013)

AKARUE, BLESSING OKIEMUTE


Department of Agricultural Science Education,
College of Education, Warri
P.M.B 1251,Warri.
Delta State, Nigeria.
+2348036690792, +2348177472483
blessingakarue4edu@gmail.com,
akarueb4edu@yahoo.com

Abstract
This study was carried out to provide empirical evidence on the growth rates of
cassava production in five sub periods in Nigeria namely after independence, pre
Structural Adjustment Programme period, Structural Adjustment Program period,
post Structural Adjustment Programme periods and all periods(1961-2013)..
Secondary data on cassava production in Nigeria during the aforementioned period
were utilized in this study. A growth rate model was used to estimate the growth
rates in the five sub periods. The results of the analysis indicated the instantaneous
growth rates of cassava production. The Instantaneous Growth rate (IGR) for area,
production were all significant at both 1% and 5% after the independence, pre
SAP , SAP ,post SAP and all periods, however for yield the pre-SAP and SAP
were not significant, the same result is likened for the compound growth rate
.Cassava production also experienced a wide variability in terms of area, yield and
production during the period under review. Therefore, SAP programme was all that
wonderful is made to believe in the economy but with the case of cassava, the
growth pattern showed a mixed result. However the sector needs an in-depth
analysis of the past reform programmes with a view to draw lessons for future
reforms.

Keywords: Growth, cassava , reforms, food security, Nigeria

Introduction
In the early 1960s, the growth of the Nigerian economy was driven by the
agricultural sector, but in the recent years, there has been a sharp decline in
the productivity Nigeria's agriculture . Agriculture contribution to the GDP
stood at an average of 56% between 1960 to 1964 declined to 47% between
1965 to 1969 and more rapidly to 32% from between 1996 to 1998 (Goni and
Baba, 2007). The agricultural sector's changing share of GDP is partly a
reflection of the relative productivity of the sector.

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Cassava (manihot spp) is a major and common root crops grown in West
Africa especially in Nigeria. It is generally simple to cultivate, requiring next
to no special consideration. (Nsoanya and Nenna ,2011). In a similar vein
Ayoade, Akintonade and Oyelere(2012) opined that cassava is one of the vital
staple food crops in Tropical Africa and its efficient production of food
energy, year round availability and its ability to withstand harsh weather
condition makes it really suitable for farming and food system in Nigeria.
Cassava production contribute immensely in reducing poverty in Nigeria, as
nearly every household consume cassava or its product and by product a day.
Therefore, it can be said that cassava plays a very prominent role in
addressing food security, poverty alleviation, rural urban drift and reducing
unemployment among others (Okpukpara, 2006). The Obasanjo
administration in acknowledgment of the advantage of cassava, facilitated
some initiatives to make sure that cassava export is regarded as one of the non
oil - export so as to increase the nations foreign exchange (Asadu,
2006).However this increase in cassava export has negatively affected local
supply and has manifested in high prices of cassava and its derivatives. Also
of late, the Obasanjo's administration placed much emphasis on cassava
production in all the states of the country by reason of the variety of uses it
could be put to. More specifically, Presidents Initiative of US$5 billion a
year by 2007, thus by the end of 2006 an average of about 150 million tonnes
of cassava and this is a function of expansion cultivation to between 3 to 5
million from the current 2 million hectares (ha) with an average yield of 30
tonnes per ha.
The Federal Ministry of Agriculture (2012) estimated that the annual supply
of food crops (including rice) would have to increase at an average annual
rate of 5.9% to meet food demand, and reduced food importation
significantly. However the reality is that inspite of increasing hectares put into
cassava production in Nigeria, its attainment of self-sufficiency in cassava
production has not been achieved.(CBN, 2012). In Nigeria agricultural
development has been slow inspite of the various agricultural policies set up
by various successive government to remedy poor situation of agricultural
sector. According to Usman (2005), the Nigerian government in a bid to
increase food production introduced several policy reforms for example, the
Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) presented in July 1986, which was part
of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) induced structural economic
reforms whose main focus is liberalization among others, with the notion that
the weaknesses of economics of control trade will prevent the satisfaction in

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the advantage of openness. As noted by Child (2008), the main reason of


implementing structural adjustment in the agricultural sector was to increase
agricultural production and export of agricultural products which by
implication will contribute to improvement in the growth of the economy.
Despite these initiatives the agricultural sector still experience slow growth
rate and a lot of issues, such as the role of agriculture in supplying adequate
raw materials to a growing industrial sector, its roles as a major source of
foreign exchange earner against others. The recent calls for diversification has
thus necessitated the examination of the growth of the agricultural sector
under these policy regimes. Based on the foregone this study was pattered to
provide an empirical comparative information on the growth rates of cassava
production in Nigeria from 1961 to 2013 which would be relevant for future
policy formulation, implementation and evaluation in Nigeria.

Research Objectives
The broad objective of this study is to carry out an Empirical
assessment of the growth rate analysis of cassava production in Nigeria
(1961-2013. The specific objectives of this study are to; establish the trend in
output growth in Cassava production under different policy regimes,
determine the variations in Cassava production (yield, output and harvested
area) with a view to identify the effect of policy regime on palm oil
production stability, to test for differences in the variation of Cassava output
and examine the acceleration or deceleration in the growth performance in
output of Cassava under different policy regimes .

Materials and Methods


Area of Study
The study was carried out in Nigeria. Nigeria lies between latitude 40 and 140
North of the equator and longitudes 30 and 140 East of the Greenwich
meridian. This is entirely within the tropical zone. Nigeria has a land area of
923,768.00 sq kilometers ; a north-south length of about 1 450 km and a west-
east breadth of about 800 km. Its total land boundary is 4 047 km while the
coastline is 853 km.

Source of Data for the Study


Time series secondary data used to study the variations and growth rates were
obtained from (Faostat,2010), the data covered harvested area, yield and
output of Cassava from 1961-2013.Cassava was purposively chosen based on

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the availability of data and its importance as one of the Agricultural


transformational crop (ATA).

Method of Data Analysis


Various analytical tools were used in the course of this study in achieving the
various objectives

Analytical Framework
Objective (i) Seeks to estimate the growth trend in the production of cassava
under different policy regimes within the period under study. The growth
model used was adopted by Gujarati,(2003); Khalid and Burhan,(2006);
Shadmehri (2008) Khan, et al (2008) , Oyinbo and Yusuf(2012) ,and Sadiq
(2014).

Model Specification
In doing this the log-linear equation used which was developed from
the compound interest formula and taking its logarithm, the explicit form of
the model becomes :
lnYt= a0 + a1t +ut..................................(1)
Where:
InYt = natural logarithm time series for output of cassava (000 tonnes)
t= Time trend (1961 to 1969,1970 to 1985, 1986 to 1994 ,1995 to 2013 and 1961-2013)
a0= constant term,
a1= Coefficient of time variable,
ut= Random term
The compound rate of growth(CGR) was computed by using the formula in
equ 2:
CGR=(antilog a1-1)*100 ............( 2)
Where:
CGR = compound rate of growth,
a1= estimated coefficient from equation,
e = eulars exponential constant (=2.71828) (Sawant, 1983)

Objective (ii) Variations In Yield, Area And Output


The coefficient of variation was used to measure the variability in this study.
According to Sadiq(2014) the coefficient of variability (CV) measure
instability and it is a normalized measure of dispersion and it is given as the
ratio of standard deviation () to the mean ().The higher instability is
obtained when a higher value from zero is achieved. Ghosh(2010) opined that

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the choice of the Coefficient of variation was informed by the reason that
enables the comparison of means that differ widely from each period.
S tan dardDeviation
CV(%) = 100 --------------------------------------------------(3)
mean( )

Objective (iii) Test For Differences In The Variation of Cassava Output


In this, crop production is believed to vary overtime, and also across the
periods(regimes), and one of the useful test is the Kruskal-Wallis .The
hypothesis is stated as follows:
H0: Sub-period CVs with respect to area, yield and output of cassava are
identical.
H1: Sub-period CVs with respect to area, yield and output of cassava are not
identical.
The Kruskal-Wallis test uses the sum of ranks for CVs of the five sub-periods
for cassava and is calculated as shown in equ 4:
Kruskal-Wallis test:
12 R12 R22 R33 R44 R55
H= + + + + 3(n + 1) -----------------------------(4)

n(n + 1) n1 n2 n3 n 4 n5

Where: k= The number of population (here sub-periods),


ni = The number of observation in the sample i and,
Ri = Dummy of ranks for sample i
Objective (iv) Seeks to examine the acceleration or deceleration in the
growth performance in terms of yield, output and harvested area of Cassava
under different policy regimes .
In order to achieve this objective the quadratic model used by Oyenweanku
(2004); Oyenweanku and Okeye, (2005),Marchenko (2009), Ghosh , (2010),
Maikasuwa, and Ala (2013),Sadiq(2014) and Akarue (2015) was adopted
.The model is as follows:
LogYt = ao+a1ti+ a2ti2 +ut-----------------------------------------------------------(5)
where a0, a1 and a2 are parameters to be estimated and are as explained in
equ1.The linear and quadratic time terms indicate the circular path in the
dependent variable (Yt). The quadratic time variable (t2) enables the
determination if there was acceleration, deceleration or stagnation in cassava
production during the period under study. The main concern here is the
coefficient of ti2( a2 ) which shows a measure of the growth pattern following.
The decision rule is that :

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If a2 >0 and statistically significant, it implies that there is acceleration in


growth,
If a2<0 and statistically significant, it implies that there is deceleration in
growth, and
If a2 is either positive or negative but not statistically significant, it implies
that there is stagnation in growth .

Results and Discussion


Growth trends of Cassava production
The result in Table 1 shows that time variable was significant in influencing
area harvested, yield and production of cassava at 1 percent in the five regime
respectively except for the case of yield after independence pre SAP and
SAP periods. In the estimated growth rate model, the slope coefficients for
after independence ,pre SAP, SAP, post SAP and all periods respectively
measures relative changes in production of cassava for a given change in the
value of time trend. By multiplying the relative changes in cassava variables
for after independence ,pre SAP, SAP, post SAP and all periods
respectively by hundred, we obtained the percentage change or the growth
rate for an absolute change in time.

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Table 1: Regression Estimates of linear equation in time trend variable


for Cassava Production in Nigeria.
Statistical tools Area Yield Production
AFTER INDEPENDENCE
Constant (0) 5.897 4.961 6.858
Time trend (1) 0.008* -0.003* 0.011*
R2 0.601 0.139 1.000
Growth rate(%) 0.8 -0.3 1.10
Compound Growth rate(%) 0.8 -0.3 1.10
PRE-SAP
Constant (0) 5.956 5.022 6.978
Time trend (1) 0.009* -0.002N.S 0.006*
R2 0.724 0.126 0.525
Growth rate(%) 0.9 -0.2 0.60
Compound Growth rate(%) 0.9 -0.2 0.60
SAP
Constant (0) 5.979 5.054 7.033
Time trend (1) 0.059* -.004N.S 0.056*
R2 0.937 0.272 0.962
Growth rate(%) 5.90 -0.40 5.60
Compound Growth rate(%) 5.90 -0.40 5.60
POST -SAP
Constant (0) 6.470 4.982 7.452
Time trend (1) 0.006* 0.007* 0.014*
R2 0.604 0.566 0.838
Growth rate(%) 0.60 0.70 1.40
Compound Growth rate(%) 0.60 0.70 1.40
ALL PERIOD
Constant (0) 5.805 4.964 6.769
Time trend (1) 0.016* 0.002* 0.018*
R2 0.910 0.460 0.938
Growth rate(%) 1.60 0.20 1.80
Compound Growth rate(%) 1.61 0.20 1.82
Source: Computed from time-series data, 1961-2013
Note: *, ** and *** implies statistically significant at 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10
probability levels respectively. Ns: not statistically significant

The Instantaneous Growth rate (IGR) of 0.80%, 0.9%, 5.9% ,0.6% and
1.60 % for after the independence, pre SAP , SAP ,post SAP and all
periods respectively implies that over the period, 1961-1969,1970 1985,
1986 1994,1995 2013,and 1961-2013 the area harvested output of cassava
in Nigeria increased at the rate of 0.80%, 0.9%, 5.9% ,0.6% and 1.60 % per
annum.
The R2 value ranged from 0.61 to 0.937 for all the periods under study
, thus a minimum of about 61% of the variation in cassava area harvested over

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the period under review was explained by variation in time. The result also
indicated all the b1 were positive and statistically significant (p<0.01), The
coefficient of the trend variable, b1, in the growth model shows that there is a
slow process of growth in area harvested of cassava during the period
excerpt for the SAP period were the growth rate was about 5.9%.
The Instantaneous Growth rate (IGR) of -0.30%, -0.2%, -0.4% ,0.7%
and 0.2% for after the independence, pre SAP , SAP ,post SAP and all
periods respectively implies that over the period, 1961-1969,1970 1985,
1986 1994,1995 2013,and 1961-2013 the yield of cassava in Nigeria
increased at the rate of -0.30%, -0.2%, -0.4% ,0.7% and 0.2% per annum.
The R2 value ranged from 0.139 to 0.566 for all the periods under
study , thus a minimum of about 13.9% of the variation in cassava yield over
the period under review was explained by variation in time. The result also
indicated all the b1 were positive and negative with statistically significant
(p<0.01) only during the Post-SAP and all period, The coefficient of the trend
variable, b1, in the growth model shows that majority of the b1 were negative
and a slow process of growth in yield of cassava.
The Instantaneous Growth rate (IGR) of 1.10%, 0.6%, 5.6% ,1.40%
and 1.80 % for after the independence, pre SAP , SAP ,post SAP and all
periods respectively implies that over the period, 1961-1969,1970 1985,
1986 1994,1995 2013,and 1961-2013 the output of cassava in Nigeria
increased at the rate of 1.10%, 0.6%, 5.6% ,1.40% and 1.80 % per annum.
The R2 value ranged from 0.525 to 1.00 for all the periods under study
, thus a minimum of about 52.5% of the variation in cassava output over the
period under review was explained by variation in time. The result also
indicated all the b1 were positive and statistically significant (p<0.01), The
coefficient of the trend variable, b1, in the growth model shows that there is a
slow process of growth in output of cassava during the period excerpt for the
SAP period were the growth rate was about 5.76%.
This findings is at variance with the finding of Ammani (2012) where
the instantaneous growth rates and compound growth rates for oil palm
within 1970-2007 with an instantaneous growth rates and compound growth
rates of -0.2% respectively, but was in agreement with in case of cotton with
where an instantaneous growth rates of 3.5% and compound growth rates of
7% within the same period was obtained.
Alabi and Erie (2010) noted that SAP has significant effect on fish
export, but it has not significantly increased fish production and decreased
fish importation in Nigeria. But according to Etolue (2012) and Oyinbo and

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Emmanuel (2012) they reported that for cassava and rice respectively the
growth rates were higher in the SAP period than the Pre-SAP and Post -SAP
periods. The implication of theses result demonstrated that the policy reform
during the SAP period was good in guaranteeing expanded cassava and maize
production in Nigeria and thus it was misleading to believe that SAP was a
complete failure. The result also indicates that the pre-SAP period had the
highest positive growth rate, however this is at variance with Yusuf and Sheu
(2007) who in their study using three different period,1961 and 2003; 1986
2003, and 1991-2003). These eras were utilized to simulate the distinctive
policy periods of Regulation, Liberalization and Structural Adjustment
period. In general, output of citrus and mango kept up upward pattern
throughout the years. In any case, Structural Adjustment era experienced the
highest growth rate.
. The findings was also in agreement with Akpan, Ini-mfon , Patrick,
and John(2012),the result of their work shows that some cash crop
productions were boosted during the Green Revolution period (1980-1985).
For instance, outputs of groundnut, cocoa and coffee indicated an improved
growth rate compared to the previous policy period. Contrarily Cotton,
Rubber and palm Oil output growth rates deteriorated during this period., but
their findings is at variance with result from the Structural Adjustment
Programme (SAP) period (1986-1993), where some cash crops production
(cotton, groundnut, cocoa, rubber and Oil palm) witness improved positive
growth rate compared to the immediate previous policy period. However
despite this result ,coffee output had a negative growth rate during this period
with the outputs of cotton (38.7%) and Rubber (35.7%) highly unstable ,while
Oil palm exhibited minimal instability compared to other cash crop during
this period with a growth rate of 6.6%.
The result of this work is in agreement with that Akpan et al (2012)
whose findings indicated that during the PSAP era (1994-2010) the outputs of
Cocoa, Rubber and Coffee had negative growth rates. One likely reason for
this poor result is the effect of human activity such as urbanization which is
encroaching into plantation estates of most cash crop enterprises in the
country. Cotton (5.45%), groundnuts (4.14%), and oil palm fruit (1.01%)
witnessed reduce growth rate compared to the immediate policy period.

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Table 2: Instability analysis of Cassava production in Nigeria


Statistical tools Area Yield Production
AFTER INDEPENDENCE
Arithmetic mean (000 tonnes) 869000.00 94330.56 8190888.89
Standard deviation 57251.638 94330.56 560426.276
Coefficient of variability (%) 4.98 4.53 6.84
PRE -SAP
Arithmetic mean (000 tonnes) 1078187.50 100480.88 10786750.00
Standard deviation 118811.458 7785.214 1013900.422
Coefficient of variability (%) 11.02 7.75 9.40
SAP
Arithmetic mean (000 tonnes) 2008989.78 108659.22 21607889.78
Standard deviation 746706.301 4912.179 7455838.198
Coefficient of variability (%) 37.17 4.52 34.51
POST-SAP
Arithmetic mean (000 tonnes) 3443995.79 113798.26 39402520.26
Standard deviation 359091.142 14277.839 7878052.714
Coefficient of variability (%) 10.43 12.55 19.99
ALL-PERIOD
Arithmetic mean (000 tonnes) 2048845.81 105599.42 22441979.11
Standard deviation 1173583.036 12279.774 14579324.200
Coefficient of variability (%) 57.28 11.63 64.97
Source: Authors computation from time-series data, 1961-2013

Table 2 presents the variation in cassava area harvested, yield and output, the
highest variability (instability) catches the whole study time frame for each
variable except for yield. Besides, SAP and Post -SAP with respect to area
harvested and yield were the most unstable periods, thus this confirms a
widening instabilities across the variables during the period under study.
However Antia -Obong et al(2013) reported that in the case of oil palm with
respect to variation in harvested area, yield and output, the highest variability
(instability) captures study period 1961-2007. Also they noted that apart from
, the 1961-1969, 1994-2007 and 1961-1969 with respect to harvested area,
yield and output were the most unstable periods, their results thus reflect a
widening instabilities across the variables under study .Sadiq(2014) reported
that there were fluctuations in production, area and productivity of rice
production in Nigeria during the pre-SAP, SAP and post-SAP period. He
noted that with regards to production and area during the pre-SAP and SAP
period where relatively higher when compared to post-SAP period, thus

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indicating that there were relatively higher instability during the periods
before post-SAP for rice production .

Test For Differences In The Variation Of Cassava production : Kruskal-


Wallis Test
Table 3: Estimated Kruskal-Wallis tests for variations between periods of
area, output and yield of cassava.
Period Pre- Pre-Sap Sap Post-Sap All-
Independence R1 R2 R3 R4 Period R5
N 3 3 3 3 3
Rank Sum 9 19 26 28 38
Rank Mean 3 6.33 8.67 9.33 12.67
H=Chi-Square 7.767
Chi-Square(df.4) 0.101
Source: Authors own calculation based on Faostat data. R1 = Sum of ranks in
the period 1961-1969; R2 = Sum of ranks in the period 1970-1985; R3 = Sum
of ranks in the period 1986-1993; R4 = sum of the ranks in period 1994- 2007
and R5 = sum of the ranks in period 1961-2013
. ** = significance at 5% level Chi-square at 0.05 with 4 degrees of freedom.

The results of the kruskal-Wallis test is displayed on table 2, the results vary
significantly as indicated by 2(4) = 7.767, p = 0.101,at k-1 degrees of
freedom, where k =5 sub-periods. As such, we fail to reject the alternative
hypothesis at the 5 % level of significance, thereby signifying general
instability in cassava production for the periods under study.

4.2. Acceleration, Deceleration and Stagnation in Cassava Production


To investigate for the existence of acceleration or deceleration or stagnation
in growth of cassava with respect to area harvested ,yield and production
using the quadratic equation Results in Table 4 shows that the values of the
coefficients of t2 variable for after independence are -0.001,-0.001 and -
3.46iE-005 for area harvested ,yield and production, all being not significant
at 5%, this confirms a stagnation of growth. However in the case of the pre-
SAP period the coefficients of t2 were -0.001,-0.001 and 0.000 for area
harvested ,yield and production ,all being not significant at 0.001 probability
level except for area in the pre-SAP. The significance of the coefficients of
the t2 variable is a confirmation of significant accelerative growth in area, and
stagnative growth in for yield and production respectively. Furthermore the
results also reveals the coefficients of t2 variable for SAP were -0.001, ,

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1.536E-005 and -0.001 area harvested ,yield and production, all being not
significant at 0.001 probability level. The non-significance of the coefficients
of the t2 variable is a confirmation of stagnative growth in area, yield and
production. The results also shows that for post-SAP for area harvested ,yield
and production, area and yield being significant at 5% and 1% probability
level respectively, while production was not significant with-0.001, 0.001 and
0.000 respectively . The significance of the coefficients of the t2 variable is a
confirmation of decelerative growth in area, and yield while a stagnative
growth rate for production. Finally, the result in table 4 shows the coefficients
of t2 variable for all period are 7.046E-005, 4.921E-005 and 0.000 for area,
yield and production, all being significant at 0.005 probability level except for
area . The result confirm a significant decelerative growth in yield and
production. This findings is however related to the result reported by
Onyenweaku (2004) who confirms a stagnative growth rate for rice in pre-
SAP period. Tanko et al. (2010) also reported a significant decelerative
growth rate in production, area and productivity for rice in SAP period,but at
variance with the findings of Sadiq(2014) on rice. Colman and Okorie (1998)
are of the opinion that the oil boom came with a distortion in the labour
market and had an adverse effect on production levels. Government had paid
farmers low prices over the years in order to satisfy the domestic market and
encourage demand for affordable food. This approach made agricultural work
less attractive and encouraged rural-urban migration and the resultant effect is
very clear to all stakeholders which is seen in the decelerative or stagnative
growth rate..

