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Kidney Functions ....................................................................................................................21

Heart .....................................................................................................................................22

Chapter 4: Skeleton Syestem.....................................................................................................23

Appendicular Skeleton ...........................................................................................................23

The Skeleton Serves Six Major Functions. ..............................................................................23

Movement .............................................................................................................................23

Storage ..................................................................................................................................24

Endocrine regulation ..............................................................................................................24

Sexual dimorphism ................................................................................................................24

Disorders ...............................................................................................................................24

Chapter 5: Table for Diseases, Factors and Symptoms ...............................................................26

Chapter 6: Reproduction ...........................................................................................................29

Asexual Reproduction ............................................................................................................29

Sexual Reproduction ..............................................................................................................29

External Fertilization..........................................................................................................29

Internal Fertilization ..........................................................................................................29

Embryogenesis ..................................................................................................................30

Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants................................................................................30

Human Reproduction .............................................................................................................31

Artificial Methods of Vegetative Reproduction ..................................................................33

Grafting .............................................................................................................................33

Bud grafting .......................................................................................................................33

Cutting ..............................................................................................................................33

Layering .............................................................................................................................34

Tissue Culture ....................................................................................................................34

Chapter 7: Respiration in Human Beings the Pathway ...............................................................35

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Breathing ...............................................................................................................................35

Central Control of Breathing ..............................................................................................36

Vital Capacity of Lung .............................................................................................................37

Lung volumes .........................................................................................................................37


Chapter 8: Parts of Cell and their Functions...............................................................................40

Chapter 9: Basics of Cell Division, Mitosis and Meiosis ..............................................................41

Chapter 10: Tissue System ........................................................................................................43

Chapter 11: Sex Determination in Humans, Birds and Bees .......................................................44

Sex Determination in Humans ................................................................................................44

Chapter 12: Basics of Antigen-Antibody ....................................................................................45

Antigen ..................................................................................................................................45

Monoclonal Antibodies ..........................................................................................................46

Chapter 13: Table and Diagram on ABO Blood Group, RH Factor ...............................................47

Chapter 1: The Universe ............................................................................................................51

What is Universe ....................................................................................................................51

Surface Temperature ................................................................................................................. 53
Why Stars are of Different Colors ............................................................................................... 53

Asteroids ...........................................................................................................................53

What are Meteors .............................................................................................................53

Comets ..............................................................................................................................54

The Solar System....................................................................................................................54

Mercury ............................................................................................................................54

Venus ................................................................................................................................54

Earth .................................................................................................................................55

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Mars ..................................................................................................................................55

Jupiter ...............................................................................................................................55

Saturn ...............................................................................................................................55

Uranus and Neptune .........................................................................................................55

Black Hole ..............................................................................................................................55

Chapter 2: Magnetism and Electricity, Nuclear Physics ..............................................................57

Electricity ...............................................................................................................................57

Ohms law .........................................................................................................................57


Diamagnetism ...................................................................................................................58

Paramagnetism .................................................................................................................58

Ferromagnetism ................................................................................................................59

Superparamagnetism ........................................................................................................59

Magnetic dipoles ...............................................................................................................60

Magnetic monopoles .........................................................................................................60

Living things ......................................................................................................................61

Nuclear Physics ......................................................................................................................61

Nuclear fusion ...................................................................................................................61

Chapter 3: Sound: Echo, Resonance, Doppler Effect, Sonic Boom, Dolby ...................................63

The Doppler Effect .................................................................................................................63

A Sonic Boom .........................................................................................................................63

Dolby NR ................................................................................................................................63

Echo .......................................................................................................................................63

Resonance .............................................................................................................................64

Electrical Resonance ..........................................................................................................64

Chapter 4: Principles Behind Rainbow, LCD, Camera Microscope, LASER, Compact Disc ............65

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Rainbow .................................................................................................................................65

Camera Microscope- ..............................................................................................................65

Chapter 5: Optics: Convex and Concave Glasses: Differences, Applications, And Refractions ....66

Uses .......................................................................................................................................66

Chapter 6: Pressure Cookers, DTH TV, Radar, Oven, Night Vision Goggles, Refrigeration...........68

DTH TV- Direct to Home Television ........................................................................................68

How does DTH really differ from cable TV?........................................................................69

Radar .....................................................................................................................................69

Refrigeration ..........................................................................................................................70

Methods of Refrigeration Can Be Classified As Non-Cyclic, Cyclic, Thermoelectric and

Magnetic ...........................................................................................................................70

Chapter 7: Solar Cooker, Thermoflask, Car Engine Radiator, Air Conditioners ...........................71

Solar Cooker ..........................................................................................................................71

Simple Solar Cookers Use the Following Basic Principles ...................................................71

Air Conditioners .....................................................................................................................72

Air Conditioners Have the Following Uses .........................................................................72

Chapter 8: Concepts and Principles Behind Heat, Electronic Thermometer, Radiation ..............73

Heat .......................................................................................................................................73

Conduction ........................................................................................................................73

Convection ........................................................................................................................73

Radiation ...........................................................................................................................73

Latent Heat .......................................................................................................................74

Chapter 9: Densities, Surface Tension, Viscosity ........................................................................75

Densities ................................................................................................................................75

Surface Tension .....................................................................................................................75

Viscosity- ...............................................................................................................................77

The Working Principles Behind Artificial Satellites ..................................................................77

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Chapter 10: Newton's Laws and Their Practical Application ......................................................78

Everyday Applications of Newton's First Law .........................................................................78

Chapter 1: The Three Laws of Thermodynamics ........................................................................82

Chapter 2: Polysaccharides-Use and Sources .............................................................................83

Functions of Polysaccharides: ................................................................................................83

Chapter 3: Biotech Nanotech and Their Applications.................................................................84

Medicine ................................................................................................................................85

Pharmacogenomics ................................................................................................................85


The Applications of Nanotechnology .................................................................................86

Chapter 4: Emulsion and Gels ....................................................................................................88

Oil-In-Water Emulsions ..........................................................................................................88

Emulsion is Also Used in Firefighting. .....................................................................................88

Gel .........................................................................................................................................89

Chapter 5: Colloids-Basic Definition, Table of Types of Colloidal System....................................90

Chapter 6: Basics of Metal Extraction, Petroleum, Steel, Rusting, Cement Glass........................91

Petroleum ..............................................................................................................................91

Compounds ...........................................................................................................................91

Chapter 7: Carbon, Its Compounds and Allotropes, Carbon Cycles ............................................93

Chapter 8: Oxidation-Reduction Mechanism and Examples.......................................................94

Chapter 9: Concept of Solubility ................................................................................................95

Chapter 10: Use of Chemical Compound ...................................................................................96

Chapter 1: Type of Plants, Medicinal Plants, Bio Insecticides .....................................................99

Spore Bearing Plants ..............................................................................................................99

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Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons ...................................................................................... 101

Different Types of Plants ...................................................................................................... 101

Medicinal Plants: Examples and Uses ................................................................................... 102

Chapter 1: Animal Husbandry Artificial Insemination .............................................................. 105

Cattle ...................................................................................................................................105

Milch Breeds ........................................................................................................................ 105

Draught Breeds .................................................................................................................... 106

Dual Purpose Breeds ............................................................................................................ 106

Appendix A: Questions (200 Multiple Choice Questions) ......................................................... 110

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY UPATES ....................................................................................... 150

Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) set to establish Navigation Satellite System ...... 150

Satellites Launched to Bring Rural Areas Online ...................................................................150

Scientists created the world's first ultra-high resolution 3D model of a HUMAN BRAIN ....... 151

Drayson Racing Electric Car Established New World Record of Top Speed of 328.6 Kmph ....152

China organised first Classroom Lecture from Space ............................................................ 153

Sensor Chip to Detect Disease from Blood Drop Designed ................................................... 153

ESO discovered Dusty Surprise around Giant Black Hole ...................................................... 154

Supermoon, Largest & Brightest Moon of 2013 Observed.................................................... 154

Researchers developed Eco-friendly Battery using Wood..................................................... 155

Devap Air-Cooling System to be used in Nalanda University ................................................ 156

Early Tsunami Warning System installed in Rangachang ...................................................... 157

India-US Science Body launched Space Solar Power Initiative .............................................. 157

Scientists developed New Prospective Biomaterial for Bone Formation ............................... 158

Tiny Archicebus Fossil of Oldest Primate discovered in China ............................................... 158

NE-RIST Students designed new Solar Water Heater ............................................................ 159

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Microsoft Unveils Windows 8.1............................................................................................ 160

Molecule designed by Scientists to fight Prostrate Cancer ................................................... 160

Scientist Discovered New Three-Horned Dinosaur ............................................................... 161

Camera Sensor Developed that would Not Need Flash ........................................................ 161

US Scientists Developed First Smart RFID-Enabled Paper ..................................................... 162

ISRO Navigation Centre Inaugurated by V. Narayanasamy near Bengaluru .......................... 163

Researchers Revived Centuries-Old Frozen Plants Called Bryophytes from Teardrop Glacier
............................................................................................................................................ 164

Solar Impulse Plane HB-SIA set a new Distance Record ........................................................ 165

Lost Apollo 11 Moon Dust Discovered After 40 Years in California Lab .................................165

India Test Fired BrahMos Supersonic Cruise Missile ............................................................. 165

Scientists discovered that Vitamin C kills Tuberculosis ......................................................... 166

Opportunity Rover of NASA Broke the 40-Year-Old Extraterrestrial Distance Record ........... 166

NASA's Observatory discovered Exotic Neutron Stars .......................................................... 166

Canadian Scientists: Neuron Growth cuts Memory Space .................................................... 167

NASA to Lease Historic Launch Pad of First Moon Mission ................................................... 167

First and Only Satellite of Ecuador, Pegaso Collided With Russian Space Debris ................... 168

Mangalore University and BARC Signed MoU ....................................................................... 168

Mars Rover discovered Rock Esperance is Weathered by Water .......................................... 169

Russian Capsule Bion-M returned from Space Tour.............................................................. 169

Scientists Discovered a New Less Expensive Technique of Creating 3D Images .................... 170

Cluster of Hydrogen Clouds Discovered Between Two nearest Galaxies ............................... 171

Scientists from Switzerland created World's Smallest Droplets ............................................ 172

Zhejiang University in China Produced Worlds Lightest Substance Called Carbon Aerogel ..172

ISRO planned to launch GSLV D5 to place the Communication Satellite GSAT-14 in Orbit ....173

Researchers discovered New species of Dragonfly in Goa .................................................... 173

US Scientists Created first Cloned Human Embryo ............................................................... 174

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Angelina Jolie underwent Double Mastectomy to Reduce chances of Breast Cancer ........... 175

Scientists designed Peptide-based Delivery Platforms to cure Cancer ..................................176

A New Type of Wheat developed to Increase Productivity ................................................... 176

Benefits of Exposing Skin to Sun Can Outweigh Risks of Skin Cancer: Research .................... 176

IISC designed a New Concept of Vaccine Delivery System .................................................... 177

Solar Impulse, the Sun-Powered Aircraft Completed First Leg of Journey to Cross US .......... 178

Cheap and Effective Method devised to Produce Clean Drinking Water ............................... 178

Worlds First Gun made from 3D Printer Technology Fired Successfully ............................... 179

First Global Model developed to analyse Routes of Marine Species .....................................180

Scientists found in Hypothalamus Mechanism Responsible for Ageing ................................ 180

US Scientists Created Worlds Smallest Flying Robot Called Robo-Fly ...................................181

IBM Released World's Smallest Stop Motion Film: A Boy and His Atom ............................... 182

European Space Telescope Herschel completed its Journey ................................................. 182

Urgent Need to Clear Debris in Earths Orbit: ESA ................................................................ 184

Researchers Developed Keyboard Called KALQ to Beat QWERTY ......................................... 184

NASA Kepler Mission Discovered Planets Kepler-62f & Kepler-62e....................................... 185

Giant Galaxy called HFLS3 Discovered .................................................................................. 186

UK Scientists produced a Disease-Resistant Piglet called Pig-26 ........................................... 186

Hobbit Humans Had Larger Brains Than Estimated: Research .............................................. 186

Bio-Engineered Kidney Successfully Transplanted in Rat ...................................................... 187

Device to detect Gastro-Intestinal Cancers developed ......................................................... 188

Plan to Build Worlds largest Telescope approved by US Govt .............................................. 188

Rings of Saturn produce their own Rain on the Planet ......................................................... 188

Scientists designed Adaptive Material inspired by Human Tear ....................................... 189

Gene Mutation is Associated With Fatal Prostate Cancer ..................................................... 189

Aerosols from Burning Fossil Fuels Affecting Coral Growth .................................................. 190

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Nuclear Capable Agni-II Missile was Successfully Test-Fired ................................................. 190

Camera that can Capture Objects at Long Distances Developed ........................................... 191

US Scientists identified Genetic Markers of Alzheimers Risk................................................ 191

Exhaled Breath can be as Unique as a Fingerprint: Study ..................................................... 192

Facebook Released Software Called Home for Android Phones ........................................... 192

US Government launched a Research Initiative Called BRAIN............................................... 193

Jeff Bezos Recovered Two Apollo Rocket Engines ................................................................ 193

Unknown Huge Radio Galaxy Discovered ............................................................................. 194

Herschel Observatory discovered Protostars ........................................................................ 195

Abundant Active Bacteria Community Discovered ............................................................... 196

Exact Distance to Our Neighbouring Galaxy Calculated ........................................................ 197

Japan Extracts Natural Gas from Methane Hydrate .............................................................. 198

India Ranked Third in List of Spam Spewing Nation in World ................................................ 199

NASAs Swift Satellite Discovered Supernova Remnants ...................................................... 201

AMS detected Scope for Dark Matter in the Space............................................................... 201

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Nutrition is the process of acquiring energy and food materials. Nutrition is the provision, to
cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life. The human
body contains chemical compounds, such as water, carbohydrates (sugar, starch, and fiber),
amino acids (in proteins), fatty acids (in lipids), and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). These
compounds in turn consist of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen,
phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese, and so on. All of these chemical
compounds and elements occur in various forms and combinations (e.g. hormones, vitamins,
phospholipids, hydroxyapatite), both in the human body and in the plant and animal organisms
that humans eat.

What is Nutrient-A nutrient is a chemical that an organism needs to live and grow or a
substance used in an organism's metabolism which must be taken in from its environment.
They are used to build and repair tissues, regulate body processes and are converted to and
used as energy.

Classification of Nutrient-: There are six major classes of nutrients- Carbohydrates, protein,
vitamins, minerals, fats and water.

Nature- A Carbohydrate is an organic compound that consists only of Carbon, Hydrogen and
Oxygen. It is divided into four chemical groupings: monosaccharides, disaccharides,
oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. For example, blood sugar is the monosaccharide
glucose, table sugar is the disaccharide sucrose, and milk sugar is the disaccharide lactose.

Function- Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. Polysaccharides serve for
the storage of energy (e.g., starch and glycogen), and as structural components (e.g., cellulose
in plants and chitin in arthropods). The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important
component of coenzymes (e.g., ATP, FAD, and NAD) and the backbone of the genetic molecule
known as RNA. The related deoxyribose is a component of DNA. Saccharides and their
derivatives include many other important biomolecules that play key roles in the immune
system, fertilization, preventing pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development.

Source-Starch (such as cereals, bread, and pasta) or simple carbohydrates, such as sugar (found
in candy, jams, and desserts).

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Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and
generally insoluble in water. Fats can be categorized into saturated fats and unsaturated fats.

Function-Fat provides needed energy. It is difficult to eat the large amounts of food in a very
low fat diet to get all the energy you need.

Fat is needed to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency.

Fat is needed so your body can absorb the fat soluble vitamins A, S, E, K, and prevent
deficiencies of these vitamins.
Fat provides flavor and texture to help prevent food from being bland and dry.
Fat may help your body produce endorphins (natural substances in the brain that
produce pleasurable feelings).
Source- Mutton, Milk, Egg Etc. are rich in fat.

Just like vitamins, minerals help your body grow, develop, and stay healthy. The body uses
minerals to perform many different functions from building strong bones to transmitting
nerve impulses. Some minerals are even used to make hormones or maintain a normal

Function-Minerals such as calcium, zinc and potassium are needed by the body for a number of
processes such as breaking down, digesting and releasing energy from food, strengthening
bones, nails and teeth and regulating fluid and cholesterol in the body. There are 16 essential
minerals required by the body, which are divided into macrominerals, or minerals that are
needed in fairly large quantities, microminerals, which are needed in smaller quantities and
trace elements, which are needed in minute quantities but which are still vital for the body's

The benefits of some minerals cannot be seen without the presence of certain minerals and
vice versa, for example, vitamin D is required in order to absorb calcium and when foods
containing vitamin C are consumed, iron is absorbed more efficiently. A short description of
some important minerals has been given:-


Calcium is the top macromineral when it comes to your bones. This mineral helps build strong bones, so
you can do everything from standing up straight to scoring that winning goal. It also helps build strong,
healthy teeth, for chomping on tasty food.

Dairy products, such as milk, cheese, and yogurt, canned salmon and sardines with bones, leafy
green vegetables, such as broccoli, calcium-fortified foods from orange juice to cereals and
crackers are rich source of Calcium.

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The body needs iron to transport oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body. Your entire body
needs oxygen to stay healthy and alive. Iron helps because it's important in the formation of hemoglobin
(say: HEE-muh-glo-bun), which is the part of your red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the
body. Meat, especially red meat, such as beef, tuna and salmon, eggs, beans, baked potato with skins,
dried fruits, like raisins, leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli, whole and enriched grains, like wheat
or oats are examples of food which are rich in Iron.


Potassium keeps your muscles and nervous system working properly. Potassium helps make sure the
amount of water is just right between cells and body fluids.

Bananas, tomatoes, potatoes and sweet potatoes, with skins, green vegetables, such as spinach
and broccoli, citrus fruits, like oranges, low-fat milk and yogurt, legumes, such as beans, split
peas, and lentils are good source of Potassium.


Zinc helps your immune system, which is your body's system for fighting off illnesses and infections. It
also helps with cell growth and helps heal wounds, such as cuts. Beef, pork, and dark meat chicken, nuts,
such as cashews, almonds, and peanuts, legumes, such as beans, split peas, and lentils are rich source of

When people don't get enough of these important minerals, they can have health problems. For
instance, too little calcium especially when you're a kid can lead to weaker bones. Some kids may
take mineral supplements, but most kids don't need them if they eat a nutritious diet. So eat those
minerals and stay healthy!

Protein-Proteins are large biological molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acids.

Function- Proteins perform a vast array of functions within living organisms, including
catalyzing metabolic reactions, replicating DNA, responding to stimuli, and transporting
molecules from one location to another.

Source-Meats, milk, fish and eggs, as well as in plant sources such as whole grains, pulses,
legumes, soy, fruits, nuts and seeds are good source of protein.

Vitamins-A vitamin is an organic compound required by an organism as a vital nutrient in
limited amounts. An organic chemical compound (or related set of compounds) is called a

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vitamin when it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an organism, and must be

obtained from the diet.

Function-Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions. Some have hormone-like functions as

regulators of mineral metabolism (such as vitamin D), or regulators of cell and tissue growth
and differentiation (such as some forms of vitamin A). Others function as antioxidants (e.g.,
vitamin E and sometimes vitamin C). The largest number of vitamins such as B complex vitamins
functions as precursors for enzyme cofactors that help enzymes in their work as catalysts in


Function- Water is a carrier, distributing essential nutrients to cells, such as minerals, vitamins
and glucose. Its five top functions are as following:-

1) Cell life,
2) Chemical and metabolic reactions,
3) Transport of nutrients
4) Body temperature regulation,
5) Elimination of waste,

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The human digestive system is a complex series of organs and glands that processes food. In order to
consume the food we eat, our body has to break the food down into smaller molecules that it can
process; it also has to excrete waste.

The digestive system is essentially a long, twisting tube that runs from the mouth to the anus, plus a few
other organs (like the liver and pancreas) that produce or store digestive chemicals.



The mouth: The digestive process begins in the mouth. Food is partly broken down by the process of
chewing and by the chemical action of salivary enzymes (these enzymes are produced by the salivary
glands and break down starches into smaller molecules).


The esophagus - After being chewed and swallowed, the food enters the esophagus. The esophagus is a
long tube that runs from the mouth to the stomach. It uses rhythmic, wave-like muscle movements
(called peristalsis) to force food from the throat into the stomach.

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The stomach - The stomach is a large, sack-like organ that releases the gastric acid to digest the food.
Food in the stomach that is digested in the stomach and mixed with stomach acids is called chyme.


The small intestine - After being in the stomach, food enters the duodenum, the first part of the small
intestine. It then enters the jejunum and then the ileum (the final part of the small intestine). In the
small intestine, bile (produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder), pancreatic enzymes, and other
digestive enzymes produced by the inner wall of the small intestine help in the breakdown of food.


The large intestine - After passing through the small intestine, food passes into the large intestine. In the
large intestine, some of the water and electrolytes (chemicals like sodium) are removed from the food.
Many microbes (bacteria like Bacteroides, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Escherichia coli, and
Klebsiella) in the large intestine help in the digestion process. The first part of the large
intestine is called the cecum (the appendix is connected to the cecum). Food then travels
upward in the ascending colon. The food travels across the abdomen in the transverse colon,
goes back down the other side of the body in the descending colon, and then through the
sigmoid colon. Solid waste is then stored in the rectum until it is excreted via the anus.

In general, enzymes are large protein-based molecules that help chemical reactions take place
faster than they otherwise would, explain Reginald Garrett and Charles Grisham in their book
"Biochemistry." Your body cells run a wide array of chemical reactions, nearly all of which are
enzyme-dependent. Specifically, digestive enzymes help you break down large nutrient
molecules in your food into smaller nutrient molecules that you can absorb.


Pepsin is secreted by the gastric glands and is responsible for breaking down proteins into
smaller pieces, called polypeptides. Pepsin is secreted in its inactive form, known as
pepsinogen, and is converted into its active form in the acidic environment of the stomach. The
acidic environment of the stomach also alters the shape of proteins, allowing pepsin access to
break the peptide bonds holding them together. Pepsin's role in breaking protein down into
polypeptides allows enzymes in the small intestines to further break down these polypeptides
into amino acids for use by the body, according to the University of Cincinnati Clermont

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Protein digestion is initiated by pepsin in the stomach but is finished by proteases in the small
intestines. Proteases are secreted by the pancreas and function to break down polypeptides, or
broken down proteins, into amino acids -- the building blocks critical to life. Trypsin and
chymotrypsin are the two primary proteases secreted by the pancreas, according to Colorado
State University.


Bile is a digestive fluid primarily involved in the digestion of fats. Secreted by the liver and
stored in the gallbladder, bile is a complex mixture of bile acids, potassium and sodium,
cholesterol and bilirubin -- a byproduct from the breakdown of red blood cells, according to
MedlinePlus. In the small intestine, the bile acids break down dietary fat and fat-soluble
vitamins into fatty acid components, which can then be absorbed by the body. Bile acids are
synthesized from cholesterol and thus play a large role in the breakdown and elimination of
cholesterol from the body, according to Colorado State University.


Abdomen - the part of the body that contains the digestive organs. In human beings,
this is between the diaphragm
Pelvis alimentary canal - the passage through which food passes, including the mouth,
esophagus, stomach, intestines, and anus.
Anus - the opening at the end of the digestive system from which feces (waste) exits the
Appendix - a small sac located on the cecum.
Ascending colon - the part of the large intestine that run upwards; it is located after the
Bile - a digestive chemical that is produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder, and
secreted into the small intestine.
Cecum - the first part of the large intestine; the appendix is connected to the cecum.
Chyme - food in the stomach that is partly digested and mixed with stomach acids.
Chyme goes on to the small intestine for further digestion.
Descending colon - the part of the large intestine that run downwards after the
transverse colon and before the sigmoid colon.
Digestive system - (also called the gastrointestinal tract or gi tract) the system of the
body that processes food and gets rid of waste.
Duodenum - the first part of the small intestine; it is c-shaped and runs from the
stomach to the jejunum.
Epiglottis - the flap at the back of the tongue that keeps chewed food from going down
the windpipe to the lungs. When you swallow, the epiglottis automatically closes.
When you breathe, the epiglottis opens so that air can go in and out of the windpipe.

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Esophagus - the long tube between the mouth and the stomach. It uses rhythmic
muscle movements (called peristalsis) to force food from the throat into the stomach.
Gall bladder - a small, sac-like organ located by the duodenum. It stores and releases
bile (a digestive chemical which is produced in the liver) into the small intestine.
Gastrointestinal tract - (also called the gi tract or digestive system) the system of the
body that processes food and gets rid of waste.
Ileum - the last part of the small intestine before the large intestine begins.
Intestines - the part of the alimentary canal located between the stomach and the anus.
Jejunum - the long, coiled mid-section of the small intestine; it is between the
duodenum and the ileum.
Liver - a large organ located above and in front of the stomach. It filters toxins from the
blood, and makes bile (which breaks down fats) and some blood proteins.
Mouth - the first part of the digestive system, where food enters the body. Chewing and
salivary enzymes in the mouth are the beginning of the digestive process (breaking
down the food).
Pancreas - an enzyme-producing gland located below the stomach and above the
intestines. Enzymes from the pancreas help in the digestion of carbohydrates, fats and
proteins in the small intestine.
Peristalsis - rhythmic muscle movements that force food in the esophagus from the
throat into the stomach. Peristalsis is involuntary - you cannot control it. It is also what
allows you to eat and drink while upside-down.
Rectum - the lower part of the large intestine, where feces are stored before they are
Salivary glands - glands located in the mouth that produce saliva. Saliva contains
enzymes that break down carbohydrates (starch) into smaller molecules.
Sigmoid colon - the part of the large intestine between the descending colon and the
Stomach - a sack-like, muscular organ that is attached to the esophagus. Both chemical
and mechanical digestion takes place in the stomach. When food enters the stomach, it
is churned in a bath of acids and enzymes.
Transverse colon - the part of the large intestine that runs horizontally across the

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Kidney: The kidneys perform the essential function of removing waste products from the blood
and regulating the water fluid levels. The kidneys receive blood through the renal artery. The
blood is passed through the structure of the kidneys called nephrons, where waste products
and excess water pass out of the blood stream, as shown in the diagram below.

When the kidneys are not functional, dialysis becomes necessary to save the victim. In dialysis,
the blood passes through an external membrane which allows waste products from the blood
to pass out of the blood and into the dialysis fluid. Because of the rate of buildup of the waste
products, it may be necessary to perform dialysis as many as 3 times per week.

Kidneys are essential in the urinary system and also serve homeostatic functions such as the
regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acidbase balance, and regulation of blood pressure
(via maintaining salt and water balance). They serve the body as a natural filter of the blood,
and remove wastes which are diverted to the urinary bladder. In producing urine, the kidneys
excrete wastes such as urea and ammonium, and they are also responsible for the reabsorption
of water, glucose, and amino acids. The kidneys also produce hormones including calcitriol,
erythropoietin, and the enzyme renin.

Located at the rear of the abdominal cavity in the retroperitoneum, the kidneys receive blood
from the paired renal arteries, and drain into the paired renal veins. Each kidney excretes urine
into a ureter, itself a paired structure that empties into the urinary bladder.

Renal physiology is the study of kidney function, while nephrology is the medical specialty
concerned with kidney diseases. Diseases of the kidney are diverse, but individuals with kidney
disease frequently display characteristic clinical features. Common clinical conditions involving
the kidney include the nephritic and nephrotic syndromes, renal cysts, acute kidney injury,
chronic kidney disease, urinary tract infection, nephrolithiasis, and urinary tract obstruction.[1]
Various cancers of the kidney exist; the most common adult renal cancer is renal cell
carcinoma. Cancers, cysts, and some other renal conditions can be managed with removal of
the kidney, or nephrectomy. When renal function, measured by glomerular filtration rate, is
persistently poor, dialysis and kidney transplantation may be treatment options. Although they
are not severely harmful, kidney stones can be painful and a nuisance. The removal of kidney
stones involves ultrasound treatment to break up the stones into smaller pieces, which are then
passed through the urinary tract. One common symptom of kidney stones is a sharp pain in the
medial/lateral segments of the lower back.

The kidneys secrete a variety of hormones, including erythropoietin, and the enzyme renin.
Erythropoietin is released in response to hypoxia (low levels of oxygen at tissue level) in the
renal circulation. It stimulates erythropoiesis (production of red blood cells) in the bone
marrow. Calcitriol, the activated form of vitamin D, promotes intestinal absorption of calcium

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and the renal reabsorption of phosphate. Part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system,

renin is an enzyme involved in the regulation of aldosterone levels.

The kidneys perform a wide range of vital functions in the healthy body, such as:

Removing wastes and water from the blood

Balancing chemicals in your body
Releasing hormones
Helping control blood pressure
Helping to produce red blood cells
Producing vitamin D, which keeps the bones strong and healthy

Heart: The heart is one of the most important organs in the entire human body. It is really
nothing more than a pump, composed of muscle which pumps blood throughout the body,
beating approximately 72 times per minute of our lives.

The human circulatory system functions to transport blood and oxygen from the lungs to the
various tissues of the body. The heart pumps the blood throughout the body. The lymphatic
system is an extension of the human circulatory system that includes cell-mediated and
antibody-mediated immune systems. The components of the human circulatory system include
the heart, blood, red and white blood cells, platelets, and the lymphatic system.

The human heart is about the size of a clenched fist. It contains four chambers: two atria and
two ventricles. Oxygen-poor blood enters the right atrium through a major vein called the vena
cava. The blood passes through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. Next, the blood is
pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs for gas exchange. Oxygen-rich blood returns
to the left atrium via the pulmonary vein. The oxygen-rich blood flows through the bicuspid
(mitral) valve into the left ventricle, from which it is pumped through a major artery, the aorta.
Two valves called semilunar valves are found in the pulmonary artery and aorta.

The ventricles contract about 70 times per minute, which represents a person's pulse rate.
Blood pressure, in contrast, is the pressure exerted against the walls of the arteries. Blood
pressure is measured by noting the height to which a column of mercury can be pushed by the
blood pressing against the arterial walls. A normal blood pressure is a height of 120 millimeters
of mercury during heart contraction ( SYSTOLE), and a height of 80 millimeters of mercury
during heart relaxation ( DIASTOLE). Normal blood pressure is usually expressed as 120 over

Coronary arteries supply the heart muscle with blood. The heart is controlled by nerves that
originate on the right side in the upper region of the atrium at the sinoatrial node. This node is
called the PACEMAKER. It generates nerve impulses that spread to the atrioventricular node
where the impulses are amplified and spread to other regions of the heart by nerves called
Purkinje fibers.

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The appendicular skeleton (126 bones) is formed by the pectoral girdles (4), the upper limbs
(60), the pelvic girdle (2), and the lower limbs (60). Their functions are to make locomotion
possible and to protect the major organs of locomotion, digestion, excretion, and reproduction.




The skeleton provides the framework which supports the body and maintains its shape. The
pelvis, associated ligaments and muscles provide a floor for the pelvic structures. Without the
rib cages, costal cartilages, and intercostal muscles, the heart would collapse.

The joints between bones permit movement, some allowing a wider range of movement than
others, e.g. the ball and socket joint allows a greater range of movement than the pivot joint at
the neck. Movement is powered by skeletal muscles, which are attached to the skeleton at
various sites on bones. Muscles, bones, and joints provide the principal mechanics for
movement, all coordinated by the nervous system.


The skeleton protects many vital organs:

The skull protects the brain, the eyes, and the middle and inner ears.

The vertebrae protect the spinal cord.

The rib cage, spine, and sternum protect the human lungs, human heart and major blood

The clavicle and scapula protect the shoulder.

The ilium and spine protect the digestive and urogenital systems and the hip.

The patella and the ulna protect the knee and the elbow respectively.

The carpals and tarsals protect the wrist and ankle respectively.

Blood cell production

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The skeleton is the site of haematopoiesis, the development of blood cells that takes place in
the bone marrow.

Bone matrix can store calcium and is involved in calcium metabolism, and bone marrow can
store iron in ferrotin and is involved in iron metabolism. However, bones are not entirely made
of calcium, but a mixture of chondroitin sulfate and hydroxyapatite, the latter making up 70%
of a bone.

