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What is it all about sandugong panaginip, give a brief summary of this opera.

The mid-19th century marked the advent of foreign opera presentations in the theaters of Manila. The opera not only
served as a novel form of entertainment for Filipinos, but also as an avenue for the honing and development of Filipino
musical skills, through their exposure and occasional participation as musicians in these opera productions. Thus by the
early 20th century, the Philippines was able to produce its first opera.
Sangdugong Panaguinip is the first Philippine opera in the Tagalog language. It was composed by Ladislao Bonus who
is dubbed as the Father of Philippine Opera. The one-act opera with five scenes was based on the Spanish libretto La
Alianza Soada by Pedro Paterno which was translated into Tagalog by novelist and dramatist, Roman G. Reyes. One
of the melodies of the opera was Sampaguita (La Flor de Manila), a popular melody of the period, which was
composed by Paternos sister, Dolores. The libretto was also translated into English as The Dream Alliance by Col.
Walter H. Loving, founder of the Philippine Constabulary Band.
First performed at the famed Teatro Zorilla on August 2, 1902, the opera was staged by the renowned Molina-Benito
Company. Overwhelmingly successful, it was performed successively for more than a week with Governor William H.
Taft often in attendance. However, published materials often mention that there were only five performances of the
opera (Rivera 2008).
This opera tells of the invasion of Luzon and the exploitation of its people by the Moros or Muslims, and how the
Tagalogs fought to restore peace in their land, with the aid of their newfound allies, the Americans. Raymundo C.
Baas, a historical writer and music critic, summarized the plot as follows:
A band of Muslims invades Luzon and imposes taxes or tribute on every maiden in the towns of Pasig, Cainta and
Antipolo, Rizal. Led by Lapu, the inhabitants of these towns were unified by way of a blood compact so as to repel the
invaders. One night while pondering his plan to conquer the Muslims, Lapu fell asleep in a cave known as the cave of
Dona Geronima. He dreamt of having seen a rainbow with rays leading to paradise and illuminated by a constellation
of American stars. Lapu saw an American-Pilipino alliance, which under Bathalas guidance could lead to prosperity
and happiness of his people (Baas 1969)
Written after the installation of the American Civil Government, this opera symbolizes acceptance of American rule in
the country. It was probably intended to be a propaganda, based on the libretto, the score (the super-imposition of two
anthems) and the circumstances of its performance in 1902 (Rivera 2008). Nonetheless, it is a milestone in Philippine
music history. It paved the way for the composition and production of more Tagalog operas like Magdapio by Alejo
Carluen and Gayuma by Gavino Carluen.
Despite the lack of formal training and relying solely on apprenticeship, Bonus was able to develop an expertise in the
opera. Inspired by local folklore, he was able to assimilate and indigenize the European opera, transforming this into a
distinctively Filipino opera.
What do you think is the reason why it was the italian opera that captured the creative imagination of
composers, librettists and singers before?
When you hear the word opera, do you think of famous Italian operas? Italy is where opera was born. Some of the
greatest operas include famous opera songs that have been created by famous composers in Italy. There was a time
when opera music was composed exclusively to Italian language lyrics. A list of famous operas is provided below. For
many people, Italian opera is associated with famous opera composers, classic Italian music, wondrous Italian culture,
volatile Italian history and fascinating Italian traditions. For some, even Italian fashion designers and famous Italian
villas come to mind.
Who invented opera? The Italians. And, famous Italian opera singers continue to cultivate the best of Italian opera as
part of popular culture. Who can forget Luciano Pavarotti, Jose Carreras and Placido Domingo and the opening of the
1990 World Cup and what they did to popularize opera!
Who started opera? The Italians, of course. Opera began in the royal courts of the Italian artistocracy in the 17th
century. The artists and craftsmen, who put on the opera productions were employed by the court on a full-time basis.
After attending the productions, the diplomats and invited guests would write letters to their friends and family at the
many other royal courts in Europe. In these letters, they would describe the magnificence and splendour of the