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Table 4. Regression Estimates of Quadratic equation in time trend


variable for Cassava Production in Nigeria.
Statistical tools Area Yield Production
AFTER INDEPENDENCE
Constant (a0) 5.883 4.474 6.857
Time trend (a1) .016N.S 0.005 N.S 0.011*
Time trend squared (a2) -.001 N.S 0.001 N.S -3.461E-005N.S
R2 0.627 .191 1.00
PRE-SAP
Constant (a0) 5.905 5.050 6.955
Time trend (a1) 0.026* -0.012 N.S .014**
Time trend squared (a2) -0.001* 0.001 N.S .000N.S
R2 0.884 0.236 0.569
SAP
Constant (a0) 5.953 5.054** 7.008
Time trend (a1) 0.073** -.004 N.S .069*
Time trend squared (a2) 1.536E-005
-0.001N.S N.S -.001N.S
R2 0.939 .029 0.965
POST SAP
Constant (a0) 6.434 5.050** 7.484
Time trend (a1) 0.017 -.012** .004N.S
Time trend squared (a2) -0.001 .001** .000 N.S
R2 0.695 .820 .860
ALL-PERIOD
Constant (a0) 5.840 4.988 6.828
Time trend (a1) .012* -.001 N.S .012*
Time trend squared (a2) 4.921E-
7.046E-005 .000**
005**
R2 0.913 0.508 0.946
Source: Computed from time-series data, 1961-2013
Note: *, ** and *** implies statistically significant at 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10
probability levels respectively.
Ns: not statistically significant

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation


As earlier mentioned the instantaneous growth rates and compound growth
rates of cassava production in the after independence, pre SAP, SAP ,post
SAP and all periods in Nigeria were estimated with the aid of the growth rate
model. The estimated functions in time trend variable indicated a mixed
trends. There were also variations in cassava production. Furthermore,
cassava production during the after independence and SAP period
experienced significant deceleration in growth which can be traced to the
unstable government policies. The implication of the growth rate of cassava

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being higher in the post-SAP era as compared to the after independence, pre
SAP era and post SAP era with the notion that the policy reforms during
those period were not favourable in ensuring increased cassava production in
Nigeria, thus corroborates the findings of Oyakhilomen and Emmanuel (2012)
that SAP was a complete failure and ruse is factual. This research work
however authenticate the results of NCEMA (2003) who noted a mixed
performance of Structural Adjustment Programme in the Nigeria. More study
needs to be conducted based on time frame and also the type of crop.

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JOVTE, Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017

THE EFFECT OF INVENTORY CONTROL ON PROFITABILITY OF


MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN NIGERIA

1
NNUBIA, INNOCENT CHUKWUEBUKA; 2OMALIKO EMEKA L.;
3
OKECHI NETOCHIKWU VANESSA & 4ETUKA, CHINELO EUNICE
1,3,4
Department of Accountancy, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu
University, Igbariam Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.
2
Anambra State College of Agriculture, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
1
+2348069207977, nnubiae@yahoo.com, 2+2348064387838,
omalikoemeka@gmail.com, 3+2348069574654, vanessaokechi@yahoo.com,
4
+2347031981666.

Abstract
The study examined the effect of inventory control on profitability of manufacturing
companies listed on the Nigeria Stock Exchange (NSE) from 2011-2015. The study
has four specific objectives to achieve, four research questions that guided the study
and four null hypotheses were formulated. The study used ex-post factor and survey
type of descriptive research design. Five firms were selected from the Nigeria Stock
Exchange (NSE). Ordinary Least Square (OLS) stated in the form of multiple
regressions was used to analyze the data collected. The study revealed that Raw
material has positive significant effect on profitability using Return on Asset (ROA)
as profitability indices at 5% level of significance; inventory conversion period has
significant effect on profitability at 5% level of significance, inventory turnover has
significant effect on profitability at 5% level of significance, storage cost has a
negative insignificant effect on profitability with a percentage of 93.6%.Therefore,
effective management of raw material inventory is a major factor to be considered
by Nigeria manufacturers in enhancing or boosting their profitability.

Key words: Inventory, Inventory Control, Profitability, Manufacturing


Companies, Nigeria.

Introduction
In any manufacturing company nearly 60% to 70% of the total funds
employed are tied-up in current asset, of which inventory is the most
significant component (Carter, 2002). In the cost structure of most of the
product, raw materials constitute about 50% of the budgeting and control of
material (Zanto, 2008). Inventory control implies the coordination of
materials controlling, utilization and purchasing. It has also the purpose of
getting the right inventory at the right place, in the right time, with the right
quantity because it is directly connected with the production (Kwadwo, 2015).
The objective of every organization is to get good return out of every naira
invested in the company. According to Pandey (2005), management through
their policies, coordination, decisions and control mechanisms must maximize

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their return on investment (ROI). Miller (2010) opines that inventory control
involves all activities put in place to ensure that customers have the needed
product of service.
In the market situation, sales price cannot be increased (rather there is a
demand to reduce it) and as such profit can be increased only by reducing the
material cost. On the other hand, opportunity to reduce the overheads and
capital employed is more by inventory reduction (Drury, 2002). It is thus
evident that the return on investment (ROI) can be maximized by either
reducing the material cost or reducing the current assets by way of inventory
of materials or can be optimized by increasing profit. Inventory control is
pivotal in effective and efficient organization. It is also vital in the control of
materials and goods that have to be held (or stored) for later use in the case of
production or later exchange activities in the case of services. The principal
goal of inventory control involves having to balance the conflicting
economics of not wanting to hold too much stock (Dervitsiotos, 1981).
Wanke (2000), states that inventory control approaches are a function of
product, operational and demand related variables such as delivery time,
obsolescence, coefficient of variation of sales and inventory turnover and that
logistics managers are more likely to decentralize inventory in order to stock
product close to the customers facilities, if the customers demand a reduced
delivery time. Graman (2003) argued that today the cost of holding inventory,
extensive product proliferation and the risk of obsolescence, especially in
rapidly changing market make the expense of holding large inventories of
finished goods excessive and that high demand items naturally have safety
stock assigned to them, but in many organizations there are so many very low
demand items that keeping any stock of these items is unreasonably
expensive. So they argue that companies must now provide good service
while maintaining minimal inventories. Therefore inventory management
control approaches are essential aspect of any organization.
The effective and efficient functioning of a productive system requires the
regular demand and supply of inventories at the input transformation and
output phases of the production process (Sprague and Wacker, 2012).
Inventory control can be seen as the method of assuring that the right quantity
and quality of the relevant stock is available at the right time and in the right
place. Inventory control otherwise known as stock control means a lot for the
survivability of any business. Firms need inventory in one form or the order to
carry out its day-to-day activities and as such the need to have the inventory at
the required time, quality, quantity, and under proper condition can never be

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overemphasized. Financial managers have the responsibility both for raising


capital needed to carry inventory and for the firms overall profitability. The
goal of inventory control is to ensure that the inventory needed to sustain
operations are available, both to hold the cost of ordering and carrying
inventory at the lowest possible level. There is always pressure to reduce
inventories as part of firms cost containment strategy and many firms are
taking drastic steps to control inventory cost (Brigham & Daves, 2004).
Profit is the excess of revenue over revenue expenditure in a given trading
period, say in calendar year, while profitability means the measure of the
ability of the firm to earn profit (Huynh, 2011). It is expressed as a ratio
measuring the rate of some profit which is benchmarked against some base
measurement or variable of reference such as total assets, equity, non-
financial assets, gross profit, investment, net capital employed and other
appropriate variables (Idiko and Tamas, 2009). Therefore, profitability means
ability to make profit from all the business activities of an organization,
company, firm or an enterprise. It shows how efficiently the management can
make profit by using all the resources available in the market.
Return on Asset (ROA) evaluates firms ability in profit making according to
total investments in assets (Babalola, 2013). It is one of the most important
profitability ratios and indicates management performance regarding firms
resources and assets calculated by dividing net profit by total assets. Return
on Asset is a financial ratio that shows the percentage of profit that a company
earns in relation to its overall resources. It is commonly defined as net income
(or Pretax profit)/total asset. According to Babalola (2013), ROA is calculated
as the net profit after tax divided by total assets and indicates the returns
generated from the assets financed by the firm.
Inventory is the quantity of goods or materials in the control of an enterprise
and held for a time in a relatively idle or unproductive state, awaiting its
intended use or sale (Love, 1979). Inventory is one of the most important
items in the retail units and retailers emphasizes on inventory productivity to
develop their competitiveness (Babalola, 2013). Inventory as the main item in
business and manufacturing companies plays an important role in corporate
profitability. Proper management on inventory and sales policies can maintain
a business unit in competition market or eliminate it. The purpose of
inventory productivity is the proper use of inventory to earn profits. So the
inventory plays an important role in getting return for investors.
Inventory conversion period or cycle is the amount of time in days that a
producing company requires to purchase raw materials, manufacture them and

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sell the finished goods (Hillier et al, 2010).The number of days inventory or
inventory holding period is the time lag between purchasing materials,
manufacturing and selling the finished goods (Hillier, Rose, Westerfield,
Jaffe, and Jordan, 2010). The inventory holding period is given by raw
material conversion period plus work-in-progress conversion period plus
finished goods conversion period. Therefore, the inventory conversion period
is greatly influenced by the efficiency and effectiveness of the manufacturing
process and the selling process.
Panigrahi (2013) has examined the relationship between inventory conversion
period and firms profitability and the result indicates that there is a significant
negative linear relationship between inventory conversion period and
profitability. The number of days inventory or inventory holding period is the
time lag between purchasing materials, manufacturing and selling the finished
goods (Hillier, Rose, Westerfield, Jaffe, and Jordan, 2010). The inventory
holding period is given by raw material conversion period plus work-in-
progress conversion period plus finished goods conversion period. Therefore,
the inventory conversion period is greatly influenced by the efficiency and
effectiveness of the manufacturing process and the selling process. The time
taken to produce a given quantity of goods depends on the nature of the
product and the type of technology used in the production process .The
activity of making a sale depends on the completeness and readiness of the
product to satisfy customers needs and wants. A firm may minimize costs
associated with holding large amounts of inventory by adopting efficient
stock control systems such as Just-Time System. Reducing inventory to just
the optimal level reduces the cost of obsolescence, opportunity cost of excess
working capital tied up on excess inventory and stock holding cost. On the
other hand, excessive inventory may reduce stock-out cost and lost goodwill
of the firm. The number of days inventory or inventory conversion period is
calculated by diving average inventories by the cost of goods sold per day
(Huynh, 2011). Gamze, Ahmet and Emin (2012) conducted a study on the
effect of working capital on firms performance. The study was based on a
sample of 75 manufacturing firms listed on Istanbul Stock Exchange Market
for the period 2002-2009 with the aim of investigating the relationship
between working capital management components and Istanbul firms
performance by using dynamic panel data analysis. The study did not find
any relationship between the number of days inventory and the profitability.
However in a similar research conducted in Cyprus for the period between
1998 and 2007, the number of days inventory was found to be negatively

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related to profitability. This is in conformity with the findings obtained by


Raheman and Nasr (Lazaridis & Tryfonidis, 2006; Amarjit, Biger and Neill,
2010; Jayarathne, 2014).
Inventory Turnover and Profitability, Okwo, Enekwe and Ugwunta (2012)
studied the effect of financial management as a determinant of profitability
and discovered that inventory management bears a negative relationship with
profit maximization. Saravanan (2012), in a research showed that how low
and high inventory turnover affect demand shocks. They studied 460
companies' data in a 25-year period. Their findings suggest that high
inventory turnover quickly is answered by changes in the purchase amount
and low inventory turnover is answered by changes in prices. Shan (2010)
investigated the relationship between the structure of the supply chain,
inventory turnover and financial performance of Chinese companies. The
findings suggest that in Chinese industrial firms, poor performance and strong
operational performance is related to suppliers and customers and Chinese
industrial companies' profitability importantly depends on the performance of
inventory of these companies. Hamid and Zahra (2014) studied the
relationship between inventory turnover and gross profit margin in listed
companies in Tehran Stock Exchange, to investigate the hypothesis test, using
the regression; we will estimate the research model by dependent and
independent variables. To test the hypothesis, cumulative data of 79
companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange for the years 1386 to 1391 and
software Eviews6 has been used. The results indicate that there is a significant
inverse relationship between the variable of gross profit margin and inventory
turnover. The results also indicate no significant relationship between
variables of sales shocks and inventory turnover.

Statement of the Problem


The primary concern of every manager of inventory control is to provide the
right goods, in the right condition at the right place and at the right time.
Improper control of inventory can result in a lot of problems to the company
such problem can be theft, damaged, obsolescence, improper stock recording,
mismanagement which will invariably end to the reduction of profit and
increase in additional cost.
Kwadwo (2015), investigates the impact of efficient inventory management
on profitability of selected manufacturing firms in Ghana. The result of his
study revealed that the main variable raw material inventory management
designed to capture the effect of efficient control of raw material inventory by

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a company on its profitability is significantly strong and positive and impacts


on the profitability of manufacturing firms. The result was in line with the
findings of Eneje, Nweze& Udeh (2012); which studied the effect of
inventory control on profitability of selected brewery firms in Nigeria
between the period of (1989-2008) and found out that the focal variable raw
materials inventory control designed to capture the effect of efficient control
of raw material inventory by a company on its profitability is significantly
strong and positive and impact on the profitability of brewery firms in
Nigeria. Both previous researches made use of similar inventory control
variables such as Raw material, Storage cost, Foreign exchange, Maintenance
repairs and Operating Supplies. However, the present study tends not only to
further the study from a period of (2010-2014), but to further their study by
introducing new variables of inventory control such as inventory turnover and
inventory conversion period in other to ascertain the current trend of effect of
newly introduced variables on profitability of selected manufacturing
companies in Nigeria.

Objectives of the Study


The main objective of this study is to determine the effect of inventory control
on profitability of selected manufacturing companies in Nigeria. Other
specific objectives are to:
Ascertain the effect of raw material on profitability of manufacturing
companies in Nigeria.
Determine the effect of storage cost on profitability of manufacturing
companies in Nigeria.
Investigate the effect of inventory conversion period on profitability of
manufacturing companies in Nigeria.
Examine the effect of inventory turnover on profitability of
manufacturing companies in Nigeria.

Research Questions
The following research questions have been postulated to carry out the
research effectively.
To what extent does raw material affect profitability of manufacturing
companies in Nigeria?
How far does storage cost influence profitability of manufacturing
companies in Nigeria?

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To what extent does is inventory conversion period affect profitability


of manufacturing companies in Nigeria?
To what degree does Inventory turnover affect profitability of
manufacturing companies in Nigeria?

Research Hypotheses
For the purpose of this study, the following hypotheses have been postulated.
There is no significant relationship between raw material and
profitability of manufacturing companies in Nigeria.
There is no significant relationship between storage cost and
profitability of manufacturing companies in Nigeria.
There is no significant relationship between inventory conversion
period and profitability of manufacturing companies in Nigeria.
There is no significant relationship between Inventory turnover and
profitability of manufacturing companies in Nigeria.

Significance of the Study


The relevance of this study lies in the ability to fill an identified gap and
contribute to existing literature in the subject area, previous empirical studies
conducted on the Nigeria environment do not cover information elicited from
the most recent period of study. This study covers the period 2010-2014; the
study will be of great benefit to the following categories of people:
researchers; government; shareholders and potential investor; and
management of manufacturing companies. This study will provide
government with proof of financial performance of manufacturing company
which will serve as a basis for either increasing or reducing the tax levied on
the respective manufacturing companies. It will assist shareholders and
potential investors in identifying investment approaches, pursuing available
investment opportunity and reducing the probability of high value losses in
the manufacturing sector. This research will assist management in reducing
cost associated with inventory such as storage cost, handling cost, labour cost
through the various inventory control system. This study will also assist the
management in accurate planning, to stay ahead of the demand curve because
it ensures the right quantity of the product is readily available.

Methodology
In the course of this study, ex-post facto research design was adopted. This
study made use of secondary data. Simple Random Sampling was used to

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select five manufacturing companies out of the population of 163


manufacturing firms listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) as at 2016.
The firms include: PzCusson Nigeria Plc., Lafarge Cement Nigeria Plc., UAC
Foods Plc, Neimeth Pharmaceuticals Plc., and Cadbury Nigeria Plc. This
study used a cross-sectional design from which it used descriptive analysis to
analyze its data. The sample period is 2010-2014.

Model Specification
According to the method of data collection, the hypotheses were tested using
multiple regressions. Multiple regressions which are estimated with the
Ordinary Least Square (OLS) are done to explain the effect of inventory
control on profitability. Pearson correlation co-efficient was also employed in
analyzing the data set for the validation of the strength and direction of a
relationship between variables and also for the test of multi-colinearity of the
regressors. Regression analysis is concerned with the study of the dependence
of one variable on one or more other variables called the explanatory or
(independent) variable. Specifically, the following linear regression model
was applied.
ROA= f (RM, SC, ICP, IT)..(i)
ROA!t = o + 1RM!t + 2SC!t + 3ICP!t + 4IT!t + (ii)
Where:
ROA Return on Asset
RM Raw Material
SC Storage Cost
ICP Inventory Conversion Period
IT Inventory Turnover
o = Constant
1 - 4 = the co-efficient of the explanatory variable (Inventory Control)
= Error term

Variables Measurement
Return on Asset= Profit after tax/ Total asset
Raw Material= Comprising of local and Imported raw materials
Storage Cost= 15% cost of sales
Inventory Conversion Period= Inventory/ cost of sales 365
Inventory Turnover= Cost of goods sold/ average inventory

Results
The summary of the analysed result and its corresponding interpretations are
presented below. This study investigated the effect of inventory control on
profitability of selected manufacturing companies in Nigeria. The study used

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five selected quoted manufacturing companies. In analyzing the data, the


study adopted multiple regressions to identify the possible effects of inventory
control on profitability in Nigeria. The study conducted some preliminary
analysis such as descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation.

Descriptive Analysis
Descriptive statistics was used to explore the nature and normality of the data
collected for the study.
Table 1: Descriptive Statistics
Variables Mean Max Min JBVALUE JB (P-value)
ROA 1.2952 2.4700 0.2200 10.6759 0.0132*
RAM 1.3207 3.8211 9311 22.8686 0.0003*
STC 2.1909 6.1547 14553 44.0704 0.0007*
ICP 119.84 239.08 60.590 14.3390 0.0045*
INT 0.4374 0.7798 0.1675 10.5872 0.0056*
Source: researcher summary of descriptive statistics (2016).
Note: *1% level of significance, ** 5% level of significances.
Table 1 shows the mean (average) for each variable, their maximum values,
minimum values, standard deviation and Jacque Bera (normality test). The
result provides some insight into the nature of the selected quoted companies
used for the study. Firstly, it was observed that over the period under review,
the sampled companies have positive average return on asset of (1.2952), this
means the firms sampled within the period of the study are performing well.
The table also reveals that within the period under review, that the sampled
companies have an average inventory turnover of 43.74 days, this in no doubt
will have effect on the liquidity level and management of the firm. The table
shows that within the period the firms have a high storage cost of 2.19 which
may not be good for its cost effect on the total cost and financial performance
of the firm. The large difference between the maximum (239.08 days) and
minimum (60.59 days) inventory conversion period reveals the great disparity
in operation and inventory management policy of the firm sampled. This may
account for the high cost of storage of the sampled firm. Lastly, in table 1, the
Jarque-Bera (JB) which test for normality and the existence of outlier shows
that all the variables used are normally distributed at 1% level. This means
that any variable with outlier are not likely to distort the conclusion and are
therefore reliable for drawing generalization.

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4.2 Correlation Analysis


In examining the association among the variables, the study employed the
Pearson correlation coefficient (correlation matrix) and the results are
presented in Table 2 below.
Table 2: Pearson correlation matrix
ROA RAM STC ICP INT
ROA 1.0000
RAM 0.1397 1.0000
STC 0.2231 0.8282 1.0000
ICP 0.0330 -0.7086 -0.7473 1.0000
INT -0.1197 -0.6443 -0.8236 0.7030 1.0000
Source: Researchers summary of E-view 8 correlation analysis
The use of correlation matrix is to check for multi-colinearity and to explore
the association between each explanatory variable and the dependent variable.
The findings from the correlation matrix table, shows that there exist strong
positive association between ROA, and RAM, STC, ICP. While the
association between ROA and INT show negative association exist. The table
also shows that RAM is positively and strongly associated with STC but
negatively associated with ICP and INT. While STC is negatively related to
ICP and INT, ICP is positively associated with INT. In checking for multi-
colinearity the study observed that two explanatory variables were perfectly
correlated. This means that there is the absence of multi-colinearity problem
in the model used for the analysis.

Regression Analysis
To examine the effect of inventory control on profitability the study used
multiple regression analysis to evaluate the cause effect relationship and to
also test our formulated hypotheses.
Table 3: ROA Regression Result
RAM STC ICP INT
Coefficient 2.1178 2.0690 10.0564 19.3057
P-value 0.0011 0.9360 0.0131 0.0236
R.sq (Adj) 0.5021
F- Statistics 20.8313
F-statistics (Prob.) 0.02166
Durbin Watson (DW) 1.5891
Source: Researchers summary of OLS regression Analysis.