Bone cells release a hormone called osteocalcin, which contributes to the regulation of blood
sugar (glucose) and fat deposition. Osteocalcin increases both the insulin secretion and
sensitivity, in addition to boosting the number of insulin-producing cells and reducing stores of

There are many differences between the male and female human skeletons. Most prominent is
the difference in the pelvis, owing to characteristics required for the processes of childbirth.
The shape of a female pelvis is flatter, more rounded and proportionally larger to allow the
head of a fetus to pass. A male's pelvis is about 90 degrees or less of angle, whereas a female's
is 100 degrees or more. Also, the coccyx of a female's pelvis is oriented more inferiorly whereas
a male's coccyx is usually oriented more anteriorly. This difference allows more room for
childbirth. Males tend to have slightly thicker and longer limbs and digit bones (phalanges),
while females tend to have narrower rib cages, smaller teeth, less angular mandibles, less
pronounced cranial features such as the brow ridges and external occipital protuberance (the
small bump at the back of the skull), and the carrying angle of the forearm is more pronounced
in females. Females also tend to have more rounded shoulder blades.


Osteoporosis is a disease of bone, which leads to an increased risk of fracture. In osteoporosis,

the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the
amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. Osteoporosis is defined by
the World Health Organization (WHO) in women as a bone mineral density 2.5 standard
deviations below peak bone mass (20-year-old sex-matched healthy person average) as
measured by DXA; the term "established osteoporosis" includes the presence of a fragility
fracture.[6] Osteoporosis is most common in women after the menopause, when it is called
postmenopausal osteoporosis, but may develop in men and premenopausal women in the

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presence of particular hormonal disorders and other chronic diseases or as a result of smoking
and medications, specifically glucocorticoids, when the disease is craned steroid- or
glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (SIOP or GIOP).

Osteoporosis can be prevented with lifestyle advice and medication, and preventing falls in
people with known or suspected osteoporosis is an established way to prevent fractures.
Osteoporosis can also be prevented with having a good source of calcium and vitamin D.
Osteoporosis can be treated with bisphosphonates and various other medical treatments.

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Disease/ This disease is spread by Time between Symptoms
Infection ... exposure and

Campylobac Undercooked food (eg, 110 days, Stomach pain, fever and
ter chicken and meat); usually 25 diarrhoea.
food/water contaminated days
with faeces from infected
person or animal. Direct
spread from infected
person or animal.

Chickenpox Coughing and sneezing. 1021 days, Fever and spots with a blister
Also direct contact with usually 14 on top of each spot.
weeping blisters. 16 days

Conjunctiviti Direct contact with 12 hours12 Irritation and redness of eye.

s (viral or discharge from the eyes or days Sometimes there is a discharge.
bacterial) with items contaminated
by the discharge.

Cryptospori Food or water Cryptosporidiu Stomach pain and diarrhoea.

dium contaminated with faeces m112 days,
Giardia from infected person or average about 7
animal. Direct spread from days
infected person or animal. Giardia 325
days, usually
about 710

Gastroenter Food or water 13 days Vomiting, diarrhoea and fever.

itis (viral) contaminated with faeces
from infected person or
animal. Direct spread from
infected person.

Glandular Transfer of saliva. 46 weeks Sore throat, swollen glands in

fever the neck, fever. Vague ill health
for some time.

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Hand, foot Coughing or poor hand 35 days Fever, rash on soles and palms
and mouth washing. Direct spread and in mouth. Flu-like
disease from an infected person. symptoms.

Hepatitis A Food or water 1550 days, Nausea, stomach pains, general

contaminated with faeces usually 2830 sickness. Jaundice a few days
from infected person. days later.
Direct spread from
infected person.

Hepatitis B Close physical contact with 6 weeks6 Similar to Hepatitis A.

the blood or body fluids of months, usually
an infected person. 23 months

Impetigo Direct contact with Usually a few Scabby sores on exposed parts
(School discharge from infected days, variable of body.
sores) skin.

Influenza Coughing and sneezing and 14 days Sudden onset of fever with
direct contact with cough, sore throat, muscular
respiratory droplets. aches and headache.

Measles Coughing and sneezing. 718 days, Running nose and eyes, cough,
Also direct contact with usually 10 days fever and a rash.
the nose/throat secretions to onset and 14
of an infected person. days to rash

Meningitis Close physical contact such 210 days, Generally unwell, fever,
(Meningoco as kissing. Sleeping in the usually 34 headache, vomiting, sometimes
ccal) same room. days a rash. Urgent treatment is

Mumps Contact with infected 1225 days, Pain in jaw, then swelling in
saliva, eg, coughing, usually 1618 front of ear and fever.
sneezing, kissing and days
sharing food and drink.

Ringworm Contact with infected 1014 days Flat spreading ring-shaped

persons skin, clothes or lesions.
personal items. Also
through contaminated
floors and shower stalls.

Rubella Coughing and sneezing. 1423 days, Fever, swollen neck glands and
Also direct contact with usually 1618 a rash on the face, scalp and

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the nose/throat secretions days body. Rubella during early

of an infected person. pregnancy can cause
abnormalities in the baby.

Salmonella Undercooked food (eg, 672 hours, Stomach pain, nausea, fever
chicken and meat); usually 1236 and diarrhoea.
food/water contaminated hours
with faeces from infected
person or animal; direct
spread from infected
person or animal.

Scabies Direct skin contact with Daysweeks Itchy rash in places such as
the infected person, and forearm, around waist,
sharing sheets and clothes. between fingers and buttocks
and under armpits.

Slapped Coughing and sneezing. 420 days Red cheeks and lace-like rash
cheek The virus may be passed on body.
(Human from mother to child
parvovirus during pregnancy.

Streptococc Usually contact with the 13 days Headache, vomiting, sore

al sore secretions of a strep sore throat.
throat throat. Sometimes through
contaminated food.

Whooping Coughing. Adults and older 521 days, Running nose, persistent cough
cough children may pass on the usually 710 followed by whoop, vomiting
(Pertussis) infection to babies. days or breathlessness.

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Reproduction:- It is defined as a biological process in which an organism gives rise to young
ones similar to itself. There are two types of reproduction; 1) Sexual Reproduction 2) Asexual

Asexual Reproduction- When offspring is produced by a single parent with or without the
involvement of gamete formation, the reproduction is asexual. It is common among single-
celled organisms and in plants and animals with relatively simple organizations. In Protists and
Monerans, the organism or the parent cell divides into two to give rise to new individuals.

Sexual Reproduction- When two parents (opposite sex) participate in the reproductive process
and also involve fusion of male and female gametes, it is called sexual reproduction. All
organisms have to reach a certain stage of growth and maturity in their life, before they can
reproduce sexually. The period of growth is called the juvenile phase. It is known as vegetative
phase in plants.

The females of placental mammals exhibit cyclical changes in the activities of ovaries and
accessory ducts as well as hormones during the reproductive phase. In non-primate mammals
like cows, sheep, dogs such cyclical changes during reproduction are called oestrus cycle where
as in primates (Monkeys, apes and humans) it is called menstrual cycle.

Many mammals exhibit such cycles only during favourable seasons in their reproductive phase
and are therefore called seasonal breeders. Many other mammals are reproductively active
throughout their reproductive phase and therefore termed as continuous breeders.

Sexual Reproduction in other words is the fusion of gamets. This process is called syngamy or
fertilization which results in the formation of a diploid zygote. It is universal in all sexually
reproducing organisms. Fertilisation is either external or internal.

External fertilization: In most aquatic organisms, such as a majority of fishes and algae as well
as amphibians, fertilization occurs in the water, outside the body of organism.

Internal fertilization: Fertilisation occurs inside the body of the organism, hence the process is
called internal fertilization.

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Embryogenesis is the process which traces the development of embryo from the zygote. During
this process, Zygote undergoes cell division (mitosis) and cell differentiation. Cell differentiation
helps groups of cells to undergo certain modifications to form specialized tissues and organs to
form an organism.

Animals are further categorized into oviparous and viviparous. In oviparous animals like reptiles
and birds the development of zygote takes place outside the body of the female parent; where
they lay unfertilsed/fertilised eggs.

In viviparous animals (majority of mammals including humans) female parent gives birth to
young ones.

The term clone is used to describe such morphologically and genetically similar individuals.


Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: The pollen grains represent the male gametophytes
while the gynoecium represents the female reproductive part of the flower. It may have one
single pistil or may have more than one pistil. Each pistil has three parts;- The Stigma, style and
ovary. The stigma serves as a landing platform for pollen grains. The style is the elongated
slender part beneath the stigma. The basal bulged part of the pistil is the ovary.

Inside the ovary is the ovarian cavity. The placenta is located inside the ovarian cavity. Arising
from the placenta are the megasporangia, commonly called ovules. Each ovule has one or two
protective envelopes called integuments. Enclosed within the integuments is a mass of cells
called the nucellus. Located in the nucellus is the embryo sac or female gametophyte.

The process of formation of megaspores from the megaspore mother cell is called

In a majority of flowering plants, one of the megaspores is functional while the other three
degenerate. Only the functional megaspore develops into the female gametophyte (embryo

Pollination is the mechanism under which pollen grains is transferred to the stigma of a pistil.

Types of Pollination: Depending upon the source of pollen, pollination can be divided into three

Autogamy- In Autogamy, pollination is achieved within the same flower. Transfer of pollen
grains from the anther to the stigma of the same flower.

Geitonogamy-Transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of another flower of the
same plant.

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Xenogamy- Transfer of pollen grains from anther to the stigma of a different plant. This is the
only typed of pollination which brings genetically different types of pollen grains to the stigma
during pollination.

Agents of Pollination: plants use two abiotic (wind and water) and one biotic (animals) agents
to achieve pollination. Majority of plants use biotic agents for pollination. Only a small
proportion of plants use abiotic agents.

Majority of flowering plants use a range of animals as pollinating agents. Bees, butterflies, ants,
wasps and birds are the common pollinating agents.

The male reproductive system is composed of a pair of testes, the male reproductive system is
composed of a pair of testes, the male sex accessory ducts and the accessory glands and
external genitalia. Each testis has about 250 compartments called testicular lobules, and each
lobule contains one to three highly coiled seminiferous tubules. Each seminiferous tubule is
lined inside by spermatogonia and sertoli cells.

The female reproductive system consists of a pair of ovaries, a pair of oviducts, a uterus, a
vagina, external genitalia and a pair of mammary glands. The ovaries produce the female
gamete(ovum) and some steroid hormones(ovarian hormones). Ovarian follicles in different
stages of development are embedded in the stroma. The oviducts, uterus and vagina are
female accessory ducts. The uterus has three layers namely perimetrium, myometrium and
endometrium. The female external genitalia includes mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora,
hymen and clitoris.

Spermatogenesis results in the formation of sperms that are transported by the male sex
accessory ducts. A normal human sperm is composed of a head, neck, a middle piece and tail.
The process of formation of mature female gametes is called oogenesis.

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During copulation (coitus) semen is released by the penis into the vagina (insemination). The
motile sperms swim rapidly, pass through the cervix, enter into the uterus and finally reach the
junction of the isthmus and ampulla (ampullary-isthmic) of the fallopian tube. The ovum
released by the ovary is also transported to the ampullary-isthmic junction where fertilization
takes place. Fertilisation can only occur if the ovum and sperms are transported simultaneously
to the ampullary-isthmic junction.

The process of fusion of a sperm with an ovum is called fertlisation. During fertlisation, a sperm
comes in contact with the zona pellucid layer of the ovum and induces changes in the
membrane that block the entry of additional sperms. Thus, it ensures that only one sperm can
fertilise an ovum. The secretions of the acrosome help the sperm enter into the cytoplasm of
the ovum through the zona pellucid and the plasma membrane.

The reproductive cycle of female primates is called menstrual cycle which starts only after
attaining sexual maturation termed as puberty. During ovulation only one ovum is released per
menstrual cycle. After coitus, sperm fertilizes the ovum leading to formation of a diploid zygote.
The presence of X or Y chromosome in the sperm determines the sex of the embryo. The zygote
undergoes repeated mitotic division to form a blastocyst, which is implanted in the uterus
resulting in pregnancy. The average duration of human pregnancy is about 9 months which is
called the gestation period.

The structural and functional unit between developing embryo (foetus) and maternal body is
called placenta. The placenta facilitates the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the embryo and
also removal of carbon dioxide and excretory/ waste materials produced by the embryo.
Placenta also acts as an endocrine tissue and produces several hormones like human chorionic
gonadotropin(hCG), human placental lactogen(hPL), estrogens, progestogens, etc. In the later
phase of pregnancy, a hormone called relaxin is also secreted by the ovary. It should be noted
that hCG, hPL and relaxin are produced in women during pregnancy. In addition, during
pregnancy the levels of other hormones like estrogens, progestogens, cortisol, prolactin,
thyroxine are increased many-folds in the maternal blood. Increased production of these
hormones is essential for supporting the fetal growth, metabolic changes in the mother and
maintenance of pregnancy.

The process of childbirth is called parturition which is induced by a complex neuroendcrine

mechanism involving cortisol, estrogens and oxytocin.

The major female and male hormones can be classified as estrogens or androgens. Both classes
of male and female hormones are present in both males and females alike, but in vastly
different amounts. Most men produce 6-8 mg of the male hormone testosterone (an androgen)
per day, compared to most women who produce 0.5 mg daily. Female hormones, estrogens,
are also present in both sexes, but in larger amounts for women.

Estrogens are the sex hormones produced primarily by a female's ovaries that stimulate the
growth of a girl's sex organs, as well as her breasts and pubic hair, known as secondary sex
characteristics. Estrogens also regulate the functioning of the menstrual cycle.

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Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group and is found in mammals, reptiles,
birds, and other vertebrates. In mammals, testosterone is primarily secreted in the testicles of
males and the ovaries of females, although small amounts are also secreted by the adrenal
glands. It is the principal male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.

In men, testosterone plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as
the testis and prostate as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased
muscle, bone mass, and the growth of body hair. In addition, testosterone is essential for health
and well-being as well as the prevention of osteoporosis.

On average, in adult human males, the plasma concentration of testosterone is about 78 times
as great as the concentration in adult human females' plasma, but as the metabolic
consumption of testosterone in males is greater, the daily production is about 20 times greater
in men.


Besides natural methods of vegetative propagation, artificial modes of propagation are also
being used. Farmers, gardeners and horticulturists have adopted several such methods like
grafting, layering, cutting and tissue culture for propagating plants in gardens and nurseries.

In horticultural practices this method is commonly used. In this method the cutting of a plant
(scion) is attached to the stem of another rooted plant (stock). After some time the attached
cutting becomes an integrated part of the rooted plant. The scion and stock are placed in such a
way that no gap remains between them. Finally they become joined in such a way that their
vascular systems are united. Usually the scion is of a plant having desirable characters like large
sized fruits and the stock has good absorbing capacity. Because of the arrangement of their
vascular bundles, grafting experiments are successful only in divots and not in monocots. This
method is commonly applied to improve the variety of fruits like mango. Wax is used to cover
the place where grafting is being done. This is to avoid infection.

A bud is taken along with portion of bark from a plant and is used as scion in this process. A T-
shaped cut is made and the bud is fixed tightly on the stock with a tape. The bud gets attached
to the stock after some time and new branches are formed. Pears, peaches, plum, citrus, roses,
etc., are propagated by this method. This method is usually employed during spring.

In rose, sugar-cane, Coleus, Bougainvillea, etc., this method is used to produce new plants. In
this process stem cuttings with some nodes and internodes are placed in moist soil which gives

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rise to adventitious roots and a new plant subsequently. It is a very common method of
vegetative propagation. Farmers divide up the rhizomes, tubers or roots stocks at the end of
flowering or growing season. Each part grows into a separate plant in the following year. Some
plants like dahlia are propagated by root cuttings.

In some plants one or more branches are bent close to the ground and covered with moist soil.
After some time, the underground portion of those branches produce new roots and develop
into a separate plant as in jasmine, Rhododendron, Magnolia, etc. The stem or branch that
develops adventitious roots while still attached to the parent plant is called a layer. In many
plants, layering can also be induced artificially.

In mound layering the stem is pruned and the base of the plant is covered with soil. From the
base, new shoots develop, which are separated from the parent plant, ad grown into a new
plant. Many types of apples and gooseberries are grown using this method.

Air layering is another type of layering in which branches of the plants cannot be bent to the
ground. A piece of the branch is scraped (girdled) in this method and polythene or plastic sheet
is used as cover to preserve moisture. Roots arise from the scraped part after a few weeks. This
branch is then detached from the parent plant which grows into a new plant after plantation.

Layering differs from cutting in that the developments of adventitious buds are induced before
the stem is cut to form the new plant.

In this technique a small piece of tissue of a desired plant is cut. This is placed with a suitable
nutrient medium under proper conditions. The tissue grows into an unorganized mass, known
as callus. Small part of this tissue is put in another medium, which induces the formation of
plantlets. The plantlets can be transplanted in soil or pots foe developing to maturity. This
technique is also called micro propagation. This method is used in propagating plants like
Asparagus, orchids, Chrysanthemum. This method allows us to grow whole plant from cells
taken from various parts of the plant body.

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Air enters the nostrils
passes through the nasopharynx,
the oral pharynx
through the glottis
into the trachea
into the right and left bronchi, which branches and rebranches into
bronchioles, each of which terminates in a cluster of
Only in the alveoli does actual gas exchange takes place. There are some 300 million alveoli in
two adult lungs. These provide a surface area of some 160 m2 (almost equal to the singles area
of a tennis court and 80 times the area of our skin!).

In mammals, the diaphragm divides the body cavity into the

abdominal cavity, which contains the viscera (e.g., stomach and intestines) and the
thoracic cavity, which contains the heart and lungs.

The inner surface of the thoracic cavity and the outer surface of the lungs are lined with pleural
membranes which adhere to each other. If air is introduced between them, the adhesion is
broken and the natural elasticity of the lung causes it to collapse. This can occur from trauma.
And it is sometimes induced deliberately to allow the lung to rest. In either case, reinflation
occurs as the air is gradually absorbed by the tissues.

Because of this adhesion, any action that increases the volume of the thoracic cavity causes the
lungs to expand, drawing air into them.

During inspiration (inhaling),

o The external intercostal muscles contract, lifting the ribs up and out.
o The diaphragm contracts, drawing it down .
During expiration (exhaling), these processes are reversed and the natural elasticity
of the lungs returns them to their normal volume. At rest, we breath 1518 times a
minute exchanging about 500 ml of air.
In more vigorous expiration,
o The internal intercostal muscles draw the ribs down and inward
o The wall of the abdomen contracts pushing the stomach and liver upward.

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Under these conditions, an average adult male can flush his lungs with about 4 liters of air at
each breath. This is called the vital capacity. Even with maximum expiration, about 1200 ml of
residual air remain.

The table shows what happens to the composition of air when it reaches the alveoli. Some of
the oxygen dissolves in the film of moisture covering the epithelium of the alveoli. From here it
diffuses into the blood in a nearby capillary. It enters a red blood cell and combines with the
hemoglobin therein.

At the same time, some of the carbon dioxide in the blood diffuses into the alveoli from which
it can be exhaled.

The ease with which oxygen and carbon dioxide can pass between air and blood is clear from
this electron micrograph of two alveoli (Air) and an adjacent capillary from the lung of a
laboratory mouse. Note the thinness of the epithelial cells (EP) that line the alveoli and capillary
(except where the nucleus is located). At the closest point, the surface of the red blood cell is
only 0.7 m away from the air in the alveolus.


The rate of cellular respiration (and hence oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production)
varies with level of activity. Vigorous exercise can increase by 2025 times the demand of the
tissues for oxygen. This is met by increasing the rate and depth of breathing.

It is a rising concentration of carbon dioxide not a declining concentration of oxygen that

plays the major role in regulating the ventilation of the lungs. Certain cells in the medulla
oblongata are very sensitive to a drop in pH. As the CO2 content of the blood rises above
normal levels, the pH drops
[CO2 + H2O HCO3 + H+],
and the medulla oblongata responds by increasing the number and rate of nerve impulses that
control the action of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm. This produces an increase in the

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rate of lung ventilation, which quickly brings the CO2 concentration of the alveolar air, and then
of the blood, back to normal levels.

However, the carotid body in the carotid arteries does have receptors that respond to a drop in
oxygen. Their activation is important in situations (e.g., at high altitude in the unpressurized
cabin of an aircraft) where oxygen supply is inadequate but there has been no increase in the
production of CO2.

The smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchioles is very sensitive to the concentration of
carbon dioxide. A rising level of CO2 causes the bronchioles to dilate. This lowers the resistance
in the airways and thus increases the flow of air in and out.


Vital capacity is the maximum amount of air a person can expel from the lungs after a
maximum inhalation. It is equal to the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and
expiratory reserve volume.

A person's vital capacity can be measured by a wet or regular spirometer. In combination with
other physiological measurements, the vital capacity can help make a diagnosis of underlying
lung disease.

A normal adult has a vital capacity between 3 and 5 litres. A human's vital capacity depends on
age, sex, height, weight, and ethnicity.

Lung volumes and lung capacities refer to the volume of air associated with different phases of
the respiratory cycle. Lung volumes are directly measured, whereas lung capacities are inferred
from volumes. Below given is the list of lung diseases:-

Asthma: The airways are persistently inflamed, and may occasionally spasm, causing
wheezing and shortness of breath. Allergies, infections, or pollution can trigger asthma's
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Lung conditions defined by an inability
to exhale normally, which causes difficulty breathing.
Chronic bronchitis: A form of COPD characterized by a chronic productive cough.
Emphysema: Lung damage allows air to be trapped in the lungs in this form of COPD.
Difficulty blowing air out is its hallmark.
Acute bronchitis: A sudden infection of the airways, usually by a virus.
Cystic fibrosis: A genetic condition causing poor clearance of mucus from the bronchi.
The accumulated mucus results in repeated lung infections.
Pneumonia: An infection of the alveoli, usually by bacteria.

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Tuberculosis: A slowly progressive pneumonia caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium

Emphysema results from damage to the fragile connections between alveoli. Smoking is
the usual cause. (Emphysema also limits airflow, affecting the airways as well.)
Pulmonary edema: Fluid leaks out of the small blood vessels of the lung into the air sacs
and the surrounding area. One form is caused by heart failure and back pressure in the
lungs' blood vessels; in another form, direct injury to the lung causes the leak of fluid.
Lung cancer has many forms, and may develop in any part of the lungs. Most often this
is in the main part of the lung, in or near the air sacs. The type, location, and spread of
lung cancer determines the treatment options.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): Severe, sudden injury to the lungs caused
by a serious illness. Life support with mechanical ventilation is usually needed to survive
until the lungs recover.
Pneumoconiosis: A category of conditions caused by the inhalation of a substance that
injures the lungs. Examples include black lung disease from inhaled coal dust and
asbestosis from inhaled asbestos dust.
Interstitial lung disease (ILD): A broad collection of lung conditions affecting the
interstitium. Sarcoidosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and autoimmune disease are
among the many types of ILD.
Pneumonias and pulmonary edemas can also affect the interstitium.
Pulmonary embolism (PE): A blood clot (usually in a deep leg vein, deep vein
thrombosis) breaks off, travels to the heart, and is pumped into the lungs. The clot
lodges in a pulmonary artery, often causing shortness of breath and low blood oxygen
Pulmonary hypertension: Various conditions can lead to high blood pressure in the
pulmonary arteries. This can cause shortness of breath and chest pain. When no cause is
identified, the condition is called idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Pleural effusion: Fluid collects in the normally tiny pleura space between the lung and
the chest wall. Pneumonia or heart failure is usually responsible. If large, pleural
effusions can impair breathing, and should be drained.
Pneumothorax: Air may enter the space between the chest wall and the lung, collapsing
the lung. To remove the air, a tube is typically inserted through the chest wall.
Mesothelioma: A rare form of cancer that forms on the pleura. Mesothelioma tends to
emerge several decades after asbestos exposure.
Obesity hypoventilation syndrome: Extra weight on the chest and abdomen makes it
difficult for the chest to expand. Serious breathing problems can result.
Neuromuscular disorders: Poor function in the nerves controlling the respiratory
muscles causes difficulty breathing. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and myasthenia gravis
are examples of neuromuscular lung disease.

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Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in
the bonds of sugar. This process occurs in plants and some algae (Kingdom Protista). Plants
need only light energy, CO2, and H2O to make sugar. The process of photosynthesis takes place
in the chloroplasts, specifically using chlorophyll, the green pigment involved in

Photosynthesis takes place primarily in plant leaves, and little to none occurs in stems, etc. The
parts of a typical leaf include the upper and lower epidermis, the mesophyll, the vascular
bundle(s) (veins), and the stomates. The upper and lower epidermal cells do not have
chloroplasts, thus photosynthesis does not occur there. They serve primarily as protection for
the rest of the leaf. The stomates are holes which occur primarily in the lower epidermis and
are for air exchange: they let CO2 in and O2 out. The vascular bundles or veins in a leaf are part
of the plant's transportation system, moving water and nutrients around the plant as needed.
The mesophyll cells have chloroplasts and this is where photosynthesis occurs.

As you hopefully recall, the parts of a chloroplast include the outer and inner membranes,
intermembrane space, stroma, and thylakoids stacked in grana. The chlorophyll is built into
the membranes of the thylakoids.

Chlorophyll looks green because it absorbs red and blue light, making these colors unavailable
to be seen by our eyes. It is the green light which is NOT absorbed that finally reaches our
eyes, making chlorophyll appear green. However, it is the energy from the red and blue light
that are absorbed that is, thereby, able to be used to do photosynthesis. The green light we
can see is not/cannot be absorbed by the plant, and thus cannot be used to do photosynthesis.

The overall chemical reaction involved in photosynthesis is: 6CO 2 + 6H2O (+ light energy)
C6H12O6 + 6O2. This is the source of the O2 we breathe, and thus, a significant factor in the
concerns about deforestation.

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Cell can be best defined as the basic structural unit of an organ. The organisms made up of a
single cell are called unicellular. Examples-a) Amoeba b) Paramecium.

A single-celled organism performs all the necessary functions that multicellular organisms
perform. Organisms made up of more than one cell are called multicellular organisms.

The parts of cell are as following:-a) Membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus.

The cytoplasm and nucleus are enclosed within the cell membrane, also called the plasma
membrane. The membrane separates cells from one another and also the cell from the
surrounding medium. The plasma membrane is porous and allows the movement of
substances or materials both inward and outward.

Cytoplasm is the jelly-like substance present between the cell membrane and the nucleus.
Various other components or organelles of cells are present in the cytoplasm. These are
mitochondria, ribosomes etc.

Nucleus is an important component of the living cell. It is separated from the cytoplasm by a
membrane called the nuclear membrane. This membrane is also porous and allows the
movement of materials between the cytoplasm and the inside of nucleus.

Nucleus in addition to its role in inheritance acts as control centre of the activities of the cell.
Using a sophisticated microscope, we can see a smaller spherical body in the nucleus. It is
called the nucleolus. In addition, nucleus contains thread like structures called chromosomes.
These carry genes and help in inheritance or transfer of characters from the parents to the

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Mitosis is a process of cell duplication, or reproduction, during which one cell gives rise to two
genetically identical daughter cells.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a division of a germ cell involving two fissions of the nucleus and
giving rise to four gametes, or sex cells, each possessing half the number of chromosomes of
the original cell.

Mitosis is used by single celled organisms to reproduce; it is also used for the organic growth
of tissues, fibers, and mibranes. Meiosis is useful for sexual reproduction of organisms; The
male and female sex cells, e.g. the spermazoa and egg, fuse to create a new, singular biological

Meiosis Mitosis

Definition: A type of cellular A process of asexual

reproduction in which the reproduction in which the
number of chromosomes are cell divides in two
reduced by half through the producing a replica, with an
separation of homologous equal number of
chromosomes in a diploid cell. chromosomes in haploid

Function: sexual reproduction Cellular Reproduction &

general growth and repair
of the body

Type of Sexual Asexual


Occurs in: Humans, animals, plants, all organisms


Genetically: different identical

Crossing Over: Yes, mixing of chromosomes No, crossing over cannot

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can occur. occur.

Pairing of Yes No

Number of 2 1

Number of 4 2
Haploid Daughter
Cells produced:

Chromosome Reduced by half Remains the same


Steps: The steps of meiosis are The steps of mitosis are

Interphase, Prophase I, Interphase, Prophase,
Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Metaphase, Anaphase,
Telophase I, Prophase II, Telophase and Cytokinesis
Metaphase II, Anaphase II and
Telophase II.

Karyokenesis: Occurs in Interphase I Occurs in Interphase

Cytokenesis: Occurs in Telophase I & Occurs in Telophase

Telohpase II

Centromeres The centromeres do not The centromeres split

Split: separate during anaphase I, during Anaphase
but during anaphase II

Creates: Sex cells only: Female egg Makes everything other

cells or Male sperm cells than sex cells

Discovered by: Oscar Hertwig Walther Flemming

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Tissue can be categorized as a group of cells similar in structure and function. It can be
categorized under animal and plant tissues. Plant tissues are of two main types-meristematic
and permanent. Meristematic tissue is the dividing tissue present in the growing regions of the

Meristematic tissues are classified as apical, lateral and intercalary depending on the region
where they are present. Apical meristem is present at the growing tips of stems and roots and
increases the length of the stem and the root. The girth of the stem or root increases due to
lateral meristem (cambium). Intercalary meristem is the meristem at the base of the leaves or
internodes on twigs.

Permanent tissues are derived from meristematic tissue once they lose the ability to divide.
They are classified as simple and complex tissues. Parenchyma, collenchymas and sclerenchyma
are three types of simple tissues. Xylem and Phloem are types of complex tissues.

Animal tissues can be epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissue. Depending on shape
and function, epithelial tissue is classified as squamous, cubodial, columnar, ciliated and
glandular. The different types of connective tissues in our body include areolar tissue, adipose
tissue, bone, tendon, ligament, cartilage and blood. Striated, unstriated and cardiac are three
types of muscle tissues. Nervous tissue is made of neorons that receive and conduct impulses.

Sometimes a portion of the epithelial tissue folds inward and a multicellular gland is formed.
This is glandular epithelium. Two bones can be connected to each other by another type of
connective tissue called the ligament. This tissue is very elastic.

Muscular tissue consists of elongated cells are also called muscle fibres. This tissue is
responsible for movement in our body. Muscles contain special proteins called contractile
proteins, which contract and relax to cause movement.

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Sex determination in Humans: The sex determining mechanism in case of humans is XY type.
Out of 23 pairs of chromosomes present, 22 pairs are exactly same in both females and males;
these are the autosomes.

A pair of X chromosomes is present in the female, whereas the presence of an X and Y

chromosome are determinant of the male characteristic. During spermatogenesis among
males, two types of gametes are produced. Fifty percent of the total sperm produced carry the
X chromosome and the rest 50 percent has Y chromosome besides the autosomes.

Females however produce only one type of ovum with an X chromosome. There is an equal
probability of fertilization of the ovum with the sperm carrying either X or Y chromosome. In
case the ovum fertilizes with a sperm carrying X chromosome the zygote develops into a female
and the fertilization of ovum with Y chromosome carrying sperm results into a male offspring.

Sex Determination in Birds: In birds, a different mechanism of sex determination is observed. In

this case, the total number of chromosome is same in both males and females. But two
different types of gametes in terms of the sex chromosomes are produced by females. In order
to have a distinction with the mechanism of sex determination described earlier, the two
different sex chromosomes of a female bird has been designated to be the Z and W
chromosomes. In these organisms the females have one Z and one W chromosome, whereas
males have a pair of Z-chromosomes besides the autosomes.

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Antigen- It is the toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the
body, especially the production of antibodies. In immunology, an antigen is a substance that
evokes the production of one or more antibodies.

An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large Y-shaped protein produced
by B-cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as
bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes a unique part of the foreign target, called an
antigen. Antibodies are secreted by a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Antibodies
can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell, and a membrane-
bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B cell receptor
(BCR). The BCR is only found on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells
and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells, or
memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can
respond faster upon future exposure. In most cases, interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell
is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody generation
following antigen binding. Soluble antibodies are released into the blood and tissue fluids, as
well as many secretions to continue to survey for invading microorganisms.

Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily; the terms antibody
and immunoglobulin are often used interchangeably.

An antigen is a substance that evokes the production of one or more antibodies. Each antibody
binds to a specific antigen by way of an interaction similar to the fit between a lock and a key.
The substance may be from the external environment or formed within the body. The immune
system will try to destroy or neutralize any antigen that is recognized as a foreign and
potentially harmful invader. The term originally came from antibody generator and was a
molecule that binds specifically to an antibody, but the term now also refers to any molecule or
molecular fragment that can be bound by a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and
presented to a T-cell receptor. "Self" antigens are usually tolerated by the immune system,
whereas "non-self" antigens can be identified as invaders and can be attacked by the immune

An immunogen is a specific type of antigen. An immunogen is a substance that is able to

provoke an adaptive immune response if injected on its own. An immunogen is able to induce
an immune response, whereas an antigen is able to combine with the products of an immune
response once they are made. Hapten is a small molecule that cannot induce an immune
response by itself. It needs to be attached to a large carrier molecule such as protein. The
overlapping concepts of immunogenicity and antigenicity are, therefore, subtly different.
According to a current textbook:

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Immunogenicity is the ability to induce a humoral and/or cell-mediated immune response

Antigenicity is the ability to combine specifically with the final products of the immune response
(i.e. secreted antibodies and/or surface receptors on T-cells). Although all molecules that have
the property of immunogenicity also have the property of antigenicity, the reverse is not true.