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In Table 3 above, the study observed from the OLS result that the R2(adj) is
(0.5021). This indicates that all the independent variables jointly explain
about 50.21% of the variation in return on assets of the sampled firms within
the period under review. This means that 50.21% of firm profitability depends
on the inventory control policy of the firm. The F-statistics probability value
of 0.02166(significant at 5% level) shows that the regression model used is
statistically significant and well specified. The Durbin Watson 1.5891 which
is approximately 2 shows the absent of autocorrelation.
The findings from the OLS regression Analysis and testing of the hypotheses
is as follows:
Hypothesis 1: Raw material cost has no significant effect on firm
profitability. The analysis result shows a coefficient value of 2.1178 and a P-
value of 0.0011 which is less than the alpha value of 0.05. The coefficient
value (2.1178) shows that raw material cost has a positive relationship with
firm profitability (ROA), while the p-value reveals that raw material has a
statistical significant effect on profitability. Hence on the result, the study
concluded that raw material cost has positive relationship with ROA which is
statistically significant at 5% level. Based on the analysis result, the study
rejects the null hypothesis and accepts the alternate hypothesis; it therefore
concludes that, raw material cost has a positive effect on the profitability of
manufacturing companies in Nigeria.
Hypothesis 2: storage cost has no significant effect on profitability (ROA).
The OLS regression analysis result showed a coefficient value of 2.0690 and
P-value of 0.9360. The result indicates that storage cost has a positive
relationship with profitability (ROA). The probability value of 0.9360 reveals
that storage cost has no significant effect on profitability. Hence, the analysis
reveals that storage cost has no statistical significant effect on profitability of
manufacturing companies in Nigeria. Although storage cost has positive
relationship with profitability, the relationship is not statistical significant to
effect on profitability. The result means that storage cost does not influence
the level of profitability of manufacturing companies in Nigeria. Thus any
changes in storage cost are likely not to affect the level of profitability of
manufacturing companies in Nigeria. Based on the analysis result, the study
therefore reject the alternate hypothesis and accept the null hypothesis which
state that storage cost has no significant effect on profitability of
manufacturing companies in Nigeria.
Hypothesis 3: Inventory conversion period has no significant effect on
profitability (ROA). The OLS regression analysis result of the effect of

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inventory conversion period on profitability shows a coefficient value of


10.0564 and a P-value of 0.0131. The coefficient value of 10.0564 shows that
inventory conversion period has a strong positive relationship with
profitability while the P-value of 0.0131which is lower than the alpha value
shows that inventory conversion period has a statistical significant effect on
profitability. This means that inventory conversion period positively affect the
level of profitability of manufacturing companies in Nigeria. The result
suggests that a lower inventory conversion period may lead to higher profit
for manufacturing companies in Nigeria. Based on the analysis result, the
study rejects the null hypothesis and accept the alternate hypothesis, it
therefore conclude that inventory conversion period has a positive statistical
significant effect on profitability.
Hypothesis 4: Inventory turnover (sales) has no significant effect on
profitability (ROA). The OLS regression analysis result of the effect of
inventory turnover on profitability shows a coefficient value of 19.3057 and a
P-value of 0.0236. The coefficient value of 19.3057 shows that inventory
turnover has a strong positive relationship with profitability while the P-value
of 0.0236 which is lower than the alpha value shows that inventory turnover
has a statistical significant effect on profitability. This means that inventory
turnover positively affect the level of profitability of manufacturing
companies in Nigeria. The result suggests that a high inventory turnover may
lead to higher profit for manufacturing companies in Nigeria. Based on the
analysis result, the study rejects the null hypothesis and accept the alternate
hypothesis, it therefore conclude that inventory turnover has a positive
statistical significant effect on profitability.

Discussions and Conclusions


The analysis shows a coefficient value of 2.1178 and a P-value of 0.0011
which is less than the alpha value of 0.05. The coefficient value (2.1178)
shows that raw material cost has a positive relationship with firm profitability
(ROA), while the p-value reveals that raw material has a statistical significant
effect on profitability. Hence on the result, the study concluded that raw
material cost has positive relationship with ROA which is statistically
significant at 5% level. Thus, the study rejects the null hypothesis and accepts
the alternate hypothesis. This confirms the study of Eneje, Nweze, and Udeh
(2012) and Kwadwo (2015) which revealed that the focal variable raw
material inventory management designed to capture the effect of efficient
management of raw material inventory by a company on its profitability is

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significantly strong and positive and impacts on the profitability of brewery


firms in Nigeria. It therefore concludes that, raw material cost has a positive
effect on the profitability of manufacturing companies in Nigeria.
The OLS regression analysis result showed a coefficient value of 2.0690 and
P-value of 0.9360. The result indicates that storage cost has a positive
relationship with profitability (ROA). The probability value of 0.9360 reveals
that storage cost has no significant effect on profitability. Hence, the analysis
reveals that storage cost has no statistical significant effect on profitability of
manufacturing companies in Nigeria. Although storage cost has positive
relationship with profitability, the relationship is not statistically significant to
effect profitability. Thus, the study therefore reject the alternate hypothesis
and accept the null hypothesis which state that storage cost has no significant
effect on profitability of manufacturing companies in Nigeria. This study
confirms the study of Eneje, Nweze and Udeh (2012) .The result of the
regression analysis shows that storage cost has no significant effect on
profitability of selected brewery firms listed in the Nigeria Stock Exchange
(NSE). It also confirms the findings of Kwadwo (2015) which also discovered
through the regression analysis that storage cost has no significant effect on
profitability of manufacturing companies listed in the Ghanaian Stock
Exchange (GSE).
The OLS regression analysis result of the effect of inventory conversion
period on profitability shows a coefficient value of 10.0564 and a P-value of
0.0131. The coefficient value of 10.0564 shows that inventory conversion
period has a strong positive relationship with profitability while the P-value of
0.0131which is lower than the alpha value shows that inventory conversion
period has a statistical significant effect on profitability. This means that
inventory conversion period positively affect the level of profitability of
manufacturing companies in Nigeria. The result suggests that a lower
inventory conversion period may lead to higher profit for manufacturing
companies in Nigeria. The result of this finding is in contrast with that of
Panigrahi (2013) which examined the relationship between inventory
conversion period and firms profitability and the result indicates that there is
a significant negative linear relationship between inventory conversion period
and profitability. It also disagrees with the finding of Gamze, Ahmet and
Emin (2012); the study did not find any relationship between the number of
days inventory and the profitability. However, the result of this findings
conforms with the findings of Mathuva, 2010; Akinlo, 2011; and Uremadu et
al., 2012) which discovered that there is a positive relationship between

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inventory conversion period and profitability. Thus, the study rejects the null
hypothesis and accept the alternate hypothesis, it therefore conclude that
inventory conversion period has a positive statistical significant effect on
profitability.
The OLS regression analysis result of the effect of inventory turnover on
profitability shows a coefficient value of 19.3057 and a P-value of 0.0236.
The coefficient value of 19.3057 shows that inventory turnover has a strong
positive relationship with profitability while the P-value of 0.0236 which is
lower than the alpha value shows that inventory turnover has a statistical
significant effect on profitability. This means that inventory turnover
positively affect the level of profitability of manufacturing companies in
Nigeria. The result suggests that a high inventory turnover may lead to higher
profit for manufacturing companies in Nigeria. This finding is in contrast with
the findings of Okwo, Enekwe and Ugwunta (2012) who studied the effect of
financial management as a determinant of profitability and discovered that
inventory management bears a negative relationship with profitability. Thus,
the study rejects the null hypothesis and accept the alternate hypothesis, it
therefore conclude that inventory turnover has a positive statistical significant
effect on profitability.

Recommendations
Based on the results and conclusions, the following recommendations were
made;
Due to the positive effect raw material has on profitability of
manufacturing companies in Nigeria, Management of raw material is
therefore an important factor to be considered in enhancing or boosting
the performance of manufacturers in Nigeria. It is therefore necessary
that adequate management of raw materials inventory should be
pursued by manufacturing companies in Nigeria. This can be achieved
by encouraging large scale mechanized production of major raw
materials in Nigeria and training and re-training of staff from time to
time to update their knowledge of skills in modern and manufacturing
techniques.
Due to the insignificant effect storage cost has on profitability of
manufacturing companies in Nigeria, we therefore suggest that proper
control should be emphasized on the storage and handling of raw
materials by manufacturing companies in order to prevent pilferage,
obsolescence and wastage which in the long run may lead to loss in the
manufacturing companies. Also storage cost should not be ignored by
manufacturing companies because even if it does not contribute to
profitability, no loss is being incurred.

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Due to the positive effect inventory conversion period has on


profitability of manufacturing companies in Nigeria, the study
therefore recommends that a lower inventory conversion period may
lead to higher profits for manufacturing companies in Nigeria.

References
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10 No. Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017
1, 2017

MATHEMATICS EDUCATION IN NIGERIA: GENDER AND


SPATIAL DIMENSION OF ENROLMENT

E.U. OBIDIGBO
Department of Mathematics,
Nwafor Orizu College of Education Nsugbe, P.M.B. 1734,
Anambra State, Nigeria

Abstract
Mathematics is an essential course for scientific and technological development of
any country. Literature indicates low enrollment of students in Mathematics
Education when compared with other courses in Social Sciences and Arts, especially
at the tertiary level of Education. This development is viewed with grave concern for
teaching and learning of Mathematics in schools. In view of this, the study examines
the spatial and gender patterns of students enrolment for Mathematics Education in
Nigeria Colleges. This is with a view to identifying areas of deficiencies in order to
adopt appropriate strategies in teaching and learning of Mathematics and improve
the enrolment for Mathematics Education in Nigeria College of Education. The
study obtained data from the records in the colleges of Education randomly selected
from four geo-political zones in Nigeria. Percentage and Chi-square was used to
analyze the data. The data collected were analyze using both the descriptive and
inferential statistics. The results show significant gender and spatial differences in
the enrolment for Mathematics Education in Nigeria Colleges. Based on these
finding, the study recommends some strategies for bridging the gap in students
enrolment for Mathematics Education. These include provision of incentives and
counseling services to students at both secondary and tertiary levels of Education.

Introduction
National development is a collective responsibility, which requires the
collective efforts of citizens, irrespective of diversities. The development of
countries like the United State of America, China, Japan and Britain can
largely be attributed to the contributions of educated male and female citizens
of the nations. In Nigeria, one of the aims of establishing the Universities is to
equip students with necessary skills and knowledge required for accelerated
growth. Specifically, the Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) clearly states that
tertiary Education is designed to equip the citizens with high level skills
required for national development. However, due to low level of women
Education, Nigeria women seem to be lagging behind in terms of contributing
to the political economic and social development of Nigeria. Imogie (2007)
noted that the way the society treats the women determines the extent to
which they can exhibit their potentials and contribute to national

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development. Earlier, Betiku (2002) stated that countries that raised the status
of women educational, socially, politically and economically generally enjoy
a high standard of living, while countries where women are largely illiterate
and confined to the home have a lower standard of living.
One of the factors that have contributed to disparity in the
empowerment of male and female groups is gender stereotyping. Imogie
(2007) observed that in Nigeria, people associate certain professions with
males and regard females in male labeled professions as abnormal land vice
versa. For instance, in the north part of Nigeria, many females are denied
access to education, while in the eastern part, the males and females has
denied the two groups access to education, which is the key to human
development. Egbochuku and Alika (2008) noted that education transforms
and builds in individuals the capacity to acquired appropriate information
skills and competence for personal survival and the development of the
society. The researchers stressed that education closes the door to poverty,
ignorance and opens the door to economic, social and political developments.
The review and Appraisal of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for
Action and the Outcome Document of the Twenty-Third Special Session of
the General Assembly indicated that education and training of girls and
women is a human right and an essential element for the full enjoyment of all
other social, economic, cultural and political rights. The millennium
Development Goals, the EFA and Dakar goals, and the Beijing Platform have
consistently placed emphasis on the importance of promoting gender equality
education and advancement of women (Women Watch, 2005).
Olawoye and Salman (2008) described the education of the girl-child
as an indispensable vehicle for national development. According to the
researchers, education is the most veritable means of social growth; a
formidable force, as well as reliable and essential instrument for national
development. The researchers noted that women are also citizens of the nation
and thus deserve to aquire education, which is a power weapon of
development. Yahaya (2004) observed that there is the need for provision of
educational opportunities to Nigeria citizens irrespective of gender and other
diversities. He explained further that this is necessary because both the males
and females make up the population of Nigeria and both have the potential of
contributing positively to the development of the society.
Salman (2001) observed that Mathematics is the most dreaded subject
by pupils and students. According to her, the enrolment of undergraduate
Mathematics is relatively low when compared with other courses. However,

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the knowledge of Mathematics is highly required in the study of social


science, science and technology courses. Thus, students irrespective of gender
need to be encouraged. Salman (2001) explained further that there are two
categories of undergraduates of Mathematics. These are undergraduates of
Mathematics Education and undergraduates studying Mathematics as a major
course. The Mathematics Education undergraduates combine education with
the study of Mathematics courses. Mathematics Education is a program run
by Nigeria Colleges of Education and Faculties of Education of Nigeria
Colleges. The program involves combination of Mathematics with any of
Chemistry, Physics and statistics among others. The undergraduates running
this program at the College of Education levels are trained Mathematics
teachers who are expected to teach Mathematics sat primary and secondary
schools levels. These categories of undergraduates, at the completion of their
program are regarded as professionally qualified teachers to handle the
teaching and learning of Mathematics in Nigerian primary and secondary
schools.
The 2006 Nigeria National Housing and Population Census put the
population Nigeria at 140,003,542 out of which about 49% are females
(Federal Government of Nigeria 2007). The females constituted about 49% of
the total population. Yahaya (2004) stressed that although the females
constituted about 50% of the national population, they are not equitable
represented in students enrolment at the institutions of higher learning in
Nigeria. For instance, the work force of the Nigerian Federal Civil Service
comprises 76% males and 24% females; 17.5% of the Medical Doctors in
Nigeria are women while 82.5% are men. Among the 70% of the Nigerian
population estimated to be living below poverty line, over 65% are women
(Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development 2006). Olawoye
and Salman (2008) noted that participation of females in the study of Science
technology and Mathematics, particularly at the institutions higher learning
has been an issue of concern in developing countries like Nigeria. The
females in most cases are preferred to study courses in Social Sciences, Arts
and Humanities at the institutions of higher learning. This could be attributed
to the belief that Sciences, technology and Mathematics are for the males and
few gifted ones among the females.
Research reports have also indicated gender disparity in the enrolment
of undergraduates in Sciences, Technology and Mathematics. Adeyemaind
Akpotu (2004) conducted a study on the trend and pattern of gender
enrolment in Nigerian. Similarly, Oke (2000) and Salman (2001) reported low

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enrolment of females take the least resistance by opting for disciplines


designated as feminine such as liber alerts, education, nursing and shy away
from courses in Sciences, engineering, Medicine and Mathematics. For
instance, the enrolment of undergraduates in Mathematics Education at
Nigerian Colleges of Education is relatively low and this effects the schools.
An example of low enrolment in Mathematics Education in a College of
Education Nigeria is presented in Table 1.
Table 1: Students Enrolment in Mathematics at Colleges of Education (2003
2009)
Year College of Education
M (%) F (%)
2003/2004 28 (96.55) 1 (3.45)
2004/2005 40 (93.02) 3 (6.98)
2005/2006 35 (92.11) 3(7.89)
2006/2007 117(90.70) 12 (9.30)
2007/2009 45 (88.24) 6 (11.76)
Total 265 (91.4%) 25 (8.6%)
Source: College of Education in Anambra
Yahaya (1999) identified the factors militating against the
empowerment of Nigeria women as ignorance, illiteracy, stereotype, rivalry
among women, religious and cultural beliefs and poor economic base.
Similarly, Okebukola (2002) noted that low level of female representation of
Nigerian Women in science education is largely caused by factors such as the
community, the home, the school and the individual. Imogie and Eraikhueme
(2008) observed that one of the major factor hindering women empowerment
is low enrolment of women in Science and Technology courses. According to
them, there is need to examine carefully not only whether women are learning
or not but what they are learning and what they are avoiding or being
discouraged from pursuing.
In its National Gender Policy, the Federal Government of Nigeria (2007)
indicates commitment to building a nation devoid of gender discrimination,
guaranteeing equal access to political, social and economical wealth creation
opportunities for women and men, and developing a culture that places
premium on the protection of all including the children (Federal Ministry of
Women Affairs and Social Development, 2006). In order to achieve the
laudable objectives women education needs to be promoted not only at the
primary and secondary schools levels but also at the tertiary level. Since

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Mathematics Education is a critical and variable in the development of any


nation, this study attempts to provide answers to the four research questions.

Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study
1. What is the gender dimension of undergraduate enrolment in
Mathematics Education in Nigerian Colleges of Education?
2. What is the spatial dimension of undergraduate enrolment in Mathematics
Education in Nigerian Colleges of Education?

Research Hypotheses
1. There is no significant difference in the enrolment of undergraduates in
Mathematics Education in Nigerian Institution based on gender.
2. There is no significant difference in the enrolment of undergraduates in
Mathematics Education in Nigerian institutions based on geo-political
zone.

Method
The research method adopted for this study is descriptive survey. The
researcher obtained data from randomly selected Colleges of Education from
four geo-political zones in Nigeria out of the size geo-political zones. The
North-cental was represented by college of Education.
Pankshin Plateau State, south-East by Nwafor Orizu College of
Education Nsugbe , south-West by College of Education Ibadan and South-
South by College of Education Technical Port Harcourt Rivers State. Data
collected on students enrolment in Mathematics Education from each of the
four selected Institutions for a period of five years (2003-2009). The collected
data were analyzed with the use of frequency count, percentage and Chi-
square.

Results
Research Question One: what is the gender dimension of undergraduates
enrolment in Mathematics Education in Nigeria Colleges of Education?
Table 2: Enrolment of undergraduates in Mathematics Education based
on gender.
Male Female Total
Number 690 274 964
Percentage 71.58 28.42 100

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Table 2 indicates that 960 (71.58%) of the undergraduates that enrolled


for Mathematics Education in the selected Colleges are males while only 274
(28.42%) are females. This shows that there is more enrolment of male than
female for Mathematics Education in Nigeria College.

Research Question Two: What is the spatial dimension of


undergraduates enrolment in Mathematics Education in Nigerian
Colleges of Education?
Table 3: enrolment of undergraduates in Mathematics Education based
on geo-political zones (2003-2009)
S/N Geo Zone Total recorded Percentage
students
1. NC 372 38.59
2. SE 150 15.56
3. SW 172 17.85
4. SS 269 27.90
Total 964 100

Table 2 indicates that the selected colleges from the East and South-
South have the highest percentage where South-East and South-West, have
the least percentages of undergraduates enrolment in Mathematics Education
between 2010 and 2015.

Research Question Three (Hypotheses 1)


Table 3: Chi-square value comparing undergraduates enrolment in
mathematics education based on gender
Gender Observed value (O) Expected value (0 E)2
(E) E
Male 690 482 89.8
Female 274 482 89.8
Total 964 964 179.6

Table 3 indicates that the selected Colleges from the North-Central and
South-South have the highest percentage where south-East and South-West
have the least percentages of undergraduates enrolment in Mathematics
Education between 2003and 2009.

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Hypothesis One: There is no significant differences in the enrolment of


undergraduates in Mathematics in Nigerian Universities based on
gender.
Chi-Square analysis of undergraduates enrolment in Mathematics
Education based on gender.
Group Number Mean df Decision
Male 690 482 962 172.6 3.84 at. Reject Ho
Female 274 482 0.05
significant
level
Total 964

Table 3 shows that the calculated which is 179.6 is greater than


the critical values 3.84 at I df and 0.05 statistical level of significance. HO is
therefore rejected. This means that there is a significant difference in
undergraduates enrolment in mathematics Education base on gender.

Hypothesis Two: There is no significant difference in the enrolment of


undergraduates in Mathematics Education in Nigeria Institutions based
on geo-political zones.
Table 4: Chi-Square
Analysis of undergraduates enrolment in Mathematics Education based on
geo-political zones (2003-2009).
Group Number df T cal. T- crit. Decision
NC 372
SE 150 960 129.58 7.82 Reject the HO
SW 172
SS 269
Total 964

Table 4 shows that the calculated which is 129.58 is greater than


the critical 7.82 at 3 degree of freedom and 0.05 statistical level of
significance which yields the rejection of the HO. This indicates that there is a
significance difference in undergraduates enrolment in Mathematics
Education based on geo-political zones.

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Discussion
The findings of the study corroborated earlier assertions of Salman
(2001), Olawoye and Salman (2008), Adeyemi and Akpotu (2004) that male
students were more in the quantitative related courses than the females. For
the 2010/2011 academic session, the ratio male to female undergraduates in
Mathematics Education is about 3:1 and this is not different from the findings
of Salman (2001) and Okebukola (2002). This also confirms the findings of
Okebukola (2002) that Science/Mathematics related courses or disciplines are
arid zone for females. This findings may be related to the fact that science
and mathematics related courses are still considered male courses in
Nigeria.
The study also showed that across the four geopolitical zones used in
Nigeria research, the number of undergraduates that enrolled for Mathematics
Education in the selected universities is still very low when compared with
the need for Mathematics teachers in Nigeria schools. Olawoye Salman
(2008) reported that Nigerian students have negative attitude toward
mathematics related courses. This finding therefore could also be attributed to
the negative attitude of Nigeria students to Mathematics, which is considered
to be a difficult and an abstract course.
The study indicates a significant difference in undergraduates
enrolment in Mathematics Education based on gender. This confirms the
assertion of Imogie (2007) and Salman (2001) that females are under-
represented in enrolment in to science and Mathematics related courses in
Nigerian institutions of learning. The disparity enrolment could be due to
several factors earlier identified by Yahaya (1999, 2004), and Imogie and
Okebukola (2004).
The finding of the study also showed a significant difference in the
enrolment of undergraduates in Mathematics Education based on geo-political
zone. The five colleges selected from the four geo-political zone in Nigeria
differed significantly in enrolment. This finding supports the earlier study of
Adeyemi and Akpotu (2004), which indicated a wide gap between different
zones in Nigeria in terms of enrolment in Science and Mathematics related
courses. The finding may be due to stereotype and parental influence on
students, choice of subjects and careers.

Conclusion
The study indicates that only few male and female undergraduates
enrolled for Mathematics Education in Nigeria colleges. It also showed that

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male undergraduates out-numbered their female counterpart in enrolment for


Mathematics Education programs. There is therefore an urgent need to
address this concern in order to promote science and technological
development in Nigeria, since the bedrock of all science and technological
related courses is Mathematics.

Recommendations
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are
considered relevant:
The three tiers of government in Nigeria should provide employment to
Nigerian female youths who studied either Mathematics or Mathematics
Education in order to encourage more females to study Mathematics.
Mathematics teachers at different levels of Education should create a
conducive learning environment for the female students to enhance their
academic performance in Mathematics.
Mathematics curricula and teaching method should be designed in such a
way that gender issues are addressed.
Professional Associations and bodies such as mathematics Teachers
Associations should featured promote successful female mathematics.
Internal networks for the career development of the younger women who
show interest in Mathematics should be develop.
Tertiary institutions in Nigeria should establish counseling centers and
encourage professional counselor educators to organize guidance for
female youth on career choice and relevance of Mathematics to national
development. This is to erase the impression that the study of Mathematics
is for the males and encourage the female youth to contribute to national
development.
Nigeria Colleges of Education and Universities should lower their cut off
marks in the post UTME assessments for females that apply to study
Mathematics in order to improve female enrolment in the programs.