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are monospecific antibodies that are the same because
they are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell, in contrast
to polyclonal antibodies which are made from several different immune cells. Monoclonal
antibodies have monovalent affinity, in that they bind to the same epitope.

Given almost any substance, it is possible to produce monoclonal antibodies that specifically
bind to that substance; they can then serve to detect or purify that substance. This has become
an important tool in biochemistry, molecular biology and medicine.

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Red blood cell compatibility chart

In addition to donating to the same blood group; type O blood donors can give to A, B and AB;
blood donors of types A and B can give to AB

Red Blood cell Compatibility Table


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In addition to the blood group (A, B, O, AB), the Rh factor is written as either positive (Rh+
present) or negative (Rh-, absent). Most people (about 85%) are Rh positive (Rh+), meaning
that they have the factor. About 15% of the population does not have the Rh factor, they are
Rh-. This factor does not affect your health except during pregnancy.

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The Universe is commonly defined as the totality of existence, including planets, stars,
galaxies, the contents of intergalactic space, and all matter and energy. Definitions and usage
vary and similar terms include the cosmos, the world and nature.

The most widely accepted cosmological model is that of the Big Bang. This was proven since
the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation or CMBR. The Universe was
infinitely hot at birth, cooling down as it expanded. Todays Universe is found to have an
average temperature of only 2.725 Kelvin.

Observations made especially on galaxies farthest from us show that the Universe is expanding
at an accelerated rate. The data that show that the Universe is cooling allows us to believe that
the most probable ending for our universe is that of a Big Freeze.

The Universe is 13.7 billion years old. The information is based on measurements made on the

The matter is spread uniformly (homogeneously) throughout the universe, when averaged over
distances longer than 300 million light-years. However, on smaller length-scales, matter is
observed to form clumps, i.e., to cluster hierarchically; many atoms are condensed into stars,
most stars into galaxies, most galaxies into clusters, super clusters and, finally, the largest-scale
structures such as the Great Wall of galaxies. The observable matter of the Universe is also
spread isotropically, meaning that no direction of observation seems different from any other;
each region of the sky has roughly the same content.

The Universe mainly consists of Galaxies, Stars, Solar System, Comets, Meteors and Asteroids. A
galaxy is a collection of stars, dust and gas. All these materials bound together gravitationally to
form a galaxy. Gas and dust found in galaxy in between the stars. It is called interstellar gas,
which is mainly hydrogen in its atomic form (H) and to some extent, in molecular form (H 2).

Gases form an important constituent of Galaxy. Gas in Galaxy is both in neutral and iconic form.
In neutral atomic form, interstellar gas is mainly hydrogen. In ionic form, some other elements
like oxygen, carbon, helium, iron, neon, sulphur and some other elements are present along
with ionic hydrogen.

Dust- Another constituent of galaxy is dust. Dust can be in small or large particle sizes.

Stars are the third and final constituents of galaxies.Number of stars in a galaxy range from 10
million to more than a trillion.

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A star is a huge, shining ball that produces a large amount of energy in form of light and other
forms. Stars are very far from us, thats why they look like twinkling points of light. Our sun is
also a star. A lot of stars are like our sun. Some differ in mass, size, brightness and temperature.

The nearest star to the Earth is Sun. It is nearly 150000000 kilometers away from the Earth. The
next nearest star is Alpha Centauri. It is at a distance of about 40000000000000 km from the

The stars forming a group that have a recognizable shape is called a Constellation. For example,
one can see Ursa Major during summer time in the early part of the night. It is also known as
the Big Dipper, the Great Bear or the Saptarshi. Another well known constellation, Orion can be
seen during winter in the late evenings. It is also called the Hunter. Cassiopeia is another
prominent constellation in the northern sky. It is visible during winter in the early part of the
night. It looks like a distorted letter W or M.

Stars come in many sizes. Some of the stars have a radius of about 1,000 times that of the sun.
The smallest stars are the neutron stars, some of which have a radius of only about 6 miles (10
kilometers). About 75 percent of all stars are members of a binary system, a pair of closely
spaced stars that orbit each other. The sun is not a member of a binary system. However, its
nearest known stellar neighbor, Proxima Centauri, is part of a multiple-star system that also
includes Alpha Centauri A and Alpha Centauri B. Proxima Centauri is 4.2 light years far form sun.

Stars are grouped in huge structures called galaxies. Telescopes have revealed galaxies
throughout the universe at distances of 12 billion to 16 billion light-years. Our sun is in a galaxy
called the Milky Way that contains more than 100 billion stars. There are more than 100 billion
galaxies in the universe, and the average number of stars per galaxy may be 100 billion.

Stars have life cycles. They born, pass through several phases, and finally die. The sun was born
about 4.6 billion years ago and will remain much as it is for another 5 billion years. Then it will
grow to become a red giant. Late in the sun's lifetime, it will cast off its outer layers. The
remaining core, called a white dwarf, will slowly fade to become a black dwarf.

Other stars will end their lives in different ways. Some will not go through a red giant stage.
Instead, they will merely cool to become white dwarfs, then black dwarfs. A small percentage of
stars will die in spectacular explosions called supernovae.

Brightness of star seen from Earth depends on two factors:

The amount of light energy the star emits.

The distance from Earth to the star.

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These characteristics are related to one another in a complex way. Color depends on surface
temperature, and brightness depends on surface temperature and size. Mass affects the rate at
which a star of a given size produces energy and so affects surface temperature.


The surface temperature of a star is determined by the rate of energy production at the core
and the radius of the star and is often estimated from the star's color index. It is normally given
as the effective temperature, which is the temperature of an idealized black body that radiates
its energy at the same luminosity per surface area as the star. The temperature in the core
region of a star is several million kelvins. The stellar temperature determines the rate of
energization or ionization of different elements, resulting in characteristic absorption lines in
the spectrum. The surface temperature of a star, along with its visual absolute magnitude and
absorption features, is used to classify a star.

Massive main sequence stars can have surface temperatures of 50,000 K. Smaller stars such as
the Sun have surface temperatures of a few thousand K. Red giants have relatively low surface
temperatures of about 3,600 K, but they also have a high luminosity due to their large exterior
surface area.


Color of star is the color of light the star is emitting. A star can appear red, if it emits light more
towards red part of visible band of electromagnetic spectrum, and can appear blue if it emits
light more towards blue part of visible spectrum. Our sun emits light equally among all
wavelengths of visible spectrum. That is why our sun appears white to us.

Color of the star depends on its surface temperature.

Asteroids are small rocky bodies that orbit the sun in a belt (Kuiper belt) between orbits of Mars
and Jupiter. Not all the asteroids orbit in Kuiper belt. Some are between orbit of Jupiter and
some are beyond the orbit of Saturn. More than 100000 asteroids have been found with well
charted orbits, out of which 2000 follow the orbits that lead them into inner and outer solar
system. Earth has been struck many times by an asteroid.


A meteor is a bright streak of light that appears briefly in the sky. Meteors are often called
shooting stars or falling stars because they look like stars falling from the sky. Brightest meteors
are sometimes called fireballs. A meteor appears when a particle or chunk of metallic or stony
matter called a meteoroid enters the earth's atmosphere from outer space. Air friction heats
the meteoroid so that it glows and creates a shining trail of gases and melted meteoroid

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particles. The gases include vaporized meteoroid material and atmospheric gases that heat up
when the meteoroid passes through the atmosphere. Most meteors glow for about a second.

Most meteoroids disintegrate before reaching the earth. But some leave a trail that lasts
several minutes. Meteoroids that reach the earth are called meteorites.


Comets revolve around the Sun in highly elliptical orbits. However, their period of revolution
round the Sun is usually very long. A Comet appears generally as a bright head with a long tail.
The length of the tail grows in size as it approaches the Sun. The tail of a comet is always
directed away from the Sun.

Many comets are known to appear periodically. One such comet is Halleys Comet, which
appears after nearly every 86 years.


The Sun and the celestial bodies which revolve around it form the solar system. It consists of
large number of bodies such as planets, comets, asteroids and meteors. The gravitational
attraction between the Sun and these objects keeps them revolving around it. The earth is
planet and a member of the solar system. There are seven other planets that revolve around
the Sun. The eight planets in their order of distance from the Sun are Mercury, Venus, Earth,
Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

Till 2006 there were nine planets in the solar system. Pluto was the farthest planet from the
Sun. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) adopted a new definition of a planet.
Pluto does not fit this definition. It is no longer a planet of the Solar System.

A planet has a definite path in which it revolves around the Sun. This path is called an Orbit.


The planet Mercury is nearest to the Sun. It is the smallest planet of our solar system. Mercury
has no satellite of its own.


Venus is earths nearest planetary neighbor. It is the brightest planet in the night sky.
Sometimes it appears in the eastern sky before sunrise. Sometimes it appears in the western
sky just after Sunset. Therefore, it is called a morning or an evening star. Venus has no moon or
satellite of its own. It rotates from east to west while the Earth rotates from west to east.

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The Earth is the only planet in the solar system on which life is known to exist. Some special
environmental conditions are responsible for the existence and continuation of life on the
Earth. From space, the Earth appears blue-green due to the reflection of light from water and
landmass on its surface. The axis of rotation of the Earth is not perpendicular to the plane of its
orbit. The tilt is responsible for the change of seasons on the Earth. The Earth has only one


The next planet, the first outside the orbit of the Earth is Mars. It appears slightly reddish and
therefore it is also called the red planet. Mars has two small natural satellites.


Jupiter is the largest planet of the solar system. It is so large that about 1300 earths can be
placed inside this giant planet. But, the mass of Jupiter is about 318 times that of our Earth.


Beyond Jupiter is Saturn which appears yellowish in colour. It is the least dense among all the
planets. Its density is less than that of water.

Its beautiful rings make it unique in the solar system.


These are the outermost planets of the solar system. Like Venus, Uranus also rotates from east
to west. The most remarkable feature of Uranus is that it has highly tilted rotational axis.


Is a region of spacetime from which gravity prevents anything, including light, from escaping.
The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass will deform spacetime
to form a black hole. Around a black hole there is a mathematically defined surface called an
event horizon that marks the point of no return. It is called "black" because it absorbs all the
light that hits the horizon, reflecting nothing, just like a perfect black body in thermodynamics.
Quantum field theory in curved spacetime predicts that event horizons emit radiation like a
black body with a finite temperature. This temperature is inversely proportional to the mass of
the black hole, making it difficult to observe this radiation for black holes of stellar mass or

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Black holes of stellar mass are expected to form when very massive stars collapse at the end of
their life cycle. After a black hole has formed it can continue to grow by absorbing mass from its
surroundings. By absorbing other stars and merging with other black holes, supermassive black
holes of millions of solar masses may form. There is general consensus that supermassive black
holes exist in the centers of most galaxies.

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A stream of electrons moving through a conductor constitutes an electric current.

Conventionally, the direction of current is taken opposite to the direction of flow of electrons.
The SI unit of electric current is ampere. Resistance is a property that resists the flow of
electrons in a conductor. It controls the magnitude of the current. The SI unit of resistance is


The potential difference across the ends of a resistor is directly proportional to the current
through it, provided its temperature remains the same.

The resistance of a conductor depends directly on its length, inversely on its area of cross
section, and also on the material of the conductor. The equivalent resistance of several
resistors in series is equal to the sum of their individual resistances.

A set of resistors connected in parallel has an equivalent resistance Rp given by


The electrical energy dissipated in a resistor is given by

W= VxIxt

The unit of power is watt (W). One watt of power is consumed when 1A of current flows at a
potential difference of 1 V. The commercial unit of electrical energy is kilowatt hour(kWh).

1kWh= 3600000 J=3.6x106 J.


Is a class of physical phenomena that includes forces exerted by magnets on other magnets. It
has its origin in electric currents and the fundamental magnetic moments of elementary
particles. These give rise to a magnetic field that acts on other currents and moments. All
materials are influenced to some extent by a magnetic field.

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A magnetic field exists in the region surrounding a magnet, in which the force of the magnet
can be detected.

A compass needle is a small magnet. Its one end, which points towards north, is called a north
pole, and the other end which points towards south is called a south pole.

Field lines are used to represent a magnetic field. A field line is the path along which a
hypothetical free north pole would tend to move. The direction of the magnetic field at a point
is given by the direction that a north pole placed at that point would take. Field lines are shown
closer together where the magnetic field is greater. A metallic wire carrying an electric current
has associated with it a magnetic field. The field lines about the wire consist of a series of
concentric circles whose direction is given by the right hand rule.

The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction is the production of induced current in a coil

placed in a region where the magnetic field changes with time.

The pattern of the magnetic field consists of a core of soft iron wrapped around with a coil of
insulated copper wire.

Diamagnetism appears in all materials, and is the tendency of a material to oppose an applied
magnetic field, and therefore, to be repelled by a magnetic field. However, in a material with
paramagnetic properties (that is, with a tendency to enhance an external magnetic field), the
paramagnetic behavior dominates. Thus, despite its universal occurrence, diamagnetic behavior
is observed only in a purely diamagnetic material. In a diamagnetic material, there are no
unpaired electrons, so the intrinsic electron magnetic moments cannot produce any bulk effect.
In these cases, the magnetization arises from the electrons' orbital motions, which can be
understood classically as follows:

When a material is put in a magnetic field, the electrons circling the nucleus will experience, in
addition to their Coulomb attraction to the nucleus, a Lorentz force from the magnetic field.
Depending on which direction the electron is orbiting, this force may increase the centripetal
force on the electrons, pulling them in towards the nucleus, or it may decrease the force,
pulling them away from the nucleus. This effect systematically increases the orbital magnetic
moments that were aligned opposite the field, and decreases the ones aligned parallel to the
field (in accordance with Lenz's law). This results in a small bulk magnetic moment, with an
opposite direction to the applied field.

Note that all materials undergo this orbital response. However, in paramagnetic and
ferromagnetic substances, the diamagnetic effect is overwhelmed by the much stronger effects
caused by the unpaired electrons.


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In a paramagnetic material there are unpaired electrons, i.e. atomic or molecular orbitals with
exactly one electron in them. While paired electrons are required by the Pauli exclusion
principle to have their intrinsic ('spin') magnetic moments pointing in opposite directions,
causing their magnetic fields to cancel out, an unpaired electron is free to align its magnetic
moment in any direction. When an external magnetic field is applied, these magnetic moments
will tend to align themselves in the same direction as the applied field, thus reinforcing it.

A ferromagnet, like a paramagnetic substance, has unpaired electrons. However, in addition to
the electrons' intrinsic magnetic moment's tendency to be parallel to an applied field, there is
also in these materials a tendency for these magnetic moments to orient parallel to each other
to maintain a lowered-energy state. Thus, even when the applied field is removed, the
electrons in the material maintain a parallel orientation.

Every ferromagnetic substance has its own individual temperature, called the Curie
temperature, or Curie point, above which it loses its ferromagnetic properties. This is because
the thermal tendency to disorder overwhelms the energy-lowering due to ferromagnetic order.

Some well-known ferromagnetic materials that exhibit easily detectable magnetic properties
(to form magnets) are nickel, iron, cobalt, gadolinium and their alloys.

Ferrimagnetic ordering

Like ferromagnetism, ferrimagnets retain their magnetization in the absence of a field.

However, like antiferromagnets, neighboring pairs of electron spins like to point in opposite
directions. These two properties are not contradictory, because in the optimal geometrical
arrangement, there is more magnetic moment from the sublattice of electrons that point in one
direction, than from the sublattice that point in the opposite direction.

Most ferrites are ferrimagnetic. The first discovered magnetic substance, magnetite, is a ferrite
and was originally believed to be a ferromagnet; Louis Nel disproved this, however, after
discovering ferrimagnetism.


When a ferromagnet or ferrimagnet is sufficiently small, it acts like a single magnetic spin that is
subject to Brownian motion. Its response to a magnetic field is qualitatively similar to the
response of a paramagnet, but much larger.


An electromagnet is a type of magnet whose magnetism is produced by the flow of electric

current. The magnetic field disappears when the current ceases.

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Electromagnet attracts paper a clip when current is applied creating a magnetic field. The
electromagnet loses them when current and magnetic field are removed.

Other types of magnetism

Molecular magnet
Molecule-based magnet
Spin glass


A very common source of magnetic field shown in nature is a dipole, with a "South pole" and a
"North pole", terms dating back to the use of magnets as compasses, interacting with the
Earth's magnetic field to indicate North and South on the globe. Since opposite ends of magnets
are attracted, the north pole of a magnet is attracted to the south pole of another magnet. The
Earth's North Magnetic Pole (currently in the Arctic Ocean, north of Canada) is physically a
south pole, as it attracts the north pole of a compass.

A magnetic field contains energy, and physical systems move toward configurations with lower
energy. When diamagnetic material is placed in a magnetic field, a magnetic dipole tends to
align itself in opposed polarity to that field, thereby lowering the net field strength. When
ferromagnetic material is placed within a magnetic field, the magnetic dipoles align to the
applied field, thus expanding the domain walls of the magnetic domains.


Since a bar magnet gets its ferromagnetism from electrons distributed evenly throughout the
bar, when a bar magnet is cut in half, each of the resulting pieces is a smaller bar magnet. Even
though a magnet is said to have a north pole and a south pole, these two poles cannot be
separated from each other. A monopole if such a thing exists would be a new and
fundamentally different kind of magnetic object. It would act as an isolated north pole, not
attached to a south pole, or vice versa. Monopoles would carry "magnetic charge" analogous to
electric charge. Despite systematic searches since 1931, as of 2010, they have never been
observed, and could very well not exist.

Nevertheless, some theoretical physics models predict the existence of these magnetic
monopoles. Paul Dirac observed in 1931 that, because electricity and magnetism show a certain
symmetry, just as quantum theory predicts that individual positive or negative electric charges
can be observed without the opposing charge, isolated South or North magnetic poles should
be observable. Using quantum theory Dirac showed that if magnetic monopoles exist, then one
could explain the quantization of electric charge---that is, why the observed elementary
particles carry charges that are multiples of the charge of the electron.

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Certain grand unified theories predict the existence of monopoles which, unlike elementary
particles, are solitons (localized energy packets). The initial results of using these models to
estimate the number of monopoles created in the big bang contradicted cosmological
observations the monopoles would have been so plentiful and massive that they would have
long since halted the expansion of the universe. However, the idea of inflation (for which this
problem served as a partial motivation) was successful in solving this problem, creating models
in which monopoles existed but were rare enough to be consistent with current observations.

Some organisms can detect magnetic fields, a phenomenon known as magnetoception.
Magnetobiology studies magnetic fields as a medical treatment; fields naturally produced by an
organism are known as biomagnetism.

Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies the constituents and interactions of atomic
nuclei. The most commonly known applications of nuclear physics are nuclear power
generation and nuclear weapons technology, but the research has provided application in many
fields, including those in nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging, ion implantation in
materials engineering, and radiocarbon dating in geology and archaeology.

The field of particle physics evolved out of nuclear physics and is typically taught in close
association with nuclear physics.


In nuclear fusion, two low mass nuclei come into very close contact with each other, so that the
strong force fuses them. It requires a large amount of energy to overcome the repulsion
between the nuclei for the strong or nuclear forces to produce this effect, therefore nuclear
fusion can only take place at very high temperatures or high pressures. Once the process
succeeds, a very large amount of energy is released and the combined nucleus assumes a lower
energy level. The binding energy per nucleon increases with mass number up until nickel-62.
Stars like the Sun are powered by the fusion of four protons into a helium nucleus, two
positrons, and two neutrinos. The uncontrolled fusion of hydrogen into helium is known as
thermonuclear runaway. A frontier in current research at various institutions, for example the
Joint European Torus (JET) and ITER, is the development of an economically viable method of
using energy from a controlled fusion reaction. Natural nuclear fusion is the origin of the light
and energy produced by the core of all stars including our own sun.

Nuclear fission

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Nuclear fission is the reverse process of fusion. For nuclei heavier than nickel-62 the binding
energy per nucleon decreases with the mass number. It is therefore possible for energy to be
released if a heavy nucleus breaks apart into two lighter ones.

The process of alpha decay is in essence a special type of spontaneous nuclear fission. This
process produces a highly asymmetrical fission because the four particles which make up the
alpha particle are especially tightly bound to each other, making production of this nucleus in
fission particularly likely.

For certain of the heaviest nuclei which produce neutrons on fission, and which also easily
absorb neutrons to initiate fission, a self-igniting type of neutron-initiated fission can be
obtained, in a so-called chain reaction. Chain reactions were known in chemistry before
physics, and in fact many familiar processes like fires and chemical explosions are chemical
chain reactions. The fission or "nuclear" chain-reaction, using fission-produced neutrons, is the
source of energy for nuclear power plants and fission type nuclear bombs, such as those
detonated by the United States in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, at the end of World War II.
Heavy nuclei such as uranium and thorium may also undergo spontaneous fission, but they are
much more likely to undergo decay by alpha decay.

For a neutron-initiated chain-reaction to occur, there must be a critical mass of the element
present in a certain space under certain conditions. The conditions for the smallest critical
mass require the conservation of the emitted neutrons and also their slowing or moderation
so there is a greater cross-section or probabability of them initiating another fission. In two
regions of Oklo, Gabon, Africa, natural nuclear fission reactors were active over 1.5 billion
years ago. Measurements of natural neutrino emission have demonstrated that around half of
the heat emanating from the Earth's core results from radioactive decay. However, it is not
known if any of this results from fission chain-reactions.

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Sound is produced by vibrating objects. In human beings, the vibration of the vocal cords
produces sound. Sound travels through a medium (gas, liquid or solid). It cannot travel in


The Doppler effect (or Doppler shift), named after the Austrian physicist Christian Doppler,
who proposed it in 1842 in Prague, is the change in frequency of a wave (or other periodic
event) for an observer moving relative to its source. It is commonly heard when a vehicle
sounding a siren or horn approaches, passes, and recedes from an observer. The received
frequency is higher (compared to the emitted frequency) during the approach, it is identical at
the instant of passing by, and it is lower during the recession.

A sonic boom is the sound associated with the shock waves created by an object traveling
through the air faster than the speed of sound. Sonic booms generate enormous amounts of
sound energy, sounding much like an explosion. The crack of a supersonic bullet passing
overhead is an example of a sonic boom in miniature.

Dolby NR is the name given to a series of noise reduction systems developed by Dolby
Laboratories for use in analog magnetic tape recording. The first was Dolby A, a professional
broadband noise reduction for recording studios in 1966, but the best-known is Dolby B
(introduced 1968), a sliding band system for the consumer market, which helped make high
fidelity practical on cassette tapes, and is common on stereo tape players and recorders to the
present day. Of the noise reduction systems, Dolby A and Dolby SR were developed for
professional use.

Echo: In audio signal processing and acoustics, an echo (plural echoes) is a reflection of sound,
arriving at the listener some time after the direct sound. Typical examples are the echo
produced by the bottom of a well, by a building, or by the walls of an enclosed room and an
empty room. A true echo is a single reflection of the sound source. The time delay is the extra
distance divided by the speed of sound.

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Resonance: Resonance is the tendency of a system to oscillate with greater amplitude at some
frequencies than at others. Frequencies at which the response amplitude is a relative
maximum are known as the system's resonant frequencies, or resonance frequencies.

Resonance phenomena occur with all types of vibrations or waves: there is mechanical
resonance, acoustic resonance, electromagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance
(NMR), electron spin resonance (ESR) and resonance of quantum wave functions.

One familiar example is a playground swing, which acts as a pendulum. Pushing a person in a
swing in time with the natural interval of the swing (its resonant frequency) will make the
swing go higher and higher (maximum amplitude), while attempts to push the swing at a faster
or slower tempo will result in smaller arcs. This is because the energy the swing absorbs is
maximized when the pushes are 'in phase' with the swing's natural oscillations, while some of
the swing's energy is actually extracted by the opposing force of the pushes when they are not.

Resonance occurs widely in nature, and is exploited in many man-made devices. It is the
mechanism by which virtually all sinusoidal waves and vibrations are generated. Many sounds
we hear, such as when hard objects of metal, glass, or wood are struck, are caused by brief
resonant vibrations in the object. Light and other short wavelength electromagnetic radiation
is produced by resonance on an atomic scale, such as electrons in atoms. Other examples are:

Mechanical and acoustic resonance

the timekeeping mechanisms of modern clocks and watches, e.g. the balance wheel in a
mechanical watch and the quartz crystal in a quartz watch
the tidal resonance of the Bay of Fundy
acoustic resonances of musical instruments and human vocal cords
the shattering of a crystal wineglass when exposed to a musical tone of the right pitch
(its resonant frequency)


electrical resonance of tuned circuits in radios and TVs that allow radio frequencies to
be selectively received
Optical resonance

creation of coherent light by optical resonance in a laser cavity

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Rainbow-A Rainbow is an optical and meteorological phenomenon that is caused by reflection

of light in water droplets in the Earth's atmosphere, resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in
the sky. It takes the form of a multicolored arc.


LASER-Laser is the abbreviation of Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation.

It is a device that creates a narrow and low-divergent beam of coherent light, while most other
light sources emit incoherent light, which has a phase that varies randomly with time and
position. Most lasers emit nearly "monochromatic" light with a narrow wavelength spectrum.

The principle of a laser is based on three separate features: a) stimulated emission within an
amplifying medium, b) population inversion of electronics and c) an optical resonator.

Spontaneous Emission and Stimulated Emission

According to the quantum mechanics, an electron within an atom or lattice can have only
certain values of energy, or energy levels. There are many energy levels that an electron can
occupy, but here we will only consider two. If an electron is in the excited state with the energy
E2 it may spontaneously decay to the ground state, with energy E1, releasing the difference in
energy between the two states as a photon. This process is called spontaneous emission,
producing fluorescent light. The phase and direction of the photon in spontaneous emission are
completely random due to Uncertainty Principle.

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Concave lens is the one whose curved surface is bent inside. It diverges the rays from the
principal axis. It generally forms virtual and erect image i.e. image on the same side of the
object. This image can't be taken on the screen. Convex lens is the one whose curved surface is
bulged out. Simplest example is dewdrop on a leaf. It generally gives real and inverted image
and has a capacity to magnify the image.

Convex lens:

Concave lens:


1. Both concave and convex lenses are used in glasses

2. A microscope, like a reflecting telescope, uses a concave mirror

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3. A plane mirror, and a convex lens

4. A refracting telescope uses two convex lenses to magnify images in the sky
5. Binoculars use concave lenses to improve detail.
6. Convex mirrors are often found on the passenger sides of motor vehicles. These mirrors
make objects appear smaller than they really are. Due to this compression, these
mirrors to reflect a wider image area, or field of vision.
7. Convex mirrors are often placed near ATMs to allow bank customers to see if someone
is behind them. This is a security measure that helps keep ATM users safe from robbery
of any cash withdrawals and helps keep ATM users' identity more secure.
8. Two convex mirrors placed back to back are used to make a magnifying glass.
9. Concave mirrors are used in vehicle headlights to focus the light from the headlight. The
light is not as diffused and the driver can see better at night.
10. Concave mirrors are used to focus light for heating purposes.

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Pressure cooking is the process of cooking food, using water or other cooking liquid, in a
sealed vessel known as a pressure cooker, which does not permit air or liquids to escape
below a pre-set pressure. Pressure cookers are used for cooking food quicker than
conventional cooking methods, which also saves energy.

Pressure cookers heat food quickly because the internal steam pressure from the boiling liquid
causes saturated steam (or "wet steam") to bombard and permeate the food.Thus, higher
temperature water vapour (i.e., increased energy), which transfers heat more rapidly
compared to dry air, cooks food very quickly.

Pressure cooking allows food to be cooked with greater humidity and higher temperatures
than possible with conventional boiling or steaming methods. In an ordinary non-pressurised
cooking vessel, the boiling point of water is 100 C (212 F) at standard pressure; the
temperature of food is limited by the boiling point of water because excess heat causes boiling
water to vaporize into steam. In a sealed pressure cooker, the boiling point of water increases
as the pressure rises, resulting in superheated water. At a pressure of 15 psi (103 kPa) above
atmospheric pressure, water in a pressure cooker can reach a temperature of up to 121 C
(250 F).

Some foods are not recommended for pressure cooking in liquid. Such foods could expand too
much, froth, and sputter, which can result in blocking the steam vent. Examples include
macaroni, cranberries, and cereals such as oatmeal.


DTH stands for Direct-To-Home. DTH is defined as the reception of satellite programmes with a
personal dish in an individual home.

DTH does away with the need for the local cable operator and puts the broadcaster directly in
touch with the consumer. Only cable operators can receive satellite programmes and they then
distribute them to individual homes.

A DTH network consists of a broadcasting centre, satellites, encoders, multiplexers, modulators

and DTH receivers.

A DTH service provider has to lease Ku-band transponders from the satellite. The encoder
converts the audio, video and data signals into the digital format and the multiplexer mixes
these signals. At the user end, there will be a small dish antenna and set-top boxes to decode
and view numerous channels. On the user's end, receiving dishes can be as small as 45 cm in

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The way DTH reaches a consumer's home is different from the way cable TV does. In DTH, TV
channels would be transmitted from the satellite to a small dish antenna mounted on the
window or rooftop of the subscriber's home. So the broadcaster directly connects to the user.
The middlemen like local cable operators are not there in the picture.

DTH can also reach the remotest of areas since it does away with the intermediate step of a
cable operator and the wires (cables) that come from the cable operator to your house. As we
explained above, in DTH signals directly come from the satellite to your DTH dish.

Also, with DTH, a user can scan nearly 700 channels!

Radar is an object detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude,
direction, or speed of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided
missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish or antenna transmits
pulses of radio waves or microwaves which bounce off any object in their path. The object
returns a tiny part of the wave's energy to a dish or antenna which is usually located at the
same site as the transmitter.

Radar was secretly developed by several nations before and during World War II. The term
RADAR was coined in 1940 by the United States Navy as an acronym for RAdio Detection And

The modern uses of radar are highly diverse, including air traffic control, radar astronomy, air-
defense systems, antimissile systems; marine radars to locate landmarks and other ships;
aircraft anticollision systems; ocean surveillance systems, outer space surveillance and
rendezvous systems; meteorological precipitation monitoring; altimetry and flight control
systems; guided missile target locating systems; and ground-penetrating radar for geological
observations. High tech radar systems are associated with digital signal processing and are
capable of extracting useful information from very high noise levels.

Other systems similar to radar make use of other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. One
example is "lidar", which uses visible light from lasers rather than radio waves.

The first use of radar was for military purposes: to locate air, ground and sea targets. This
evolved in the civilian field into applications for aircraft, ships, and roads.

The weak absorption of radio waves by the medium through which it passes is what enables
radar sets to detect objects at relatively long rangesranges at which other electromagnetic
wavelengths, such as visible light, infrared light, and ultraviolet light, are too strongly
attenuated. Such weather phenomena as fog, clouds, rain, falling snow, and sleet that block
visible light are usually transparent to radio waves. Certain radio frequencies that are

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absorbed or scattered by water vapor, raindrops, or atmospheric gases (especially oxygen) are
avoided in designing radars, except when their detection is intended.


Refrigeration is a process in which work is done to move heat from one location to another. The
work of heat transport is traditionally driven by mechanical work, but can also be driven by
heat, magnetism, electricity, laser, or other means. Refrigeration has many applications,
including, but not limited to: household refrigerators, industrial freezers, cryogenics, and air
conditioning. Heat pumps may use the heat output of the refrigeration process, and also may
be designed to be reversible, but are otherwise similar to refrigeration units.

The measured capacity of refrigeration is always dimensioned in units of power. Domestic and
commercial refrigerators may be rated in kJ/s, or Btu/h of cooling. For commercial and
industrial refrigeration systems, most of the world uses the kilowatt (kW) as the basic unit of
refrigeration. Typically, commercial and industrial refrigeration systems in North America are
rated in tons of refrigeration (TR).

A refrigeration system's coefficient of performance (CoP) is very important in determining a

system's overall efficiency.



In non-cyclic refrigeration, cooling is accomplished by melting ice or by subliming dry ice (frozen
carbon dioxide). These methods are used for small-scale refrigeration such as in laboratories
and workshops, or in portable coolers.

This consists of a refrigeration cycle, where heat is removed from a low-temperature space or
source and rejected to a high-temperature sink with the help of external work, and its inverse,
the thermodynamic power cycle.

The vapor-compression cycle is used in most household refrigerators as well as in many large
commercial and industrial refrigeration systems.

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A solar cooker, or solar oven, is a device which uses the energy of direct sunlight to heat, cook
or pasteurize food or drink. The vast majority of solar cookers presently in use are relatively
cheap, low-tech devices. Because they use no fuel and cost nothing to operate, many nonprofit
organizations are promoting their use worldwide in order to help reduce fuel costs (for low-
income people) and air pollution, and to slow down the deforestation and desertification
caused by gathering firewood for cooking. Solar cooking is a form of outdoor cooking and is
often used in situations where minimal fuel consumption is important, or the danger of
accidental fires is high.


Concentrating sunlight: A reflective mirror of polished glass, metal or metallised film

concentrates light and heat from the sun on a small cooking area, making the energy
more concentrated and increasing its heating power.
Converting light to heat: A black or low reflectivity surface on a food container or the
inside of a solar cooker improves the effectiveness of turning light into heat. Light
absorption converts the sun's visible light into heat, substantially improving the
effectiveness of the cooker.
Trapping heat: It is important to reduce convection by isolating the air inside the cooker
from the air outside the cooker. A plastic bag or tightly sealed glass cover traps the hot
air inside. This makes it possible to reach temperatures on cold and windy days similar
to those possible on hot days.
Greenhouse effect: Glass transmits visible light but blocks infrared thermal radiation
from escaping. This amplifies the heat trapping effect.
Solar cookers use no fuel, which means that their users do not need to fetch or pay for
firewood, gas, electricity, or other fuels. Therefore, over time a solar cooker can pay for
itself in reduced fuel costs. Since it reduces firewood use, the solar cooker reduces
deforestation and habitat loss. Since there are about 2 billion people who are still
cooking on open fires, widespread use of solar cookers could have large economic and
environmental benefits.
Solar box cookers attain temperatures of up to about 165 C (325 F), so they can be
used to sterilize water or prepare most foods that can be made in a conventional oven
or stove, from baked bread to steamed vegetables to roasted meat. When solar ovens
are placed outside, they do not contribute unwanted heat inside houses.


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Is an insulating storage vessel that greatly lengthens the time over which its contents remain
hotter or cooler than the flask's surroundings. Invented by Sir James Dewar in 1892, the
vacuum flask consists of two flasks, placed one within the other and joined at the neck. The
gap between the two flasks is partially evacuated of air, creating a near-vacuum which
prevents heat transfer by conduction or convection.

Air conditioning is the process of altering the properties of air (primarily temperature and
humidity) to more favorable conditions. More generally, air conditioning can refer to any form
of technological cooling, heating, ventilation, or disinfection that modifies the condition of air.

An air conditioner (often referred to as air con, AC or A/C, and not to be confused with the
abbreviation for alternating current) is a major or home appliance, system, or mechanism
designed to change the air temperature and humidity within an area (used for cooling and
sometimes heating depending on the air properties at a given time). The cooling is typically
done using a simple refrigeration cycle, but sometimes evaporation is used, commonly for
comfort cooling in buildings and motor vehicles. In construction, a complete system of heating,
ventilation and air conditioning is referred to as "HVAC".


Air-conditioning engineers broadly divide air-conditioning applications into what they call
comfort and process applications.

Comfort applications aim to provide a building indoor environment that remains relatively
constant despite changes in external weather conditions or in internal heat loads.

Air conditioning makes deep plan buildings feasible, for otherwise they would have to be built
narrower or with light wells so that inner spaces received sufficient outdoor air via natural
ventilation. Air conditioning also allows buildings to be taller, since wind speed increases
significantly with altitude making natural ventilation impractical for very tall buildings. Comfort
applications are quite different for various building types and may be categorized as:

Low-rise residential buildings, including single family houses, duplexes, and small
apartment buildings
High-rise residential buildings, such as tall dormitories and apartment blocks
Commercial buildings, which are built for commerce, including offices, malls, shopping
centers, restaurants, etc.
Institutional buildings, which includes government buildings, hospitals, schools, etc.
Industrial spaces where thermal comfort of workers is desired.
Sports stadiums: recently, stadiums have been built with air conditioning, such as the
University of Phoenix Stadium and in Qatar for the 2022 FIFA World Cup.

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Heat is energy transferred from one body to another by thermal interactions.The transfer of
energy can occur in a variety of ways, among them conduction, radiation, and convection. Heat
is not a property of a system or body, but instead is always associated with a process of some
kind, and is synonymous with heat flow and heat transfer. The SI unit of heat is the joule. Heat
can be measured by calorimetry, or determined indirectly by calculations based on other
quantities, relying for instance on the first law of thermodynamics. In calorimetry, the concepts
of latent heat and of sensible heat are used. Latent heat produces changes of state without
temperature change, while sensible heat produces temperature change.

The transfer of heat from a warm object to a cooler one takes place by one of three methods or
a combination thereof. These methods are: conduction, convection or radiation.


Conduction of heat occurs when faster moving molecules pass on some of their energy to
adjacent molecules which are slower-moving, i.e. at a lower temperature. This may occur
within a solid or between a solid and an adjacent fluid such as air. In any heated building or
enclosure, heat is conducted or transmitted from the warm inside air to the inside surfaces,
then through the wall or roof, to the cooler outside surface and on to the outside air.


Convection transfer of heat involves the mixing of warm and cool particles of fluid. The mixing
may come as a result of density differences due to temperature differences which is natural
convection, or, if the mixing is produced by mechanical means, forced convection. In a heated
building, convection losses occur when cold outside air enters a building, mixes with the
warmer inside air, and then exits through an exhauster or through doors, cracks, etc.


Heat transfer by radiation differs from the transfer of heat by conduction or convection in that
it does not need matter to accomplish the transfer. Radiated heat is usually termed infra-red.
This is just one of the several forms of radiation. Infra-red is transmitted at the speed of light,
186,000 miles per second, in a straight line with minimal loss to the air. It can be aimed,
reflected or focused by materials that have a highly reflective surface, bright aluminum, for
example. When infra-red strikes an absorptive object such as concrete, wood, water, paint,

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skin or clothing it is converted into heat at the surface. Surrounding air is then warmed by
conduction and convection. The best example of this transfer of heat is from the sun to the
earth without loss of heat to outer space.

Radiation or infra-red energy is emitted by all matter that is above absolute zero (-460F). The
net transfer of heat is from one object to a cooler object.

Warm objects, including people inside a heated building lose or radiate heat to the cooler
inside surfaces of the walls. The walls conduct heat to the outside surface and then lose heat
by radiation, conduction and convection to the outside.


Latent heat is the heat released or absorbed by a body or a thermodynamic system during a
process that occurs without a change in temperature. A typical example is a change of state of
matter, meaning a phase transition such as the melting of ice or the boiling of water.

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Densities-The mass density or density of a material is its mass per unit volume. The symbol
most often used for density is (the lower case Greek letter rho). Mathematically, density is
defined as mass divided by volume:

Where is the density, m is the mass, and V is the volume.

Different materials usually have different densities, so density is an important concept

regarding buoyancy, purity and packaging.

Less dense fluids float on more dense fluids if they do not mix. This concept can be extended,
with some care, to less dense solids floating on more dense fluids. If the average density
(including any air below the waterline) of an object is less than water it will float in water and if
it is more than water's it will sink in water.

The mass density of a material varies with temperature and pressure. (The variance is typically
small for solids and liquids and much greater for gasses.) Increasing the pressure on an object
decreases the volume of the object and therefore increase its density. Increasing the
temperature of a substance (with some exceptions) decreases its density by increasing the
volume of that substance. In most materials, heating the bottom of fluid results in convection
of the heat from bottom to top of the material. This causes it to rise relative to more dense
unheated material.


Surface tension-Surface tension is a contractive tendency of the surface of a liquid that allows it
to resist an external force. It is revealed, for example, in the floating of some objects on the
surface of water, even though they are denser than water, and in the ability of some insects
(e.g. water striders) to run on the water surface. This property is caused by cohesion of similar
molecules, and is responsible for many of the behaviors of liquids.

Surface tension has the dimension of force per unit length, or of energy per unit area. The two
are equivalentbut when referring to energy per unit of area, people use the term surface

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energywhich is a more general term in the sense that it applies also to solids and not just

In materials science, surface tension is used for either surface stress or surface free energy.

The cohesive forces among liquid molecules are responsible for the phenomenon of surface
tension. In the bulk of the liquid, each molecule is pulled equally in every direction by
neighboring liquid molecules, resulting in a net force of zero. The molecules at the surface do
not have other molecules on all sides of them and therefore are pulled inwards. This creates
some internal pressure and forces liquid surfaces to contract to the minimal area.

Surface tension is visible in other common phenomena, especially when surfactants are used to
decrease it:

Soap bubbles have very large surface areas with very little mass. Bubbles in pure water
are unstable. The addition of surfactants, however, can have a stabilizing effect on the
bubbles (see Marangoni effect). Notice that surfactants actually reduce the surface
tension of water by a factor of three or more.

Emulsions are a type of solution in which surface tension plays a role. Tiny fragments of
oil suspended in pure water will spontaneously assemble themselves into much larger
masses. But the presence of a surfactant provides a decrease in surface tension, which
permits stability of minute droplets of oil in the bulk of water (or vice versa).
Several effects of surface tension can be seen with ordinary water:
A. Beading of rain water on a waxy surface, such as a leaf. Water adheres weakly to wax
and strongly to itself, so water clusters into drops. Surface tension gives them their
near-spherical shape, because a sphere has the smallest possible surface area to volume
B. Formation of drops occurs when a mass of liquid is stretched. The animation shows
water adhering to the faucet gaining mass until it is stretched to a point where the
surface tension can no longer bind it to the faucet. It then separates and surface tension
forms the drop into a sphere. If a stream of water were running from the faucet, the
stream would break up into drops during its fall. Gravity stretches the stream, then
surface tension pinches it into spheres.
C. Flotation of objects denser than water occurs when the object is nonwettable and its
weight is small enough to be borne by the forces arising from surface tension. For
example, water striders use surface tension to walk on the surface of a pond. The
surface of the water behaves like an elastic film: the insect's feet cause indentations in
the water's surface, increasing its surface area.
D. Separation of oil and water (in this case, water and liquid wax) is caused by a tension
in the surface between dissimilar liquids. This type of surface tension is called "interface
tension", but its physics are the same.
E. Tears of wine is the formation of drops and rivulets on the side of a glass containing
an alcoholic beverage. Its cause is a complex interaction between the differing surface

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tensions of water and ethanol; it is induced by a combination of surface tension

modification of water by ethanol together with ethanol evaporating faster than water.

The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or
tensile stress. For liquids, it corresponds to the informal notion of "thickness". For example,
honey has a higher viscosity than water.

Viscosity is due to friction between neighboring parcels of the fluid that are moving at different
velocities. When fluid is forced through a tube, the fluid generally moves faster near the axis
and very little near the walls, therefore some stress (such as a pressure difference between the
two ends of the tube) is needed to overcome the friction between layers and keep the fluid
moving. For the same velocity pattern, the stress is proportional to the fluid's viscosity.

A fluid that has no resistance to shear stress is known as an ideal fluid or inviscid fluid. In the
real world, zero viscosity is observed only at very low temperatures, in superfluids. Otherwise
all fluids have positive viscosity. If the viscosity is very high, such as in pitch, the fluid will seem
to be a solid in the short term. In common usage, a liquid whose viscosity is less than that of
water is known as a mobile liquid, while a substance with a viscosity substantially greater than
water is simply called a viscous liquid.


A satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavor. Such objects are
sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the

To place a satellite at a height of 300 km, the launching velocity should at least be about 8.5 km
s-1 or 30600 kmph. If this high velocity is given to the rocket at the surface of the Earth, the
rocket will be burnt due to air friction. Moreover, such high velocities cannot be developed by
single rocket. Hence, multistage rockets are used. To be placed in an orbit, a satellite must be
raised to the desired height and given the correct speed and direction by the launching rocket
At lift off, the rocket, with a manned or unmanned satellite on top, is held down by clamps on
the launching pad. Now the exhaust gases builtup an upward thrust which exceeds the
rocket's weight. The clamps are then removed by remote control and the rocket accelerates
upwards. To penetrate the dense lower part of the atmosphere, initially the rocket rises
vertically and then tilted by a guidance system. The first stage rocket, which may burn for about
2 minutes producing a speed of 3 km s-1, lifts the vehicle to a height of about 60 km and then
separates and falls back to the Earth. The vehicle now goes to its orbital height, say 160 km,
where it moves horizontally for a moment. Then the second stage of the rocket fires and
increases the speed that is necessary for a circular orbit. By firing small rockets with remote
control system, the satellite is separated from the second stage and made to revolve in its orbit.

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Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics.
They describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those
forces. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries, and can
be summarized as follows:

1. First law: If there is no net force on an object, then its velocity is constant. The object is
either at rest (if its velocity is equal to zero), or it moves with constant speed in a single
2. Second law: The acceleration a of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net
force F acting on the body, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely
proportional to the mass m of the body, i.e., F = ma.
3. Third law: When a first body exerts a force F1 on a second body, the second body
simultaneously exerts a force F2 = F1 on the first body. This means that F1 and F2 are
equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.

Newton's law of universal gravitation states that every point mass in the universe attracts every
other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and
inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

Every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line
intersecting both points. The force is proportional to the product of the two masses and
inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them:


F is the force between the masses,

G is the gravitational constant,
m1 is the first mass,
m2 is the second mass, and
r is the distance between the centers of the masses.


There are many applications of Newton's first law of motion. Consider some of your
experiences in an automobile. Have you ever observed the behavior of coffee in a coffee cup
filled to the rim while starting a car from rest or while bringing a car to rest from a state of

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motion? Coffee "keeps on doing what it is doing." When you accelerate a car from rest, the
road provides an unbalanced force on the spinning wheels to push the car forward; yet the
coffee (that was at rest) wants to stay at rest. While the car accelerates forward, the coffee
remains in the same position; subsequently, the car accelerates out from under the coffee and
the coffee spills in your lap. On the other hand, when braking from a state of motion the coffee
continues forward with the same speed and in the same direction, ultimately hitting the
windshield or the dash. Coffee in motion stays in motion.

Have you ever experienced inertia (resisting changes in your state of motion) in an automobile
while it is braking to a stop? The force of the road on the locked wheels provides the
unbalanced force to change the car's state of motion, yet there is no unbalanced force to
change your own state of motion. Thus, you continue in motion, sliding along the seat in
forward motion. A person in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same
direction ... unless acted upon by the unbalanced force of a seat belt. Yes! Seat belts are used to
provide safety for passengers whose motion is governed by Newton's laws. The seat belt
provides the unbalanced force that brings you from a state of motion to a state of rest. Perhaps
you could speculate what would occur when no seat belt is used.

There are many more applications of Newton's first law of motion. Several applications are
listed below. Perhaps you could think about the law of inertia and provide explanations for
each application.

Blood rushes from your head to your feet while quickly stopping when riding on a
descending elevator.
The head of a hammer can be tightened onto the wooden handle by banging the
bottom of the handle against a hard surface.
A brick is painlessly broken over the hand of a physics teacher by slamming it with a
hammer. (CAUTION: do not attempt this at home!)
To dislodge ketchup from the bottom of a ketchup bottle, it is often turned upside down
and thrusted downward at high speeds and then abruptly halted.
Headrests are placed in cars to prevent whiplash injuries during rear-end collisions.
While riding a skateboard (or wagon or bicycle), you fly forward off the board when
hitting a curb or rock or other object that abruptly halts the motion of the skateboard.

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- The first law of thermodynamics, also called conservation of energy, states that the total
amount of energy in the universe is constant. This means that all of the energy has to end up
somewhere, either in the original form or in a different from. We can use this knowledge to
determine the amount of energy in a system, the amount lost as waste heat, and the efficiency
of the system.

-The second law of thermodynamics states that the disorder in the universe always increases.
After cleaning your room, it always has a tendency to become messy again. This is a result of
the second law. As the disorder in the universe increases, the energy is transformed into less
usable forms. Thus, the efficiency of any process will always be less than 100%.

- The third law of thermodynamics tells us that all molecular movement stops at a temperature
we call absolute zero, or 0 Kelvin (-273oC). Since temperature is a measure of molecular
movement, there can be no temperature lower than absolute zero. At this temperature, a
perfect crystal has no disorder.

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Polysaccharides are long carbohydrate molecules of repeated monomer units joined together
by glycosidic bonds. They range in structure from linear to highly branched. Polysaccharides are
often quite heterogeneous, containing slight modifications of the repeating unit. Depending on
the structure, these macromolecules can have distinct properties from their monosaccharide
building blocks. They may be amorphous or even insoluble in water.

When all the monosaccharides in a polysaccharide are the same type, the polysaccharide is
called a homopolysaccharide or homoglycan, but when more than one type of monosaccharide
is present they are called heteropolysaccharides or heteroglycans.

Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural
polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin.

Polysaccharides have a general formula of Cx(H2O)y where x is usually a large number between
200 and 2500. Considering that the repeating units in the polymer backbone are often six-
carbon monosaccharides, the general formula can also be represented as (C6H10O5)n

Sources of Polysaccharides-Glycogen (cereals, tubers, roots, banana, sweet potatoes, yams,

beans) Starch (bread, fruit, grain, rice, pasta),Cellulose (crisp fruits and vegetables)

Basic energy sources for living organisms

GLYCOGEN- an energy reserve, (stored in liver), can break down into glucose when it is needed
-Precursors for other biologically important molecules---i.e. mono saccharides are used to make
other molecules like glycerol and fatty acids and some amino acids. -Cellulose-structural
material in plants (not in syllabus)

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Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products, or
"any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives
thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological

For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production and

Biotechnology has applications in four major industrial areas, including health care (medical),
crop production and agriculture, non food (industrial) uses of crops and other products (e.g.
biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels), and environmental uses.

For example, one application of biotechnology is the directed use of organisms for the
manufacture of organic products (examples include beer and milk products). Another example
is using naturally present bacteria by the mining industry in bioleaching. Biotechnology is also
used to recycle, treat waste, cleanup sites contaminated by industrial activities
(bioremediation), and also to produce biological weapons.

A series of derived terms have been coined to identify several branches of biotechnology; for

Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field which addresses biological problems using

computational techniques, and makes the rapid organization and analysis of biological
data possible. The field may also be referred to as computational biology, and can be
defined as, "conceptualizing biology in terms of molecules and then applying informatics
techniques to understand and organize the information associated with these
molecules, on a large scale." Bioinformatics plays a key role in various areas, such as
functional genomics, structural genomics, and proteomics, and forms a key component
in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector.
Blue biotechnology is a term that has been used to describe the marine and aquatic
applications of biotechnology, but its use is relatively rare.
Green biotechnology is biotechnology applied to agricultural processes. An example
would be the selection and domestication of plants viamicropropagation. Another
example is the designing of transgenic plants to grow under specific environments in the
presence (or absence) of chemicals. One hope is that green biotechnology might
produce more environmentally friendly solutions than traditional industrial agriculture.
An example of this is the engineering of a plant to express a pesticide, thereby ending
the need of external application of pesticides. An example of this would be Bt corn.
Whether or not green biotechnology products such as this are ultimately more
environmentally friendly is a topic of considerable debate.

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Red biotechnology is applied to medical processes. Some examples are the designing of
organisms to produce antibiotics, and the engineering of genetic cures through genetic
White biotechnology, also known as industrial biotechnology, is biotechnology applied
to industrial processes. An example is the designing of an organism to produce a useful
chemical. Another example is the using of enzymes as industrial catalysts to either
produce valuable chemicals or destroy hazardous/polluting chemicals. White
biotechnology tends to consume less in resources than traditional processes used to
produce industrial goods.

In medicine, modern biotechnology finds promising applications in such areas as

drug production
gene therapy
genetic testing (or genetic screening): techniques in molecular biology detect genetic
diseases. To test the developing fetus for Down syndrome, Amniocentesis and chorionic
villus sampling can be used.
DNA microarray chip some can do as many as a million blood tests at once

Pharmacogenomics is the study of how the genetic inheritance of an individual affects his/her
body's response to drugs. It is a compound derived from the root of the word "pharmacology"
plus the word "genomics". It is hence the study of the relationship between pharmaceuticals
and genetics. The vision of pharmacogenomics is to be able to design and produce drugs that
are adapted to each person's genetic makeup.

Pharmacogenomics results in the following benefits:

1. Development of tailor-made medicines. Using pharmacogenomics, pharmaceutical

companies can create drugs based on the proteins, enzymes and RNA molecules that are
associated with specific genes and diseases. These tailor-made drugs promise not only to
maximize therapeutic effects but also to decrease damage to nearby healthy cells.

2. More accurate methods of determining appropriate drug dosages. Knowing a patient's

genetics will enable doctors to determine how well his/ her body can process and metabolize a
medicine. This will maximize the value of the medicine and decrease the likelihood of overdose.

3. Improvements in the drug discovery and approval process. The discovery of potential
therapies will be made easier using genome targets. Genes have been associated with
numerous diseases and disorders. With modern biotechnology, these genes can be used as

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targets for the development of effective new therapies, which could significantly shorten the
drug discovery process.

4. Better vaccines. Safer vaccines can be designed and produced by organisms transformed by
means of genetic engineering. These vaccines will elicit the immune response without the
attendant risks of infection. They will be inexpensive, stable, easy to store, and capable of being
engineered to carry several strains of pathogen at once.

Diseases, and Rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody used in the treatment of cancer. Due
to their larger size, and corresponding difficulty with surviving the stomach, colon and liver,
biopharmaceuticals are typically injected.

Modern biotechnology is often associated with the use of genetically altered microorganisms
such as E. coli or yeast for the production of substances like synthetic insulin or antibiotics. It
can also refer to transgenic animals or transgenic plants, such as Bt corn. Genetically altered
mammalian cells, such as Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO), are also used to manufacture
certain pharmaceuticals. Another promising new biotechnology application is the development
of plant-made pharmaceuticals.

Biotechnology is also commonly associated with landmark breakthroughs in new medical

therapies to treat hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cancers, arthritis, haemophilia, bone fractures,
multiple sclerosis, and cardiovascular disorders. The biotechnology industry has also been
instrumental in developing molecular diagnostic devices that can be used to define the target
patient population for a given biopharmaceutical. Herceptin, for example, was the first drug
approved for use with a matching diagnostic test and is used to treat breast cancer in women
whose cancer cells express the protein HER2.

Nanotechnology (sometimes shortened to "nanotech") is the manipulation of matter on an
atomic and molecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology referred to
the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication
of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology.


Nanotechnology may be able to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of
applications, such as in medicine, electronics, biomaterials and energy production. On the other
hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as any new technology, including
concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials, and their potential
effects on global economics, as well as speculation about various doomsday scenarios. These
concerns have led to a debate among advocacy groups and governments on whether special
regulation of nanotechnology is warranted.

Nanotechnology can be helpful in

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1) Reduction of energy consumption

2) Increasing the efficiency of energy production

3) Nuclear accident cleanup and waste storage

4) In creating Nano-foods The most prominent application of nanotechnology in the household

is self-cleaning or "easy-to-clean" surfaces on ceramics or glasses

5) It is also used in manufacturing stain-repellent and wrinkle free textiles.

6) In making sunscreens.

7) In manufacturing sports goods.

8) In aircraft manufacturing

9) Nanotechnology is also used in fire protection and detection

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An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (nonmixable or
unblendable). Emulsions are part of a more general class of two-phase systems of matter called
colloids. Although the terms colloid and emulsion are sometimes used interchangeably,
emulsion should be used when both the dispersed and the continuous phase are liquids. In an
emulsion, one liquid (the dispersed phase) is dispersed in the other (the continuous phase).
Examples of emulsions include vinaigrettes, milk, mayonnaise, and some cutting fluids for metal
working. The photo-sensitive side of photographic film is an example of a colloid.

Emulsion stability refers to the ability of an emulsion to resist change in its properties over
time. There are four types of instability in emulsions: flocculation, creaming, coalescence and
Ostwald ripening. Flocculation occurs when there is an attractive force between the droplets,
so they form flocs, like bunches of grapes. Coalescence occurs when droplets bump into each
other and combine to form a larger droplet, so the average droplet size increases over time.
Emulsions can also undergo creaming, where the droplets rise to the top of the emulsion under
the influence of buoyancy, or under the influence of the centripetal force induced when a
centrifuge is used.

Crema (foam) in espresso coffee oil in water (brewed coffee), unstable emulsion
Mayonnaise and Hollandaise sauce these are oil-in-water emulsions that are stabilized
with egg yolk lecithin, or with other types of food additives, such as sodium stearoyl
Homogenized milk an emulsion of milk fat in water and milk proteins
Water-in-oil emulsions
Butter an emulsion of water in butterfat
Vinaigrette an emulsion of vegetable oil in vinegar. If this is prepared using only oil and
vinegar (i.e. without an emulsifier), an unstable emulsion results
In pharmaceutics, hairstyling, personal hygiene, and cosmetics, emulsions are frequently used.
These are usually oil and water emulsions, but which is dispersed and which is continuously
depends in many cases on the pharmaceutical formulation. These emulsions may be called
creams, ointments, liniments (balms), pastes, films, or liquids, depending mostly on their oil-to-
water ratios, other additives, and their intended route of administration.



An emulsifier (also known as an emulgent) is a substance that stabilizes an emulsion by

increasing its kinetic stability. One class of emulsifiers is known as surface active substances, or

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Examples of food emulsifiers are:

Egg yolk in which the main emulsifying agent is lecithin. In fact, lecithos is the Greek
word for egg yolk.
Mustard where a variety of chemicals in the mucilage surrounding the seed hull act as
Low molecular weight emulsifiers
Soy lecithin is another emulsifier and thickener
Pickering stabilization uses particles under certain circumstances
sodium stearoyl lactylate
DATEM (Diacetyl Tartaric (Acid) Ester of Monoglyceride) an emulsifier primarily used in
Detergents are another class of surfactants, and will physically interact with both oil and water,
thus stabilizing the interface between the oil and water droplets in suspension. This principle is
exploited in soap, to remove grease for the purpose of cleaning. Many different emulsifiers are
used in pharmacy to prepare emulsions such as creams and lotions. Common examples include
emulsifying wax, cetearyl alcohol, polysorbate, and ceteareth. Sometimes the inner phase itself
can act as an emulsifier, and the result is a nanoemulsion, where the inner state disperses into
"nano-size" droplets within the outer phase. A well-known example of this phenomenon, the
Ouzo effect, happens when water is poured into a strong alcoholic anise-based beverage, such
as ouzo, pastis, arak, or raki. The anisolic compounds, which are soluble in ethanol, then form
nano-size droplets and emulsify within the water. The resulting color of the drink is opaque and
milky white.

A gel is a solid, jelly-like material that can have properties ranging from soft and weak to hard
and tough. Gels are defined as a substantially dilute cross-linked system, which exhibits no flow
when in the steady-state. By weight, gels are mostly liquid, yet they behave like solids due to a
three-dimensional cross-linked network within the liquid. It is the crosslinking within the fluid
that gives a gel its structure (hardness) and contributes to the adhesive stick. In this way gels
are a dispersion of molecules of a liquid within a solid in which the solid is the continuous phase
and the liquid is the discontinuous phase.

Gels consist of a solid three-dimensional network that spans the volume of a liquid medium and
ensnares it through surface tension effects. This internal network structure may result from
physical bonds (physical gels) or chemical bonds (chemical gels), as well as crystallites or other
junctions that remain intact within the extending fluid. Virtually any fluid can be used as an
extender including water (hydrogels), oil, and air (aerogel). Both by weight and volume, gels are
mostly fluid in composition and thus exhibit densities similar to those of their constituent
liquids. Edible jelly is a common example of a hydrogel and has approximately the density of

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A colloid is a Suspestion microscopically dispersed throughout another substance.

A colloidal system consists of two separate phases: a dispersed phase (or internal phase) and a
continuous phase (or dispersion medium) in which the colloid is dispersed. A colloidal system
may be solid, liquid, or gas.

Classification Based on Physical State of Dispersed Phase and Dispersion Medium.

Depending upon the physical state of the dispersed phase and dispersion medium, eight types
of colloidal systems are possible. These are described in the table given below:

Depending upon the affinity of the dispersed phase for the dispersion medium, colloidal
systems can be classified into following two categories.

(i) Lyophilic sols (ii) Lyophobic sols

Classification of Colloids Based on Type of Particles of the Dispersed PHASE: Multimolecular,

Macromolecular and Associated Colloids

We have already seen that the colloidal particles present in a colloidal system have size lying in
the range 1nm-100nm. Depending upon how different substances forming colloidal solution
acquire the size of particles in this range, colloidal solutions may be classified into the following
three categories.

(i) Multimolecular colloids

(ii)Macromolecular colloids

(iii) Associated colloids

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Metal extraction: It can be defined as the separation of metals in a pure or relatively pure state
from the minerals in which they naturally occur.

The earth's crust is the biggest source of metals. Some soluble salts of the metals are also found
in sea-water. Metals occur in nature sometimes free but mostly in combined state. The natural
mode of occurrence of a metals is largely dependent on its nature. Those metals which are least
reactive and have little or no affinity for oxygen, moisture and other chemical reagents occur in
free or metallic or native state i.e., in uncombined state. Most of the metals are reactive and
hence are found in combined state i.e., as compounds.

The natural substances in which the metals or their compounds occur in the earth are called
minerals. The mineral has a definite composition. It may be a single compound or a complex
mixture. The minerals from which the metals can be conveniently and economically extracted
are known as ores. All the ores are minerals but all minerals cannot be ores. For example, both
bauxite (Al2O3. 2H2O) and clay (Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O) are minerals of aluminium. It is bauxite
which is used for extraction of aluminium and not clay. Thus, bauxite is an ore of aluminium.

Petroleum is a naturally occurring flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of
hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found
in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. The name Petroleum covers both naturally
occurring unprocessed crude oils and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil.
A fossil fuel, it is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and
algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and undergo intense heat and pressure.

Petroleum is a mixture of a very large number of different hydrocarbons; the most commonly
found molecules are alkanes (linear or branched), cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, or
more complicated chemicals like asphaltenes. Each petroleum variety has a unique mix of
molecules, which define its physical and chemical properties, like color and viscosity.

Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling


Steel is an alloy of iron and other elements, principally carbon. When carbon is the primary
alloying element, its content in the steel is between 0.002% and 2.1% by weight. The following
elements are always present in steel: carbon, manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, and

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traces of oxygen, nitrogen and aluminum. Alloying elements intentionally added to modify the
characteristics of steel are: manganese, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, boron, titanium,
vanadium and niobium.


The rusting of iron is an electrochemical process that begins with the transfer of electrons from
iron to oxygen. The rate of corrosion is affected by water and accelerated by electrolytes, as
illustrated by the effects of road salt on the corrosion of automobiles. Rust is composed of iron
oxides. In colloquial usage, the term is applied to red oxides, formed by the reaction of iron and
oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture. Other forms of rust exist, like the result of
reactions between iron and chloride in an environment deprived of oxygen rebar used in
underwater concrete pillars is an example which generates green rust. Several forms of rust
are distinguishable visually and by spectroscopy, and form under different circumstances. Rust
consists of hydrated iron (III) oxides Fe2O3nH2O and iron (III) oxide-hydroxide

Given sufficient time, oxygen, and water, any iron mass will eventually convert entirely to rust
and disintegrate. Surface rust is flaky and friable, and provides no protection to the underlying
iron, unlike the formation of patina on copper surfaces. Rusting is the common term for
corrosion of iron and its alloys, such as steel.

Cement Glass: A binding mixture used to affix glass to glass or to some other material (as metal)

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Carbon is the chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. As a member of group 14
on the periodic table, it is nonmetallic and tetravalentmaking four electrons available to
form covalent chemical bonds. There are three naturally occurring isotopes, with 12C and 13C
being stable, while 14C is radioactive, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon is
one of the few elements known since antiquity.

Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant
element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. It is present in all known
life forms, and in the human body carbon is the second most abundant element by mass
(about 18.5%) after oxygen. This abundance, together with the unique diversity of organic
compounds and their unusual polymer-forming ability at the temperatures commonly
encountered on Earth, make this element the chemical basis of all known life.

Carbon is the fourth most abundant chemical element in the universe by mass after hydrogen,
helium, and oxygen. Carbon is abundant in the Sun, stars, comets, and in the atmospheres of
most planets. Some meteorites contain microscopic diamonds that were formed when the
solar system was still a protoplanetary disk. Microscopic diamonds may also be formed by the
intense pressure and high temperature at the sites of meteorite impacts.

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Oxidation is usually used to describe a process in which electrons are removed from a molecule
or atom.