References
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Nigerian Universities. Humanity and Social Sciences and Law, 48(3):
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Betiku O.F. (2002). Gender in Science, Technology and Mathematics
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Nwaokolo, G C. Igboragbor (Eds.): Refocusing Education in Nigeria.
Benin city: Dasylva influence, pp. 62-63.

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Egbochuku E.O., Alika I.H. (2008). Socio-economic Status and Vocational


Interest As Correlates of Re-entry of Girls into Schools in Edo State.
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Federal Government of Nigeria (2007). Distribution of Nigerian population.
Abuja: Government Press.
Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development (2006). National
Gender policy. Kaduna: Amana Printing Ltd.
Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National policy on Education. Yaba:
Revised Edition NERDC press.
Imogie A.O. (2007). Stereotype about Sex and Leadership: Hurdles to
overcome. A Lead Paper Presented at the 2nd Annual International
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(FAWE) Nigeria, South East Zone held from 13th 19th May, 2007 at
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Imogie A.O., Erikumemen L. (2008). An Enquiry into Sex Differention in
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Oke M. (2000). Gender Gap and Access to Secondary School Science
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Okebukola P.A.O (2002). The state of Universities in Nigeria. Ibadan:
Heinemann.
Olawoye F.A & Salman M.F. (2008). Education Reforms in Nigeria:
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Association of Nigeria (MAN), held in Gusau Girls Technical advance
Teachers College, zamfara State from 25th -29th August, 2008.
Salman M.F. (2001). An Investigation into Female Enrolment in Mathematics
and Sciences at the University of NAU Awka. Nigerian Journal of
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and Implications for Counseling. Counselor, 17(1): 132-137.
Yahaya L.A. (2004). Disparity in the Enrolment of Male and Female
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JOVTE, pages10160-168, Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017
No. 1, 2017

FORMAL PATHWAY FOR VOCATIONAL/CAREER


DEVELOPMENT: THE COUNSELLING PERSPECTIVE

DR. F. E. E. NWANKWO & DR. U. E. ENEASATOR


Department of Educational Psychology/Guidance & Counselling, Nwafor
Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe, Anambra State.
0703 168 9518, nwankfez@gmail.com
0803 222 0208, uevereva@yahoo.com

Abstract
The paper dealt with the counselling perspective of the formal pathway for
vocational/career development in the contemporary society. It opines that
vocational/career development is primarily concerned with occupational preparation
of individuals, and the development of their capacities for work. Efforts have been
made to outline the formal educational pathway for vocational/career development
through schooling from the primary school level to the tertiary level of education.
The pivotal roles of the subject teacher and the guidance counsellor have been
highlighted. Among the recommendations made are that: subject teachers at all
levels should make their subjects interesting, highlighting the possible career and
enterprise destinations of their specific subjects, and that counsellors should assist
the students to select for their school certificate examinations eight or a maximum of
nine subjects of proven performance based on interest, aptitude and value that would
form the foundation for identifiable specific occupational fields.

Keywords: vocational/career development; outline; formal educational


pathway; subject teachers; counsellors; occupational fields

Introduction
Vocational/career development is primarily concerned with
occupational preparation of individuals, and involves the development of
human capacities that are salient to sustaining individuals employment across
working lives, as well as communities and societies social and economic
wellbeing (Billet, 2011). The mode of preparation may be either formal
through the regular school system or informal delivered through the
apprenticeship and on the job training system (Osinem & Nwoji, 2010).
According to Hansen (1994 p.263) Vocation describes work that is fulfilling
and meaningful to the individual and thus provides a sense of self and
personal identity. Career pertains to the time one spends in a particular job
or profession. Vocations pertain to occupations and are based on individuals
capacities, interests and possibilities (Billet, 2011). Vocations reflect
individuals interest and desired goals [ie a personal fact] while occupations
reflect categories and kinds of work [ie a societal fact] that are available for
the individual to engage in as his/her career.

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For the purposes of this paper, vocation and career are taken to mean
the same thing. Therefore, vocations/careers are personally founded and
premised on individuals interest, aptitude and needs. Ultimately,
vocations/careers have personal meaning and purposes and so individuals
have to decide what constitutes their vocations/careers. The focus of this
paper is on the formal mode of vocational/career development within which
the school guidance counsellor makes considerable inputs while the subject
teachers expound the subject matter contents to excite the interest of the
learners. The individual needs to be sufficiently guided to take the subjects
taught in the school seriously. Similarly, the subject teachers need to be
encouraged to always highlight the possible career directions of each subject
as well as the likely enterprises that could emerge. Sufficient career
information and entry requirements/guidelines need to be made available to
the student to avoid wrong choice of career which may result to
vocational/career maladjustment in future.
The ways abound to assist individuals come to learn about and engage
with their preferred occupation that might well become their vocation (Billet,
2011). However, individuals need adequate preparation, opportunity and the
ability to practice. Their learning outcome is considerably affected by
individual goals, values and motives (Ughamadu, 2016).
There is one pathway that helps individuals select the particular
occupation that they should pursue and decide how to proceed (Billet, 2011).
This pathway is vocational counselling which assists individuals in
identifying which occupations are aligned with their interests, capacities and
expectations; and expanding their own understanding of the occupational
fields (Billet, 2011). The school system provides the formal educational
pathway for the vocational/career development of the school child bolstered
by the school guidance programme with the cooperation of the subject
teachers.
Vocational/career development exposes learners, perhaps while still at
school, to the range of occupations that exist and try to identify occupations
that meet their needs, capacities and readiness. Vocational counselling
deliberately engages students, perhaps while still at school, to consider a
range of occupations and provide means by which they might come to select a
particular one (Billet, 2011).
Nwadinobi, Umezulike, Eneasator and Mmaduakonam (2013) affirm
that career development plays the role of assisting the individual to identify
underlying vocational potentials in him/her so as to help him/her further to

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make career or vocational decisions that produce life-long effects on him/her.


To them the opportunities open to the individual determines the level of
vocational development the individual will attain. The individual, therefore,
needs exposure to different careers and opportunities open in the Nigerian
labour market (Nwadinobi, Umezulike, Eneasator & Mmaduakonam, 2013)
and then be appropriately guided on the choice to make. This paper attempts
to chart the formal educational pathway for the vocational/career development
of the individual student through the levels of the educational system from the
perspective of the counsellor. The counselling programme guides the
students developmental process of making a vocational choice through
patterns of activities that take place through the schooling years.

Formal Educational Pathway for Vocational/Career Development


The formal educational pathway for vocational/career development
discussed in this paper covers the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of
education in Nigeria. Thus, vocational/career development spans through
school years from primary to tertiary level. The certificate awarded at the
successful completion of each level of formal education generally determines
both job-placement and remuneration package depending on the domain skill
and competency-requirements of any given occupational field.

Primary level education


Primary education is the education given in institutions for children
aged 6-11 years with duration of six years (FGN, 2004). Among the goals of
primary education are to: inculcate permanent literacy and numeracy, and
ability to communicate effectively; and develop in the child the ability to
adapt to the childs changing environment (FGN, 2004). The Government
stipulates that basic infrastructure and training shall be provided for the
realization of these goals at the primary education level. The extent to which
these provisions are made determines how much numeracy, abilities to
communicate and adapt to changing environment the child leaves the primary
school with. From vocational counselling point of view, the vocational/career
development of the child is according to Super (1963) and Ginzberg (1951) is
at the fantasy stage, and therefore, still very fluid. As much as possible a
comprehensive list of occupations and possible display of individuals in those
occupations may become a useful guide to primary school pupils at this stage
of their vocational/career development. Efforts should be made at this level to
develop their reading and writing skills in addition to basic numeracy.

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Obviously, the primary school leaver has no career direction and so may end
up doing lowly paid menial jobs if he/she terminates schooling at the primary
level. At the end of primary school, the National Policy on Education
prescribes a 100% transition to the secondary school (FGN, 2004).

Secondary level education


Secondary education is the education children receive after primary
education and before the tertiary stage. In specific terms, three specific goals
of secondary education shall be to: provide all primary school leavers with the
opportunity for education of a higher level, irrespective of sex, social status,
religious or ethnic background; offer diversified curriculum to cater for the
differences in talents, opportunities and future roles; and inspire students with
a desire for self improvement and achievement of excellence (FGN, 2004).
To achieve the stated goals, secondary education shall be of six years
duration, given in two stages: a junior secondary school stage and a senior
secondary school stage of three years duration each (FGN, 2004). The junior
secondary school shall teach basic subjects which will enable pupils to
acquire further knowledge and skills. Every student shall offer: a minimum
of 10 and a maximum of 13 subjects inclusive of all the eight subjects in
Group A and at least one subject each from Groups B [seven pre-vocational
elective subjects] and C [three non-vocational electives subjects] (FGN,
2004). The number of subjects taught in the school ensures the exposure of
the individual student to the numerous school subjects each of which attempts
to stimulate and sustain students interest in the subject matter content. This is
to enable the student identify specific subject areas of interest, talent and
aptitude to further motivate him/her. The subject teachers are enjoined to
make their subjects interesting and also highlight the possible career and
enterprise destinations of their specific subjects. Umezulike and Eneasator
(2012) urge teachers to integrate occupational, educational and personal-
social information into their respective subjects, and assist students to develop
positive attitudes towards education and career preparation. Therefore,
schools that offer limited number of subjects are denying the child of the
opportunities of self-discovery for ample vocational/ career development. The
appropriate agencies of government should ensure that many subjects
supposed to be taught at the junior secondary school level are offered in each
school in order to give the individual student the opportunity to be led to the
discovery of his/her own hidden talents. Moreover, the co-curricula activities

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need to be diversified also to enable students increase the scope for self-
discovery and team spirit.
The Junior School Certificate (JSC) shall be issued at the successful
completion of the stage. At the end of Junior Secondary School (JSS-3), the
National Policy on Education prescribes that some students may opt out and
go for either vocational training or apprenticeship. Vocational training and
apprenticeship are outside the scope of this paper. The rest of the students
ought to transit to the senior secondary school option at a ratio of 50:50. The
student who terminates schooling at the JSS level is adjudged to be unskilled
and would be employed to do general purpose clerical jobs that are still
poorly paid.
At the senior secondary school level, the National Policy on Education
(2004) prescribes that every student shall take all the six (6) core subjects in
Group A, and a minimum of one and a maximum of two (2) from the list of
18 vocational elective subjects in Group B and list of 16 non-vocational
elective subjects in Group C. A possible total of 40 subjects could be offered
in the senior secondary school. It is anticipated that as the school may not
offer all the subjects as listed, they should offer as many subjects as possible
in order to cater for the diverse interests and needs of the students. In effect,
the school that offers only 10 subjects to the students cannot be said to ensure
adequate vocational/career development of the students as much as the school
that offers 20 subjects.
At the senior secondary (SS-1) class, there is conscious streaming of
students into science, arts or social science inclinations based on the
performance in the individual school subjects at the JSS-level. The school
guidance counsellor is of tremendous assistance at this stage. The School
Counsellor utilizes the students cumulative records, his JSS-3 certificate
result and personal interview to arrive at the decision to send that student to
SS-1 (Science) or SS-1 (Arts) class as expedient. Subsequently, the students
are exposed to deeper and wider dimensions of the subjects chosen to further
broaden their knowledge and possible career/occupational destinations. The
subject teachers have the primary responsibilities of making their subjects
interesting and highlighting the possible career and enterprise destinations of
their specific subjects.
At senior secondary (SS-2), the students are guided to choose subjects
of proven aptitude, interest and performance that are meaningful to them and
then geared towards specific career/occupational areas/fields. It is at this
point that the counsellor assists the student to select eight or a maximum of

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nine subjects of proven performance based on interest, aptitude and value that
would form the foundation for now identifiable specific occupational fields.
The counsellor provides the students with the current educational and
occupational information and the necessary guidance. A significant
determinant of the next line of action towards the vocational/career
development is the outcome of the certificate examination. At least five credit
passes are required for further advancement. The individual who opts out at
this stage may settle for semi-skilled and clerical jobs.
The Senior School Certificate (SSC) shall be issued at the successful
performance at public examinations conducted by public examination bodies
[WAEC and NECO]. Students performance at the certification examinations
and the number of credit passes narrows down the latitude for specific career
options. This may present both the background and the direction for tertiary
level course choice for which the predictive tertiary matriculation
examination is a pre-requisite.
During the entry for the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination
(UTME), students use the JAMB Admission Brochure to guide their career-
bound selection of subjects for tertiary level education. This is facilitated by
the school guidance counsellor. The Unified Tertiary Matriculation
Examination (UTME) is highly competitive demanding high scores to beat
the cut-off mark. The prospective student is expected to sit for use of English
language and three other career-bound subjects. Otherwise, securing
admission into tertiary level education would be difficult

Tertiary level education


Tertiary education is the education given after secondary education in
universities, colleges of education, polytechnics and monotechnics. Among
the goals of tertiary education are to: provide high level manpower training;
develop the intellectual capability of individuals to understand and appreciate
their local and external environments; and impart both physical and
intellectual skills which will enable individuals to be self-reliant and useful
members of the society (FGN, 2004).
At the tertiary level, further exposures of the students to the specific
subject matter content requirements for the effective preparation for the future
career/vocation/occupation are carried out. The possible career destinations
and associated enterprises are emphasized to enable the individual either seek
paid employment or be self-reliant. The domain skills and competency of
specific occupational fields are highly developed in the individual student for

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proficiency. The tertiary level education prepares the individual for


managerial positions.

Conclusion
The school system provides the formal educational pathway for the
vocational/career development of the school child bolstered by the school
guidance programme and the subject teachers. The higher the number of
subjects taught in the school, the higher the chances of meeting the diverse
needs of the students for exposures towards the discovery of their interests
and aptitudes for specific occupational fields.
Vocational/career development spans through school years from
primary to tertiary level. From vocational counselling point of view, the
vocational/career development of the primary school child is at the fantasy
stage, and therefore, still very fluid. As much as possible, a comprehensive
listing of occupations and display of charts of individuals in those occupations
by the School Counsellor may be a useful guide to primary school pupils at
this stage of their vocational/career development.
At the secondary school level, the subject teachers are enjoined to
make their subjects interesting and also highlight the possible career and
enterprise destinations of their specific subjects. This is done through staff-
forum organized by the School Counsellor. Therefore, schools that offer
limited number of subjects are denying the child of the opportunities of self-
discovery for ample vocational/ career development.
At SS-1, there is the conscious streaming of students into science, arts
or social science inclinations based on their performance in the individual
school subjects at the JSS-level. The school guidance counsellor is of
tremendous assistance at this stage. At SS-2 the student are guided to choose
subjects of proven aptitude, interest and performance that are meaningful to
them and then geared towards specific career/occupational areas/fields.
Students performance at the certification examinations and the
number of credit passes narrows the latitude for specific career options. This
possibly presents both the background and the direction for tertiary level
course choice. To sit for the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination
(UTME), students use the JAMB Admission Brochure to guide their career-
bound selection of subjects for tertiary level education.
At the tertiary level, further exposures of the students to the specific
subject matter content requirements for the effective preparation for the future
career/vocation/occupation are carried out. The possible career destinations

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and associated enterprises are emphasized. The tertiary level education


prepares the individual for managerial positions both in the public and private
sectors of the national economy.
Summarily, the paper has tried to put forward a formal pathway for
career development in the educational institutions ranging from primary level
to tertiary level of education, all made possible by the efforts of the school
guidance programme.

Recommendations
1. At the primary school level, the counsellor should provide and display
a comprehensive list of occupations and charts of individuals in those
occupations as a useful guide to primary school pupils at this stage of
their vocational/career development.
2. Secondary schools should offer un-limited number of subjects in order
to present to the child sufficient opportunities for self-discovery for
ample vocational/ career development.
3. Subject teachers at all levels are enjoined to make their subjects
interesting and also highlight the possible career and enterprise
destinations of their specific subjects.
4. The appropriate agencies of government should ensure that many
subjects that are supposed to be taught at the secondary school level
are offered in each school in order to give the individual student the
opportunity to be led to the discovery of his/her own hidden talents and
prospective occupational fields.
5. The counsellor should assist the student to select eight or a maximum
of nine subjects for the school certificate examination based on proven
performance, interest, aptitude and value that would form the
foundation for narrowing the tertiary level courses towards identifiable
specific occupational fields.
6. As the tertiary level education prepares the individual for managerial
positions, it should guide the students to the possible career
destinations and associated enterprises of a given course of study.
7. Guidance and Counselling in the primary school should be made more
practical so that the childrens career development will be ignited at
that level since it is a foundation stage.
References
Billet, S. (2011). Vocational education: Purposes, traditions and prospects.
London: Springer

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Ginzberg, E. (1951). Toward a theory of occupational choice: A restatement.


Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 20, 160-176
Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN), (2004). National policy on education
(4th ed). Lagos: NERDC Press.
Hansen, D. T. (1994). Teaching and the sense of vocation. Educational
Theory, 44(3), 259275.
Nwadinobi, V. N., Umezulike, R. Q., Eneasotor, U. E. & Mmaduakonam, A.
(2013). Educational information and career development in
counseling: A Theoretical approach. Onitsha: The Light of Winner
Publishers.
Osinem, E. C. & Nwoji, U. C. (2010). Students industrial work experience in
Nigeria: Concepts, principles and practice (rev. ed.). Enugu: Cheston
Publishers.
Super, D. (1963). Psychology of careers (2nd ed.). New York: Harper
Brothers.
Ughamadu, K. A. (2016). Teaching, learning and evaluation for power. 3RD
Inaugural Lecture Series of College of Education, Agbor, Delta State
of Nigeria.
Umezulike, R. Q. E. & Eneasator, E. U. (2012). Organisation and
administration of counselling services for the special needs (2nd ed).
Onitsha: Ofona Publishers.

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JOVTE, pages10169-177, Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017
No. 1, 2017

PRODUCTIVITY AND PROFITABILITY POTENTIALS OF


UPLAND AND LOWLAND YAM CULTIVATION IN ANAMBRA
WEST L.G.A. OF ANAMBRA STATE: A COMPARATIVE
ANALYSIS

OKEKE, DANIEL C.
Department of Agric. Education
Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe
PMB 1734, Onitsha, Anambra State
+2348060671944, olisdon@yahoo.com

Abstract
Productivity and profitability potentials of upland and lowland yam cultivation in
Anambra West Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria were studied. A
survey research design was used for the study. Data were collected from a sample of
260 respondent farmers using structured questionnaire to elicit information from
the farmers. Two research questions and two null hypothesis were formulated and
these guided the study. Data collected were analysed using Z-test statistic at 0.05
level of significance. The result of the findings showed that yam cultivation on the
upland farms were more productive and profitable. The lowland farms were more
prone to the vagaries of nature effect especially flooding. It was also found out that
the problems encountered by the lowland farmers differed significantly from that
of the upland farmers. Recommendations were made among which are, that lowland
farms should be insured by farmers and, development of appropriate technology
capable of increasing the shelf-life of stored tubers.

Introduction
Arable crops are those crops which persist for less number of years
than perennial crops. They are usually annuals and may include such crops
like maize, yam, cassava, cocoayam. Roots and tuber crops occupy very
important position among the food crops grown in Nigeria as they play
important roles in national and house hold food security (Rijks, 2003). Of
all the root and tuber crops grown in Nigeria, yam occupies a very
important position being closely integrated into the social, cultural,
economic and religious aspects of lives of communities in yam growing areas
(Vernier, and Dansi, 2000).
Yam belongs to the genus disoscorea. comprising many species such
as Dioscorea-rotundata, D.cayanensis, D.alata, D.dumentorum, D.bulbifera,
D.esculenta. Yam does not tolerate frosty conditions. The required
temperature of 25 - 30C is normal for growth. Loamy soils are best for yam
growth and well drained soil are required for good yield. Light is critical in

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yam production and short day length favours vine growth (Annonymous,
2003). Propagation is by tuber, bulbils, vine cuttings, seeds or tissue culture.
In the year 2000, an estimate of 38.5million tones of yam was
produced world wide. Out of this, West Africa contributed about 96% and,
Nigeria production accounted for about 71% of this output, (Ngopya, 2003).
Average yields are low due mostly to unimproved low yielding varieties and
use of unimproved cultural practices. Increase in yam production is due
mostly to expansion of hectarages cultivated and not necessarily from
increased yield per hectare. This low yield per hectare of yam compared to
other crops like cassava, the relatively large amount of planting materials
required and, the long growing season are some of the major problems facing
yam production (Okorji, 2992).
Productivity is the efficiency with which input are converted to
output, the potential output which may be obtained from a specific input
(Bishop and Tousant 1985). Profit according to Cramer, Jenson and
Southgate (2001), is a surplus of receipts over expenses. The aim of every
farmer is to maximize profit or minimize cost. The profitability of an
economic activity generally is a major determinant in the choice of an
investment portfolio. One method of production is said to be more efficient
than another when it yields greater valuable output per unit of valuable input
used (Bishop and Tousant 1985). Some farms achieve relatively high
efficiency scores whilst others are less efficient and this is the function of
such factors like farm size, farm location, farm characteristics, farmers
characteristics (Andreakos, 1997).
Most of the commercial yam production in the state takes place in
Anambra West L.G.A. Yam cultivation starts from November and continues till
early February in the lowland farms. Cultivation follows the receding flood
from the Anambra River and River Niger. These yams are harvested between
June and July when flooding starts coming. In the upland farms yam
cultivation commences from April and are harvested from November through
December to January. This study hopes to determine the potentials of these
two ecologies with respect to productivity and profitability of yam
enterprise.
The production cost in terms of the cultural practices - labour cost, cost of
input as well as the marketing cost, returns on investment interms of revenue
from sale of output from the two farms will be analysed.
Yam cultivation in Anambra West Local Government Area is
characterized by such problems like flooding, draught, intensity of labour

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demand at peak production period, input availability, harvesting and marketing


inconsistencies. This has resulted in consistent poor output of the farmers. It
has become increasingly necessary therefore to analyse the production
patterns in this area with a view to determine which of the two systems mostly
provide the farmers with the highest level of return from investment, as a way
of restrategizing Nigerian Agriculture in this changing climatic condition to
engender sustainable food security.
Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study:
1. Does the output of lowland farms differ from that of upland farms?
2. Do the farmers in lowland farms encounter the same problems with
those of the upland farms?
Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were stated and tested at 0.05 level of
significance.
1. Output of lowland farms does not significantly differ from that of
upland farms.
2. There is no significant difference between the problems encountered by
farmers in lowland farms and that encountered by farmers in the
upland farms.
Procedure
A survey research design was used for the study. Well structured
questionnaire was employed to elicit information from the respondents -
farmers. This instrument was validated by two experts in Agric. Economics
from Delta State University, Asaba and Anambra State University, Uli. Their
suggestions guided the final draft of the instrument.
The population consists of all the farmers in the 14 towns that make up
the local government area. A random sample of twenty (20) farmers from
each town was made to get the sample size of 280 respondents. The
administration and completion of the questionnaire was done with the help
of a research assistant employed by the researcher for the purpose. Out of the
280 copies of the questionnaire distributed to the farmers, 260 were recovered
and used for the analysis.
Mean scores were used to answer research questions. The questionnaire
was structured based on four point scale and a mean score of 2.50 and above is
taken as accepted while an item with a mean less than 2.50 is rejected.
The stated null hypotheses were tested using z-test statistic at 0.05 level
of significant.

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Result and Discussion


The results of the study are presented according to the research
questions in Tables 1 and 3, the stated null hypotheses were presented in
Tables 2 and 4.
Research Question 1
Does the output of lowland farms differ from that of upland farms?
Table 1: Mean ratings of output of farmers who cultivated yam in
upland and lowland farms
Items SA A D SD N X Remarks
1. Zero tillage is possible and 180 60 20 - 260 3.62 Accepted
practiced in lowland farms
2. Zero tillage is possible and 10 30 125 95 260 1.83 Rejected
practiced in upland farms
3. Floading leads to harvest of 158 76 20 6 260 3.48 Accepted
tubers not fully matured
4. Floading of farms retard crop 80 67 68 45 260 2.70 Accepted
growth and maturity in lowland
farms
5. Submerged tubers rot away in 210 40 10 - 260 3.77 Accepted
the ground in low land farms
6. Harvesting is a gradual process 141 86 25 8 260 3.38 Accepted
based on market demand in
upland
7. Harvesting is dictated by 102 103 30 25 260 3.08 Accepted
floading rate in lowland farms
8. Stored yams attract good prices 144 80 33 3 260 4.30 Accepted
9. Yams are sold at farm gate 13 40 71 136 260 1.73 Rejected
price in the upland farms
10. Yams are sold at farm gate 167 66 17 10 260 3.50 Accepted
price in the lowland farms
11. Harvested tubers from lowland 7 30 70 153 260 1.58 Rejected
farms attract higher price at
harvest as against upland
farms
12. Tubers reach maximum size 6 57 66 131 260 1.76 Rejected
before harvest in lowland farms
13. Yield is affected in the lowland 116 88 43 13 260 3.18 Accepted
farms by the early dry spell
14. Yield is enhanced in lowland farms 106 80 55 19 260 3.05 Accepted
due to nutrients accumulation by
flood
15 Tubers reach maximum size in 131 83 38 8 260 3.30 Accepted
upland farms

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In Table 1, the respondents indicated the factors responsible for the


eventual quantity and quality of output in both farms. Item numbers 1,3,4, 5, 7
and 14 are for the lowland farms. The lowland farms encounter more hazards
than the upland farms which, in addition, affords the yam enough time to reach
maximum size and yams are stored to attract good prices.

Hypothesis 1
Output of lowland farms does not significantly differ from that of upland farms.
Table 2: Mean score of difference in output between upland
and lowland farms
Groups N X SD df Z-cal Z-crit
Upland farms 130 3.40 2.7
258 5.76 1.96
Lowland farms 130 1.73 1.9

From table 2, it was indicated that calculated value of Z which is 5.76 is


greater than the critical value of Z 1.96. The hypothesis is hereby rejected
hence, there is significant difference between the output of upland and
lowland farms.

Research Question 2
Do the farmers in lowland farms encounter the same problems as those in the
upland farms?
Table 3: Mean ratings of problems encountered by both farmers in
upland and lowland farms
Items SA A D SD N X Remarks
1. Flooding of farms cause yam 120 66 61 13 260 3.13 Accepted
decay after harvest
2. Flooding of farms prevents 120 68 52 20 260 3.11 Accepted
weed growth in lowland farms
as against upland farms
3. Weeding increases production 8 30 82 140 260 1.64 Rejected
cost in lowland farms
4. Labour scarcity during harvest 140 71 40 9 260 3.32 Accepted
is a problem in lowland farms
5. There is labour scarcity in 12 29 94 125 260 1.42 Rejected
upland farms during harvest
6. Transportation cost is high 9 20 71 160 260 1.53 Rejected
during harvest in upland farms
as against lowland farms

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7. Flooding prevents easy 140 68 45 7 260 3.31 Accepted


evacuation of produce from
lowland farms
8. Cost of mound making affects 138 60 51 11 260 3.25 Accepted
only upland farms
9. For lowland farms, tubers 155 76 20 9 260 3.45 Accepted
attract lower price at harvest
due to glut
10. Draught reduces yam 120 86 40 14 260 3.20 Accepted
performance at early growth
stage of lowland crop
11. Lowland farms require fertilizer - 10 70 180 260 1.35 Rejected
to perform well more than
upland farms
12. Cost of fertilizer does not 3 30 40 187 260 1.42 Rejected
increase production cost in
upland farms
Table 2 indicated that most of the problems identified were mostly
encountered by the lowland farmers. Exceptions however are in the case of
item numbers 2, 3 and 12, with mean of 3.11, 1.64, 3.5 and 1.42 respectively.

Hypothesis 2 (Ho2)
There is no significant difference between the problems encountered by
farmers in lowland farms compared to that encountered by farmers in the
upland farms.
Table 4: Mean score of problems encountered by both upland
and lowland farmers.
Groups N X SD df Z-cal Z-crit
Upland farms 130 3.25 2.30
258 6.81 1.96
Lowland farms 130 1.48 1.86

Table 4 showed that the calculated value of Z 6.81 is greater than the
critical value of Z which is 1.96. Therefore, the problems encountered
by farmers in both farms are not the same.

Discussion of Results
From the analysis on the output of both farms, it was observed that zero
tillage is possible in lowland farms thereby minimizing the cost of production.
Also, the accumulation of nutrients by flood adds to the organic matter content

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of such soils and leading to increased fertility and a corresponding increased


yield of lowland crops. This is supported by report of Nnabude and Mbagwu
(2000); Enwezor, Ohiri, Opuwaribo and Udo (1990), MAS (1985); Karikari
and Yayock (1987), that organic wastes enhance better yield of crops in a
good water management level.
However, there is the problem of flooding which leads to harvesting of
tubers not fully matured. Some of the tubers are also submerged in the flood
water leading to loss of revenue to the farmer. In the upland farms, harvesting
is carried out gradually by the farmer, sometimes depending on the market
demand. This enables the farmer to realize adequate income for his output.
Flooding of lowland farms during harvest will force the farmers to harvest both
due and undue tubers and send them to the marker for sale. This is so
because yams harvested from flooded farms or at the peak of rainy season does
not store well. Some of these tubers have not attained their maximum size
and would still grow bigger if allowed extra time in the field. This forced
harvesting of crops due to flooding most times leads to glut due to the demand
supply gap. This negatively affects the farmers return on investment as he will
not be able to receive a commensurate price for his output. The upland
farmers harvest their yam during the dry season and so are able to store them
for the future market, and be able to sale at an appreciable price to reduce the
cost per unit of output.
It was observed also that in lowland farms, critical labour demand is
more pronounced especially during harvesting. The level of activity which is a
function of the rate of flooding increases the pressure on the demand for hired
labour with the consequent increase in the price of labour. The farm output
during this period is usually sold at farm gate price as observed by this study.
This could be because the farmers are so pressured and do not have enough
time for the market due to the flooding, or because of poor storage facilities or
the poor humidity of the available storage facilities. In as much as the nutrient
status of lowland farms are enhanced by the flooding, dry spell during the
early crop growth has some degree of negative effect on crop performance in
terms of growth and corresponding yield.
In upland farms, weeding increases the cost of production thereby
reducing the income of the farmers. In the lowland farms, it was observed that
flooding reduces the growth of weeds. This is supported by Oesterbean,
Gunnenwe and Huizing, (1986) who stated that flooded farms increase crop
yield and also reduces weed growth and weeding operation.

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It was also observed that one of the contributing factors to poor


return .on investment from lowland farms is in the area of transportation.
The roads are usually flooded during the rainy season such that there is this
problem of evacuation of yam from the hinterland. This increases also the
cost of marketing with their negative impact on production cost.
Farmers in lowland farms engage in zero tillage as against the upland
farmers who incur the cost of mound marking as a disadvantage.

Conclusion and Recommendation


It is recommended that as much as possible, emphasis should be
placed more on upland farms. The unfavourable production environment
prevailing in the lowland farms, due mostly to this flood issue should be
seriously addressed. Farmers should be encouraged to insure their farms
most especially the lowland farms and avoid too much reliance on this
lowland cultivation. Appropriate technology to enhance storage or increase
the shelf life of harvested tubers especially during the rainy season
should be developed by the government research institutes.

References
Andreakos. I.V., Tzouvelekas, K., Mattas and E. Papanagiotou (1997).
Estimation of Technical Efficiency in Greek Livestock Farms.
Cahiers-d'Economic at Sociologie Rurales O (42 - 43) 1st - 2nd
Trimester 93 -107.
Anonymous, (2003). The Nigerian Rice Economy in a Competitive World:
Constraints, Opportunities and Strategic Choices. A Survey.
Assuming, B. (1991). Yam For Foreign Exchange Potential and Prospects
in Ghana. 9th Symposium of International Society for Tropical Root
Crops (ISTRC) 20 - 26 Oct. 1991, Accra Ghana: 38.
Bishop, C.C. and Toussant, W.D. (1985). Introduction to
Agricultural Economic Analysis: John Willey and Sons. N.Y.
USA.
Cramer, G.L., Jensen C.W., and Southgate, D. D. (Jnr) (2001). Agricultural
Economics and Agribusiness (Eight edition) John Willey and Sons,
Inc. New York. USA.
Enwezor, W.C., Ohiri, A.C., Opuwaribo, E.E.; and Udo, J.E. (1990).
Literature Review on Soil Fertility Investigation in Nigeria.
Fertilizer Procurement and Distribution Division (FPDD). Federal
Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Lagos.

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Karikari, S.K. and Yayock, J.Y. (1987) Organic Fertilizer Sources in


Nigeria. National Fertilizer Seminar, Port Harcourt, 65 - 85pp.
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Ngopya, F. (2003). Importance of root crops in Africa. Proceedings of
the Export Consultation on Root Crop Statistics, Vol. II Invited
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Statistics Division and Regional Office for Africa, Rome.
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Report ILRI Wageningen, The Netherland, 30 - 40pp.
Rijka J. Q. (2003). Overview of Previous FAO Activities on Root Crop
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JOVTE, Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017

INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE POOR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE


OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS OF BIOLOGY IN
ONITSHA NORTH L.G.A. OF ONITSHA EDUCATION ZONE.

1
OKAFOR, BLESSING IFEOMA, 2OKOLI, STELLA OBIANUJU &
3
EZENDUKA, M. M.
1,2,3
Department of Biology,
Federal College of Education (Technical), Umunze.

Abstract
The backdrop as regards poor students academic performance and myths (negative)
into the study of Biology is of great concern. This paper investigated the causes of
the students poor academic performance in Biology in Onitsha North Local
Government Area of Onitsha Education Zone. Two (2) research questions and one
(1)null hypothesis guided the study. The design was a descriptive survey with a
sample size of one hundred and twenty (120) SS II students. A twenty (20) - items
questionnaire titled Causes Of Students Poor Academic Performance in Biology
(COSPAPIB) was used to collect data. The research questions were answered with
mean and standard deviation, while the null hypothesis was tested with the t- test at
0.05 level of significance .Result reveals that Inadequate and poor instructional
facilities causes poor performance in Biology. Also Human factor involving the
teacher and students independent of each other portray negative attitudes leading to
the poor performance. The mean ratings of male and female students responses
were similar to the causes of poor academic performance. Recommendations among
others is that instructional facilities should be improvised in schools for the teaching
and learning of Biology. Also the right attitude to teaching and learning should be
inculcated into the teachers and students through seminars, workshops and
orientations respectively.

Introduction
Biology is one of the core science subjects offered in senior secondary
schools in Nigeria. One of the objectives of biology education at senior
secondary level is that the students at the end of their study should be able to
apply scientific knowledge to everyday life in matters of personal and
community health and in agriculture (Ramalingam, 2000). The nature of the
subject itself presents concepts and phenomena that should enable students to
apply the methods of scientific observation and evaluation in decision-
making, distinguish observations from healthy life through a knowledge of
how their body works and can be abused, understand the diversity, evolution,
and interdependence of biosphere and the students role as future stewards of
the environment (Johnson, 2005). Biology is a science subject that is studied

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in secondary school by majority of the students and in most schools, it is


optionally compulsory (Ofoegbu, 2003). It is a science subject that enables
students to acquire the knowledge to live effectively in the modern age of
science and technology. With great emphasis placed on science and
technological development, students are required to take a science subject in
their final year secondary school examinations. Biology is the subject most
students opt for, yet there is still poor performance observed in the subject. It
is however disturbing to know that poor performance of students in biology at
the senior secondary school certificate examinations has often been
unsatisfactory (Onwiodukit, 2013). From available statistics in the State
Education Commission, achievement in the SSCE biology in Anambra State
has been consistently low for the past four years (Okoye, 2006). The West
African Examination Council (WAEC) observed that students performance
at the senior secondary school certificate shows no progress over the years
(STAN, 1992). The continued poor academic achievement of students in
biology can be attributed to so many reasons. Besong and Obo(2003)
observed that the method adopted by the teacher may promote or inhibit
learning. Many researchers have attributed poor performance in biology to
poor instructional delivery approach adopted by teachers in schools
(Etukudo,2009; Salau, 2009). Abimbola and Danmole (1995) opined that all
content in science discipline is learnable when such is represented in suitable
structure that would facilitate comprehension. Korau (2006) reported the
reasons for poor performance to include the student factor, teacher factor,
societal factor, inadequate infrastructure problem, language problem, poor
curriculum - implementation, inadequate and dearth in textbooks socio-
economic problems, and over population in schools. Other identified reasons
are poor primary school science background, lack of incentive for teachers,
students lack of interest, social distractions among students large classes,
poor attitude of students towards science subject, inefficiency and
incompetency of the teachers in the primary school to build a foundation
(Saage, 2009). Alausa (2007) is one of the views that in many schools, there
are lack of teachers in their specialised areas of study. There are very large
class sizes without instructional materials and students are learning practical
biology without adequate laboratory facilities (Ofoegbu, 2005). The biology
teachers of the 21st century should as a matter of urgency make a paradigm
shift from being instructors, expositors, fact-givers, to stimulators and
facilitators. Okoli (2011) is of the opinion that for students to acquire relevant
scientific knowledge, skills and competencies needed for survival in the

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present scientific and technological age, necessary topics requiring practicals


need to be incorporated into biology lessons. Also in a related study Okoli
(2012) asserted that lessons involving activities promotes class interaction and
fun. Related studies as carried out by Okeke, Osuafor and Okafor (2011)
revealed that biology teachers do not use the supportive classroom interaction
with their students; evading some questions from students due to their poor
knowledge. They also noted that the teachers often found it difficult to
provide opportunities for active learner participation in classes to students; as
there were no opportunity for independent investigations and encouragement
to students to conduct experiments. Thus this study is carried out to identify
the necessary factors leading to poor performance in biology.

Research Questions
1. Is poor performance a result of poor /lack of instructional facilities?
2. Is human factor a contribution to poor academic achievement in
biology?

Hypothesis
There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female
students on causes of poor academic achievement in biology.

Methodology
The study was conducted in Onitsha North Local Government of Onitsha
Education Zone in Anambra State. The local government is situated in the
Onitsha Urban area. It is a densely populated area inhabited mainly by
artisans, and traders, and few civil servants.
The population comprised all (SS2) biology students numbering six hundred
and seventeen (617) in the selected eight (8) public secondary schools in the
study area. SS2 students were chosen for the study because they have almost
completed two sessions in studying the subject, and being conversant with
their classroom environment, will be in a better position to elicit the
information needed properly. One hundred and twenty (120) students
comprised the sample. Fifteen (15) students each from the eight schools were
randomly selected.
A twenty (20) item questionnaire was designed for the study. The
questionnaire was titled Causes of students poor academic performance in
biology (C OSPAPIB). Respondents are to tick their opinions against the

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statements of the items and the choices of the 4 point scale. The choices
were: Very True (VT), True (T), Not Very True (NVT) and Not True (NT).
The instrument was validated on its face and content validity by experts.
Comments and corrections were effected as appropriate. The alpha coefficient
value of 0.82 was obtained with the Cronbach Alpha used to establish the
reliability. Thus the value was taken as an indication of internal consistency.
One hundred and twenty (120) copies of the questionnaire were distributed to
the sampled students for completion and retrieved immediately to avoid loss
with the help of some research assistants which were given orientation.
Mean and Standard deviation was used to answer the research questions by
preparing a tally sheet of frequency distribution and weighted on the 4-point
rating scale. Very true and true were merged and mean scores of 2.5 (mid-
point of the scale) and above were accepted as indications of Very true causes
of poor academic achievement. Not Very True and Not True were also
merged and mean scores below 2.50 were regarded as Not True causes of
poor academic performance.

Results
These are summarized below in tables 1-2
Research questions
Table 1: Mean Ratings of lack of instructional facilities as causes of poor
students performance.
Item Items on reasons for poor academic Mean SD Decision
no performance in biology
1 Lack of finance to buy textbooks 3.08 1.08 T
2 Biology books in the library are ancient 3.63 1.06 T
3 Our laboratory are not well equipped 4.80 1.11 T
4 Some biology concepts are taught in 3.88 1.01 T
abstract
5 High cost of biology textbooks 3.16 0.80 T
6 Large class sizes 4.65 1.11 T
7 Biology terms are vague 1.86 0.90 NT
8 No practical work in biology 2.84 1.05 T
9 Students poor interest in learning 2.72 1.22 T
10 Poor understanding of many topics 3.85 1.05 T

In table 1, only item 7 mean is less than 2.50. Scores of other items had means
above 2.50. The mean of means was 2.75 indicating that poor and lack of

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various instructional facilities lead to the students poor academic


performance in biology in Anambra state.

Research question two


Is human resources a factor to the poor academic performance in biology?
Table 2 :
Mean ratings of human resources as a factor to (x) SD Decision
poor students performance.
11 Lack of qualified teachers 1.23 0.60 NT
12 Lack of motivation for teachers 1.08 0.50 NT
13 Teachers are absent from school 1.19 0.07 NT
14 Teachers are incompetent 2.60 1.08 T
15 Parents do not encourage their wards 1.16 0.55 NT
16 The business environment affect our study 3.10 1.20 T
17 Poor academic background of students 2.83 1.10 T
18 Teachers dont get us involved in teaching process 2.98 1.06 T
19 Students are not science-inclined 2.28 1.02 NT
20 Biology is perceived to be difficult 2.40 1.03 NT
Mean of means 2.76 1.26 T
In table 2, items 14, 16, 17, 18 and 20 had means above 2.50 with the
standard deviations ranging from 1.03 -1.20 indicating convergence of the
items. Some of other items had means less than 2.50. The mean of means is
2.09. Thus, human factor with inclusion of teachers and students attitudes
contribute to the poor academic performance in biology.

Ho1 : Null Hypothesis


There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of male and
female students on the causes of poor academic performance in biology.
Table 3:
t-test of the mean ratings of male and female students on the causes of
poor academic performance in biology (0.05)
Gender N Mean SD Df t-cal t-crit Decision
Male 40 0.91 0.45 118 0.45 1.95 Accept
Female 80 0.84 0.41

Table 3 shows that t-cal is less than t-critical thus the null hypothesis is
upheld as male and female students opinions are same on the causes of the
poor academic performance in biology.

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Discussion
Availability and utilization of instructional facilities including textbooks are
of a great importance in the delivery of biology as a discipline. Students are of
the view that their parents lack funds to buy textbooks for them due to their
high cost. The laboratories are poorly equipped, thus not all the required
practicals are carried out. This also leads to the teaching of some biology
concepts in abstract instead of experimenting on them. This will also results
in poor understanding of topics in biology thereby reducing the interest of
students in the subject and its poor understanding. All these are in line with
Besong and Obo (2003) in their report on the teachers adoption of teaching
method to promote learning. If the teacher teaches topics with relevant
method, it will result to higher understanding and better performance.
From the findings, it is observed that, though the school has library, the
available biology textbooks are old with obsolete information. With
increasing population in our society, there are influx of students in schools
without equivalent classroom blocks and teaching staff. These results in
having large class sizes, thereby making teachings unpleasant both for the
students and teachers. The teachers will not have access round the class thus
students at the middle and back dont concentrate on the lesson. Thus, this is
in line with (Otogbolu, 2005) who opined that there are very large class sizes
without instructional materials and students learning practical biology without
adequate laboratory facilities. It then implies that students will not acquire
relevant scientific knowledge, skills and competencies needed for their
survival in this era of science and technology (Okoli,2011).
The students identified their teachers as qualified with one certificate or the
other but are not competent enough to discharge their teaching responsibility.
This can be attributed to the trend in the country where employment is no
longer by merit, but by favour thus untrained teacher graduates are employed
into teaching field and they are unable to utilize the teaching skills in
delivering their lessons; this is in conjunction with Alausa (2007) that in many
schools, there are lack of specialists teachers.
The findings also revealed that most students have poor academic background
may be in primary science and in junior secondary Basic science.
Findings revealed that their teachers do not involve them in the teaching
process, thus they do the talking (teaching) alone without asking questions to
the students to elicit their ideas. Thus, this corresponds with the findings of
(Okeke, Osuafor and Okafor 2011) as biology teachers do not use supportive
classroom interaction with the students, as teachers do not provide

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opportunities for active learner participation; and there were no opportunities


for independent investigations and encouragement to students to conduct
experiments. Also the work of Okoli (2012), revealed that involving activity
in teaching enhances students interaction, participation and fun.