Reduction is used to describe a process in which electrons are added to a molecule or atom.

Oxidation means the addition of oxygen to a molecule or the removal of hydrogen from a

Reduction means the addition of hydrogen to a molecule or the removal of oxygen from a

Let's look at some examples:

What about a reaction in which both oxygen and hydrogen are added or subtracted. If the ratio
is one oxygen to two hydrogens (in other words, water), neither oxidation or reduction is
happening. Addition or removal of water does not involve, by itself, an oxidation or a reduction
reaction. The addition of water to an aldehyde to form a hydrate does not involve oxidation or
reduction. You may wish to look at the formation of an acetal or hemiacetal in this way. If the
net change in the number of hydrogens and oxygens comes out to be a ratio of two hydrogens
to one oxygen, neither oxidation nor reduction is involved.

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Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to
dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a homogeneous solution of the solute in
the solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical
properties of the used solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and the pH of the
solution. The extent of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the
saturation concentration, where adding more solute does not increase the concentration of the
solution and begin to precipitate the excess amount of solute.

Most often, the solvent is a liquid, which can be a pure substance or a mixture. One may also
speak of solid solution, but rarely of solution in a gas (see vapor-liquid equilibrium instead).

The extent of solubility ranges widely, from infinitely soluble (without limit) (fully miscible) such
as ethanol in water, to poorly soluble, such as silver chloride in water. The term insoluble is
often applied to poorly or very poorly soluble compounds.

Under certain conditions, the equilibrium solubility can be exceeded to give a so-called
supersaturated solution, which is metastable.

Solubility is not to be confused with the ability to dissolve or liquefy a substance, because the
solution might occur not only because of dissolution but also because of a chemical reaction.
For example zinc, which is insoluble in hydrochloric acid, does dissolve in hydrochloric acid but
by chemical reaction into hydrogen gas and zinc chloride, which in turn is soluble in the acid.
Solubility does not also depend on particle size or other kinetic factors; given enough time,
even large particles will eventually dissolve.

Solubility is defined for specific phases. For example, the solubility of aragonite and calcite in
water are expected to differ, even though they are both polymorphs of calcium carbonate and
have the same chemical formula.

The solubility of one substance in another is determined by the balance of intermolecular

forces between the solvent and solute, and the entropy change that accompanies the solvation.
Factors such as temperature and pressure will alter this balance, thus changing the solubility.

Solubility may also strongly depend on the presence of other species dissolved in the solvent,
for example, complex-forming anions (ligands) in liquids. Solubility will also depend on the
excess or deficiency of a common ion in the solution, a phenomenon known as the common-ion
effect. To a lesser extent, solubility will depend on the ionic strength of solutions. The last two
effects can be quantified using the equation for solubility equilibrium.

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A chemical compound is a pure chemical substance consisting of two or more different
chemical elements that can be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions.
Chemical compounds have a unique and defined chemical structure; they consist of a fixed
ratio of atoms that are held together in a defined spatial arrangement by chemical bonds.
Chemical compounds can be molecular compounds held together by covalent bonds, salts held
together by ionic bonds, intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds, or
complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds. Pure chemical elements are not
considered chemical compounds, even if they consist of molecules which contain only multiple
atoms of a single element (such as H2, S8, etc.), which are called diatomic molecules or
polyatomic molecules.

Here are some examples of Chemical compounds and their uses:

Sodium fluoride (NaF) in toothpaste

Sodium lauryl sulphate (C12H25SO4Na) in soap
Sucrose (C12H22O11) in foods
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) as white pigment in paint
Vinegar (CH3COOH, acetic acid; ethanoic acid) in foods
Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in bleach
Sodium nitrate (NaNO3) in fertiliser
Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) in cola
Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) in alcoholic drinks
Methane (CH4) to burn for fuel in gas boilers and hobs
Butane (C4H10) as lighter fuel
Octane (C8H18) as automobile fuel
Phenol (C6H5OH) in antiseptics

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Plants are the fundamental building blocks of life on earth. Plants are life forms belonging to
the kingdom Plantae. The scientific study has revealed at least 500,000 species of plants. The
types of plants vary in size from microscopic algae, to huge sequoia trees more than 8m (26 ft)

Plant Kingdom is mainly classified into two. This type of plant classification is done according to
how they reproduce.

Spore bearing plants (Algae, mosses, ferns and their relatives)

Seed bearing plants (Conifers and flowering plants)

The plant kingdom can also be classified on the basis of the presence or absence of conductive
(vascular) tissue.

Ferns (pteridophytes), gymnosperms and angiosperms have vascular tissue which transports
the nutrients and water through the plant. They are collectively known as tracheophytes.

Mosses, liverworts, hornworts (bryophytes) are non-vascular i.e. they do not have conductive
tissue to transport sugar, water and nutrients.


Algae, mosses, ferns and their genus all reproduce by means of spores. These are minute and
are formed inside the sporangia that look like fine powder. Each spore contains a small quantity
of vital genetic matter in a compact sheathe.

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The simplest plants of this type is algae. They do not have leaves,stems or
roots.Algae thrive in a moist or wet environment. Many are tiny single
celled plants, but some seaweeds are huge.


Mosses and most liverworts have simple stems and tiny, slender leaves.
They can be found growing on the plain land, on rocks, and on other
plants. They habitually live in mild, damp regions, but some can live in very
cold places.


Ferns are the most superior spore bearing type of plants. Many ferns grow
in cool, dry places but the largest ones are found in the hot, damp tropic
regions. Around 15,000 species of ferns are there in existence now
according to scientific researches.

Seed Bearing Plants

Plants that reproduce by means of seeds belong to this type of plants. Conifers or
gymnosperms and flowering plants or gymnosperms reproduce by seeds. Each seed contains an
emryo and a food supply. This is enclosed by a seed covering. A germinating seed is nourished
by the food treasury until it can start to make its own.

Conifers or Gymnosperms

Gymnosperms or conifers are plants that have cones instead of flowers.

Their seeds grow within female cones. The seeds develop on scales inside
cones. The majority of gymnosperms are trees or shrubs. The cones are
not as diverse as flowers but they can be brilliantly coloured and

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Flowering plants or Angiosperms

Angiosperms or flowering plants are the most varied set of land

vegetation. There are at least 250,000 kinds of flowering plants identified
till now. The distinguishing trait of flowering plants or angiosperms is the
flower. The chief role of the flower is to make certain that fertilization of
the ovule occur and that result in the growth of fruit containing seeds.


Flowering plants or angiosperms have either one or two cotyledons.
Monocotyledons (one seed leaf) have floral parts in multiple of three.
Dicotyledons( two seed leaves) have floral parts usually in multiple of four
or five. In the figure, left side plant is monocotyledon and right is


Annuals are one type of plants based on the Latin word. They live for one year hence they have
very short period of life. These plants are grown for their colored look. These annuals flower for
only less than four months which grow through the seeds.

Example for this type of plant is Asters, Phlox, Balsam, Dianthus, and Cosmos.

This is one type of plants which grows from the seeds and it takes two years for growing. This
name is derived from the Latin word bennis. This type of plant is also a seasonal flowering
plants which gives flower only in the second year after planting. Thes plants are considered as
the short lived perennials.

Example for this type of plant is Foxglove, wildpretti and some others.

This type of plant lives for many years. This type of plant keeps on flowering for long years. This
type does not need any replanting and they can change the layout of garden. In this type we
should provide deep watering which improve the deep rooting and also help in the reduction of
the diseases.

Example of this type is Water lily, Gerberas, Geraniums and Anthuriums.

Shrubs are the plants which are smaller than the trees and they are considered as the woody
plants. These shrubs have the short stem which occurs near the ground.

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Flowering shrubs:

This type of shrubs produces flowers continuously throughout the year. These shrubs are long
lived shrubs and are grown for designing the garden. Examples are Mosanda, Pentas, Ixora.

Ornamental shrubs:

These shrubs do not produce flowers but these are used for creating the ornamental look.
These shrubs can be modified into various shapes and sizes. Examples are Juniperus, Tuja,
Aralia, Crotons.

Creepers and climbers:

This is another type of plants which is grown at the wall of a compound. It is also grown as the
cover for the walls.

Climbers are the plants which grow with a support. This type of plant contain the soft stem
hence they need a support. Both the creepers and also the climbers are grown in mixture of
earth as well as manure.

This type is planted under the soil which is in a specific stem structure and stays underground.
These bulbs have a resting period whenever there is no growth. Here these plants they grow
the flower which remains for some time. These plants are easy to grow and they can bloom.
Examples Daffodils, Tulips, Bluebells.


Those plants that have healing properties are termed as medicinal plants or herbs.
Pharmacognosy is the study of medicines derived from natural sources, including plants.
Medical herbalism is the practice of healing with medicinal plants. Some examples of Aloe vera
gel is used to treat burns.

Aloe Vera - Aloe is a common plant. Aloe vera gel is used to treat burns.

Basil - A common garden herb. It is used to treat stomach cramps, constipation and

Calendula (AKA pot marigold) is anti-septic and is used to treat wounds as well as added
to a lotion to treat chapped skin.

Dill - found in most herb gardens. A decoction of dill is used to treat stomach upsets,
insomnia, and flatulence.

Echinacea - (AKA purple cone flower) Used as an immune system support.

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Feverfew - a small daisy like plant that is used in the treatment of migraines.

Ginger - used to treat motion sickness Hops - used to treat anxiety and insomnia Irish
moss - a form of seaweed - is used in treatment of coughs and ulcers. It is currently
being studied as a treatment for influenza B and mumps because it is anti-viral. Joe Pye
Weed - (AKA gravel root) used to treat kidney stones.

Bio-insecticides are organic formulations recommended for the management of insects that
feed on crops. They are different from chemical pesticides in several ways. They contain live
bacteria that produce toxins which cause stomach poison in the insects and kill them.

The resistance power of plant pathogens increased several folds due to indiscriminate and over
use of chemical pesticides. Several generic chemical pesticides became obsolete due to this

Bio-insecticides are the best remedies where the growers were not able to control the insects
in spite of using heavy doses of chemical pesticides. They cure the plant and soil from disease
causing pathogens. Unlike chemical pesticides, bio-insecticides give everlasting protection to
the crop and soil. We recommend VBT, Toxin, Shock and Biostorm based on your crop and the
type of insects plaguing the crops.

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The branch of agriculture is concerned with the care and breeding of domestic animals such as
cattle, hogs, sheep, and horses. The contribution of animal husbandry and dairying to total
gross domestic product (GDP) was 5.9 per cent in 2000-2001 at current prices. The value of
output of livestock and fisheries sectors was estimated to be Rs 1,70,205 crore during 2000-
2001, which is 30.3 per cent of the total value of output of Rs 5,61,717 crore from the
agricultural and allied sectors.

The Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying (AH&D) - now renamed as Department of
Animal Husbandry Dairying & Fisheries (DADF) is one of the Departments in the Ministry of
Agriculture and came into existence on 1st February, 1991, by converting two divisions of the
Department of Agriculture and Cooperation namely Animal Husbandry and Dairy Development
into a separate Department.

Animal husbandry includes domestication of animals to obtain animal products like milk, meat,
wool, skin and Hyde etc. and to use them for draught and transportation. These animals are
cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, pig, camel, horse, mule, donkey and yak etc. India has about 500
species of animals of which only few are domesticated for different uses.

India has about 20 per cent of the world's cattle population. These animals are the backbone of
the country's agriculture and have significant contribution in rural economy. Bullocks have
major role in agricultural operations and rural goods movement and transportation while cows
provide nutritious milk to enrich Indian diet.

These are also good source of hides and skins for leather industry which earns substantial
foreign exchange. Also cow dung is a good source of manure and domestic fuel.

According to 1997 live stock census there were 198.9 million cattle in the country of which 42
per cent were bullocks, 32 per cent cows and 26 percent young livestock. There has been 28.1
per cent increase in the number of cattle between 1951 and 1997.

Cattle population in India belongs to different breeds. These include: (i) milch breed, (ii) draw'
breed, and (iii) mixed or general breed.

Here cows yield higher quantity of milk but the bullocks are not of good quality. Some
important milch breeds include Gir, Sindhi, Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Deoni. The Gir breed is a

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native of Saurashtra ' which yields about 3175 kg of milk per lactation period. Sahiwal breed
belongs to Montgomery district of Pakistan yielding 2725-4535 kg of milk per lactation period.

The Sindhi and Red Sindhi breeds hail from the Sindh area of Pakistan producing about 5440 kg
of milk per lactation period. The Deoni breed belongs to the western and north-western parts
of Andhra Pradesh where cow yields 1580 kg of milk; per lactation period. The Tharparkar
breed is also a native of Sindh area of Pakistan whose cow yields 1815 to 2720 kg of milk per
lactation period.

Here the cows are poor milkers but the bullocks are excellent draught animals. This group
consists of (a) short-horned, white or light grey colour with coffin-shaped skull and face slightly
convex in profile, e.g. Nagori and Bachaur; (b) the lyre horned grey coloured with wide
forehead, prominent orbital arches, flat or dished profile, deep body and powerful draught
capacity, e.g., Kathiawar, Malvi and Kherigarh; (c) the Mysore type characterised by prominent
forehead with long and pointed horns which rise close together, e.g. Mallikar, Amritmahal,
Kangyam and Killari; and (d) small black, red or dun coloured with large patches of white
markings, found in the foot hill region of the Himalayas, e.g., Ponwar and Siri.


Here cows are fairly good yielders of milk and the bullocks are good for draught purposes. The
group includes: (a) short-horned, white or light grey cattle with long coffin-shaped skull and
face slightly

convex in profile, e.g., Mariana, Ongale, Gaolo, Rath, Dangi, Krishna Valley and Nimari etc; and
(b) lyre-horned, grey cattle, deep bodied with wide forehead, prominent arches, flat or dished
in profile and good draught capacity, e.g., Tharparkar and Kankrej.

The Mariana breed is very popular in Haryana, Delhi and western Uttar Pradesh. Bullocks are
strong and useful for draught purposes and cows yield up to 5 kg. of milk per day. The Ongale
belongs to Guntur and Nellore districts of Andhra Pradesh whose bullocks are heavy ploughing
and carting.

The Gaolo breed is indigenous to Nagpur and Wardha districts of Maharashtra and Chhindwara
district of Madhya Pradesh whose cows yield about 7.5 kg of milk every day. Rath breed is an
admixture of the Mariana, Nagori and Mewati breeds. Its cows give up to 5 kg of milk per day
and the bullock is fit for draught work. The Dangi breed comes from Nashik, Thane,
Ahmadnagar and Kolaba districts of Maharashtra.

The Krishna Valley is very popular breed of north Karnataka and southern Maharashtra. Its
cows provide about 916 kg of milk per lactation period while bullocks are good for agricultural
work. The Nimari breed is very common in East and West Nimar districts of Madhya Pradesh
whose cows yield about 915 kg of milk per lactation period.

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The Kankrej breed is indigenous to the Gujarat plains whose cows provide 4.5 to 6.5 kg of milk
per day and the bullocks are sturdy for draught work.

In order to improve the breed of the Indian cattle 7 central cattle breeding farms have been
established. Some of the exotic breeds yielding higher quantity of milk like Jersey, Holstein-
Friesian, Swiss-Brown, Gurnsey, German Fleckvich and Ayreshire have been introduced in the
country which is becoming popular amongst dairy farmers.

Breeds Breeding Centres Remarks

Hallikar Tumkur, Hassan and Draught Breed


Kangayam Erode(Tamil Nadu) Draught Breed

Red Sindhi Dairy Breed

Tharparkar Umarkot, Naukot, Dairy Breed

Dhoro naro Chor

Vechur Kerala

Jersy Island of Jersy, Dairy Breed

crossbreds available
in all Indian states

Holstein Swiss Province of North Daily Breed

Holland and West

Artificial Insemination

Artificial insemination (AI) is the deliberate introduction of semen into a female's vagina or
oviduct for the purpose of fertilisation by means other than ejaculation. It is the medical
alternative to sexual intercourse, or natural insemination.

Artificial insemination is a fertility treatment for humans, and is a common practice in the
breeding of dairy cattle and pigs. Artificial insemination may employ assisted reproductive
technology, donated sperm, and/or animal husbandry techniques.

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1. The space telescope of NASA discovered astonishing magnetic braids of super-hot matter in
outer atmosphere of the Sun. Which of the following statements is true in context with this
a) The scientists claimed that this discovery could help in explaining the mysterious hot centre
of the Sun.
b) The NASAs telescope captured 1000 photographs depicting astonishing details.
c) It was found out that the Suns surface was almost up to 6125 degrees Celsius.
d) The scientists also discovered that the powerful magnetic waves which rippled from within
the surface of the Sun.

2. Iran on 28 January 2013 announced that it had successfully sent into space a primate. Which
primate did it send into space?
a) Worms
b) Monkey
c) Turtle
d) Mouse

3. NASA on 1 February 2013 marked 10th anniversary of which Space Shuttle?

a) Columbia
b) Challenger
c) Both of these
d) None of these

4. Scientists from NASA in the last week of January 2013 discovered an old star called TW
Hydrae which they believe could create new planets even now. How old is this star?
a) 100 million years old
b) 50 million years old
c) 20 million years old
) 10 million years old

5. The Japanese scientists from the Saitama University in the first week of February 2013 filmed
for the first time, the thoughts of which animal while it was tracking its prey?
a) A fish
b) A zebra
c) An elephant
d) A snail

6. UK scientists in the third week of January 2013 discovered a set of hydrothermal vents, the
deepest anywhere in the world while exploring the ocean floor in the __________. Fill in the
blank with an appropriate option.

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a) Caribbean Islands
b) Cayman Trough
c) Atlantic
d) None of these

7. Where did the researchers in the third week of February 2013 detected water traces inside
the crystalline structure?
a) Mars
b) Sun
c) Earth
d) Moon

8. The astronomers in the second week of February 2013 discovered the proof that cosmic rays
originate as the results of explosions of stars or supernova, these are termed as the most
energetic event in the galaxy. Who discovered the cosmic rays first in 1912?
a) Eratosthenes
b) Victor Hess
c) Claudius Ptolemy
d) Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi

9. Scientists discovered in their study that Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) can detect the
electric fields of _________. Fill in the blank with an appropriate option.
a) Plants
b) Vegetables
c) Flowers
d) Fruits

10. Where will the first wildlife skywalk of India come up?
a) Shillong
b) Manali
c) Manipur
d) Sikkim

11. NASA on 9 February 2013 announced that its Mars rover Curiosity drilled into the surface of
the planet for first time. Which of the following statements is not true in context to this
a) As an outcome of the drilling, the pictures were sent by Curiosity which depicted a hole of
around 0.63 inches wide and 2.5 inches deep in the fine-grained sedimentary bedrock.
b) Engineers are absolutely clear whether the powder was produced in what quantity but it is
enough for laboratory analysis.
c) NASA announced that using drill was the biggest achievement for the team of Curiosity ever
since the rover landed on Mars in August 2012.
d) The final target of Curiosity is 3-mile- (5-km) high mound of layered sediment which rises
from floor of Gale Crater landing site.

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12. A new study using data from a pair of gravity-measuring NASA satellites found on 12
February 2013 that large parts of the arid __________ region lost freshwater reserves rapidly
during the past decade. Fill in the blank with an appropriate option.
a) Middle East
b) South Eastern
c) Saudi Arabia
d) North Western

13. Astronomers in the third week of February 2013 discovered six speeding stars which were
racing through the space at a speed of 3.2 million kilometres per hour. The mass of these stars
is equivalent to what?
a) Moon
b) Earth
c) Milky Way
d) Sun

14. NASA scientists discovered the youngest black hole in our galaxy, Milky Way in February
2013. How far is this black hole from Earth?
a) 26000 light years away
b) 12000 light years away
c) 10000 light years away
d) 25000 light years away

15. The core of Milky Way is actually cloaked in dust which makes all stars unclear from
telescopes of the astronomers, except the brightest stars. But these hypervelocity stars were
useful in providing a peep into _________. Fill in the blank with an appropriate option.
a) Deaths of stars in Milky Way
b) Birth of the stars in the universe
c) Deaths of the stars around the Sun
d) Formation of stars in Milky Way

16. Name the Mars rover of NASA.

a) Era
b) Curiosity
c) Discovery
d) Challenger
17. Where was the first bionic man of the world called Rex unveiled on 7 February 2013?
a) London's Science Museum
b) American Science Museum
c) Paris Science Museum
d) Europe Science Museum

18. Which of the following statements is not true?

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a) NASA on 9 February 2013 announced that its Mars rover Curiosity drilled into the surface of
the planet for first time.
b) The drilling into Martian surface took place for the first time on 8 February 2013.
c) As an outcome of the drilling, the pictures were sent by Challenger which depicted a hole of
around 0.63 inches wide and 2.5 inches deep in the fine-grained sedimentary bedrock.
d) The first drill target of Curiosity was a Martian rock which was laced with the veins which
appeared like water-deposited minerals.

19. In the first bionic man of the world, Rex, where did the synthetic blood come from?
a) MIT
b) Swansea
c) University College London
d) Sheffield University

20. Curiosity is on a _________ mission on Mars for finding out the chemical and geologic
conditions on Mars which are required for supporting as well as preserving the microbial life.
Fill in the blank with an appropriate option:
a) 3-year
b) 5-year
c) 2-year
d) 10-year

21. Scientists at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, US and Karolinska Institute in
Sweden got a genetic get through into the main cause of arthritis. What, according to the
scientists could be used for predicting the person who could potentially be at a risk of this
a) Simple X-Ray
b) Simple Blood test
c) Simple Diagnosis
d) None of these

22. A team at Intel, the computer hardware firm created a device, which is said to allow which
renowned physicist of the world to communicate faster than before?
a) Nikola Tesla
b) Antoine Henri Becquerel
c) Max Planck
d) Stephen Hawking

23. The researchers from EMBL- European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) in January 2013
developed a new method that allows storage of 100 million hours of high definition video in a
cup of DNA. Which of the following statements is true in context to this?
a) The scientists in Cambridge downloaded all the 154 sonnets of Wordsworth on the strands of
the synthetic DNA, a genetic storage device have been used.

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b) Scientists were successful in encoding the information and reproduction of the Brads words
with complete accuracy.
c) One sonnet from Shakespeare weighs 0.3 millionths of a millionth of a gram when written on
the DNA and thus a gram of the DNA can easily store information that more than one million of
compact disks (CDs) can store.
d) Scientists claimed that the genes can be used as the robust way to store information as the
information once stored in it can be extracted from the mammoth bones, even after tens of
thousands of years.

24. In which Indian zoo were the thirty one Black Bucks killed by the stray dogs on 19 January
a) Kanpur Zoo
b) Lucknow Zoo
c) Delhi Zoo
d) Patna Zoo

25. Where was the Vulture Population Estimation-2013 conducted by the State Government?
a) Manas Tiger Reserve
b) Panna Tiger Reserve
c) Palamau Tiger Reserve
d) Pench Tiger Reserve

26. Researchers at the University of California, San Diego, in the third week of January 2013
developed a fresh technique that enables surgeons to find out about the reach of tumours and
helps them to decide which tissues should be removed for saving the healthy cells in cancer
patients. What is the name of this new technique?
a) Laser Imaging
b) Molecular-Laser Imaging
c) Molecular-Targeted imaging
d) Target Imaging

27. Kaspersky Lab, the Russian cyber security firm on 14 January 2013 revealed that India is one
among various nations which are hit by the cyber spying which has been targeting
governmental, diplomatic and scientific research organisations for around 5 years. What is the
name of this cyber spying campaign?
a) Blue October
b) Red December
c) Blue December
d) Red October

28. Which space agency released surprising pictures of the remains of huge river which ran
across the Red Planet, Mars at some point of time, on 17 January 2013?
b) European Space Agency

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c) Australian Space Agency

d) None of these

29. The meteorological authority of China issued yellow alert in various cities. Which of the
following statements is not correct in this context?
a) Yellow alert indicated the presence of fog that shows dangerous smog levels in the northern
as well as western regions of China.
b) The Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center website declared that the density of
the PM2.5 particulates crossed the 700 micrograms per cubic meter level in various parts of
c) Initially, it was found that the PM2.5 that is an indicator of the air quality had reached 500
point in certain monitoring stations.
d) PM2.5 is an indicator of the extent of pollution in the air.

30. Astronomers had already discovered that the super-massive black holes which sit in the
centres of various galaxies were growing faster. Professor Graham explained that every time
there is a ten times increase in the stellar mass of the galaxy, it leads to around 100 times
increase in the ______________. Fill in the blank with an appropriate option:
a) Mass of black hole
b) Density of black hole
c) Both of these
d) None of these

31. NASA in the first week of January 2013 unveiled that Mars Curiosity Rover has captured an
image of a flower like object embedded on the rocks of Mars. It has also photographed a snake-
like rock formation on the Martian Rocks. What was the name of microscope that captured the
a) Light Microscopy Module
b) Mars Hand Lens Imager
c) Fluorescence light microscope
d) None of these

32. Scientists at the University of Edinburgh's School of Biological Sciences in the second week
of January 2013 discovered that the oldest known super predator of the world was the marine
crocodile. What is the name of this oldest known super predator of the world?
a) Tyrant Swimmer
b) Tylosaurus
c) Predator X
d) Basilosaurus

33. Scientists at the Stanford University in the second week of January 2013, California
developed an experimental drug called LM11A-31 which is claimed to help paralysed people
reclaim their movements. Which of the following statements is true in context to this sentence?

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a) The new drug enabled the dogs which had no movements in lower limbs, to walk again with
the coordinated steps.
b) In the tests, it was also observed that the medication did not cause any pain in dogs.
c) Blood brain barrier, which is responsible for protecting the central nervous system (CNS)
from harmful chemicals carried in the bloodstream, was also crossed efficiently.
d) None of these

34. Which kind of wine can distort the results of testosterone level in body?
a) White Wine
b) Rose Wine
c) Purple Wine
d) Red Wine

35. Which is the largest cosmic structure in the universe that is powered by super massive black
holes clump together? This structure was discovered by the astronomers in the first week of
January 2013.
a) Large Quasar Group
b) Galaxy Filaments
c) Inflationary universe
d) None of these

36. Astronomers studying about the newborn star called HD 142527, observed glimpses of the
planets which were forming around it, depicting the stage of planetary evolution which was
never seen before. Which telescope helped to observe these planets?
a) Large Binocular Telescope
b) Gemini South
c) Hale Telescope (200 inch)
d) Atacama Large Millimetre /submillimeter Array

37. A team of researchers including that of an Indian-origin, at Oregon State University

discovered in the first week of January 2013, one malfunctioning protein which leads to itchy,
dry as well as inflamed skin wounds in a kind of eczema. What is the name of this protein?
a) Tropomyosin
b) Fibronectin
c) Ctip2
d) Coronin

38. Scientists claimed that the 2-billion year old dark black rock, called Northwest Africa (NWA)
7034 or Black Beauty is actually new kind of Martian meteorite which contains 10 times excess
water than the normal. Where did this rock land in 2011?
a) Mexico
b) Sahara
c) Antractica
d) None of these

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39. Astronomers studying about the newborn star observed glimpses of the planets which were
forming around it. Astronomers were studying the HD 142527 which is __________ away from
the Earth. Fill in the blank with an appropriate option:
a) 450 light years
b) 350 light years
c) 250 light years
d) 150 light years

40. Which largest mountain glacier of the world was claimed to have been reduced to 5.9 km in
its longitudinal extent from the time period of 1989 to 2009 because of increasing
temperatures and presence of humans?
a) Gangotri
b) Janapa
c) Miyar
d) Siachen

41. The Mayan Doomsday predictions about the world ending on 21 December 2012 had failed
and additionally NASA ruled out the asteroid collision with Earth in 2040. What is the name of
this as teroid which was feared to be collided?
a) 2011 AG5
b) 5224 Abbe
c) 2646 Abetti
d) 6805 Abstracta

42. The spaceplane constructed by Richard Branson's spaceflight company called Virgin Galactic
successfully completed the important flight test which would be able to carry the people to
space. What is the name of this spaceplane?
a) Boeing X-37
b) Soviet Buran
c) SpaceShipTwo
d) BOR-4

43. Astronomers claimed that a rare supercomet called ___________ was moving towards the
Sun from outer solar system. Fill in the blank with an appropriate option:
a) C/1980 E1 (Bowell)
b) Comet HaleBopp (C/1995 O1)
c) Comet Lulin (C/2007 N3)
d) C/2012 S1 (ISON)

44. Australian researchers of Sydneys Garvan Institute claimed that they discovered primary
factor which made breast cancer aggressive as well as resistant to the treatments. Which of the
following statements is false in this context?
a) Protein called ELF5 is responsible for making the tumours of breast cancer more aggressive

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as well as resistant to treatments, revealed the key researcher Chris Ormandy.

b) The study would be helpful in targeting ELF5 in such a way that it would help in treating the
breast cancers which are not numb to anti-oestrogens.
c) Around half of the women will eventually not be able to tackle to anti-oestrogen treatment
which they would have been undergoing, which would in turn further progress their tumour.
d) In the tissue-culture models of this type of cancer which were made numb to anti-oestrogen
treatment, levels of ELF5 increase dramatically.

45. Researchers from the Penn State University in the last week of December declared that the
cause of encouragement of human evolution might have been the swift environmental changes
in areas like East Africa around _____________. Fill in the blank with appropriate option:
a) 3 million years ago
b) 200 million years ago
c) 2 million years ago
d) 300 million years ago

46. The Central Zoo Authority of India approved exchanging white tigress from the Delhi Zoo
against an animal from the Krasnoyarks Park of flora and fauna, Roev Ruchey in Russia. Which
animal was traded in exchange of white tigress?
a) South American Jaguars
b) Kangaroos
c) Puma
d) Leopard

47. NASA developed new next-gen spacesuit called Z-1 Prototype Spacesuit and Portable Life
Support System (PLSS) 2.0 for the sophisticated and complex space ventures, which also include
Mars mission. Which of the following statement is not true in this context:
a) The spacesuit is crafted out of various hard elements on the fabric. It also becomes flexible
after being inflated.
b) There is no need of an airlock for seeking entry or getting exit in and out of this suit.
c) It makes use of the recent technique that includes sublimator which works only in hard
d) The spacesuit packs in itself water membrane evaporation cooler which cools the suit
through same method like sweating.

48. The gravity mapping satellites of NASA ended the successful mission to Moon by crashing
on the rim of crater. What is the name of these gravity mapping satellites of NASA?
a) Voyager 1 and Voyager 2
b) Ebb and Flow
c) Orion and Kepler
d) Dawn and Orion

49. Scientist in the month of December revealed a planet that could support life, orbits a Sun-
like star near the Earth. What is the name of the star around which this planet was found

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a) Tau Ceti
b) Sirius
c) 36 Ophiuchi
d) Gliese 33

50. A microbe led to extinction of more than 90 species on Earths surface around 251 million
years ago, the researchers found out in the second week of December 2012. Which of the
following statements is true in this context:
a) According to the current theory, mass extinction by end of Permian period was started
because of volcanic eruptions on a large area, now called Siberia.
b) When the group of researchers analysed genome of Methanosarcina - a methanogen which
is accountable for most of the biogenic methane on Earth today, it was discovered that microbe
acquired this ability some 231 million years ago.
c) Methanosarcina needs huge amount of nickel for producing methane fast.
d) All the statements are true

51. French scientists claimed that they developed a new system which enables humans to get
360 degree vision. The headset in the system is said to capture the images from different
directions and thereafter transform these into the matter which is possible for the human
vision system to comprehend. What is the name of this new system?
a) Eidograph
b) FlyVIZ
c) Scoliometer
d) Xylometer

52. Scientists from NASA spotted the longest extra-terrestrial river system ever on Saturns
moon Titan which appears to be a miniature version of one of the Earths rivers. Titan which
appears to be a miniature version of which river of Earth?
a) Amazon River
b) Thames River
c) Nile River
d) Rhine River

53. Researchers of the University of Michigan Health System and Harvard Medical School in the
second week of December 2012 showed that anti-ageing genes might be helpful in curtailing
the multiplication of cancer. Which of the following statements is not true in context of this?
a) The researchers had shown that the decrease in SIRT6 protein in rats increased the size,
aggressiveness as well as number of tumours.
b) In the new research the role of SIRT6 in diminishing the growth of cancer by repressing
aerobic glycolysis was highlighted.
c) SIRT6 is also responsible for inhibiting the activity of major cancer gene called Myc.
d) SIRT6 does not play any role in stopping cancer or controlling cellular metabolism.

54. Scientists in northern Mexico discovered a new dinosaur with a large prominent nose which
lived about 73 million years ago. What is the name of this new dinosaur?

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a) Latirhinus Uitstlani
b) Gigantoraptor
c) Khaan
d) Raptorex

55. British scientists claimed that they developed in the first week of December 2012, the first
toothbrush of the world called Emmident toothbrush which makes use of the _________ for
cleaning teeth. Fill in the blank with appropriate word:
a) X-Ray
b) Ultrasound waves
c) 3D Imaging
d) None of these

56. Scientists in the last week of November 2012 developed a new drug for stopping the
cancerous cells from multiplying. The new drug compels the cancerous cells to sleep which in
turn stops them in multiplying. The drug is said to trick the tumours for becoming inactive by
swapping the molecular switches in cancer structure so that there is no multiplication of the
cancerous cells. What is the name of this drug?
a) Letrozole
b) Mitomycin
c) Cyclophosphamide
d) Aflibercept

57. Astronomers claimed that they have discovered the biggest ever black hole in the small
galaxy which is situated around 250 million light years away from our planet. This galaxy
constitutes the mass equal to 17 billion suns. The biggest ever black hole sits in the Perseus
constellation. What is the name of this galaxy in which the black hole sits?
a) Milky Way
b) Cartwheel Galaxy
c) NGC 1277 galaxy
d) Mayalls Object Galaxy

58. The temperature variations at the shallow levels under the surface of Earth are influenced
by the _________. Fill in the blank with an appropriate option.
a) Topography
b) Geography
c) Both of these
d) None of these

59. Software engineers as well as neuroscientists at University of Waterloo, Canada claimed

that they have developed a closest model of the functioning human brain. What is this artificial
human brain called?
a) AbioCor
b) Bioartificial

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c) i-Limb
d) Spaun

60. Boeing, the US aircraft manufacturer claimed that a new missile was tested which can
permanently blackout the electronics of the country without causing any harm to people. What
is the name of this missile?
b) Mathago
c) Ikara

61. Which of the following statements are true?

a) The Solar Eclipse occur when the moon crosses between the Sun and the Earth blocking the
sun completely or partially.
b) The Solar Eclipse can occur only on the day of a new moon when, the sun and the moon lies
in conjunction to each other when seen from the earth.
c) Statements a and b are true.
d) None of the statements is true.

62. Researchers of University of Edinburgh discovered a new gene known as miR-941, which
explains the evolution of humans from the chimpanzees. Which of the following statements is
true in this context?
a) The gene is found only in human beings.
b) The gene is found in humans and apes.
c) The gene could be used for knowing how humans learnt the usage of languages as well as
d) Statements (a) and (c) are true.
63. Which of the following statement/statements is/are true?
a) Rheumatoid arthritis affects various organs.
b) Rheumatoid arthritis affects tissues, various organs as well as joints.
c) Both (a) and (b) are true.
d) Only (b) is true.

64. A study led by Scientist and Evolutionary Anthropologist, Dean Falk of Florida State
University revealed in the Month of October that a Physicists brain had an "extraordinary"
prefrontal cortex - unlike those of most people which may have contributed to his remarkable
genius. What is the name of this physicist?
a) Stephen Hawking
b) Charles Darwin
c) Sir Issac Newton
d) Albert Einstein

65. Researchers from Stanford who were led by the scientists of Indian origin, in the third week
of November 2012 claimed the development of fastest as well as most reliable mathematical

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algorithm which can help the disabled trick the computer cursors. The computer cursors could
be controlled with the help of which mechanism?
a) Thoughts
b) Sight
c) Smell
d) Touch

66. Gases that come out from the volcano provides a potential threat to the people, animal and
agriculture as well as property of the people residing in the nearby area of the volcano. The
gases released from the volcano contains gases like sulphur dioxide, hydrogen fluoride and
carbon dioxide in huge amount, which pollutes the air in the atmosphere. Which of the
following gas causes acid rain?
a) Hydrogen Fluoride
b) Carbon Dioxide
c) Helium
d) Sulphur Dioxide

67. Researchers fabricated an all-new paperthin bullet-proof super material, which has the
capability to self-assemble into alternating rubbery as well as glassy layers. The nano-material
has the ability to translate into the safety beyond the vests. These technological advancements
could be used for protective coating for the jet engine turbine blades as well as the satellites.
Name the institute from which the researchers and scientists belong to?
a) University of Edinburgh and Rice University
b) Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Rice University
c) Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and University of Edinburgh
d) Rice University and University of Sterling

68. Australia on 22 November 2012 approved the plan to save an ailing river system. What is
the name of this ailing river system?

a) Murray-Darling Basin River System

b) Cooper Creek- Darling Basin River System
c) Murrumbidgee - Murray Basin River System
d) Flinders- Cooper Creek Basin River System

69. Which is the third brightest object in the sky after sun and moon?

a) Venus
b) International Space Station (ISS)
c) Saturn
d) None of these

70. Scientists on 8 November 2012 revealed about the discovery of a special type of bacteria in
the Ocean with abilities of combining together for the formation of the long conducting nano
wire cable for transportation of electrons and capturing the oxygen available at the surface for
carrying out the metabolic activities. What is the live wire made up of?

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a) Living neurons
b) Living bacteria cells
c) Living biological cells
d) None of these

71. Scientists tracked 55 large robber crabs on the Christmas Island in South of Indonesia in the
third week of November, 2012. It was found that the land crabs having the leg span of around
3.3 feet or 1 metre usually stay in the small home range. Which technology was used to track
these crabs?
a) Infrared Technology
b) GPS Technology
c) Google Maps Technology
d) None of these

72. Major changes on the earths surface by checking the increase or decrease in gravity level
are detected by which organisation/organisations?
a) World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
b) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)
c) Both of these
d) None of these

73. Which of these is not a greenhouse gas?

a) Carbon Dioxide
b) Methane
c) Hydrogen
d) Nitrous Oxide

74. The Tongariro Volcano in Mount Tongariro at Tongariro National Park, New Zealand erupted
on 21 November 2012. This was which kind of a volcano?
a) Shield Volcano
b) Cinder Cones
c) Compound Volcano
d) Composite Volcano

75. The Mantle comprises of thick molten rock. What is this thick molten rock called?
a) Crust
b) Lava
c) Core
d) Magma

76. The Supreme Court of India in November 2012 expressed its concerns on the growing smog
cover over the National Capital, which is caused due to the pollution created by the increase in
the number of vehicles in the Capital. Which of the following statements is true in this context?

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a) One can see the smog cover in the sky even during the hot summer days when the wind
density is low and weak.
b) Smog cover in the sky can only be seen in the cold winter months.
c) Smog in itself is the mixture of smoke and fog, which is the combination of pollutants created
from industries and vehicles.
d) Smog is a mixture of fog and pollutants.
i. Statements a and c are correct
ii. All the above statements are correct
iii. Statements a and d are correct
iv. None of the above statements is correct

77. When was the term Photochemical Smog first used and described?
a) In 1970s
b) In 1980s
c) In 1950s
d) In 1940s

78. The world's rarest whale species was spotted for the first time by scientists of New Zealand
in the Pacific Ocean. What is the name of this rarest whale species?
a) Spade-toothed beaked whales
b) Bowhead Whales
c) North Pacific Right Whales
d) Southern Right Whales

79. The research paper published by the scientists presents a positive report about the change
in the number of vultures, which resulted in a catastrophic decline in its number by more than
99 percent in past two decades. The study reveals that there has been a marginal rise in the
population of Vultures between 2011 and 2012. Who published the research paper?
a) Delhi Development Authority (DDA)
b) Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS)
c) Delhi Universitys Centre for Environmental Management of Degraded Systems
d) None of these

80. Australia on 16 November 2012 created the world's largest network of marine reserves,
protecting more than 2.3 million square kilometres of ocean environment. However, the
Marine reserve creation is going to ruin coastal communities and it will also affect thousands of
jobs with a serious impact on US $ 2 billion aquaculture Industry. This was criticised by which
a) Commonwealth Fisheries Association
b) Australian Marine Alliance
c) Both of these
d) None of these

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81. Scientists at NASA on 27 September 2012 announced that the Mars Curiosity Rover has
discovered stream bed gravel, which hints towards the presence of waist-deep water on the
surface of Mars in the past. What is this Mars Curiosity Rover?
a) Satellite
b) Team of Astronauts
c) Robotic explorer
d) Meteors

82. The Indian Institute of Toxicology Research reported that the water in and around the
deserted Union Carbide plant is contaminated and not fit for consumption. Where is this Union
Carbide Plant Located?
a) Bhopal
b) Jaipur
c) Shimla
d) Bhubaneswar

83. The endangered species, Great Indian Bustard and Lesser Florican have got a dedicated land
for breeding in the Shonkaliya Region of Ajmer District, Rajasthan. What are they?
a) Birds
b) Animals
c) Insects
d) Amphibian

84. The simultaneous earthquakes seen in past few years in which region is found to be a cause
of the Tectonic Plate Disintegration?
a) Arabian Sea
b) Indian Ocean
c) Arabian Peninsula
d) Himalyan Region

85. On which date the most outstanding demonstrations of its own kind in Khandawa district of
Madhya Pradesh named Jal Satyagraha which had continued for 17 days at Omkareshwar Dam
Project came to an end?
a) 10 September 2012
b) 15 September 2012
c) 17 September 2012
d) 12 September 2012

86. Name the astronaut of Indian American origin who took over the command of International
Space Station on 15 September 2012.
a) Sunita Williams
b) Kalpana Chawla
c) Ravish Malhotra
d) None of these

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87. Scientists at Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) warned that most of Earth's land
areas might face an extreme summer heat wave than they did faced in between 1951 to 1980.
Goddard Institute of Space Studies is a division of which space research centre?
c) Centre of astrophysics
d) European Space Agency

88. On which date from 1995 onwards the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone
Layer is celebrated worldwide?
a) 15 September
b) 18 September
c) 16 September
d) 12 September

89. Where the ozone layer is mainly found in the Earths atmosphere?
a) Stratosphere
b) Hemisphere
c) Ozonosphere
d) Troposphere

90. The environment ministry on 12 September 2012 suspended the clearance of

environmental guidelines issued to 93 Mines across which state?
a) Himachal Pradesh
b) Rajasthan
c) Goa
d) Madhya Pradesh

91. Scientists of the University of Michigan developed a gene therapy which they claimed could
restore the sense of olfactory function. What is this olfactory function related to?
a) Sense of hearing
b) Sense of smell
c) Sense of sight
d) Sense of touch

92. Australian scientists along with US experts claimed that they have discovered treatment for
Alzheimer patients following a study finding a link to abnormalities in Alzheimer Patients.
Alzheimers disease is related to?
a) Brain
b) Heart
c) Eye sightedness
d) Liver

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93. Researchers from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute in Australia discovered that two
proteins that work together to kill self-reactive immune cells can protect against diseases such
as type1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis principally attacks which part
of the body?
a) Joints
b) Skin
c) Lungs
d) Kidney

94. India enter into its first multi-lateral Social Science research collaboration with four
European Nations by the approval of projects for networking and social science research
cooperation in between the researchers of these nations. The colaboration came into existence
on which date?
a) 2 September 2012
b) 7 September 2012
c) 5 September 2012
d) 4 September 2012

95. The Zoological Society of London and International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
released a list of 100 different species to be first in line for extinction from 48 different
countries during the World Conservation Congress held in Republic of Korea on 11 September
2012. The Indian species that was categorised under first line of extinction was_____________
a) Great Indian Bustard
b) One horned Rhino
c) Indian giant Squirrel
d) Asiatic Lion

96. A new strain of rice developed by the scientists, which can enhance the productivity in the
soil that lacks a nutrient content. Name the nutrient, lack of which effects crop yield.
a) Sulphur
b) Oxygen
c) Phosphorous
d) Carbon

97. Name the two planets that came together in the Western sky on 15 August 2012 after
a) Mars and Saturn
b) Earth and Mars
c) Jupiter and Saturn
d) Venus and Earth

98. The identified singing mice that use songs to communicate are found in which region?
a) The Himalayan terrain

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b) The tropical cloud forests in the mountains of Costa Rica

c) On the volcanic plates of Pacific
d) Greenland

99. Name the NASAs Robert that has recently touched the surface of Mars
a) Rover Curiosity
b) Gale Crater
c) Martian home
d) Calif

100. Name the process that will be applied for transferring the gene of the newly developed
Stained Rice to the modern variety of rice
a) Cross-Breeding
b) Genetic Engineering
c) Hybridization
d) None of these

101. Which Indian University signed an agreement for establishing a centre for earthquake and
hydrological studies with Hyderabad based NGRI (National Geophysical Research Institute) on
August 15, 2012?
a) University of Kerala
b) University of West Bengal
c) University of Kashmir
d) University of Assam

102. On 25 August 2012, the ballistic missile "Prithvi II" was successfully launched from the test
range off Odisha Coast. Which type of missile is Prithvi II?
a) Air-to-air missile
b) Surface-to-air missile
c) Air-to-surface missile
d) Surface-to-surface missile

103. On 23 August 2012, ______________________ won environmental approval for its A$10
billion Alpha coal and rail project in Australia's Queensland.
a) Jaypee Enterprises
b) GMR Infrastructure
c) GVK Power and Infrastructure
d) Adani Enterprises

104. Which university scientists developed a mechanical device that measures the mass of
individual molecules?
a) University of Oxford
b) University of Delhi
c) University of China

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d) California University of Technology

105. On which date NASA's Mars rover Curiosity has fired its laser for the first time on Mars,
using the beam to study a fist-size rock called "Coronation."
a) Aug. 10, 2012
b) Aug. 20, 2012
c) Aug. 15, 2012
d) Aug 22, 2012

106. Prime Minister said India will send a mission to "Mars" to collect scientific information.
What is the name of this mission?
a) Mars Orbitor Mission
b) Mars Yojana
c) Mangal Yaan
d) India Mars Plan

107. The House Sparrow was on ___________ declared as state bird of Delhi by the state
government. The new status of the bird is likely to help in its conservation.
a) 14 August 2012
b) 13 Feb 2012
c) 12 March 2012
d) 16 July 2012

108. Which Indian institute developed a web-based system for advising farmers the right
quantity of fertilizers that they should use in their soils for a particular type of crop?
a) Indian Institute of Management
b) Indian Institute of Soil Sciences
c) Indian Institute of Foreign Trade
d) Indian Institute of Finance

109. On which date in August 2012, the Ring-planet Saturn and Red planet Mars came together
in Western Sky after sunset?
a) August 12
b) August 05
c) August 15
d) August 11

110. Scientists in the second week of August 2012 found a stem cell therapy to prevent which
disease? Scientists used MSCs (mesenchymal) stem cells in mice with fractures that typically
result into developing arthritis.
a) Osteoarthritis after a joint injury
b) Cataract
c) Cancer
d) Skin Infection

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111. The Australian Climate Commission warned that the worlds sea levels could increase by
_ the end of the 21st Century.
a) 1.5 Metre.
b) 2 Metres.
c) 3 Metres.
d) 1 Metres.

112. Isle of Wight rock yielded three fossil footprints of Dinosaurs. In which one of the
following countries Isle of Wight is located?
a) USA
b) UK
c) India
d) Germany

113. In the studies conducted by American, Belgian, British and Dutch researchers it was found
that tumors contain their own pool of stem cells that can multiply and keep fueling the cancer,
seeding regrowth. Which one of the following techniques researchers used to trace the
ancestry of cells within mouse tumors?
a) labeling technique
b) Striking technique
c) Bubble technique
d) None of the above

114. US researchers are using a new tool called___ for detecting illegal nuclear explosions.
a) The Earths Global Positioning System (GPS)
b) Water alarm device
c) Seismometer
d) Geiger counter

115. A Rare bird Jerdans Baza was found for the first time in Dantepally tank area in Pocharam
reserve forest of on 16 June 2012. Consider the given facts regarding Jerdans Baza.
i) Jerdans Baza mainly eats frogs, lizards and large insects.
ii) The bird id recognized by broad round wings, a long squarish tail, jaunty crest and forest
dwelling habits.
Choose the right option:
a) Only i is correct.
b) Only ii is correct.
c) Both i and ii are correct.
d) Neither i nor ii is correct.

116. Which one of the following cities has been slated to host the United Nations Conference
on Sustainable Development 2012?
a) Rio de Janeiro
b) Buenos Aires

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c) Hawana
d) Toronto

117. NASA on 13 May 2012 launched Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) on a
Pegasus rocket from Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Consider the following given facts
related to NuSTAR and chose the right option?
i) NuSTAR will help scientists find the most subtle and energetic black holes.
ii) NuSTAR will work in coordination with other telescopes in space, including NASA's Chandra
X-ray Observatory, which observes lower-energy X-rays
Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are wrong.
b) Only i is wrong.
c) Only ii is correct.
d) Both i and ii are correct

118. China on 16 June 2012 launched its spacecraft Shenzhou-9 from the Jiuquan satellite
launch centre in north-western Gansu province. Which of the following facts related to
Shenzhou-9 is not true?
i) Shenzhou-9 is Chinas fourth human spaceflight
ii) Shenzhou -9 spacecraft will conduct the first manned docking mission
iii) Shenzhou-9 space mission comprise three astronauts including Chinas first woman
astronaut Liu Yang
iv) Shenzhou-9 is Chinas first manned space programme
Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are wrong
b) Only i is wrong
c) Only iv is wrong
d) Neither i nor ii is wrong

119. According to the World Health Organization's cancer agencys report declared on 12 June
2012, .. is the most probable cause of cancer among the people.
a) Diesel Fumes
b) Dust
c) Petrol exhaust
d) None of the above

120. According to a new government report India's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions rose by 58
per cent between 1994 and 2007. Greenhouse gases are those gases that can absorb and emit
infrared radiation. Which one of the following is not a green house gas?
a) nitrogen (N)
b) methane (CH4)
c) nitrous oxide (N2O)
d) ozone (O3)

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121. The World Environment Day was observed across the globe on 5 June 2012. Theme for the
World Environment Day 2012 was
a) Green Economy: Does it include you?
b) Forests-Nature At Your Service
c) Water- all we need
d) None of the above

122. The UN General Assembly started observing the World Environment Day in 1972 to
i) raise public awareness about the need of better environment.
ii) to mark the opening of the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment
Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are correct.
b) Only i is correct.
c) Only ii is correct.
d) Neither i nor ii is correct.

123. World IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) Launch Day held globally on 6 June 2012. Which of
the following facts related to World IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) Launch Day is not true?
i) The day, organized by Internet Society, represents a major milestone in the global
deployment of IPv6.
ii) Previous year the World IPv6 Day was observed on 8 June
iii) World IPv6 Day 2012 was an event sponsored and organized by the Internet Society and
several large content providers to test public IPv6 deployment
iv) The day was announced by Google
Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are wrong
b) Only i is wrong
c) Only iv is wrong
d) Neither i nor ii is wrong

124. Scientists discovered eight genes which could pave the way for the development of
effective treatments for ankylosing spondylitis which is painful form of_
a) Joint pain
b) Headache
c) Arthritis
d) Cancer

125. Scientists at the Tomato Genome Consortium (TGC) successfully sequenced the genomes
of which of the following vegetables?
a) Tomato
b) Onion
c) Brinjal
d) Potato

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126. Scientists found diarrhea bug called Dientamoeba Fragilis in_.

a) Pigs
b) Rabbits
c) Rats
d) Cows

127. Scientists identified common childhood obesity genes called__ and__.

a) OLFM4 and HOXB5
b) OLFM and HOX
c) OFM4 and HOXC5

128. Assam registered a_ percent increase in last three years.

a) 14
b) 15
c) 16
d) 17

129. The Union Cabinet of India on 12 April 2012 approved India`s Second National
Communication to the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change. Consider the following statements:
i) India is party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC).
ii) The Convention, in accordance with its Article 4.1 and 12.1, enjoins all Parties, both
developed and developing country Parties, to furnish information, in the form of a National
Communication (a national report).
a) Both i and ii are correct.
b) Only i is correct.
c) Only ii is correct.
d) Neither i nor ii is correct.
Answer: (a) Both i and ii are correct.

130. The Union ministry of environment and forests (MoEF) banned the use of live animals in
dissection and other experiments in educational and research institutions. The ban is based on
a) The prevention of cruelty to Animals Act 1960.
b) The prevention of cruelty to animals act 1970
c)The prevention of cruelty to animals act 1980
d) The Prevention of cruelty to animals act 1990

131. Scientists recently found the treatment for Glaucoma in rats. Glaucoma is an __ disease.
a) Eye
b) Ear
c) Lung
d) Skin

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132. Scientists identified two genes, which are linked to Parkinsons. The genes are called__.
a) NACP and MAPT
b) NCAP and MPAT
c) NPAC and MTPA
d) NNCP and MMPA

133. Erosion and diversion of Rushikulya river mouth in Odisha's Ganjam district seem to be
posing a serious threat to the annual mass nesting of the endangered Olive Ridley sea turtles.
Consider the following statements:
i) The olive ridley sea turtle is also known as the Pacific ridley.
ii) It is a species of sea turtle.
Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are correct.
b) Only i is correct.
c) Only ii is correct.
d) Neither i nor ii is correct.

134. Which one of the following state governments imposed restrictions on the visit of foreign
tourists to the areas inhabited by Tribals?
a) Odisha
b) Bihar
c) Madhya Pradesh
d) Uttar Pradesh

135. Indian black eagle was spotted in the Aravali Biodiversity park after a gap of __ years.
a) 90
b) 80
c) 70
d) 60

136. Scientists identified a new gene in maize plants called__.

a) Meg1
b) Meg2
c) Meg3
d) Meg4

137. Researchers discovered new earthworm species in Port Blair. What is the name of the
new species?
a) Moniligaster ivaniosi
b) Annelida
c) Nematoda
d) Onychophora

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138. Scientists recently developed a new wireless device to detect the presence of termites.
Consider the following statements: i) when the new device detects the presence of termites, it
sends an SMS or email to a pest control firm. ii) The device is made of a tiny sensor, even
smaller than a fingernail.
Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are correct.
b) Only i is correct.
c) Only ii is correct.
d) Neither i nor ii is correct.

139. The scientists claimed that the Meteorite, which fell in Morocco in July 2011, was from
Mars. The event happened for the first time in__ years.
a) 50
b) 100
c) 200
d) 150

140. Scientists found the Extinct Monkey, the Millers Grizzled Langur in the forests of___.
a) Indonesia
b) Malaysia
c) India
d) Africa

141. Scientists for the first time produced mixed embryo monkeys. Consider the following
i) Scientists produced monkeys composed of cells taken from separate embryos.
ii) The cells stay together and work together to form tissues and organs.
Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are correct.
b) Only i is correct.
c) Only ii is correct.
d) Neither i nor ii is correct.

142. Scientists discovered unknown species off the coast of Antarctica. Consider the following
statements: i) The temperature in this region rises to 380 degree Celsius. Ii) There is plenty of
light in this region.
Which of the above statements is/ are correct?
a) Only i
b) Only ii
c) Both i and ii
d) Neither i nor ii

143. The worlds first hybrid sharks was discovered by the researchers in Australian waters. The
hybrid shark is the result of cross-breeding between which one of the following set of shark

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a) Common black tip Shark and Australian black-tip shark
b) Indian black-tip Shark and Australian black-tip Shark
c) Blue Whale and Common black-tip Shark
d) Blue Whale and Australian black-tip Shark

144. Scientists produced artificial human semen to help infertile men. Consider the following
statements: i) The scientists grew the sperm by enveloping the germ cells in a special
compound called agar jelly. ii) The artificial human semen could help infertile men father their
own children.
Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are correct.
b) Only i is correct.
c) Only ii is correct.
d) Neither i nor ii is correct.

145. Health Authorities in Australia recently detected Deadly Disease, Murray Valley
Encephalitis. The disease is caused by the__.
a) Flies
b) Mosquitoes
c) Birds
d) Dogs

146. Name the Cyclone, which hit the coast of Chennai and south-eastern coastal areas.
a) Thane
b) Nargis
c) Rita
d) Katrina

147. Name the gene, which controls memory in human brain.

a) Npas4
b) Npas3
c) Mpas4
d) Npas2

148. WGEEP designated entire Western Ghats as an ecologically sensitive area. What is the full
form of WGEEP?
a) Western Ghats expert panel
b) Western Ghats environmental panel
c) Western Ghats environmental expert panel
d) Western Ghats ecology expert panel

149. China launched a High-Speed Bullet Train in Quingdao, Shandong. Consider the following

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i) Its speed can reach up to 500 kilometres per hour.

ii) The train was launched by Chinas largest rail vehicle maker, CSR Corp. Ltd.
Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are correct.
b) Only i is correct.
c) Only ii is correct.
d) Neither i nor ii is correct.

150. Scientists discovered a Way to Transform Ordinary Tissue into Heart Muscle Cells.
Consider the following statements:
i) It could pave the way for new therapeutic approaches for making a damaged heart to repair
ii) Scientists used a zebrafish system to develop a small and robust molecule, which can
transform stem cells into beating heart muscle cells.
Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are correct.
b) Only i is correct.
c) Only ii is correct.
d) Neither i nor ii is correct.

151. NASA's Kepler mission discovered the first Earth-size planets orbiting a sun-like star
outside our solar system. These planets are called ___ and____.
a) Kepler-20e; Kepler-20f
b) Kepler-20a; Kepler-20b
c) Kepler-20c; Kepler-20d
d) Kepler-20m; Kepler-20n

152. Scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies report discovered a missing link
between the bodys biological clock and sugar metabolism system. Consider the following
statements i) Sugar Metabolism is a process by which the body uses sugar for energy. ii) If the
human body produces too little insulin, the amount of sugar in the blood increases abnormally,
a condition known as hyperglycemia. Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are correct.
b) Neither i nor ii is correct.
c) Only i is correct.
d) Only ii is correct.

153. China on 23 December 2011 launched a High-Speed Bullet Train in Quingdao, Shandong.
Its speed can reach upto __kilometres.
a) 500
b) 300
c) 400
d) 200

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154. The WGEEP (Western Ghats expert Panel) designated ____ as an Ecologically Sensitive
a) Western Ghats
b) E astern Ghats
c) Malabar Coast
d) Coromandel Coast

155. Name the gene found by the neuroscientists, which could help in creating and altering
b) Npas4
c) Npas3
d) Mpas2

156. Scientists discovered that the protein__ is responsible for regulating fatty acid oxidation in
the liver and is critical for metabolism.
a) CPT1
b) CTP1
c) CTT1
d) CPT2

157. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) developed Space Harpoon to take
Samples from Comets. Where are the headquarters of NASA located?
a) Washington DC
b) New York
c) Florida
d) Paris

158. British Scientists recently developed a technology to produce pocket TV. Consider the
following statements:
i) Scientists developed a new form of light-emitting crystals, known as quantum dots.
ii) These tiny crystals are 100000 times smaller than the width of human hair.
Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are correct.
b) Only i is correct.
c) Only ii is correct.
d) Neither i nor ii is correct.

159. Scientists developed a hydrogel that regenerate healthy and scar-free tissue on skin
damaged by severe burns. Consider the following statements:
i) The hydrogel helps in formatting of new blood vessels and skin including hair follicles.
ii) The injured soldiers, fire victims and people with third degree burns can avail of the gel.
Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are correct.

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b) Only i is correct.
c) Only ii is correct.
d) Neither i nor ii is correct.

160. A cargo ship called MV Rak sank off Mumbai coast on 5 August 2011. Consider the
following statements:
i) The oil spill from the ship enters into the food chain.
ii)The algae imbibe the oil and this affects entire marine ecology.
Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are correct.
b) Only i is correct.
c) Only ii is correct.
d) Neither i nor ii is correct.

161. NASAs Kepler mission recently discovered a Habitable Earth-like planet__.

a) Kepler 22-b
b)Kepler-22 b
c) Kepler 22-c
c) kepler 22-a

162. Which one of the following countries recently approved the bill that reformed the rules on
the amount of land farmers must preserve as forest?
a) Brazil
b) India
c) USA
d) China

163. The Labour Party conference in Australia approved Uranium Exports to India. What is the
atomic number of Uranium?
a) 92
b) 82
c) 88
d) 86

164. Scientists produced the most detailed map of Antarctica called BEDMAP. Consider the
following statements on BEDMAP:
i) This is the second generation of the digital BEDMAP.
ii) It incorporates 27 million measurement points.
Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are correct.
b) Only i is correct.
c) Only ii is correct.
d) Both i and ii are incorrect.

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165. Cargo Ship MV Rak sank 20 nautical miles off Mumbai coast in August 2011. Consider the
following statements:
i) The oil spill from a ship accident can be harmful for fishing activity.
ii) The oil spill can damage the mangrove belt in and around the city.
Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are correct.
b) Only i is correct.
c) Only ii is correct.
d) Neither i nor ii is correct.

166. Scientists identified genes that can increase a persons risk of developing multiple
myeloma by 30 percent. Consider the following statements on multiple myeloma:
i) Multiple myeloma is also known as plasma cell myeloma or Kahlers disease.
ii) It is a cancer of plasma cells.
a) Both i and ii are correct.
b) Only i is correct.
c) Only ii is correct.
d) Neither i nor ii is correct.

167. As per the report compiled by British-based firm Maplecroft, which one of the following
countries is top greenhouse gas emitter?
a) India
b) USA
c) China
d) Japan

168. NASA launched rover, nicknamed Curiosity to explore the planet Mars. The rover was
launched from which one of the following province of USA?
a) Florida
b) Texas
c) Washington
d) California

169. The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) on 1 December 2011 approved 1656
crore rupees scheme for __ of Yamuna Action plan.
a) phase-3
b) phase-2
c) phase-1
d) phase-4

170. The first Elds deer was born via in vitro fertilization in Thailand.
i) Eld's Deer is also known as the Thamin or Brow-antlered Deer.
ii) It is an endangered species of deer indigenous to southeastern Asia.
Consider the following statements:

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a) Both i and ii are correct.

b) Only i is correct.
c) Only ii is correct.
d) Neither i nor ii is correct.

171. Scientists discovered gene __ which makes people alcoholic.

a) HTR7
b) HHR7
c) HHH7
d) THR7

172. The Delhi Jal Board (DJB) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with which one
of the following countries for upgrading its sewage treatment plant at Keshopur?
a) Sweden
b) UK
c) China
d) Russia

173. What is the name of the gene that can reduce the length of time people sleep?
a) ABCC9
b) ACCB9
c) ABCC 6
d) ABBB9

174. Scientists discovered a planet, which has an environment much similar to that of Earth.
Consider the following statements:
i) The Planet is called Gliese 581g.
ii) The planet is located around 123 trillion miles away from Earth.
Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are correct.
b) Only i is correct.
c) Only ii is correct.
d) Neither i nor ii is correct.

175. NASA launched a rover, from Florida on an Atlas 5 rocket. What is the name of the rover?
a) Discovery
b) Rover-d5
c) Curiosity
d) Experiment

176. In Japan, rice with radiation levels exceeding the countrys safety levels was discovered for
the first time since the nuclear disaster at Fukushima in early 2011. The acronym LASER stands
a) Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

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b) Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Rays

c) Light Amplified by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
d) Light and Sound emitted by Radiation

177. Anti erosion project to protect Moisa and Belguri villages in Assam was approved by the
Planning commission of India. Consider the following statements on the project.
i) The project aims to protect villages from the River Gangadhar.
ii) The project will cost 14.97 crore rupees.
Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are correct.
b) Only i is correct.
c) Only ii is correct.
d) Neither i nor ii is correct.

178. Assam government launched a pilot project to vaccinate girls against human papiloma
virus (HPV) causing cervical cancer. HPV is a member of the_____ family of viruses.
a) Papilomavirus
b) Human T-cell lymphotropic virus
c) Bluetongue virus
d) Reoviridae

179. Scientists recently discovered Sunken Islands that linked India to Australia. These islands
were once part of the supercontinent Gondwana. The islands were formed during Cretacious
a) When dinosaurs roamed the Earth
b) When Himalayas were formed
c) When the very first man came on earth
d) When there was no life on earth

180. The latest technique in Medical Science, dracula therapy is now available in India. Dracula
therapy is used to fight against which one of the following?
a) Ageing
b) Cancer
c) Aids
d) Dengue

181. What Crops in India faces threat from Ug99 stem rust. Ug99 was first discovered in
Uganda in__.
a) 1999
b) 2000
c) 2001
d) 2002

182. A 400-metre-wide giant asteroid, called 2005 YU55, came within 201700 miles of earth on

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8 November 2011. 2005 YU55 makes one complete lap around the Sun every __ months.
a) 15
b) 14
c) 17
d) 25

183. Union Environment Ministry approved the Lavasa township project in Pune. Consider the
following statements:
i) Lavasa is a private, planned city being built near Pune.
ii) The project is being developed by HCC ( Hindustan Construction Company).
Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are correct.
b) Only i is correct.
c) Only ii is correct.
d) Neither i nor ii is correct.