Conclusion
Based on the findings and discussions, it was concluded that
Inadequate/unavailability of instructional facilities and human factors
(students and teachers) are causes of poor academic achievement in biology.
Male and female students are of the same opinion that on the afore-mentioned
causes of poor academic achievement in biology

Recommendations
Based on the findings, it was recommended that,
1. Biology teachers should adapt good teaching methods to convey their
knowledge to students for better understanding.
2. Biology teachers should make room for students participation in their
lesson.
3. Biology teachers should demonstrate concepts requiring practicals to
avoid abstractness.
4. Government should erect more classroom buildings to accommodate
increasing student enrolment in schools and provide adequate
laboratories for practicals.
5. Government should employ well trained/competent biology teachers
with teaching qualifications.
6. Government should provide current and relevant textbooks to the
school library; so that students can acquire recent information and
knowledge.
7. Parents should be sensitized at the Parents Teachers Association (PTA)
meeting on need to encourage their children and wards so to develop
positive attitude towards education to avoid drop-outs.

References
Abimbola, I.O & Danmole, B.T. (1995). Origin and structure of scientific
knowledge: Implications for concepts difficulty in science. Ilorin
journal of Education 15, 45-59.
Alausa, Y.A. (2007). Teachers attitudinal variables in the implementation of
the further mathematics curriculum as correlates of students learning

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outcomes. Zimbabwe Journal of Educational Research, 10 (1), 62 1-


640.
Etukudo, U.E. (2006). The effect of computer Assisted Instruction on Gender
and Performance of Junior Secondary School in Mathematics.
ABACUS Journal of Mathematical Association of Nigeria 27(1)1-8.
Johnson, D.W. & Johnson, R.T. (2005). Co-operative learning. Retrieved,
1/29/2009. http://www.newhorizons.com
Korau, Y. K. (2006). Educational crises facing Nigerian Secondary Schools
and possible solutions. A paper presented at faculty of Education,
University of Ibadan.
Ofoegbu, T.(2003). Challenges of Implementing Senior Secondary One (SS1)
Biology Curriculum in Nigeria. Journal of Science Teachers
Association of Nigeria 38 (1)(2) 46-50.
Okeke, S.O.C., Osuafor, A.M. and Okafor, B. I. (2011) Students perception
of their classroom Interaction with Biology Teachers in secondary
schools in Onitsha Education Zone, International Journal of
Educational Research and Development 5 (1) 1-11.
Okoli, J.N. (2011).Activity-based approach and the use of analogy for the
effective teaching of organization of life in living organisms. STAN
Biology panel series. Onitsha: New Life Press.
Okoli, J.N. (2012).Using activity-based approach to teach pest of agricultural
importance and control measures to secondary school students. STAN
Biology Panel series. Onitsha: New Life Press.
Okoye, Z.O. (2006). Classroom environment, computers and students
effective performance. An effective profile. Journal of Experimental
Education, 62, 221-239.
Onwiodukit, F.A. (2013). The ordeal of science teaching in the contemporary
society. A paradigm shift for the New Generation. 36th Inaugural
lecture series, University of Uyo.
Ramalingam, S.T. (2000). Modern Biology for senior secondary schools.
Lagos: Africana FEP Publishers Ltd.
Saage, O. (2009). Causes of Mass failures in mathematics Examination
among students. A Commissioned paper presented at government
secondary school. Kanu Abuja Science Day.
Salau, M.O.(2009). The effect of class size on achievement of different ability
groups in mathematics. Journal of Science Teachers Association of
Nigeria, 31(1)27-33.
STAN(1992). Position paper of science Teachers Association of Nigeria
position paper No. 4

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JOVTE,Vol. 10 No.
pages 1, 2017
186-192, Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017

PROFESSIONAL INTEGRITY IN THE ACCOUNTANCY


PROFESSION: AN ESSENTIAL TOOL FOR NATIONAL REBIRTH.

MR. OKAFOR, J.O


Department of Business Education,
Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe

Abstract
There is a need for the image of our country, Nigeria to be repositioned. This paper
therefore focused on the concept of integrity as an important factor that cannot be
dispensed with in the accountancy profession, especially in this era of the dwindling
image of the profession. In this respect, the paper looked at the importance of
accountancy profession and the role it is expected to play in this national rebirth
process. The paper concluded by making recommendations that would assist
professional integrity to be employed as a tool for achieving national
rebirth/rebranding.

Introduction
Accountancy is regarded as a noble profession anywhere across the
universe. The profession and its professionals are highly respected. This
encomium being poured on the profession and its professionals can no longer
be entirely correct under the Nigerian context considering the past and recent
incidents that have cast aspersion on the image of the profession. This and
other short-comings of Nigeria as a nation have portrayed the countrys image
in bad light both at the local and international levels.
There is an urgent need for the image of our country, Nigeria, to be
repositioned through the Accounting Profession. Nigeria requires a total
national rebirth (repackaging) in order to improve her image internationally.
To be able to achieve this feat, accounting professionals must at all times
reflect the principle of integrity. It needs to be pointed out that if this national
rebirth project is to be successful, all hands must be on deck so that all
professionals, lawyers, doctors, engineers, architects, surveyors, teachers,
politicians, etc must key into this project. The cases of failed banks, failed
businesses and, of course, the collapse of Nigerias economy point to the fact
that there is an urgent need to repackage our countrys image through the
Accountancy Profession.

Concept of a Professional Accountant.


A Professional Accountant is one who has received adequate training
and experience and is as well certified by any of the recognized Accounting

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Bodies as being qualified to practice as an Auditor. A professional


Accountant or an Auditor is one whose duty is to meticulously and
objectively examine and inquire into any statement of accounts and other
documents and the physical assets, where possible in order to ascertain or
form an opinion as to:-
i. whether the accounting records have been properly kept and whether
they present a true and complete record of all the financial transactions
of the enterprise during a given period.
ii. whether the statement of account presents a true and fair view of
whatever it purports to represent and to report thereon (Okoye 1998).

Concept of Accounting
Accounting may be perceived from varied perspectives as an activity
performed by accountants and their surrogates, as a system consisting of
several interrelated and interdependent parts; as a technique of management
and as a discipline of study (Anao 1989). Whichever perspective one adopts,
one invariably finds accounting as a process of handling information of
economic or financial nature, which is highly useful and adaptive to varying
situations.
The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA,
1961) defined accounting as the art of recording, classifying and summarizing
in a significant manner and in terms of money transactions and events which
are, in part at least of a financial character and interpreting the result thereof.
The American Accounting Association perceives accounting as the process of
identifying, measuring and communicating economic information to permit
informed judgements and decision by users of the information (AAA, 1966).
Accounting was equally defined as the art of recording, summarizing,
analyzing and interpreting financial records in such a manner that will permit
the interested parties to make wise economic decisions (Okoli, 2012). The
aforementioned definitions identifying the major activities found in
accounting profession consist of recording of transactions, summarizing of the
collected data as well as giving interpretation of such. One essential aspect of
the American Accounting Associations definition is that of measurement and
communication. It should be noted that whatever accounting information that
is gathered must be properly communicated to the users in form of report.

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Accounting Report
Accounting reports are grouped into three categories thus:
a. External Report: This type of report is mainly packaged for the
consumption of parties that are external to the organization, focusing
on the entire/whole sections, not the individual units. It reports on the
entire organizational activities such as comprehensive income
statement, statement of financial position, value added statement, etc.
b. Routine Internal Report: This is concerned with reports on the
normal internal control checks within the organization. It is applied for
purposes of planning costs, monitoring performance at different
locations within the organization, major deviation from the norms and
effecting corrective measures to ensure compliance with the set
standards (plans). It deals with performance reports which are directed
to management on daily, weekly monthly and quarterly basis and
drawing managements attention to the areas where deviations from
the set objectives are exceptional, thus facilitating Management by
Exception (MBE). Such reports on cash and stock position, fixed asset
register, labour monthly audit, job cards are examples of internal
reports.
c. Non-Routine Internal Report: The major focus of this type of report
is to facilitate the decision making function of management by
providing plans:- short, medium and long terms and the basis for
deciding on alternative projects and programmes. It guides
management in a host of product and profit planning decisions which
are critical to good budgetary commitment of funds and aids the
evaluation of effects of the alternative decisions on the risk-return
profile of the firm. Budgets, standard cost, and cost-volume-profit
models come under this class of report.
The users of Accounting Information/Reports include:
shareholders, auditors, management, government, employees, trade
unions, financial analysts, prospective investors, auditors, competitors,
suppliers, customers, etc. There is every need for accounting
information that is given to the public to be carefully censored so as to
prevent it from misleading/misinforming the innocent interested
public. Wrong accounting information contained in the financial
statements has the ability of imparting negatively on our countrys
economy and sending wrong signals to the entire world.

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That should be the major reason why section 335(2) of


Companies and Allied Matters Act (CAMA) requires that the balance
sheet shall give a true and fair view of the financial state of affairs of
the company at the end of the year. The companys profit and loss
account shall give true and fair view of the profit or loss of the
company for the year.
The law perceives true and fair view as so essential that section 335(6)
stated that the requirement for true and fair view overrides both schedule 2,
and all other requirements of this Decree/CAMA as to the matters to be
included in the accounts of an entity or in notes to those accounts. Section
335(7,8) further provides that any necessary additional information shall be
provided.. And any necessary departure from the statutory requirements
may be made in order to comply with true and fair view requirement. The
implication here is that the law makes the true and fair view the core and
ultimate requirement in corporate reporting.
The meaning of true and fair view was stressed more by Osisioma
(2003). He stated that true and fair statements are generally regarded as
having met generally accepted principles, thus financial statements should
i. Conform to appropriate accounting principles and practices in the
circumstances and nature of the organization
ii. Be consistent in the principles and polices applied from one period to
another. Policy changes where they occur are appropriately disclosed,
and effect on the accounts highlighted.
iii. Properly value assets and liabilities and properly state all incomes and
revenue expenditures and losses.
iv. Disclose all necessary information which would otherwise mar the true
and fair view. Compliance with specific provisions of relevant statutes
and financial regulations should also be disclosed.
v. Be carefully informed of matters that may affect their use, understanding
and interpretation.
vi. Be comparable in form and item with those of similar organizations and
terminology common to financial statements is employed or notes
defining unfamiliar terms are provided.
vii. Present information that is classified and summarized in a reasonable
manner neither too detailed nor too condensed.
In the light of the above requirements, it is seen that accounting
statements/reports prepared by accountants are supposed to be free from
false information that may mislead the innocent interested public (users)

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and impart negatively on the economy. Our foreign business partners


who would use such misleading statements in making economic
decisions may be adversely affected too.

Integrity in Accounting Profession as a Tool for Achieving National


Rebirth
Integrity is one of the cardinal qualities of a Professional Accountant.
Integrity implies honesty, fair dealings and truthfulness (Adeniyi, 2004).
Integrity was defined by Hornby (2010) as the quality of being honest and
having strong moral principles. Integrity means honesty, uprightness,
probity, and moral soundness. Ejiofor (1987) defines integrity as the aspect of
ones character rooted in his conviction which serves to prevent him from
taking advantage of his position or strength to gain at the expense of his
organization, customer, client or subordinates. The principles of integrity
requires an Accountant to act with honesty and probity and to maintain a
professional attitude in the performance of his responsibilities.
Integrity is one of the qualities of an Accountant that is inherent in all
other qualities of a professional Accountant. The integrity factor is an
indispensable component of the Accounting profession and this fact is
encapsulated in these statements:
i. Integrity does not compromise standard.
ii. Integrity does not do window dressing or present deceptive financial
statements/reports.
iii. Integrity does not permit kick-back or bribery.
iv. It does not encourage double standard/preferential treatment.
v. Integrity believes in the observation of the rules of the game.
vi. Integrity does not believe in the slogan If you cant beat them, you
join them.
vii. Integrity believes in maintaining the firms reputation.
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria (ICAN, 2000)
reviewed its existing document on Rules of Professional Ethnics which laid
emphasis on principles of integrity, objectivity and independence. It stated
that every member/auditor should at all times exhibit a high sense of integrity,
objectivity and independence in his/her professional duty. He should radiate
the principles of probity, honesty and uprightness in the performance of his
duty so that the innocent public/users of the audited financial statements will
not lose confidence in his work. An auditor should not allow sentiments, bias

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or prejudice to becloud his professional sense of judgement and insistence on


the ethnics of the profession.
The institutes document equally urged their members to beware of the
likely threats:- self-interest, familiarity threat, intimidation threat, etc that
pose barriers to integrity, objectivity and independence of the auditor. A
threat to the auditors objectivity/integrity arises when a firm or auditor could
benefit from financial or other interests in an audit client. A familiarity threat
occurs when by virtue of a close relationship with an audit client, its directors,
officers/employees, a firm or a member of the audit team becomes too
sympathetic to the clients interest. On the other hand, intimidation threat
occurs when a member of the audit team may be prevented from acting
objectively and exercising professional skepticism by threats, actual or
perceived from the directors, officers or employees of an audit client.
In the years past and at present, Nigeria has witnessed some
unwholesome financial malpractices that culminated in the collapse of many
banks and companies even when such companies/banks audited financial
statements have been certified as being correct, reflecting the true and fair
view of all the transactions involved during the period cove`red. This ugly
scenario clearly played out during the Banking Industry Distress in Nigeria
that eroded both local and international investors confidence in Nigeria as a
country. This and other financial vices perpetrated by Nigerians helped to
tarnish the countrys image, hence the call for this national rebirth to be
achieved through restoration of integrity in the accounting profession.
It is high time we salvaged the image of this hitherto noble profession
so as to facilitate the process of repackaging Nigeria to enable it wear a new
look through national rebirth. It is unbelievable that those that usually
prepare payment vouchers for unexisting and abandoned projects are
Accountants. They are the personnel serving as bursars and Principal Chief
Accountants in our different ministries, institutions and government
establishments. It is a big shame if Professional Accountants (Auditors) are
involved in this betrayal of professional integrity. This is the time to employ
the integrity factors in the Accountancy Profession to execute this project:
national rebirth.
The proviso here is that this national rebirth project has to be all-
embracing involving everybody/profession the lawyers, police, army,
engineers, teachers, office clerks, and more importantly the Nigerian
politicians. Let everybody be committed more than ever before to this
national project, which will be to the glory of all of us and the nation at large.

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References
Adeniyi. A.A; [2004] Auditing and Investigation. Lagos: Value Analysis
Consult Publishers.
American Accounting Association, [1966]. A Statement of Basic Accounting
Theory. New York AKY Publisher.
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants [1961]. Committee on
Terminology, Accounting Terminology Bulletin NO.1, American
Institute Publishing company.
Anao, A.R, [1989]. An Introduction to Financial Accounting, Benin city:
Longman, Nigeria.
Companies and Allied Matters Act/Decree [1990]. Federal Republic of
Nigeria Official Gazzette.
Hornby, A.S, (2010): New Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary.
Metulich and Heitger [1980]. Accounting Information need in Modern
Business Organizations; Lagos: Erudite Publishers.
Ndibe, N. and Okoye . E; [1998]. Auditing and Investigation; Enugu, Future
Tech.:Publisher.
Okoli, D.E [2012], Accounting Information: A Vehicle for Decision Making;
Accounting Text for Decision Makers, Enugu, New Generation
Publishers.

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10 193-201, Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017
No. 1, 2017

COMPUTER GRAPHIC EDUCATION: A SOURCE OF POWER AND


JOB CREATION FOR REFORMING COMMUNITIES

ONUNKWO, VICTORIA NRANYE


Department of Fine and Applied Arts,
Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe (NOCEN),
Anambra State
08185638305: nranye4u@gmail.com

Abstract
Visual Arts is a vocation. Computer graphics (computer graphics) which is a sub-
specialty of graphic Arts, a sub-set of visual arts is thus a vocation. Computer
graphics and computer graphics are the same and thus are interchangeably used in
this paper. Computer graphics is the incorporation of information and
communication technologies (ICTs) with Graphic Arts. It is a modern approach in
art which involves the use of computer to facilitate creativity in advertising and
production of pictures and movies with the help of specialized graphic hardware and
software application. Computer graphics as a course is stuffed with knowledge and
skills leading to productivity and self-reliance. Thus, the objective of this study is to
unveil how computer graphic education reserves the potency of transforming and
reforming individuals and communities through its potential as a vocation and thus a
source of empowerment harnessed into job-creation for individuals and thus the
communities at large. This paper also extends its discussion onto the constraints
encountered on the development and advancement of Computer graphics study and
practice in Nigeria. At the end, recommendations for improving and advancing
Computer graphics education is proffered.

Introduction
Education is the most effective tool that brings about change all over
the world; and to achieve this, especially in Nigeria, functional education
must be on the ground and very effectively emphasized. It is a group of
individuals that constitute the society and thus the goal of education should be
fashioned to be life dependent in knowledge and skills for societies to survive
and develop. Education is a life-long process which enables an individual to
develop his or her potentials in order to give service not only to self but to the
community at large (Nzerem, 2000). We need education which happens to
be an instrument of development permeating all sectors of the economy
(Ossai, 2004). In the same vein, Farrant (1950) posits that education is the
overall process of learning by human beings in which knowledge is
inculcated, behaviour trained and skills acquired. From the definitions of
education from various authorities, acquisition of knowledge, skills,
competencies and behaviour modification are being emphasized. Therefore

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any profitable education in Nigeria should be centered on the right type of


knowledge, skills and technical know-how that will meet the needs and
expectations of this present sophisticated society; and Computer graphics as a
subset of Visual Arts meets some aspects of these societal needs and
demands.
Todays world has witnessed a complete change in every area of
development, and the most recent trend is the introduction of Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) in which computer application takes lead.
Computer graphics does not stop at ability to type-set with computer, it
involves designing, organizing and arranging elements of Visual Arts to
enhance visual communication. Some can only retrieve what others have
slotted into the internet and arrange them as their own original ideas. A
computer graphics artist must be a finished visual artist, who can design and
manipulate images with computer to form any fascinating visual
communication or graphic design product. Let us see how Computer graphics
can assert the ability to empower, develop and advance individuals
economically. This will thus enable them to contribute their quota towards the
economic and overall empowerment of our society.

The Role of Computer Graphics in the Development and Empowerment


of Individuals and Communities
For Nigeria to successfully and effectively land at that accelerated
technology she yearns for, serious attention should be paid to dependable skill
oriented courses that can cause good and profitable things to happen in the
communities. This can be achieved by equipping every citizen to contribute
effectively towards the individual and national development; and computer
graphics is a potent and viable tool for self-employment, job and wealth
creation for human development and community economic empowerment and
advancement. Even with limited resources, nations that can mobilize their
human resources can achieve continuous growth, development and
advancement.
Computer graphics prepares the beneficiaries to face the digital
challenges of this age of globalisation and information, in enhancing or
promoting and facilitating such ventures as advertising, entertainment,
beautification of environment, visual communication, designing and
productions, (like text book illustration and printing, package designing and
production, printing and minting), industrial designs as well as Computer
Aided Design (CAD). Computer graphics then involves the manipulation of
computer in the designing and production of graphic works. Thus, an
understanding of computer graphics and CAD (Computer Aided Design) is

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becoming an essential requirement for some artists(Ofoye 2007), especially


graphic artists, as it is now a compulsory major course in graphic art
education in tertiary institutions.
Computer graphics is the most modern creative and artistic approach,
and method of using the knowledge and application of specialized application
software to develop concepts for painting, textile designing, printing of
textbooks, drawing and presentation, and making of various designs for
domestic and industrial purposes; and CAD could be used to link these
graphics to constructional details.
Computer graphics leads to internet browsing which makes one
communicate with others globally. We can even explore what others have and
practice and use some of what we gather from them such as how they solve
their existing problems and introduction of new ideas for advancement of the
individuals and society. We can also learn how to improve our economic lives
and education, and how to improve our plans for further developments, for
instance, the identification of the areas and key sectors, the potentials of
which should be harnessed for accelerated individual and community
development such as in education, agriculture, trade and commerce,
industrialization and processing of oil and gas. These are the wealth and job
promising sectors in which investors should be welcomed. Also when
browsing, a computer graphic artist can come across some profitable business
to embark on such as production of cosmetics, processing and preservation of
some food stuffs, some designing techniques such as in printing, production
of various goods and many others which he can add to his business to
improve and expand it as an entrepreneur. He can add these ideas to his
employers business, all for progress and wealth creation. Ibeto of Nnewi
started his business as a studio photographer, as a graduate in graphic arts.
Today, the history and list of successful business men who helped curb
unemployment, promote supply of goods and service, commerce,
industrialization and education in Nigeria, is not complete without his name.
A computer graphics can thus establish his business as an entrepreneur.
Entrepreneurship involves risk-taking. Risk is the possibility of
something bad happening in the time of failure in future (Hornby, 2000) and a
computer graphic artist, who embarks on it must be fearless about failure
which often follows if not well planned and managed. Entrepreneurship
means turning the potentials we are born with which excites us into capital so
that we enjoy it even more (Branson 2008). Thus, creativity and competence
in productivity and managerial skills and technical know-how in computer
graphics, if acquired by many youths in the community can help to alleviate
unemployment and its resultant economic and social vices in our nation.