184. Russia successfully launched a manned spacecraft Soyuz TMA-22 spaceship from Baikonur
Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Consider the following statements:
i) When a spacecraft is manned, it can be piloted directly, as opposed to robotic space probes
and satellites.
ii)The only countries to have independent human spaceflight capability are Russia and China.
Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are correct.
b) Only i is correct.
c) Only ii is correct.
d) Neither i nor ii is correct.

185. Arctic ozone hole was detected at record level. The journal nature reported. The ozone
layer blocks _____from the Sun.
a) Infra-Red rays
b) Ultraviolet-B rays
c) Ultraviolet-C rays
d) X-rays

186. Scientists found a new species of Trap-door spider, the albino spider, in Australia.
Consider the following statements. i) The albino spider is white headed and the colour of its
legs is black and brown.
ii) It is about the size of a 50-cent piece.
Choose the right option:
a) Only i is correct.
b) Only ii is correct.
c) Neither i nor ii is correct.
d) Both i and ii are correct.

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187. The government gave its approval to revive 60 Mines in the Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary.
The sanctuary is located in ___.
a) Goa
b) Jharkhand
c) Tamil Nadu
d) Madhya Pradesh

188. India scientists succeeded in decoding the genome of the arhar dal, which is also known as
a) Pigeon Pea
b) Black-eyed Pea
c) Sweet Pea
d) Split Pea

189. Scientists are set to begin a six-week mission to explore the Indian Ocean's underwater
mountains. Name the ship, which will carry out the mission.
a) RRS James Cook
b) RRS Ernest Shackleton
c) RRS James Clark Ross
d) Royal Research Ship

190. A report recently stated that bluefin tuna was fished illegally during Libya conflict.
Consider the following statements:
i) Bluefin Tuna are dark blue-black on the back, and white on the lower sides and belly.
ii) The scientific name of bluefin tuna is Thunnus thynnus.
Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are correct.
b) Neither i nor ii is correct.
c) Only i is correct.
d) Only ii is correct.

191. Scientists identified the bug, which caused the Bubonic plague (Black Death) in Europe
between 1347 and 1351. Consider the following statements on Bubonic plague:
i) Bubonic plague still strikes somewhere between 1000 and 3000 people.
ii) Bubonic plague is caused by Yersinia pestis.
Choose the right option:
a) Both i and ii are correct.
b) Only i is correct.
c) Only ii is correct.
d) Neither i nor iii is correct.

192. Scientists identified the genes, which increase a Persons risk of getting Dengue. Dengue is
the most common mosquito-borne infection after ____.
a) Malaria

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b) Yellow Fever
c) Japanese encephalitis
d) West Nile Virus

193. Scientists found the Ozone hole above Antarctica, which is the fifth largest on record. The
size of this Ozone hole is___ square kilometres.
a) 27
b) 25
c) 23
d) 29

194. Union government of India decided to ban the use of infertility drug Letrozole. Letrozole is
mainly recommended for treating ____.
a) Cancer
c) Dengue
d) Malaria

195. Australian Scientists created the worlds first drug, which can prevent blindness from
cataracts. Cataracts are formed when a protein, known as calpain, clouds the eye lens and
impairs vision.
a) Hemoglobin
b) Keratin
c) Calpain
d) Myosin

196. European Scientists reported particles apparently travelling faster than light called__.
a) Neutrinos
b) Endothelial
c) Polyglactin
d) Pollen

197. Planetary scientists provided new insights into the process behind the evolution of Earth.
Earths core is mainly made of _
a) Iron
b) Silicon
c) Oxygen
d) Nitrogen

198. China Successfully launched its first unmanned space laboratory. What is the name of this
space laboratory?
a) Tiangong-1
c) ZY-2

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d) CH 726

199. Scientists recently discovered genetic factors in frogs that make it immune to the fungal
b) Chytridiomycosis
c) Sporothrix schenckii
d) endophyte

200. What is the name of the powerful Typhoon which hit Japan on 21 September 2011?
a) Roke
b) Nargis
c) Nesat
d) Nalgae

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1 C 26 C 51 B 76 a
2 B 27 D 52 C 77 c

3 A 28 B 53 D 78 a

4 D 29 D 54 A 79 b

5 A 30 A 55 B 80 a
6 A 31 B 56 d 81 c

7 D 32 A 57 c 82 a

8 B 33 C 58 a 83 a

9 B 34 D 59 d 84 b
10 D 35 A 60 a 85 a

11 B 36 D 61 c 86 a

12 A 37 C 62 d 87 b

13 D 38 B 63 c 88 C
14 A 39 A 64 d 89 a

15 D 40 D 65 a 90 c

16 B 41 A 66 d 91 b

17 A 42 C 67 b 92 a
18 C 43 D 68 a 93 a

19 D 44 B 69 b 94 c
20 C 45 C 70 c 95 a

21 B 46 C 71 b 96 c
22 D 47 C 72 b 97 a

23 C 48 B 73 c 98 b

24 A 49 A 74 c 99 a

25 B 50 D 75 d 100 a

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Indian Space Research Organisations scientists will establish a navigation satellite system for
India like that of Americas Global Positioning System (GPS).

Very much similar to the GPS, the Indian satellite is supposed to transmit data continuously that
will allow correctly equipped receivers to establish their location with considerable precision.

The project is set to establish the IRNSS at a cost about 1420 crores rupees and was approved
by the Union Government in June 2006. The first of the IRNSS satellites is scheduled go into
space aboard the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle on 1 July 2013.

The GPS requires a constellation of 24 orbiting satellites, which will be supported by a global
network of ground stations, so that every part of the world is covered. ISRO will create a
system wholly in India's control for providing navigation signals over this country and
surrounding areas.

After seeing many configurations, the finally chosen configuration was the Indian Regional
Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) which required just seven satellites.

All seven IRNSS satellites will be at a height of about 36000 km, which will take a whole day to
circle the Earth. Three of the satellites will be placed over the equator, in what is known as the
geostationary orbit, where they match the Earth's rotation and therefore appear from the
ground to remain at a fixed position in the sky.

The remaining four satellites will be in pairs in two inclined geosynchronous orbits. From the
ground, these satellites will appear to travel in figures of 8 during the course of a day.


O3b Networks, whose name represents the other 3 billion in month of June 2013, launched a
series of satellites which is supposed to provide fast, cheap Internet and phone service to
remote areas in 180 countries.

The idea behind launching such satellite is to bring people from remote area online by the end
of the year 2013. Google have already committed to invest about 1.2 billion dollars in support.

O3b Networks is planning to supply the bandwidth for voice and data traffic to mobile phone

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operators instead of being sold directly to customers and internet service providers who will be
able to track the satellites with ground stations.

A group of four satellites was launched on 25 June 2013 in a Soyuz rocket from French Guiana
and it is going to be followed with similar satellite launch of four more in September 2013 and
another four next year.

The Outstanding property of the satellite is that is every satellite will be able to transfer data at
a rate of 12 gigabits per second. Other satellites may eventually be launched to increase the
data capacity of the cohort.

Advantage of the Satellite launched

The launch of satellite will provide cheap, fast data transfer to remote areas without Internet
access or phone service.

The satellite service accessible and affordable, even in poorer regions.



Scientists in the Month of June 2013 have created the world's first high-definition 3D model of
a complete human brain which is named by Big Brain.

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The 3D model of a HUMAN BRAIN was prepared by mounting thin sliced sections of the whole-
brain on slides. The stained sections were then scanned and reconstituted by supercomputers
into a 3D model of an entire brain.
The Scientist used a tool called a microtome by which they have sliced the postmoterm brain of
a 65 year old woman preserved in paraffin wax into about 7400 sections each 20 microns thick
and used it to create the most detailed map yet of a human brain.
It has taken several years for supercomputers in Germany and Canada to reconstruct images of
the slide-mounted thin sections into a 3D volume image of the brain, taking into account tears
and wrinkles in individual slices of thin and thus fragile tissue.
During the formation of Brain around 80 billions neurons were captured. It is conceived that
Scientists from Canada and Germany spent 1000 years collecting the data and the total brain
reconstruction has taken 10 years to complete.
Some Facts About Big Brain
The BigBrain is 250000 times more detailed than a regular brain scan.
The Big Brain was created using 7400 individual slices from the brain of a deceased 65-year-
old woman.
Each individual slice is half the width of a human hair.
The brain can be seen in microscopic detail at a spatial resolution of 20 microns.
The Brain shows the anatomy of a brain in microscopic detail for the first time ever - at a
spatial resolution of 20 microns which is smaller than the size of one fine strand of hair and
250000 times more detailed than current MRI brain scans.
The Big Brain presents the analytic details of organization of cerebral neurons at an
unprecedented resolution of 20 micrometers, about 50 times higher than the resolution of
previous atlases of the brain constructed from whole brain scans.


Drayson Racing Technologies established the new world record on Federation Internationale
de l'Automobile's (FIA) world electric land speed record when the lightweight electric powered
car reached the top speed of 328.6 km per hour. The British team broke all the world land
speed records for the lightweight electric car after the car named Lola B12 69/EV crossed the
previous top speed record of 281.6kph at a Royal Air Force base in Yorkshire.

The Chief Executive of Drayson Racing Technologies, Lord Drayson, who drove the car,
explained that the car was designed to highlight about the technology potential of electronic
vehicle. The previous record of top speed was 281.6kph, which was set up by Battery Box
General electric in 1974.

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In order to be eligible for an attempt on Federation Internationale de l'Automobile's (FIA) world

electric land speed record, Drayson Racing Technologies team needed to make the vehicle less
than 1000 kg of weight without the driver.

In order to achieve this eligibility, the team adapted Le Mans Series car which was designed by
it earlier and had bio-ethanol fuel engine originally fitted into it. This engine was replaced by
lightweight 20 kilowatt hour battery which offered 850 horsepower. Apart from this, the chassis
of the vehicle was also adapted. The chassis was made from recycled carbon fibre, which
enabled the car to minimise air friction.


China, on 20 June 2013 conducted the first classroom lecture from space which was given by
female Chinese astronaut Wang Yaping. Wang Yaping, 33, addressed around 330 primary as
well as middle school students at the High School Affiliated to Renmin University in Beijing
through live video feed from space module Tiangong-1.

Wang Yaping lectured the students while orbiting at 340 km above Earth at zero gravity in
space. The lectured students included those from Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, migrant workers
families as well as of ethnic minorities.

The CCTV network live broadcast was showcased to over 60 million students as well as the
teachers at 80000 middle schools in China. Wang Yaping demonstrated the calculation of
weight by the astronauts in space. In the meanwhile, she also answered the questions related
to recycling of water in the orbiter, view from the orbiter as well as the space debris.

Wang Yaping along with her crew commander Nie Haisheng and Zhang Xiaoguang left for the
space on 11 June 2013 aboard Shenzhou-10 spacecraft. This spacecraft then docked with
Tiangong space module on 13 June 2013. Wang Yaping is second Chinese female astronaut
after Liu Yang.


Scientists at the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) engineered a cutting-edge sensor
chip which is capable of detecting the diseases just from the drop of blood.

The study describes how the researchers- Reginald Farrow and Alokik Kanwal along with their
team created a carbon nanotube-based device in order to rapidly and noninvasively detect the
mobile single cells with potential of maintaining high degree of spatial resolution.

Reginald Farrow, the research explained that with the help of sensors, the device was created
which will enable the medical personnel to measure the electrical properties of the cells by
simply putting s tiny drop of liquid on active area of the device.

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The researcher, in the meanwhile also explained that this was not the first time that such kind
of work was brought out, but the unique property of this device is the technique with which the
electrical properties or patterns of cells are measured. Also, the device can explain how
electrical properties differentiate between the cell types.


European Southern Observatory (ESO) in the Month of June 2013 gathered the most detailed
observations ever of the dust around a huge black hole at the centre of an active galaxy with
the help of Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI).

The astronomers found that the glowing dust is located above and below the torus rather than
being located in a dough nut shaped torus around the black hole.

As per the observations it was found that dust is being pushed away from the black hole as a
cool wind disrupting the current theories and revealing, evolving supermassive black hole and
its interacting with surroundings.

Summing up all the last twenty years study by astronomers it was found that almost all galaxies
have a huge black hole at their centre. Few of these black holes are growing by drawing in
matter from their surroundings, which in turn is creating the process of formation of most
energetic objects in the Universe: active galactic nuclei (AGN).

According to the new observations of a nearby active galaxy called NGC 3783, harnessing the
power of the VLTI at ESOs Paranal Observatory in Chile, have given a team of astronomers a

The newly-discovered dust forms a cool wind which stream outside from the black hole. This
wind must play an important role in the complex relationship between the black hole and its
environment. The new observation made is going to lead a paradigm shift in the understanding
of AGN. They are direct evidence that dust is being pushed out by the intense radiation.


The largest as well as the brightest moon of the year 2013, called the Supermoon was observed
on 23 June 2013 as it passed the closest point to Earth. Supermoon is said to be that situation
when the natural satellite of the Earth is closer to Earth in the orbit than every day. This effect
can be noticed when it happens at same time like the full moon.

Therefore the Supermoon seems very big, even though the only difference is in the distance
from Earth. This kind of a moon is called Supermoon because of its very noticeable alignment.
The distance of moon varies from Earth because it follows the elliptical orbit than the circular

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NASA explained that in 2013, the Supermoon is around 14 percent larger as well as 30 percent
brighter than the typical Full Moon. This happens when the moon reaches perigee, which is the
closest distance that moon, can reach to Earth during course of its orbit.

Perigee is a situation when the moon is around 356992 km away in comparison to 405696 km
away, which is the farthest distance from the Earth (apogee).


The effects of Supermoon on Earth are very minor. It does not affect the Earths internal energy
balance. Scientists explained that this will not cause any natural disasters. The only significant
impact of Supermoon is on the tides. Next Supermoon would appear in August 2014.


Researchers from University of Maryland in third week of June 2013 developed an eco-friendly
battery using wood, tin and sodium as raw materials. This battery is thousand times thinner
than a paper and can store large amount of energy to last longer than a commercial battery.

Use of sodium instead of lithium makes these batteries eco-friendly. Limitation of this battery is
that it cant store energy as efficiently as the lithium battery and thus can be used at a power
plant or to store solar energy, but not in the cell phones.

Present day batteries are developed on the stiff surfaces to withstand the changing shape of
the battery. Actually, the swell or shrink of the battery depends on the movement of the
electrons but the wood fiber has the capability of supporting the changes due to the electron
movement in context of the sodium ion battery. As per the study of the researchers, the wood-
based batteries can last over 400 charging cycles.

Researchers drew the inspiration of using the wood fiber from the trees, as wood fibers that
make up a tree once held mineral-rich water, and so are ideal for storing liquid electrolytes,
making them not only the base but an active part of the battery.

As per the studies, the charging and discharging of these batteries several times brought
wrinkles on the wood but it remained intact. The wrinkles on the wood supported the battery
to survive for several cycles as it allowed the battery to relax the stress exerted during regular
charging and discharging activity.

Tins connection with its base also weakens, while pushing the Sodium ion tin anodes, but
softness of the wood fiber serves as a mechanical buffer and accommodates following the
changes of the tin. This phenomenon, acts a key of behind the longevity of the sodium-ion

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Liangbing Hu and Teng Li were the head of the team that worked on the project. This research
was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the University of Maryland. The
study details were published in the American Chemical Society Publications.


Architects building Nalanda International University at Bihar decided to make use of the
Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative or the Devap air-cooling system. It is the first time that this
kind of system will be used in India.

The Devap system functions by making use of dessicant material which gets rid of the moisture
from using by making use of heat. The system also makes use of the evaporative technologies
which bring cooling by making use of up to 90 percent less energy in comparison to the older

Rajeev Kathpalia, principal architect of the Ahmedabad-based company Vastu Shilpa

Consultants explained that using the Devap system in Nalanda International University is very
useful because this system easily gels up with the method of the ancient seat of learning. Using
Devap in Nalanda will be an experiment because this system has never been used in India.

Nalanda University will be constructed at Rajgir, which is situated around 100 km away from
Patna. The construction of the University will take place on 446-acre plot, which is situated 12
km away from the ruins of ancient seat of learning. Construction would start in December 2013.

The academic session of this university will begin in 2014. The buildings of Nalanda University
would be designed on net zero energy consumption concept. Nalanda University would
produce its energy by making use of the photo voltaics. The University additionally would
collect biomass of neighbouring villages in order to generate electricity as well as harvest

The initiative of Nalanda University was taken up by former President of India, A.P.J. Abdul
Kalam in the year 2006.


The Devap air-cooling system provides solution to AC necessity. This system provides
dehumidified, cold and clean air, but with an added advantage of less electricity and less

It makes use of the chemical capabilities of desiccants. A desiccant is basically the

hygroscopic substance which sustains or induces the dryness state in local vicinity in
well-sealed container.

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The Devap air-cooling system was designed in order to replace the standard units of AC
so that there was less difficulty regarding installation.

It has been estimated that by making use of the Devap air-cooling system, the total
energy savings are simulated to be somewhere between 40-80 percent. But the energy
savings depend upon humidity level as well as geographical location.

Devap air-cooling system is a good solution for curbing the greenhouse effect because
of its energy efficiency as well as environmentally respectful chemicals.

Though, this system has higher costs for commercial and residential units, but if
operational costs are included, it becomes financially advantageous in the time span of
just 30 years.


Chief Scientist of the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT), Vinith Kumar on 11 June
2013 announced that the Early Tsunami Warning System (ETWS) installed at Rangachang in
Andaman and Nicobar Islands can predict a tsunami immediately after an earthquake. Vinith
Kumar claimed that the new technology installed can predict the Tsunami within 3 minutes
after the initial tremors are felt and can send alerts.

Following the alerts sent from the Tsunami Warning System, the tsunami alerts can be issued to
the risk zones via Centre in consultation with Indian National Centre for Ocean Information
Services, INCOIS at Hyderabad.

To benefit the fishermen, the National Institute of Ocean Technology has also installed 10 Fish
Aggregating Devices (FAD) at ten locations in different islands namely Mayabandar, Dilgipur,
Chidiayatapu, Hut Bay, Car Nicobar and Campbell Bay for the benefit of fishermen. The devices
costs 10 lakh rupees each and has been designed and installed to improve the abilities of fish

The center has also developed an Islands Resource Information System (IRIS) for better
exploitation of the resources. NIOT is also planning a solar desalination project in the islands.


India and a top US science body in Month of June 2013 have forged an international
organisation to develop space solar power. The new solar power developed is an initiative that
has that possibly can solve the humanitys energy needs and greatly extenuating climate

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Both the Country will give a direction and impetus to this movement to realise space solar
power and its enabling technologies through international collaboration that can help rebuild
our environmentally vulnerable planet.

The eminent scientist of India Abdul Kalam and Executive Committee Chairman of the National
Space Society of US, Mark Hopkins announced to have a clear plan of action to market the idea
of a livable planet Earth through space solar power to G8 or G20 nations within a year.

Both the countries are set to start team building and mission structuring phase with core
members from nations who are contributing to the dream of harvesting energy from space,
including the US, India, Japan, and UK.

In his address to the 2013 National Space Societys International Space Development
Conference (ISDC 2013) Mark Hopkins asserted to include specific mechanisms such as the
Global Space Knowledge Platform, the International Virtual Laboratory, and the International
Advisory Committee that Abdul Kalam has elaborated through discussion papers.


Scientists at Jadavpur University in the month of June 2013 discovered that zinc-doped
hydroxyapatite (HAP) which is a calcium phosphate-based bio-ceramic material has a
stimulatory effect on bone formation.

Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is actually one of calcium phosphate-based bio-ceramic materials which

form most of the inorganic components of human bones and teeth. It was also found that the
bonding with bone was better for zinc-doped bicalcium phosphate than conventional ceramics.

The benefit of Zinc is that it act to improve biological properties of synthetic HAP thus
decreasing the inflammatory response and has an antibacterial effect.

The scientists while synthesizing zinc doped Hap powder at Jadavpur University have also
observed that it exhibits high compressive strength and hardness than the conventional HAP.

The scientists have witnessed the pronounced new bone formation in doped HAP with the
implantation on the tibia of an adult New Zealand rabbit for two months. The formation of
osteons around zinc-doped HAP was also confirmed by the Histopathology.

The scientists at Jadavpur University are also developing materials (composition of HAP and
beta Tricalcium phosphate) doped with zinc which can be used for bone grafting.



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Scientists, from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China discovered a mouse-sized
fossil, which provided new insights into the origin of Primates. The discovered fossil is 55
million years old and represents the earliest known member of the group of animals that
includes humans. Scientists have named this creature Archicebus, which means ancient

This specimen was discovered some ten years ago in the Jingzhou area of Hubei Province in
China, by a local farmer but the researchers took time to describe the creature and its
importance. The fossil of the Archicebus was discovered from two slate slabs and the scientists
have discovered most of the key bones of the animal, which includes impression of its feet and
rear limbs.

The skeleton of the discovered fossil explains the branch that occurred at the very base of the
primitive evolutionary tree. Archicebus has been put on the line that leads to tarsiers. Tarsiers
are the collection of small arboreal animals that are found in south-east Asia. Archicebus will
also help in understanding the emergence of tarsiers sister grouping the anthropoids
(primates that include monkey, ape and human).

The fossil suggests that these small creatures grew to cover the earth soon after the extinction
of dinosaurs. It also suggests that the human ancestors were small animals, who were quite
active and nimble and lived on trees.

To study the fossil, the delicate slate pieces were sent to Grenoble, France for being imaged at
the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF).

This giant machine uses brilliant X-rays to try to discern details of the skeleton that remain
hidden inside the rock. The detailed study allowed the scientists to come up with the picture of
the type of which Archicebus looked like. Thus it helped them to weigh its relationship with the
primates and an idea about the first primates of earth a period when the earth was gripped in a
period of outstanding global warming.

Skeleton of Archicebus suggests that it used leap and grasp motion to move in the forests that
covered the earth at that time. The pointed teeth indicate that it survived on insects and had
high metabolic rate. Large eye sockets hint that they had good vision and were day time
operators not a nocturnal animal.

The finding of the report was published in Nature Magazine.


A new type of Solar Heater was designed by three young techies from the North Eastern
Regional Institute of Science and Technology (NE-RIST). These new heaters contain a parabolic
reflector that works in conjunction with the drum that contains water.

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Mechanism of the Solar Heater: Sun radiant energy is reflected by the aluminum dish of the
solar heater into the drum with a lid at top. The radiant energy of the sun continuously falls on
the earth and on a normal sunny day, about 1000 watt of energy per second is received by
every square meter by the earth. The radiant energy from sun works on the principle on which
the microwave and the electric oven functions, i.e. the energy doesnt rapidly heat the things
but spreads, thus can be used for cooking, grilling, roasting and other purposes.

The parabolic reflector has the capacity to raise the temperature of the water up to 139 degree
C the temperature that is sufficient enough to cook cereals and vegetables.

The three techies are the students of mechanical engineering from the institute namely Vikas
Gautam, Suman Pao and Juwel Tripura. The newly designed solar heater can be used both for
industrial and domestic purposes.


Microsoft released its updated version of its Windows 8 operating system known as Windows
8.1 at Taipei in Computex show, the second largest computer show of the world on 5 June

Windows 8.1 will be made available on PCs as well as tablet computers in 2013. Windows 8.1
depicts bold vision of Windows 8 operating system because it also responds to the customer
feedback and has various new features and functionality. Some of these features include the
touch experience as well as mobile computing.

The new operating system Windows 8.1 also features platform personalisation and search. It
also restores the function of start button which was earlier removed from the Windows 8.


Scientists at the University of Texas in Dallas on 28 May 2013 designed a novel, small molecule
that could help in the treatment of prostate cancer. The molecules effectiveness lies in
blocking the cancer-promoting function of proteins called androgen receptors.
Androgen receptors are located inside cells. They have complex surfaces with several docking
points where various proteins can bind to the receptor. Each docking point has got unique
shape, so a molecule of correct shape will fit. Androgen hormones, such as testosterone are
described as the primary molecules that bind to androgen receptors.

Such binding triggers a series of events that activates various processes in the human body. It
also stimulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics.

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Scientists while analysing fossil records in the Month of May 2013 have discovered a new three-
horned dinosaur, which is dated back 66 to 80 million years.

The distinctive feature of the Three Horned Dinosaur is that it sported a hoodie-like growth on
the back of its head. It differs from all other horned dinosaurs in the shape and arrangement of
the scallops on the edge of the frill, which are large and triangular toward the front, and low
and blunt toward the back.

As per the researchers it may be the oldest known link of Triceratops and Torosaurus -- the
best-known horned dinosaurs.

As of today, fossil remains of at least 18 closely related dinosaurs from the region have been
identified as distinct species. These species show up for just a couple million years, or even a far
shorter time, before another species replaces it.

The Fossil is linked to be with Judiceratops which is the earliest known member of the
chasmosaurines, a group of horned dinosaurs characterised by an enlarged frill on the back of
the skull. It does not appear to be a direct ancestor of Triceratops and Torosaurus.

Judiceratops was basically a large plant-eating dinosaur which fed on low-growing vegetation,
such as ferns, like other members of its family. It had two large horns over the brow and a
smaller horn on its nose.


Researchers at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) in Singapore developed an all-new as
well as less-expensive camera sensor which is 1000 times more sensitive to the light. The recent
development would help in clicking the photographs clearly even in the dim lights.

The newly developed sensor is very sensitive to the infrared as well as visible light and it could
easily be used for various applications, such as for clicking every-day pictures as well as for
surveillance and satellites.

The 1000 times more sensitive camera got high photoresponse from the very innovative
structure. The sensor is composed of graphene. Graphene is the very strong carbon compound
which has honeycomb structure. This honeycomb structure is flexible just like rubber and is also
more conductive than the silicon. It also has the ability to resist the heat better than diamond.

The inventor of this sensor, Wang Qijie explained that this was the very first time that high
photosensitive and broad-spectrum sensor was made by making use of pure grapheme.

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Wang Qijie also explained that the innovation would provide help not just to the consumer
imaging industry but also to the communication industries, mid-infrared application as well as
satellite imaging.

The principle behind this new and cheap sensor is use of the light-trapping nanostructures.
These nanostructures make use of the graphene as its base. Unlike the conventional sensors,
these nanostructures hold the light-generated electron particles for a very long time. Therefore,
this helps in stronger electric signal which can then be processed in the image, just like the
photograph captured by the digital camera.

It is important to note that almost all the camera sensors used today make use of the metal-
oxide semiconductor as a base. The graphene base therefore is very effective for producing
sharper and clearer images.


The scientists at the North Dakota State University developed a process called Laser Enabled
Advanced Packaging (Leap) which can help embed the radio frequency identification (RFID)
chips on the paper. This process is cheaper and faster as well as it offers a range of applications
than the present method.

This technique is useful for preventing fraudulent practices. It also gives a new meaning to
paper trail. In this process, lasers are used to transfer as well as assemble the chips on the
paper. The paper would thus be called a smart paper, which in turn can be used for various
purposes such as smart labels, banknotes, tickets and legal documents.

These findings would be presented at Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

conference on RFID in Orlando, Florida. There are already some RFID-enabled papers in the
market but chip are thicker, which leads to either bumpy surface or bulky paper. This means
that such a paper would not be printed.

The chips are at first, thinned by the plasma etcher. The technology is yet to be patented. It
makes use of the laser beams energy in order to transfer the ultra-thin chips precisely.
Antennas are embedded by making use of the same method.

Prof Val Marinov, the Head of the project explained that this process was twice faster than the
present method of manufacturing. It is also cheaper because of less material used. Therefore,
there is an extensive potential for this technology.

Prof Val Marinov also explained that the European bank and Bank of Japan had hinted towards
their intention for development of this technology, but they did not go for it. Therefore, the
technology developed by the US scientists is the first one which demonstrates the functional
RFID tag embedded in paper.

The team that developed the technology is now looking for the commercial partners of this

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RFID is expanded as Radio-frequency identification. RFID is primarily the wireless non-contact

application of the radio-frequency electromagnetic fields for transferring data. It is used for
automatic identification as well as tracking the tags which are attached to the objects.

The tags are encompassed with electronically stored information. Some of these tags are
powered as well as read at the short ranges through the electromagnetic induction or magnetic
fields. Other tags make use of the local power source like battery, but they collect the energy
from interrogating EM field.


V. Narayanasamy, the Minister of State in the Prime Ministers Office, Ministry of Personnel,
Public Grievances and Pensions, Bengaluru, inaugurated ISRO Navigation Centre (INC),
established at Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) complex at Byalalu, about 40 km from
Bangalore on 28 May 2013.

The ISRO Navigation Centre (INC) is the important element of Indian Regional Navigation
Satellite System (IRNSS), which is an independent navigation satellite system developed by

At the inauguration event, V. Narayanasamy also gave the awards instituted by Astronautical
Society of India (ASI) and ISRO.


Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) will have a total of seven satellites
network and it will enable the users in determining the location as well as time

All these satellites will be positioned in the geostationary and inclined geosynchronous
orbits 36000 km above the surface of the Earth.

The coverage of IRNSS will extend all over India and its neighbourhood.

All the IRNSS satellites are equipped with high precision atomic clocks and continuously
transmit navigation signals to users.

IRNSS will have an overall network of twenty one ranging stations geographically
distributed in India. These stations will facilitate data for orbit determination of IRNSS
satellites and monitoring of the navigation signals.

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The ISRO Navigation Centre (INC) will remain the focal point of critical operations of

The INC is responsible for providing the time reference, generation of navigation
messages and monitoring and control of ground facilities which include ranging stations

INC will also host various technical facilities for supporting various navigation functions.

The data from overall network of twenty one ranging stations of IRNSS will be sent to
the data processing facility at INC where it will be processed to generate the navigation
messages. The navigation messages in turn will be transmitted from INC to IRNSS
satellites through the spacecraft control facility at Hassan.

INC is also connected to ranging stations as well as the satellite control facilities through
two highly reliable dedicated communication networks which consist of satellite and
terrestrial links.

The host of network of satellite communication links is INC.


Researchers at the University of Alberta announced that the plants which were frozen centuries
ago were sprouting with new growth. Samples of the bryophytes, 400-year-old plants bloomed
under certain laboratory conditions. Researchers declared that this reflected the recovery of
ecosystems from the cyclic long periods of ice coverage of the Earth.

The group of researchers was making exploration in area around the Teardrop Glacier which is
situated in Canadian Arctic. This regions glaciers are receding at a rapid pace (around 3-4 m
annually) since 2004. This is also the place where it is said that the light of daytime has not
reached since Little Ice Age, the widespread cooling which took place from 1550 AD to 1850 AD.

The lead author of the study, Catherine La Farge explained that huge populations of bryophytes
were observed from beneath the glacier which reflected a greenish tinge.

Bryophytes are very different from land plants. These plants do not have any vascular tissue.
This means that these plants can survive without drying up even in the long Arctic winters.
Eventually, these plants grow in warmer times.

The researchers observed new growth of the green lateral branches on the stems of the plant.
A lot of other species were observed in the Teardrop Glacier and almost all these are
completely unknown to science.

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The Solar Impulse plane HB-SIA set a new distance record for solar-powered flight on the
second leg of its trans-American journey on 22 May 2013. The craft landed in Dallas, Texas,
after an 18-hour flight and a journey of 1541 km from Phoenix to Arizona.

In the coming weeks, the craft will make a stop-over at St Louis, Missouri, and Washington DC
before heading to New York in early July. The objective of this project named as Across America
is to showcase the capabilities of renewable energy. The Across America is termed as the first
cross-continental, solar powered flight.

The Solar Impulse HB-SIA has the same wingspan as an Airbus A340. The plane's wing and
stabiliser are covered with approximately 12000 solar cells, which drive its four propellers and
charge the plane's 400kg of lithium-ion batteries for night-time flying.


In a rare kind of discovery, various priceless vials of Moon dust which were gathered by one and
only Apollo 11 by the late Neil Armstrong, and Buzz Aldrin were found after almost 40 years in
the lab warehouse of California.

Vials of the Moon Dust brought on Earth by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin were discovered in
the month of April 2013 by an archivist, Karen Nelson in the Lawrence Berkeley National
Laboratory, California.

Apollo 11 returned from the historic flight in the year 1969. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin
collected the lunar soil and brought to Earth, which was sent to around 150 laboratories across
the world. One of these labs was Space Sciences Laboratory in Latimer Hall on the UC Berkeley

But, after experiments were done and publications of the papers, the lunar soil samples should
have been sent to NASA but they were found in storage for over four decades. Karen Nelson
discovered these samples of Moon Dust with handwritten labels which dated back to 24 July


India on 22 May 2013 successfully test fired the 290-km range BrahMos supersonic cruise
missile from the Navy's latest guided missile frigate INS Tarkash off the coast of Goa.