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The present global oil glut and consequent impact on the economy,
most particularly on mono economies like Nigeria has to a great extent
necessitated the need for the nation to look inwards for alternative revenue
sources to meet the individual and national demands. Computer graphics
presents the needed opportunity for the Nigeria to confront the situation and
emerge successfully. Thus, computer graphic entrepreneurial studies ensures
application of creativity and innovation to the satisfaction of needs and
opportunities for wealth creation in business. Such wealth creating
opportunities do not often happen on their own in graphic art education, but
computer graphic artist make them happen.
As Nigeria is a rentier state where revenue profiles do not include or
consider productivity and efficiency as a good and necessary source of
survival, there is no encouragement to productivity, thus computer application
in graphic arts enhances self-productivity by individual beneficiary. This is
because access to the internet triggers new attitudes and culture of exciting
interest, critical thinking and problem solving in teaching, learning and
productivity of graphic art works for services to the society. Such services
could be for advertisement of goods and services of the community as they
can employ their discretion in the management of the community and
community related problems and also have control over their environmental
contingencies, leading to the enhancement of their communal wellbeing.
Humanity has realized the weight of problems confronting it but lacks
the means of crushing it but the right type of education which is the bedrock
of all developments stands out to combat such ugly situation. Computer
graphic education reserves the potential of changing the life of individuals
and the society via the acquisition of knowledge and skills that empowers it; it
thus possesses the strength to create employment which directly reforms the
community.
In education (teaching and learning) proper, instructional materials for
various subjects are easily and artistically designed and produced with
Computer graphics manipulative skills and technical know-how. Thus
teaching aids production is a lucrative business that empowers the
beneficiaries economically, which in turn enhances economic growth of the
schools and the community.
Apart from the Computer graphics production services in the
educational institutions, the governments, commercial and industrial
establishments cannot progress without its services in their financial sectors.
For instance, in Anambra State, governor Obiano restructured their revenue
earning sources and thus introduced the use of ICT in revenue collection. This
he did to ensure greater efficiency and transparency in the states accounting

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processes, he said (Obiano, 2015). He also deployed biometric machines to


capture the profiles of all civil servants and weed out ghost workers from the
states data bank. These strategies employed with ICT plugged all leakages in
the financial sector and thus saved the state a huge sum of money. These are
additional benefits and service a beneficiary of a computer graphics
entrepreneur can offer in his business and that of his employer; for he can
speedily make a graphic representation of these ideas and put the ideas into
successful actions for the progress of his business and for the service of the
community.
No innovation and reforms go without challenges; therefore, computer
graphic studies and practices, are not an exceptions. The next sub-heading
will highlight few out of the setbacks in the study, practice and services
computer graphics render to the individuals and the society in Nigeria.

Constraints to the Development and Advancement of the Study and


Practice of Computer graphics in Nigeria
Visual communication design or graphic design involves much manual
labour in the production. Introduction of computer application into graphics
has not only brought innovation in production process but has also improved
speed, accuracy, added more skills to the existing creativity, reduced the cost
of production and increased employment opportunities for the beneficiaries.
But the cost of ICT facilities especially computer has dragged the study and
practice of Computer graphics as a life sustaining vocation.
Another cause of poor enrolment of students in Visual Arts and its
subsets is Nigerians poor attitude towards the zeal and enthusiasm for the
study of all practical oriented courses. This has pushed the choice to the
lowest ebb (Onunkwo 2008).
In addition, the option between music and fine arts in Junior Secondary
Schools reduces drastically, the number of students that would have taken to
fine arts in senior secondary level. This in turn causes serious drop in
enrolment in Fine Arts for senior school certificate examination which in turn
reduces the number of students that opt to study Visual Arts in its sub-
specialties in tertiary institutions. This is observed by the writer when she was
teaching fine Arts in the secondary school.
Presently, most of the teachers in both secondary schools and tertiary
institutions are not computer literate despite governments verbal urge to all
to study computer application. Who then is to teach computer literacy to the
students at all levels of education, let alone the teaching of computer graphics
which is a specialist course?

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Summarily, the high cost of ICT facilities especially computer, has


made the practice of computing skills and Computer graphics, which is a self-
reliant job for wealth creation, to be an illusion.

Career Opportunities in Computer Graphics


Career is the series of jobs that a person has in a particular area of
work, usually involving more responsibilities (Hornby, 2000). According to
Arthur Et, Al (1998), career means the evolving sequences of a persons
work experience over time. Career therefore is a job to which one assigns
himself from which he earns a living. It demands devotion to duty, mastery of
the required skills and also imposes responsibilities on the person. These
required skills and technical know-how in graphic Art is acquired through
education.
To acquire university degree or its equivalence in Graphic Art is very
necessary for one to perform as a computer graphic artist/designer and thus be
able to meet the demands of his job, and that of his clients and audience in
this present age sophisticated society. In the course of his/her study through
the university as a graphic art students, he/she must acquire various skills and
technical know-how in graphic designing (visual communication design),
printing and printmaking, animation, photography, binding, web designing
and computer graphics, to limit the list. All these learnt skills put together, in
addition to other visual arts skills such as drawing, illustration, painting,
lettering and so many other skills necessary for one to perform as a visual
artist, equip a computer graphic designer to stand firmly and confront the
demands of his/her job. These will open the way for a computer graphic artist
to endless job possibilities.
Many graphic design firms industries and companies need graphic
design educationists to work for them, whether the knowledge is acquired
from a visual art school or from a traditional university education system.
Those from the university have better advantage as they receive all round
education. These firms and companies such as printing press, textile mills,
newspapers, magazines, publishers, museums, restaurants, websites,
breweries and food processing industries employ computer graphic designers
to work on various projects for their clients. These computer graphic
designers can design manually and slot into the computer or they can design
with computer and develop the designs.
Computer graphic designers can also work in textile mills as a fabric
designers. Computer graphics can also work at advertising agencies or other
large companies as logo designers, advertisement designers, photographers,

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photo editors, book and magazine layout artists, web designers, web masters,
illustrators, art editors and book binders, to mention but a few.
At the various places where the computer graphic designers work, they
can hold various positions requiring managerial roles such as creative
directors whose jobs use to initiate creative concepts of projects and drive the
directions of the projects (Wikipedia), the free encyclopaedia. They also can
work as production managers whose job is to oversee the production
processes in order to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness. Also they can
be brand identity developers who see to the companys visual identity and
how the company portrays its image. The computer graphic artist also can
assume the work of an interface designer, package designer, visual journalist
and multimedia developer, to limit the list of job opportunities.
Most importantly, well trained computer graphic artists can be
freelancers who develop their own business as entrepreneurs. They are self-
employed artists who are responsible for looking for and procuring their own
clients. Their success depends on their acquired skills, managerial
responsibilities, diplomatic and polite approach and attendance to their clients
and customers. Finally, where they succeed, they can employ labour. This
helps in maximizing the headache of unemployment thereby empowering the
communities in Nigeria.

Conclusion
Education is an indispensable instrument for empowerment and for the
transfer of knowledge, skills, techniques and competencies needed for
performance of tasks in the society and the nation at large. According to
Urevbu (1991) education is the total process of human learning by which
knowledge is imparted, facilitated, trained and skills developed; while Yolaye
(1980) conceptualizes education as the tool for elimination of ignorance,
poverty and disease. Education is the development of human intellect which
makes individuals to perform tasks and improve their lives and that of the
communities. Computer graphics education thus empowers the beneficiaries
to be productive and self-reliant. This empowerment makes them to think for
themselves. They thus use their initiatives to make personal decisions for
themselves which in turn benefits the society at large. Empowerment grants
individuals the authority for self-esteem and confidence needed to accomplish
tasks. It is the key determinant of the growth, development and prosperity of
the communities.
Unemployment and its social ills are curbed and are arrested by the
right type of education which empowers individuals that constitute the
communities to be self-sustained, and also to create jobs and employ others.

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Thus, computer graphics education equips the beneficiaries with strong


dependable skills and technical know-how which make them entrepreneurs
and job creators that purge the communities of unemployment. It thus does
not simply offer fish to the hungry man but teaches him how to fish for self-
survival and self-dependence.

Recommendations for Improving and Advancing Computer graphics


Study and Practice in Nigeria
1. This paper suggests that laptops be provided at all levels of our
educational system by the governments and other stake holders of
education to enable interested teachers and students alike to acquire the
skills and technical know-how of computer education. This strategy
already has been initiated in Anambra State by the ministry of
education.
2. The cost of training on ICT for teachers, if subsidized with a training
package by the governments with Education Trust Fund Facilities
(ETF), will go a long way in making the acquisition of the skills easy,
as the teachers have to impart the learnt skills to the students.
3. The department of Visual Arts, especially in tertiary institutions
should be equipped with laptops to ensure the inculcation and
acquisition of crucial computing skills and visual communication
design production skills to the teachers who in turn teach the students.
These computing skills and technical know-how are wealth creation
strategy for the department and for the school at large. The learnt skills
will also prepare the students for global competition in this era that is
essentially driven by fast-paced development in information
technology thus preparing them for the future.
4. The cost of provision of laptops should be subsidized by the
governments so as to reach the poor, which helps to eliminate
unemployment and poverty.
5. Every state should endeavour to provide ICT solutions which should
be subsidized to be cheap such as hotspots, laptops and other
applications to reach such places like schools, hospitals, towns and
villages. This will help to achieve easy and successful take-off of ICT
study and application.

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References
Arthur et el (1989). Definition of Career career dictionary reference com
2012. Retrieved 2012-02. 16.
Branson, R. (2008, September 25). In defence of capitalism Daily Nail, pp.
22-23.
Farrant, J.S. (1980). Principles and Practice of education. New York:
Macmillan.
Hornby, A.S. (2000). Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of current
English Oxford: Oxford University Press.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/graphicesignoccupations.
Nzerem, T.A.N (2000). Nigerian education and functionality in the 21st
Century: Myth for Reality. Knowledge Review 2(3), 1-8.
Obiano, W. (2015). Sustaining the legacy of growth and development in
Anambra State. A lecture delivered at Pan-Atlantic University,
Lagos, on Thursday, August 13: Governor Obianos Lecture series.
No. 1 Vol. II.
Ofoye, O.I. (2007). Fundamentals of Computer Graphics. Ugheli: Iregha
Publishers.
Onunkwo, V.N. (2008). Towards Functional and Qualitative Fine and
Applied Art education in Nigeria in the 21st century. Journal of
Teachers Perspective (PQTEP/ASSONT), Vol. 2 (2) June 281-288.
ISBN 2006073
Ossai, A.G. (2004). Principals and teachers preferred strategies for
motivational secondary school teachers in Delta North Senatorial
District of Delta State. An Unpublished Ph.D thesis submitted to the
Faculty of Education, Delta State University, Abraka.
Urevbu, A.O. (1991). Foundations and Methods of Education. Lagos: Juland
Educational.
Yolaye, E.A. (1980). Developing and under-developing in education. Ibadan:
Ibadan University Press.

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pages No. 1, 2017
Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017

RE-ENGINEERING TEACHER EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE


DEVELOPMENT

DR. NZEAKO, CONSTANCE UZOAMAKA


Dean, School of General Education,
Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe Anambra State.
08064081990, consynz@yahoo.com

Abstract
The major problem facing any nation has been that of getting quality teachers that
will rise above the education system. That is why a strong teacher education
programme that would provide the best crop of teachers in Nigeria is taken very
seriously. The need for teacher education in enhancing sustainable development
through achieving excellence in character and skill development among citizenry
cannot be over-emphasized. Hence, as the slogan goes, quality teacher, better nation.
Re-engineering teacher education for sustainable development in Nigeria has often
been a matter of serious concern to government, stakeholders and the general public
at large. A survey research design was used for the study. The views of 300 teachers
from 6 out of 11 public and private tertiary institutions in Enugu State were
randomly selected using simple random sampling technique of balloting without
replacement. The instrument for data collection was a self-developed 10 item
questionnaire designed by the researcher and validated by 3 experts using a four -
point scale. The data generated through the questionnaire were statistically analyzed
using weighted mean. The study revealed the roles of teacher education in
sustainable development and their challenges. Based on the findings of the study, the
researcher recommended that teacher education curriculum should encompass the
African values (values of honesty, uprightness, sincerity, hard work and respect for
human dignity) and emphasis should be more on practical based education, that will
enable the students learn entrepreneurial skills; in order to be self-reliance and create
more job opportunities in the country which will ensure sustainable development in
Nigeria.

Keywords: Teacher education, Sustainable development re-engineering.

Introduction
Education is no doubt an inevitable tool for sustainable development and a
vehicle for advancing the frontier of knowledge which the teacher education
is the critical element (Abdul-Kareem, in Osokoya, 2012). The effectiveness
of any educational system depends greatly on the educational attainment of
teachers because no system of education can be qualitatively higher than the
quality and commitment of its teachers (NPE, 2014). The fact remains that
teaching and learning depend on teachers, for there can be no meaningful
socio-economic and political development in any country without teachers. It
is in this vain that Oyekan (2006) posits that the training and production of the

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manpower needed for the attainment of national objectives should be framed


on the quality and quantity of teachers. No doubt that there are lots of evil
bedeviling our society today; which littered the pages of our national dailies.
The falcon can no longer heed the falconers voice, which made things fall
apart. What is obtainable is the survival of the fittest where everybody wants
to eke a living either by hook or crook. These societal challenges include:
poverty, prostitution, crime, corruption, drug addiction and trafficking, theft,
rape, kidnapping and hostage-taking, ethno-religious conflicts, terrorism to
mention but a few. Some of these evils are closely inter-related and have the
cause and effect influence over one another (Osokoya, 2012). Oyekan (2006)
noted that one of the greatest social and economic problems in Nigerian
tertiary institutions which must be tackled is that of breakdown in morals,
ethical values and social responsibility among its citizens. According to him,
these have resulted to low educational performance and made the attainment
of educational goals difficult. Academics can make a difference in inculcating
moral values in their students as they are role models to be emulated. The
teacher education roles therefore goes beyond facilitating intellectual
development to including preparing students, youths and citizenry for life,
making them agents of social transformation, orderliness and growth. This is
in line with the nations educational goals as enshrined in the National Policy
on Education (NPE, 2014) which states: the inculcation of national
consciousness and national unity; the inculcation of the type of values and
attitudes for the survival of the individual and the Nigerian society; the
training of the mind in the understanding of the world around; the acquisition
to appropriate skills and the development of mental, physical and social
abilities and competences as an arsenal for the individual to live and
contribute to the development of the society. Hence, the study is designed to
focus on re-engineering teacher education for sustainable development in
Nigeria.

Statement of the problem


It is a well known fact that teacher education in Nigeria is faced with so
many social vices of which ethical values have degenerated to a questionable
state. This is the biggest threat to attainment of quality educational standard
and sustainable development in Nigeria. But the expectation of teacher
education becoming an instrument for sustainable development has become a
socio-political, economic and educational discourse among scholars and
academics. There is a yawning gap in the roles ought to be performed by
teachers and the roles they are performing in order to ensure sustainable
development in Nigeria. To address this puzzle, the problem of the study is

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aptly posed in a question form, what is the roles teacher education ought to
play to achieve sustainable development in Nigeria?

Research Questions
The main purpose of this study was to re-engineer teacher education for
sustainable development in Nigeria. Specifically, one research question was
formulated to guide the study which sought:
To find out the roles teacher education can play to achieve sustainable
development in Nigeria.

Research Hypothesis
There is no significant difference on the roles teacher education ought
to play and what obtains, in achieving sustainable development in
Nigeria.

Significance of the Study


The findings of the study when utilized will help government,
academic community, general public and students to know the roles
academics ought to play in restoring social order in Nigerian tertiary
institutions. The research work will also serve as a data bank for future
researchers on the topic or in related ones.

Review of Related Literature


Concept of Teacher Education
Teacher education is a whole range of activities that constitute preparation for
and improvement of the teaching profession. It also refers to the policies and
procedures designed to equip prospective teachers with the knowledge, skills,
attitudes and behaviours they require to perform their tasks effectively and
efficiently in the classroom, school and wider community (Michelle, 2011).
This encompasses pre-service and in-service teacher education programmes
which involve the study of professional disciplines, teaching subjects and
general knowledge subjects. According to Oyekan, (2006) the purpose of
teacher education is to produce well qualified professional teachers that can
adjust to the changing needs of the students and developmental prospects of
the modern society. In the same vein, Adewuyi and Ogunwuyi, (2012),
opined that teacher education is the provision of professional education and
specialized training within a specified period for the preparation of
individuals who intend to develop and nurture the young ones into responsible
and productive citizens.

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Concept of Sustainable Development


Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs and well
being of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs (Osokoya, 2012). Adewuyi (2012) opine that
sustainable development viz a viz educational sustainability is a lifelong
learning process that leads to an informed and involved citizenry having
creative problem-solving skills, scientific and social literacy and commitment
to engage a responsible individual into cooperative actions which will help to
ensure an environmentally sound and economically prosperous future.
Osokoya (2012) added that it is a catalystic process for social change that
seeks to foster thorough education, training and public awareness on moral
values, behaviours and lifestyles, to mention but a few for sustainable future.

Teacher Education for sustainable development


There is no gainsaying that Nigerian economy and educational system are
gradually sinking, and getting submerged by all kinds of catastrophic failures
and vices such as unemployment, terrorism, cultism, examination malpractice,
indiscipline, prostitution, robbery, corruption, under-utilization of capacities,
kidnapping, poverty and ritual killings. Unfortunately, no austerity measures
have addressed the deteriorating situation. This prevailing socio-economic
crisis could be due to the neglect of teacher education and the pitiable plight
of teachers. To achieve any nations quest for self-reliant, vibrant economy
and productive citizenry, a comprehensive teacher education programme
should be put in place (Adewuyi, 2012). Teacher Education stands as a viable
option which fundamentally prepares individuals to be properly equipped
with ethical values, saleable skills and competences for self-employment,
self-existence, self- guidance and self-reliance (Oyekan, 2006). As stated
earlier, the effectiveness of any educational system depends greatly on the
educational attainment of teachers because no system of education can be
qualitatively higher than the quality and commitment of its teachers (NPE,
2014). The fact remains that teaching and learning depend on teachers, for
there can be no meaningful socio-economic and political development in any
country without teachers. Adewuyi (2012) supported this fact when he stated
that education unlocks the door to modernization, and added that it is the
teachers who hold the key to that door.
Ogunwuyi (2010) stated that the realization of the educational objectives
depends on the quality and quantity of the available teaching manpower.
According to Adewuyi (2012), the expectation of the teacher becoming an
instrument for ethical values, character and skills development is a task that
requires them to become intentional and reflective in their classroom

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responsibilities and in their conduct outside the classroom. Moral


development mainly transpires in relationships, especially when children want
to imitate and be guided by other children and adults they respect. In this
regard teachers do not choose whether they want to influence childrens
characters, because these children copy them without their knowledge.
Teachers are always influencing moral attitudes and capacities. For example,
by what they choose to reward and punish, how fairly they balance different
students needs, whether they alert children to injustice and justice in the
school and world around them, how they define students obligations to each
other, and what they model day to day (Rowland, 2005). Once there is low
standard in any educational system, it would invariably result to collapse of
the other sectors of the economy (Abiogu, and Enemuo 2007). Hence there is
need to re-engineer teacher education which serves as a catalyst for
sustainable development.

Challenges to Teacher Education for sustainable development


In spite of the various policies and reforms that targeted repositioning teacher
education in Nigeria for optimal performance, the confronting challenges are
enormous. While some of these emerged with the changing socio-economic
and political condition of the time, others evolved as a result of government
neglect of the education sector (Ogunwuyi, 2010). Some of these challenges
examined include:
a. Poor Policy Implementation
The poor quality delivery is responsible for the abysmal low performance
of teacher graduates from the institutions of higher learning in Nigeria.
Anyakoha, in Oyekan (2006) argued that our policies are written by
knowledgeable writers who have foresight and believe strongly in what they
write for the future, but the problem emanates when it comes to translating
theory into practice by implementers. Some factors that cause poor policy
implementation are: government underfunding of education and non judicious
utilization, misappropriation or embezzlement of available funds by
implementation agencies.
b. Poor Service condition and Brain Drain Syndrome
In Nigeria, teachers' conditions of service do not hold enough incentives to
attract and retain the best brains in Nigerian schools (Osokoya, 2012). As a
result of the weakening attraction to the teaching profession, and by extension
the resultant dwindling enrolment in the teacher education programs, those
who remain in the profession maintain relatively low social status with
accompanying psychological problems. Consequently, within the remaining
pool, some teachers either seek opportunities in other sectors (within the

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economy) with better service incentives or even migrate to other countries


where teachers conditions of service are much better, in search of greener
pastures. This however has resulted to the lowering of quality/standard of
education in Nigeria in recent years (Ukeje, 2000).
c. Insufficient Knowledge and Use of Information Communication
Technology (ICT)
The knowledge and use of computer technology as well as the internet is a
necessity for all teachers to guarantee the relevance of the system and its
products in the 21st century. Many schools in Nigeria still operate the
traditional education system with little or no adaptation to ICT. To benefit
from the ubiquity of information and to facilitate communication among
professional networks, school teachers need, not only to be trained and re-
trained in ICTs, but facilities must be provided by government to enable
teacher and their students access these facilities. For our future teachers to be
able to operate effectively and efficiently, they must imbibe the new
technologies and methodologies of the modern times (Osokoya, 2012).
d. Quality Assurance and Quality Delivery.
The academic and emotional qualities of intending candidates for teacher
education are critical for quality assurance and internal efficiency in teaching
professions. In Nigerian tertiary institutions, a trend has been evolving to the
extent that candidates who apply for Teacher Education in higher institutions
are those who have either been denied admission in their choice areas of
study, or are basically unqualified for admission into such popular
professional courses as medicine, law, engineering, architecture etc (Abiogu,
and Enemuo 2007).
e. Need for Professionalization of Teaching
According to Adewuyi (2012), many teachers in Nigeria have not measured
up to the minimum international standard. This is because a large number of
untrained and half-baked personnel are still retained in the system, leading to
a scenario in which career in teaching is not yet professionalized. Many
unqualified teachers are still in the employment of some States Teaching
Service Boards, while most higher education lecturers are yet to undergo
training in education. Unfortunately, these crops of people cannot make any
reasonable impact on both the character and skill development of their
subjects: as one cannot give out what one does not have.

Methodology
The study adopted a descriptive survey design. It described in a systematic
manner, re-engineering teacher education for sustainable development in
Nigeria. This study was carried out in Enugu State. The choice of the area was

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due to the perceived high prevalence rate of negligence of teacher education


programmes and roles in the area. The population for the study consisted of
the entire eleven (11) public and private tertiary institutions in Enugu State.
The sample comprised 300 teachers from six (6) out of eleven (11) public and
private tertiary institutions in Enugu State based on 2014/2015 academic year,
which was drawn using simple random sampling technique of balloting
without replacement. This ensured that the sample has equal chances of being
selected. Instrument for data collection was a structured 10 item questionnaire
designed by the researcher and validated by three experts drawn from Nnamdi
Azikiwe University, Awka. Reliability was established by administering the
test instrument on respondents in Anambra State which has similar social
disorder with the area of the study. The results obtained were closely related.
The researcher administered 300 questionnaires to the academics in both
public and private tertiary institution in Enugu State through face-to-face
contact, with the help of a trained research assistant. All the questionnaires
administered were collected as the respondents complied with the
instructions. The data collected were organized and computed based on the
research questions, using summative rating scale otherwise called weighted
mean. The mean values of the four responses were determined by dividing
the summation of the frequency of responses with the summation of the scale
used.
Mean values (X) = fx/x
Where fx= total sum of scores,
x= total number of rating scales,
x=4+3+2+1=10
x=10/4=2.50
Therefore a mean = or > 2.50 is in agreement for the questionnaire items
while the mean values < 2.50 shows disagreement. Descriptive statistical tools
were employed in the analysis and the data were analyzed using mean.

Data Analysis and Results:


Research Question:
To find out the roles teachers ought to play to achieve sustainable
development in Nigeria.

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Table 1: Mean Scores on the Roles teachers ought to play to achieve


sustainable development in Nigeria
S/N Item description X Decision
mean
1. Ensuring rewarding for Excellence for both
teachers and students in character & in learning. 3.90 Agree
2. Ensuring non involvement of teachers, parents and
students in examination malpractice & other
corrupt practices. 3.88 Agree
3. Adopting the use of strict sanctions/ penalties to
defaulters of school set rules and regulations and 3.76 Agree
national laws.
4. Implementation of regular supervision and
evaluation of teaching/ learning and ethical 2.69 Agree
standard within and outside the schools.
5. Ensuring that teacher education as a profession is a
role model 3.74 Agree
6. Inculcation of patriotic spirit, respect and regard
for social order, culture of human dignity and 3.72 Agree
human right and value system
7. Ensuring the availability of qualified, professional
experienced and dedicated guidance and 3.81 Agree
counselors and teachers.
8. Inculcation of discipline and hard work through
entrepreneurial and skill acquisition among 3.91 Agree
teachers and students within & outside the school.
9. Participating in socio-economic decisions and
planning that can foster growth and development. 3.75 Agree
10. Preaching unity and oneness among all ethnic
groups in Nigeria 3.51 Agree
Source: Researchers compilation 2016

Discussion of the Result


The data in the table above showed that the respondents agreed that items
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and 10 are the key roles which teachers ought to play to
achieve sustainable development in Enugu State, Nigeria. This is because
their mean scores were above the mean value of 2.50. This implies that they
are the key roles which teachers ought to play to achieve sustainable
development in Nigeria.

Conclusion
In this study, attempts have been made to highlight some major gaps of the
teacher education being a propelling tool for sustainable development. Since

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education brings a positive change in the life of individuals, it should not be


taken for granted. Teachers (one of the education agent) should ensure that
socio-economic order that would engineer sustainable development is strictly
adhered to. Teacher education must devise ways to create an enabling
environment so that students, youths and citizens can induce, analyze and
learn between right and the wrong. In doing so, they can help students
identify emotions and issues; then express and manage them. Based on the
challenges encountered, programs and policies that can salvage our collective
dilemma should be deliberated on instead of the fruitless disposition of
lamentation. This way, we can redeem and salvage what is left of our
endangered teacher education system which can foster sustainable
development in Nigeria.

Suggestions for the way forward


Teacher education is not given good attention compared to other
professions like law and medicine.
a. Adequate training should be adopted to equip prospective teachers
with the knowledge, attitudes and skills they require to perform their
tasks effectively in the classroom, school and wider community.
b. A strong teacher education programme is required.
c. There should be efficient and effective policy implementation.
d. Government should judiciously and adequately fund education.
e. The government should address the issue of misappropriation or
embezzlement of available funds by implementation agencies.
f. Government should ensure that well trained and professional personnel
are employed and retained in the education sector.
g. Government should improve the working condition and packages of
teachers.
h. Teacher education should be adequately recognized as a profession in
Nigeria like other professions.
i. Teachers should posses an in depth knowledge of the cultural, moral,
social and economic challenges of the society.
j. The teacher education curriculum should be designed in such a way to
encompass the African values (values of honesty, uprightness,
sincerity, hard work and respect for human dignity), and be taught to
prospective and practicing teachers.
k. Teacher education programme should endeavour to emphasize more on
practical based education, that will enable the students learn
entrepreneurial skills; in order to be self-reliance and create more job
opportunities in the country.

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l. Teachers must devise ways to create an enabling environment where


children can induce, analyse and learn between what is right and
wrong.

References
Abiogu, A.S, & Enemuo PC (2007). Nigeria teacher education reform:
implication for national development. In Enoh (2007)(ed). Education
reforms in Nigeria.
Akinyemi, A.O. (2002). Effective business training and practice: The ethical
side. In Adeseye (Eds.), Polytechnic education in Nigeria: problems
and prospects (pp 268 291).Lagos: Bolufemi enterprises.
Adewuyi J.O. (2012). Functional teacher education in addressing
contemporary challenges in Nigeria. Being a lead paper presented at
the 4th National conference of South-West zonal conference at Federal
College of Education (Special) Oyo, held between17th-20th July,
2012.
Adewuyi J.O. & Ogunwuyi, A.O. (2002). Basic text on teacher education.
Oyo. Odumatt press and publishers.
Federal Republic of Nigeria (2014). National policy on education (5th Ed.)
Lagos: NERDC press.
Michelle, (2011). Cultural responsiveness and motivation in preparing
teachers: Does cultural responsiveness affect anticipated self-
determination to teach in specific settings? Lambert academic
publishing. p. 172. ISBN 3844384693.
Ogunwuyi, A.O. (2010). Concept, goals, aims and objectives of education.
Oyo. Odumatt press and publishers.
Osokoya, I. (2012). Teacher education in Nigeria: past, present and future
challenges. The online journal of academic leadership (Vol. 10, Issue
1).
Oyekan, S.O. (2006): Foundations of teacher education. Ibadan. Ben Quality
Prints.
Rowland, A.M (2005). The problem of drug abuse and addiction and its
influence on youths in Nigeria. NASHER Journal, 3 (1), 100-109.
Ukeje, B.O. (2000). Teacher education in Nigeria: Current status, 21st
challenges and strategies for improvement. In C.T.O. Akinmade, T. O.
Oyetunde, G. O. Akpa, O. A.

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Vol. 10 Vol. 10 No. 1, 2017
No. 1, 2017

ADMINISTRATIVE STRATEGIES FOR EMPOWERING THE GIRL-


CHILD IN SKILLS ACQUISITION THROUGH
ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION

NZEAKO, CONSTANCE U. (Ph.D)


Department of Educational
Foundations and Administration
Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe

Abstract
The study sought to find out the strategies to be employed by secondary school
principals to empower the girl-child in skills acquisition through entrepreneurship
education. Descriptive survey was employed by the researcher. The population for
the study comprised secondary school principals and girl-child students. A total of
40 school principals and 80 secondary school female students randomly drawn from
the four out of the six Education Zones in the state formed the sample for the study.
Three research questions guided the study. A 30-item researcher-developed
questionnaire was used for data collection. The instrument was face-validated by
four experienced lecturers in the Department of Educational Administration,
University of Nigeria, Nsukka and Nwafor Orizu college of Education, Nsugbe,
respectively. Mean and standard Deviation were used to analyze data collected. The
findings revealed among others, that most parents, especially the illiterate ones do
not consider education of their girl-child necessary, again the girl-child is not
empowered to the entrepreneurial skills that will make for self-reliance, as a result
the girl child is exposed to some social ills like prostitution, unwanted pregnancies,
child-abuse among others. There is therefore urgent need to empower the girl-child
in entrepreneurial skills for a better living and development of the society at large.

Introduction
One of the challenges facing Nigeria currently is how to be rated as
one of the worlds largest economies which can compete effectively in the
global economy. This however is one of her millennium development goals.
The Nations development plan since independence has been to better the
living conditions of her citizenry, through the use of human and material
resources which the country is abundantly blessed with. An effective way of
achieving this glamorous intention is through adequate education her citizenry
irrespective of gender. This however will be unattainable if the girl-child is
not empowered economically to contribute in the developmental race, as
women represent an integral part of the population.
Unfortunately, it has been observed that the girl-child is educationally
disadvantaged in most parts of the country for some cultural/religious reasons.
The girl-child who is endowed with all capabilities and intelligence to

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contribute immensely to the economic growth and development of the country


is however vulnerable to the societal tradition which undervalue her
membership. For instance she is not given equal opportunity as those of her
male counterparts especially in education and professional training. This
however has exposed the girl-child to so many social vices, like unwanted
pregnancies, prostitution, sexual and child-abuse, among others. This negative
perception on the education of the girl-child negates the good intentions of the
federal government to use education as a tool to enhance self-reliance of her
citizens, as contained in her National Policy on education (F.G.N 2004).
However, not all types of education can be used to achieve self
reliance. For education to serve as catalyst to rapid economic development, it
must be functional and relevant to the needs of the economy. Nwachukwu
(1990) observed that the Nigerian Educational system in the twentieth century
did not preach self reliance at any stage of its delivery and this lead to serious
problems of unemployment which we are facing today.
The increase in unemployment in the last decade, forced the
government to start emphasizing on entrepreneurship education which is
aimed at increasing local entrepreneurial skills (Onwuka & Ile, 2006).
Entrepreneurship education will be of immense help in addressing the
problem of unemployment among our youths, especially the girl-child, as this
will help her face the challenges of life realistically, instead of indulging in
hazardous and nefarious business for a living. Entrepreneurship according to
Akpan (2004) is the ability to set up a business enterprise as different from
being employed. It involves the acquisition of skills, ideas and management
abilities necessary for self reliance of an individual.
Several definitions of the word entrepreneurship abound. Hisrich and Peters
(2002) referred to entrepreneurship as the dynamic process of creating
incremental wealth. Gana (2001), defined entrepreneurship as the willingness
and the ability of an individual to seek out investment opportunities in an
environment and be able to establish and run an enterprise successfully, based
on the identified opportunities. Some other scholars also refer to
entrepreneurship as a career options. It is in the light of this that Burdus
(2012) referred to an entrepreneur as a person who creates new business,
taking risks in achieving objectives which he/she proposes to make profit and
growth by identifying some important opportunities.
Girls are vulnerable when faced with lack of economic opportunities.
Therefore entrepreneurship education will definitely enable the girl-child to
acquire skills, knowledge, and disposition that will help her to succeed in self
employment and also be in a position to employ others. This is in line with
Johnson and Arvil (2004) who posited that investing in the productivity and

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skills of people raises the income of economically vulnerable group, thereby


reducing poverty.
Observations have also revealed that many girls are forced to stay at
home and take care of the children, the sick, the elderly and even forced into
early marriages. It is therefore very necessary that the girl-child should be
empowered in skills acquisition through entrepreneurship education, to be
able to set up small business ventures in the absence of white-collar-jobs. This
however will go a long way to alleviate the prevailing social ills involving the
girl-child as she cannot be self reliant and also contribute to the development
of the society where she belongs.
It is against this background that the study geared towards finding out
strategies to be employed to empower the girl-child in the acquisition of
entrepreneurial skills through entrepreneurship education.

Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study:
1. What are the entrepreneurial skills to be acquired by the girl child to
ensure self reliance?
2. What strategies could be employed to enhance acquisition of
entrepreneurial skills by the girl-child?
3. What are the impediments to the acquisition of entrepreneurial skills
by girl-child?

Method
The researcher adopted a descriptive survey designed for study, since
this type of design helps to find out the conditions that exist, opinions that are
held and processes that are going on concerning an issue. The study was
carried out in Anambra State of Nigeria. The population of the study
comprised all the secondary school principals and girl child students in four,
out of the six Education Zone in the State. The Education Zones under study
include, Aguata, Nnewi, Otuocha and Onitcha.
One hundred and twenty (120) subjects formed the sample for the
study. Simple random Sampling techniques were used to draw the sample for
the study. Ten (10) principals were randomly drawn from each of the four
Education Zones making the sample number of the principals 40, while 20
girl-child students were also randomly drawn from the four Education Zones,
giving a sample of 80. The instrument used for the study was a modified likert
scale questionnaires, developed by the researcher. The instrument was meant
to elicit from the respondents the entrepreneurial skills to be acquired by the
girl-child to enable her become self-reliant, the strategies to be employed to
achieve that, the impediment to the acquisition of entrepreneurial skills by the

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girl-child. The respondents were required to indicate the extent of their


agreement with the listed items according to the four-point rating scale of
Strongly Agree = 4 points; Agree = 3 points; Disagree = 2 points and Strongly
Disagree = 1 point.
The instrument was personally administered by the researcher through
direct delivery technique. One hundred and twenty (120) copies of
questionnaires distributed by the researcher were all collected and used for the
study, which means that the researcher recorded 100&return of the
questionnaires instrument.
The data collected were analyzed using the 4-point modified likert
scale of SA = 4 points, A = 3points, D = 2 points and SD = 1 point.
Mean and Standard Deviation were used to answer the three research
questions that guided the study. The acceptance level of the mean scores was
2.5 and above. Any item with mean scores below 2.5 indicated negative
response.

Results
The results of the findings were presented in Tables I, 2 and 3
according to the order of research questions that guided the study.

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Research Question 1
What are the entrepreneurial skills to be acquired by the girl-child to ensure
self-reliance?

Table 1: Item Mean Scores and Standard Deviation of the Principals and
the Girl-child Students on the Entrepreneurial Skills to be Acquired by
the Girl-child to Ensure Self-Reliance.
Principals Girl-child
students
S/No Item on entrepreneurial skill Mean SD Mean SD Decision
to be acquired
1 Bakery (baking of bread, cake,
meat- pie, doughnut, biscuit) etc 3.25 0.95 3.34 0.99 Positive

2. Weaving of clothes and dying of


textile materials. 3.41 0.96 3.60 0.67 Positive

3. Production of perfumes, body


lotions, creams, powder. 3.64 0.48 3.69 0.70 Positive

4. Soap making and detergent. 3.65 0.48 3.70 0.63 Positive

5. Hair dressing, plating/ weaving 2.63 0.96 2.64 0.93 Positive


hair.

6. Production of soya milk, ice


cream, bean flour, yam, cassava 3.41 0.82 3.38 0.95 Positive
and plantain flour.

7. Cookery-preparation of both 3.50 0.75 3.40 0.84 Positive


foreign and African dishes.

8. Poultry business, fish pond, 2.67 0.93 2.68 0.93 Positive


piggery, goat rearing etc.

9. Dress making with sophisticated 3.81 0.47 3.51 0.35 Positive


designs.

10. Production of insecticides, 3.64 0.62 3.61 0.69 Positive


herbicides and pesticides etc

Results in Table 1 show that all the listed items recorded mean scores well
above the decision rule of 2.50, indicating that the respondents agreed
overwhelmingly to all the items, as being adequate entrepreneurial skills to be
acquired by the girl-child to ensure self-reliance.

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Research Question 2
What strategies could be employed to enhance acquisition of entrepreneurial
skills by the girl-child?

Table 2: Item Mean Score and the Standard Deviation of the Principals
and the Girl-child Students on the Strategies to Employed to Enhance
Acquisition of Entrepreneurial Skills by the Girl-child.
principals Girl-child
student
S/No. Item on Mean SD Mean SD Decision
entrepreneurial skill to be
acquired

11. Engaging local experts in 3.81 0.47 3.55 0.35 Positive


different entrepreneurial skills
to drill and practicalize with the
students.

12. Involving the philanthropists in


the community to promote
entrepreneurial skills by 3.60 0.87 3.58 0.82 Positive
purchasing the needed .
equipments and materials.

13. Making the learning of


entrepreneurial skills
compulsory for the students, 3.76 0.69 3.55 066 Positive
especially the female students.

14. Organizing excursion trips for


the students to industries and
workshops where relevant
entrepreneurial skills are 3.89 0.65 3.76 0.69 Positive
practiced.

15. Providing relevant instructional


materials for effective
instruction in entrepreneurial
skills. 3.58 0.85 3.59 0.80 Positive

16. Providing incentive for the girls


that show interests in
entrepreneurial skills. 3.76 0.69 3.68 0.66 Positive

17. Encouraging the community/


parents during P.T.A meeting to
allow their girl-child attend

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school and be exposed to the 3.85 0.70 3.76 0.69 Positive


entrepreneurial skills that will
enable them be self-reliant.

18. Organizing prize giving day for


the students that excel in the 3.60 0.87 3.85 0.94 Positive
various entrepreneurial skills.

19. Encouraging government to


motivate instructors of
entrepreneurial skills with
attractive salaries and other 3.74 0.66 3.85 0.69 Positive
incentives to enable them to be
more dedicated.

20. Ensuring proper supervision of


instruction in entrepreneurial
skills to enhance effective 3.83 0.57 3.76 0.64 positive
teaching and learning process.

Results in Table 2 shows that all the listed items attracted mean scores above
the acceptable range of 2.50, showing that the respondents agreed to all the
items as being adequate strategies for enhancing acquisition of entrepreneurial
skills by the girl child.

Research question 3
What are the impediments to the acquisition of entrepreneurial skills by the
girl child?

Table 3: Item Mean Score and the Standard Deviation of the Principals
and the Girl-child Students on the impediments to the acquisition of
entrepreneurial skills by the girl child.
Principals Girl-child
students
S/N Item on entrepreneurial skill Mean SD Mean SD Decision
to be acquired
21. Most illiterate parents do not
allow their girl child to attend 3.41 0.92 3.25 0.95 Positive
school

22. Insufficient number of


qualified instructors to teach 2.57 0.82 2.70 0.65 Positive
entrepreneurial skills in
school.

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23. Inadequate facilities like


laboratories and workshops
for teaching entrepreneurial 3.45 0.79 3.49 0.83 Positive
skills.

24. Lack of fund for effective


implementation of 3.85 0.94 3.69 0.70 Positive
entrepreneurial skills.

25. Lack of interest by the girl-


child in practical activities and 3.65 0.48 2.52 0.74 Positive
skills acquisition.

26. Acquisition of entrepreneurial


skills is time consuming,
tedious and expensive. 3.41 0.96 3.34 0.99 Positive

27. Lack of incentive and


motivation for instructors of 3.93 0.78 3.35 0.82 Positive
entrepreneurial skills.

28. Inadequate sensitization and


awareness by the public on the 3.60 0.67 3.41 0.61 Positive
need for acquisition of
entrepreneurial skills.

29. Some parents still believe that


they stand to gain more by 3.81 0.65 3.30 0.58 Positive
educating the boy-child than
the girl-child.

30. Religious beliefs and cultural


norms of most people hinder 3.21 0.58 3.46 0.51 Positive
the education of the girl-child.

Result in Table 3 show that all the respondents reacted positively to all the
listed items with mean scores above 2.5 cut-off range, indicating their
agreement that the listed items are possible hindrance to the acquisition of
entrepreneurial skills by the girl-child.

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Discussion of Results
The results in Table 1 show that, in the opinion of the respondents, all
the listed entrepreneurial skills are such that when acquired by the girl-child
could help her become self-reliant and also contribute to the development of
the society where she belongs. The findings are in agreement with the opinion
of Johnson and Arvil (2004) who assert that investing on the productivity and
skills of people raises the income of economically vulnerable group, thereby
reducing poverty. Similarly, one of the goals of Nigeria education as
enshrined in the National Policy on Education, emphasizes a land full of
bright opportunities for all citizens and integration of the individual into a
sound and effective citizenship, it is therefore not out of order that the items
attracted such positive responses from the respondents.
Results in Table 2 show that the respondents reacted positively to all
the items as being potent strategies to be employed to enhance acquisition of
entrepreneurial skills by the girl-child.
The findings correspond with the opinion of Benevit (2008) who posits
that successful development of any country begins with the development of
the people. Similarly, Burdus (2012) posited that vocational/ entrepreneurship
education prepares individuals for saleable skills and makes one fits properly
into the society one belongs and be able to contribute positively to enhance
development.
Furthermore, the findings of the study as shown in Table 3 indicated
that all the respondents reacted positively to all the listed items with mean
scores well above 2.50 cut-off range, indicating their agreement that the listed
items are impediments to the acquisition of entrepreneurial skills by the girl-
child.
However there is a slight difference in items 25 which states lack of
interest by the girl-child in practical activities and skill acquisition. The
principals rating on this item was 3.65, while the girl-child rating was 2.55.
The probable reason for this slight difference in the respondents opinions on
item 25 could be that the girl-child would not want to accept guilt boldly,
even though she knew that girls are guilty of the listed item. Nevertheless, the
opinions of both respondents did not differ significantly, since their mean
scores fell above 2.50 decision rule.

Conclusion
The researcher is of the view that if the much celebrated Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) must be achieved, both the Federal and State
Governments must move towards meeting the needs of our youths,
irrespective of sex, especially in the area of manpower development.

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Furthermore, all the various arms of education must play an integral role in
adapting to the urgent need of interdisciplinary knowledge creation that will
meet the societys problem, especially during this period of economic melt-
down.

Recommendations
From the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made:
1. Both the Federal and State Governments should as a matter of urgency
address the issue of acquisition of entrepreneurial skills by the girl-
child as a reform agenda at all levels of education for the attainment of
the Millennium Development Goals.
2. Government should provide fund to the school for equipping the
laboratories and workshops for effective teaching of entrepreneurial
skills.
3. There should be sensitization on value re-orientation to counter some
of the cultural beliefs and practices that impede girl-child education.
4. Instructors of entrepreneurial skill should be adequately motivated for
positive results.

References
Akpan, A.E, (2004). Fundamentals of entrepreneurship. Ikot Ekpene: Brain.
Publishers (Nig) Ltd.
Benavit, A. (2008). Building the case for literacy in adult education and
development Bonn: 11X/DVV71.
Federal Republiuc of Nigeria (2004), National Policy on Education, Lagos:
Nigeria Education and Research Development Centre.
Nwachukwu, C. (1990). Youth empowerment and strategies for the decade. A
paper delivered at the 10th Annual National Training Fund on
Development (ITF), Jos 6th, November.
Johnson R.K. and Arvil, U.A (2004), Skills development in Sub-Saharan
Africa, Washington DC: World Bank Regional and Sectoral studies.
Onwuka, E.M and Ile, C.M (2006). Entrepreneurship development;
conceptual, theoretical and practical framework. Ekulobia: Jossy
Printing Press.

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