The missile performed the high-level 'C' manoeuvre in the pre-determined flight path and
successfully hit the target. Jointly developed by India and Russia, the BrahMos is capable of

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carrying a conventional warhead of 300 kg. India is readying several different versions of the
missile which includes land attack, anti-ship and submarine- launched versions.


Scientists recently discovered that Vitamin C kills tuberculosis. Scientists in an experiment
managed to kill lab-grown tuberculosis (TB) bacteria with good old Vitamin C.

This scientific discovery will lead to better, cheaper drugs. A team from Albert Einstein College
of Medicine in New York made the finding while researching how TB bacteria become resistant
to the TB drug isoniazid.

TB was declared a global health emergency by the World Health Organisation (WHO) 20 years
ago, but remains a leading cause of death by an infectious disease despite a 41-percent drop in
the death rate from 1990 to 2011. As per WHO data, in 2011, 8.7 million people fell ill with TB
and 1.4 million died.


The Opportunity rover of NASA broke the 40-year-old extraterrestrial distance record on 16
May 2013, after 9 long years of Mars exploration. The six-wheeled robot, Opportunity created
record by travelling a total distance of 35.760 kilometres ever since it landed on Mars in 2004.

The team that operates Opportunity received a confirmation in transmission from the Red
Planet that opportunity drove 80 metres on 16 May 2013, thus bringing its overall odometry to
35.760 km since its landing on Mars.

When the astronauts of Apollo 17, Harrison Schmitt and Eugene Cernan visited the Moon for
three days in 1972, they drove the roving vehicle for 35.744 km or 19.3 nautical miles. Since
then, this was the farthest overall distance travelled by any NASA vehicle that drove on world
apart from Earth.

At present, the international record of extraterrestrial distance is held by remote-controlled

Lunokhod 2 rover of Soviet Union that travelled 37 km on Moon in 1973.


Scientists from the NASA Obsevatory in the month of May 2013 have found that magnetars
the dense remains of dead stars that erupt periodically with bursts of high-energy radiation
may be more diverse and common than earlier considered.

It is found that when a massive star runs out of fuel, its core collapses to form a neutron star,
which is an ultra-dense object about 16 to 24 kilometres wide. The gravitational energy

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released in this process blows the outer layers away in a supernova explosion and leaves the
neutron star behind.

Most magnetars have extremely high magnetic fields on their surface that are ten to a
thousand times stronger than for the average neutron star. As per the observations it was show
that the magnetar known as SGR 0418+5729 (SGR 0418 for short) does not fit that pattern. It
has a surface magnetic field similar to that of mainstream neutron stars.

The researchers monitored SGR 0418 for over three years using Chandra, ESAs XMM-Newton
as well as NASAs Swift and RXTE satellites. They were able to make an accurate estimate of the
strength of the external magnetic field by measuring how its rotation speed changes during an
X-ray outburst.

These outbursts are likely caused by fractures in the crust of the neutron star precipitated by
the buildup of stress in a relatively strong, wound-up magnetic field lurking just beneath the


Canadian scientists discovered that the reason we struggle to recall memories from our early
childhood is due to high levels of neuron production during the first years of life. The formation
of new brain cells increases the capacity for learning but also clears the mind of old memories.
The findings were presented to the Canadian Association of Neuroscience.

Neurogenesis or the formation of new neurons in the hippocampus, a region of the brain
known to be important for learning and remembering, reaches its peak before and after birth.
It then declines steadily during childhood and adulthood.

Scientists wanted to find out how the process of new neuron generation impacted on memory
storage. They carried out their research on younger and older mice in the lab.


National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is looking forward to lease out the
historic launch pad in Florida that was used for the first moon mission and by the Atlantis
Shuttle to commercial operators.

The Launch complex of 39A at the Kennedy Space Centre in Cape Canaveral has not been in use
since the retirement of Atlantis in 2011. NASA expects that at least two privately-owned space
exploration companies can bid for the contract.

The Launch Complex 39A is one of the two launch pads that was built during 1960s as part of
the Apollo Moon Programme and has supported more than 90 launches since November 1967.
NASA is looking forward to lease the Complex 39A because since 2011, after the end of NASAs
space shuttle programme the facilities have not been in use.

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More than 150 facilities at Florida Spaceport has been demolished or transferred to commercial
operators. NASAs commitment towards right-sizing its portfolio is based on reduction of the
number of underused facilities or the facilities which are not required for Space Launch System
and Orion. The Space Launch System and Orion is the next generation deep space mission of
NASA and are designed for carrying the astronauts to destinations past the international space


The only satellite of Ecuador, Pegaso (Pegasus) nanosatellite collided with the Russian space
debris, the Ecuadorean space agency (EXA) announced on 23 May 2013. The Pegasus collided
with the Russian rocket debris which was launched 30 years ago.

The hit took place around 1000 miles above the east coast of Madagascar. Pegaso (Pegasus)
nanosatellite was launched on 25 April 2013 in Jiuquan spaceport in China. It is important to
note that the only purpose of this satellite was nothing more than transmitting video images as
well as sending Morse Code Signals from the space.

Russia will launch another satellite in July on behalf of Ecuador. This satellite is named Kryasor.
Pegasus is the first and only satellite in the space from Ecuador.

The US-based Joint Space Operations Center explained that the crash did not take place directly
but there was a lateral collision with the particles of Russian rocket. US-based Joint Space
Operations Center is responsible for monitoring all the artificial objects that orbit around the
Earth. The Joint Space Operations Center keeps an eye on over 22000 objects which orbit the
Earth. Out of these, 87 percent are debris and inactive satellites.

It would still take 48 hours time duration to find out the damage by making use of radar.
Pegasus is a nanosatellite which weighs merely 1.2 kg. It has been orbiting Earth at the height of
650 km and transmits pictures from the space.


The University Science Instrumentation Centre at Mangalagangotri and Bhabha Atomic
Research Centre (BARC) signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for conducting
collaborative research on amount of radioactivity in Chitradurga district.

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and Mangalore University, in the month of May 2013,
decided to conduct the collaborative research on quantity of radioactivity in or around Dodda
Ullarti near Challakere in Chitradurga district. BARC is constructing its new campus on 1810

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There will be a special material facility whose aim would be upgrade the nuclear fuel which in
turn will be used for applications such as strategic purposes as well as power production.


The objective of this MoU is carrying out detailed and independent study in order to
establish the extensive baseline database on radiation levels as well as radionuclides in
or around Dodda Ullarti.

Also, the aim is to conduct study for understanding concentration of stable elements in
environment around the area of Dodda Ullarti.

In order to facilitate the detailed and independent study, environmental samples (which include
aquatic, atmospheric and terrestrial samples) will be gathered from around this project site,
within the 30 km radius.

Detailed analysis would be conducted on 222 Rn concentrations in outdoor as well as indoor air
and in the ground water as well. 222 Rn is the colourless, radon, radio-active gas which is
formed during the process when uranium and thorium decay into lead.


Mars Rover, Opportunity of NASA in the third week of May 2013 completed examining the
fractured rocks on Mars, the red planet those were altered by water. The rover was searching
for the evidences of the wet ancient environment that possibly favoured the life of the planet

Now the Opportunity has been driven towards a new study area after finishing 20 months on
the dubbed Cape York location. The scientists from NASA gave several weeks to study and get
the measurement of the fractured rock named Esperance, which was important for them from
many aspects.

Esperance was spotted by the team of NASA, while exploring a portion of Cape York, where the
Compact Reconnaissance Spectrometer for Mars on NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
detected the clay mineral. After studying the area, the rover team found an outcrop called
Whitewater Lake that has a small amount of clay altered due to its exposure to clay.


A Russian Capsule Bion-M craft that was filled with 45 mice and 15 newts along with other
animals returned from a months long mission in Orbit on 19 May 2013. The data received on
the return of the orbit mission may pave a way ahead for the scientists for a manned flight to

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The study was aimed at determining the way bodies adapted the weightlessness so that the
living creatures can survive the extended flights.

Other animals those were sent in the capsule were lizards, snails, small crayfish & fish and
gerbils as well as plants and micro flora. Less than half of the 45 mice and other animals sent on
the mission survived the flight. The capsule was launched on 19 April 2013 from the Baikonur
Cosmodrome. Earlier, research craft that carried animals into the space spent 12 days in orbit in

Bion-M craft landed in the Orenburg Region about 1,200 kilometres south-east of Moscow with
the help of a special parachute system.


Scientists at University of Glasgow's School of Physics and Astronomy discovered a new less
expensive technique of creating 3D images. They created a system which makes use of the
detectors that have single pixel for sensing the light instead of various pixels used in imaging
sensors found in digital cameras.

The detectors have the capability of judging the frequencies beyond visible light, which in turn
would help in various new applications for 3D imaging in geography and medicine. The
scientists explained that the single pixel detectors will cost just a few pounds in comparison to
present systems which amount to thousands of pounds.

The scientists believe that the ability of this system to sense the wavelengths beyond digital
cameras capabilities, as well as its low cost would result in making it a valuable tool for various
industries. Possible applications include use in medical industry for finding tumours.

Prof Miles Padgett, the lead researcher of the team at University of Glasgow's School of Physics
and Astronomy explained that single pixel detectors in four locations can be used for detecting
the light from data projector, which elucidates objects with the sequence of black-and-white
patterns. 3D images were created with the combination of images from four detectors while
making use of a technique known as shape from shade.

The 3D computational imaging, also known as ghost imaging produces the detailed images of
the objects in merely a few seconds. Conventional 3D imaging systems make use of multiple
digital camera sensors for producing 3D image from 2D information. However, there is a need
of careful calibration for making sure that multi-megapixel images align properly.

The digital camera sensors have restricted sensitivity beyond spectrum of light, where single
pixel detector can be used for capturing information beyond visible reaching wavelengths from
the X-ray to TeraHertz.

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Astronomers at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory discovered a cluster of hydrogen
clouds between our two nearby galaxies- Triangulum (M33) and Andromeda (M31). The cluster
of these clouds was never seen before. The researchers contemplated that these were the rare
blobs of gas condensed from gigantic and undetected pool of ionized and hot gas.

These objects were detected by the astronomers by making use of National Science
Foundation's Green Bank Telescope (GBT) at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory
(NRAO) in Green Bank.

Spencer Wolfe of West Virginia University in Morgantown explained that when the area
between M31 and M33 was observed, presence of neutral and colder hydrogen was detected
but the astronomers were not able to find out if this hydrogen had any definitive structure or
not. But with the help of high resolution images sent by GBT, the astronomers were able to see
distinct concentrations of neutral hydrogen which emerged from featureless field of gas.

The astronomers were able to see neutral atomic hydrogen, also referred to as HI (H and the
Roman numeral one). This is because of the unique signal that it emits at the radio wavelengths
that can be detected on our planet by the radio telescopes. It is interesting to notice that this
material is found abundantly throughout the universe, but in space between the galaxies, it is
very shaky. Also, between the two signals, it sends very faint signals which are very difficult to

Astronomers explained that more than 10 years ago, they had hint about unrecognized
abundance of hydrogen lying between M31 and M33. But because of very faint signal from the
gas, no firm conclusions about the origin, nature or its existence could be made. But in 2012,
data from GBT confirmed the presence of hydrogen gas between the nearest galaxies.

Thorough studies of the data from GBT revealed that presence of hydrogen gas was not there in
the form of just streamers but a complete 50 percent of hydrogen was clustered into discrete
and self-gravitating blobs. These blobs could also hint towards dwarf galaxies, which, as the
name says, are small collection of stars tied together by gravitational pull. These dwarf galaxies
contain a few thousands to few million stars.

Interestingly, GBT also tracked motion of the newly discovered clouds of hydrogen, depicting
that these were travelling across the space at velocities which were like M31 and M33. Felix J.
Lockman, the astronomer from NRAO in Green Bank explained that the clouds had their own
identities and that they were not suburbs of either of the two galaxies.

The reason why GBT could detect the signal from the gas is because of it huge size, exceptional
design and location at National Radio Quiet Zone of West Virginia. Otherwise, radio telescopes
could not catch these faint signals.

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National Radio Astronomy Observatory is the facility of National Science Foundation which is
operated under the cooperative agreement by Associated Universities.


Scientists from Switzerland created the smallest drops of liquid ever made in the lab. Scientists
carried out a series of experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, the worlds largest and most
powerful particle collider located at the European Laboratory for Nuclear and Particle Physics
(CERN) in Switzerland.

Evidence of the tiny droplets was obtained following the collision of protons with lead ions at
velocities approaching the speed of light. These short-lived droplets are the size of three to five
protons-that is about one-100000th the size of a hydrogen atom or one-100000000th the size
of a virus according to scientific calculation. These small droplets flow in a same manner as
quark-gluon plasma does. It can be defined as a state of matter that is a mixture of the sub-
atomic particles that constitutes protons and neutrons and only found at extreme
temperatures and densities.

Scientists proposed that the whole universe once consisted of this strongly interacting elixir for
fractions of a second after the Big Bang when conditions were dramatically hotter and denser
than todays conditions. Since then the universe has spent billions of years expanding and
cooling, the only way scientists can reproduce this primeval plasma is to bang atomic nuclei
together with a very large amount of energy.


Zhejiang University in China in May 2013 announced that the team of scientists produced an
ultra-light substance known as carbon aerogel, which has the density of 0.16 milligrams per
cubic centimeters.

The scientists claimed that this was the lightest material ever produced by anyone. The carbon
aerogel is made of granite as well as the carbon nanotubes which can absorb around 900 times
its own body weight.

The lead scientist, Professor Gao Chao explained that carbon aerogel was structure-wise, just
like carbon sponge. When the aerogel with the size of a mug was put on Setaria, then even the
grass would not bend. Professor Gao Chao also explained that the carbon aerogel can provide
effective solutions to major problems like cleaning oil spills as well as pollution control.


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Aerogels are primarily produced by extraction of liquid component of the gel through
supercritical drying. This enables liquid to slowly dry off without having an impact on solid
matrix. This means that the solid matrix in gel does not collapse from the capillary action, which
would take place with conventional evaporation.

First aerogels were manufactured from the silica gels. Samuel Stephens Kistler in 1931
produced aerogels based on tin dioxide, chromia and alumina. First carbon aerogels were
developed in late 1980s.


Scientists at ISRO will launch a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, GSLV D5 from the
spaceport in Sriharikota in July 2013. The announcement of the launch schedule was
announced by Union Minister, V Narayanasamy on 16 May 2013.

The GSLV D5 that is fitted with the indigenously developed Cryogenic Engine will place a
communication satellite GSAT-14 into orbit. Russia denied India from offering a cryogenic
engine as a result of which, the Indian scientists started their work for development of the GSLV
D5 with cryogenic engine.


It is a satellite with six extended C band and 6 Ku band transponders

The communication satellite GSAT-14 will enhance the communication transponder


Earlier, two attempts of ISRO to launch the satellites GSLV-F06 carrying satellite GSAT-5P on 25
December 2010 and GSLV-D3 carrying satellite GSAT-4 on 15 April 2010 resulted in a failure.


Researchers in the Month of May 2013 discovered a new species of dragonfly from a wildlife
sanctuary in Goa.

The new species was spotted at Bhagwan Mahaveer Wildlife sanctuary at Collem in south Goa
by researchers Parag Rangnekar and Rohan Naik in collaboration with Dr K A Subramanian, the
scientist with Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata.

The species is scientifically named as (Idionyx Gomantakensis), and is restricted to evergreen

forest. As per the researchers, most of the species of this genus are known from South India,
while Goa has two.

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It is important here to note that, the research was conducted under the banner of Mineral
Foundation of Goa and supported by the Department of Science and Technology, Government
of Goa.

The government wild be conducting focused surveys could result in discovery of more species
from the state.


Dragonflies and Damselflies belong to the Order Odonata.

This group of insects is dependent on water for completion of their life-cycle and hence
the quality of water defines the species composition.

The group was an excellent indicator of the health of a water body and can be
effectively used in bio-monitoring.


A group of US Scientists in second week of May 2013 declared that they have succeeded in
creating a cloned human embryo using the technique that helped in developing the cloned
sheep in 1996. The scientists took fifteen years to create the cloned embryo.

The team of scientists developed the embryo using skin samples of a womans egg to develop
an early cloned human embryo. Aim of this research is development of a source of stem cells
not a baby. These can be helpful in repair of damage created after heart attack or brains of
patients of Parkinsons disease.

Somatic Cell Nuclear transfer technique was used in development of the embryo and it is the
same technique that was used for developing the Ship Dolly, the first cloned animal in 1996.

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Angelina Jolie, the Hollywood actress on 14 May 2013 revealed that she has undergone double
mastectomy for reduction of her chances of getting Breast Cancer. She took the decision of
undergoing mastectomy as she was tested positive for a genetic mutation known as BRCA1.
BRCA1 presents a high risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer in a female.

Angelina Jolies step of revealing the secret of mastectomy was largely applauded as this will
influence many women across the world with strong family histories of breast cancer to get
genetic tests done.

Earlier before Angelina Jolie, in the history of breast cancer the defining moment occurred in
1974, when Betty Ford, the first lady of United States wife of Gerald Ford reveled about her
mastectomy to spread awareness about breast cancer.



BRCA1 is a human caretaker gene that produces a protein called breast cancer susceptibility
gene 1, responsible for repairing DNA. It has been linked with the hereditary breast and ovarian
cancer in a female and prostate cancer in men. It also increases chances of cervical, uterine,
pancreatic and colon cancer.


BRCA 2 is a protein found inside cells and is called breast cancer susceptibility gene 2. BRCA 2
also belongs to the tumor suppressor gene family and the protein encoded by these genes are
involved in repair of the chromosomal damage and plays an important role in free repair of
DNA double strand breaks.

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Scientists at CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) invented peptide-based
delivery platforms for targeting tumours. This can be helpful in curing Cancer. The scientists
developed this platform by using bacterial fermentation to bind DNA or small interfering RNA
(siRNA) or short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and delivering them into cells to target tumours. Given
that DNA, siRNA and shRNA are negatively-charged, they need carriers like recombinant

The benefit of DNA or siRNA is that they help in silencing the targeted genes. For example, if
the TF gene involved in new blood vessel formation is silenced, the tumour will degenerate. At
CCMB, the scientists developed chimeric peptide by fusing three peptide modules to deliver
DNA or shRNA for degenerating tumours.

Chimeric proteins with varied functional properties can be obtained from any organism or a
virus and produced in bacterial factories using standard practices of recombinant DNA method.

The advantage of using chimeric proteins is that they could be changed to target different
tumours. Scientists are making efforts to evolve peptide-based platform technology with other
homing ligands recognising different targets.


British scientists developed a new type of wheat which could increase productivity by 30
percent. The last 15 years have registered little growth in the average wheat harvest from each
acre in Britain. The Cambridge-based National Institute of Agricultural Botany combined an
ancient ancestor of wheat with a modern variety to produce a new strain. The scientists used
cross-pollination and seed embryo transfer technology to transfer some of the resistance of the
ancient ancestor of wheat into modern British varieties.

The resulting crop turned out to be bigger and stronger than the current modern wheat
varieties. Scientists will carry out more tests before it is harvested by farmers. This Scientific
development ensures that the global food security demands of the next five decades can be


Edinburgh University research suggested that the benefits of exposing the skin to sun can
outweigh the risks posed to health. The research indicated that sunlight is useful for reducing
the blood pressure, stroke risks as well as risks of heart attack. It can even prolong the life.

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It was found that the ultraviolet rays exposed from the sun release a compound called nitric
oxide which can lower the blood pressure. The heart strokes as well as heart diseases which are
associated with high BP can prove to be 80 times more fatal than the deaths due to skin cancer
in UK.

Nitric Oxide production is different from the manufacturing of vitamin D in human body.
Vitamin D can be increased in the body after exposure to the sunlight.

During their research, the researchers studied blood pressure of 24 volunteers under heat and
UV lamps. In a single session, these volunteers were exposed to heat of the lamps as well as the
UV rays. In the other session, volunteers were not exposed to the UV rays and so, they were
exposed only to the heat of lamps.

The result indicated that volunteers exposed to UV rays during one hour session had significant
drop in the blood pressure level, than that of heat-only sessions.

The researchers thus suggested that the UV rays of the sun can lead to benefits. During both
the sessions, the level of Vitamin D remained unaffected.

The study will be presented in Edinburgh on 10 May 2013 at largest gathering of the skin
experts, International Investigative Dermatology conference.


The Indian Institute of Science (IISc) designed and successfully tested a new concept of
needleless vaccine delivery system in the laboratory. IISc has become the only organization in
the world that has developed such a device. The new device was the result of collaboration
among the laboratory for hypersonic and shock wave, the department of aerospace
engineering, and the microbiology and cell biology department of the Indian Institute of

Typhoid vaccine was successfully delivered into mice in laboratory using the new technique.
The device utilizes the instantaneous mechanical impulse produced by micro-blast waves to
achieve delivery of vaccines into mice. A negligible amount of chemical energy is used to
generate the micro-blast wave inside a small disposable plastic tube.

Since the depth of penetration of drug below the skin is not much, animals do not feel the pain
during vaccine delivery. The trials on animals have proved that by using this device a lesser
quantity of vaccines is sufficient to provide resistance to animals against in comparison to
conventional methods. The new system is safe, economical and painless.

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Solar Impulse, the plane powered by Sun completed its first leg of journey with an aim to cross
US. The plane took off from San Francisco, California on 3 May 2013 and landed in Phoenix,
Arizona on 4 May 2013.

It is planned that Solar Impulse will also halt in Dallas, St Louis, Washington DC and New York.
The wingspan of the plane is similar to that of Airbus A340, but its weight is merely 1.6 tonnes.
Solar Impulse already completed a flight which lasted more than 26 hours. The aim is now to
circumnavigate it around the world in 2015.

This indicated that Solar Impulse spent a lot of hours in darkness and relied only on energy
which was stored in a range of lithium-ion batteries, used to drive the propellers. In the
daylight, these lithium-ion batteries were charged by around 12000 solar cells which cover the
wings as well as stabilizer of the plane. Bertrand Piccard, the co-founder of this plane project
was the pilot of HB-SIA craft. He is also the same person who circumnavigated the globe in hot
air balloon in 1999.

This is the first ever attempt of America to create zero-fuel aircraft. At present, the HB-SIA
aircraft is the prototype of plane which will be used for round-the-world trips as well as
transoceanic flights. By the end of 2013, HB-SIB will be completed.

The Solar Impulse is said to be the Clean Generation Initiative of the creators. This would serve
as an effort for encouraging the policy makers as well as businesses for the development as well
as adoption of sustainable energy technologies.


Solar Impulse is the Swiss long-range solar-powered project. The aim of this project is to
circumnavigate the globe with the use of just solar power. Bertrand Piccard as well as Swiss
businessman Andr Borschberg led the project.

Successful solar flights were conducted by Piccard and Borschberg in 2012 from Switzerland to
Spain and Morocco. In 2013, successful flight was taken within USA.


A team led by an IIT-Madras professor devised a cheap and effective method for producing
clean drinking water. With this device in place, 10 liters of water could be produced which will
be free from bacteria and virus. The total cost for producing this amount of water will be 10-12
rupees per month. The team headed by T Pradeep used silver nanoparticles in his device.

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Silver nanoparticles are not only affordable but they also do not need electricity or hydrostatic
pressure to produce potable water. They can operate at ambient temperatures ranging from 5-
35 degrees Celsius. Moreover, the production of the nanoparticle matrix is eco-friendly.

The team applies sustained release of about 50 parts per billion (ppb) of silver ions in a large
volume of water to destroy microorganisms. Silver ions have the ability to destroy the integrity
of cell membranes and damage DNA.

To achieve this, Scientists prepared a composite of aluminium oxy-hydroxide on which silver

nanoparticles were deposited. The composite with silver nanoparticles is in the form of sand


The first gun of the world made out of 3D printer technology was fired successfully in US.
Defense Distributed created this firearm and the form also planned to make these blueprints
available online.

Defense Distributed spent a year for creation of this firearm, which was fired successfully on 4
May 2013 at firing range south of Austin, Texas. The anti-gun campaigners criticised this
project, while the law enforcement of Europe is monitoring the developments of this project.

Victoria Baines of cybercrime centre of Europol explained that the criminals at present were
likely to pursue the established routes for obtaining these firemans, but with the passage of
time, the 3D printer technology would become more user-friendly as well as cost-effective,
thereby posing risks.

Cody Wilson, 25, a student of the University of Texas is the head of Defense Distributed. 3D
printing has successfully been called the future of manufacturing.


The 3D printer technology works by building layer upon layer of the material, which is
basically plastic. This is done in order to build the complex and solid objects.
This technology is cheaper and instead of buying the goods from markets, the
consumers will be able to download its designs. Then these can be printed out at the
home itself.

However, like all technologies, there are advantages as well as disadvantages. The first gun of
the world made out of 3D printer technology cost 8000 US dollar from eBay. The gun was
assembled from different printed components which were made out of ABS plastic. The firing
pin was made out of metal.

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Cody Wilson was fiven the manufacturing as well as sellers license from US Bureau of Alcohol,
Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) in order to make this gun.

US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) official Donna Sellers explained
that the gun was legal in US as long as it wasnt a National Firearms Act weapon.

3D printing technology was used in the past by certain criminal organisations for creation of
card readers skimmers, which are inserted in the bank machines. Law enforcement agencies
across the world have professionals for monitoring cybercrimes.


Scientists developed the first global model that analyses the routes taken by marine invasive
species. They examined the movements of cargo ships across the world to detect the hot spots
where these aquatic aliens could thrive.

Marine species wreak havoc in new locations causing the extinction of natives. A well-
documented boom has been observed in global shipping over the last 20 years and this has
resulted into growing numbers of species moving via ballast tanks.

The ports such as San Francisco and Chesapeake Bay have informed about several exotic new
species arriving every year. Economic data indicates that marine invaders can have effects that
last for decades.

Therefore, scientists came out with a model that can curb these marine species. They procured
detailed logs from nearly three million voyages that happened in 2007 and 2008.


The US team of scientists found the mechanism in the hypothalamus- which is located deep
inside the brain- and showed that it is responsible for the ageing process. Scientists carried out
a series of experiments to find that they could extend the lives of mice by a fifth, without the
problems such as animals suffering from muscle weakness, bone loss or memory problems
associated with old age.

Scientists discovered that a chemical called NF-kB became more active in the hypothalamus of
mice as they reached old age. When they blocked NF-kB, mice lived up to 1100 days, compared
with 600 to 1000 days in normal condition. But all the mice died within 900 days, when NF-kB
was given to them in abundance.

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Further experiment showed that NF-kB reduced levels of a hormone called GnRH, which plays a
key role in fertility and the development of sperm and eggs. When the mice were given daily
dose of GnRH, it resulted into fresh neurons growing in their brains.


US Scientists at the Harvard University created a robot of the size of fly which can perform fast
manoeuvres of omnipresent insects. The robot called Robo-Fly is built from the carbon fibre
which weighs just a fraction of the gram and also has super-fast electronic muscles that are
used to power the wings.

The developers of the robot described that the tiny robots like these could be used in various
rescue operations. For example, such a kind of the robot could be used for navigating through
the tiny spaces in buildings which have collapsed.

Dr Kevin Ma of Harvard University as well as his team which was led by Dr Robert Wood
described their creation as the world's smallest flying robot. The fly-like agility that this robot
encompasses, allows it to evade the fastest human efforts to swat them. This ability came
because of precise wing movements.

The robot has the ability to perform immediate evasive manoeuvres as well as hover, by
constant adjustment of the effect of lift and thrust which acts on the body at extremely high
speed. Like any real fly, the flexible and thin wings of the robot can beat around 120 times per
This high speed of the wings can be achieved with the help of a special substance known as
piezoelectric material. This material contracts each time with the application of the voltage to
it. The scientists switched on and off the voltage very rapidly and this helped them in making
the material behave like tiny muscles which make the flys wings beat very fast.

The scientists explained that the primary goal of this research was not to build the useful robot,
but understand the flight working of the insects. However, now, with the development of the
robot, there could be various uses of the machine. These robots could also be used for the
monitoring of the environment by being dispersed into habitat for sensing trace chemicals or
certain other factors.

Dr Ma also explained that these robots were able to behave like the real insects and could also
help in pollination of crops. At present, the model of robo-fly is small, off-board power source.
However, in the next step, it would be created as the completely wireless flying robot.

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The IBM scientists on 1 May 2013 released the smallest movie of the world called A Boy and His
Atom. The movie tracks movement of the atoms which are magnified 100 million times.

The movie, A Boy and His Atom, is a story of the character called Atom who in turn befriends
the single atom and then follows him on journey of bouncing and dancing which helps in
explaining the science behind the data storage.

A scientist at IBM Research, Andreas Heinrich explained that positioning, shaping and capturing
the atoms in order to create the original motion picture on atomic level was completely first-of-
its-kind and precise science. The movie is actually a fun-filled way of sharing the atomic-scale


In order to make this movie, the scientists moved the atoms with the help of IBM-invented
scanning tunneling microscope. Scanning Tunneling Microscope is the device which helped its
inventors get the Nobel Prize as well. This was the first tool which helped the scientists in
seeing the world in the form of single atoms.

The device weighs two tons and operates at the temperature of -268 degrees Celsius. It
magnifies the atomic surface more than 100 million times. With the availability of this device,
IBM Research lab is one of those rare places in the world where it is possible to move the atoms
with precision of such a level.

Guinness Book of World Records certified this movie as the World's Smallest Stop Motion Film.

The film made use of the microscope in order to control the super-sharp needle along copper
surface in order to attract the atoms as well as molecules and then, in turn, pull them to
specified location on any surface.

Such a kind of science could help in improvement of computer data storage. This is so because
the data creation as well as consumption is getting bigger and therefore, there is a need of
making data storage smaller. IBM is now applying this technique for developing new computer
architectures as well as alternative ways for storing the data in order to make this movie.


The Herschel observatory, a European space telescope for which NASA helped build
instruments and process data, stopped making observations after running out of liquid coolant
as expected. Herschel launched aboard an Ariane 5 rocket from French Guiana in May 2009.

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NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., built components for two of Herschel's
three science instruments. NASA also supports the U.S. astronomical community through the
agency's Herschel Science Center, located at the California Institute of Technology's Infrared
Processing and Analysis Center in Pasadena.

Herschel's detectors were designed to pick up the glow from celestial objects with infrared
wavelengths as long as 625 micrometers, which is 1,000 times longer than what we can see
with our eyes. Because heat interferes with these devices, they were chilled to temperatures as
low as 2 kelvins (minus 271 degrees Celsius, or 456 Fahrenheit) using liquid helium. The
detectors also were kept cold by the spacecraft's orbit, which is around a stable point called the
second Lagrange point about 930,000 miles (1.5 million kilometers) from Earth. This location
gave Herschel a better view of the universe.

The mission will not be making any more observations, but discoveries will continue.
Astronomers still are looking over the data, much of which already is public and available
through NASA's Herschel Science Center. The final batch of data will be public in about six


Discovering long, filamentary structures in space, dotted with dense star-making knots
of material.
Detecting definitively, for the first time, oxygen molecules in space, in addition to other
never-before-seen molecules. By mapping the molecules in different regions,
researchers are learning more about the life cycles of stars and planets and the origins
of life.
Discovering high-speed outflows around central black holes in active galaxies, which
may be clearing out surrounding regions and suppressing future star formation.
Opening new views on extremely distant galaxies that could be seen only with Herschel,
and providing new information about their high rates of star formation.
Following the trail of water molecules from distant galaxies to the clouds of gas
between stars to planet-forming solar systems.
Examining a comet in our own solar system and finding evidence comets could have
brought a substantial fraction of water to Earth.
Together with NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, discovering a large asteroid belt around
the bright star Vega.

Other findings from the mission include the discovery of some of the youngest stars ever seen
in the nearby Orion cradle, and a peculiar planet-forming disk of material surrounding the star
TW Hydra, indicating planet formation may happen over longer periods of time than expected.
Herschel also has shown stars interact with their environment in many surprising ways,
including leaving trails as they move through clouds of gas and dust.

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The European Space Agency (ESA) on 25 April 2013 during the 6th European Conference on
Space Debris in Darmstadt, Germany announced that the Space Junk such as the debris of
rockets should be removed from the orbit of the Earth. The announcement was made to avoid
potential catastrophic collisions with operational spacecrafts and satellites that would cost a
loss of millions of Euros for satellite operators as well as knock out GPS and Mobile network.

The agency said that the quantity of debris in the space environment is close to a situation of
collision, which will make space hazardous. The agency made it clear that there is an urgent
need of pulling out the redundant objects out from the sky.

As per the present estimates from scientists, there exist nearly 30000 items of size more than
10 cm that circles the Earth at average speeds of 25000 kp0068. Many of the circling particles
are complete rocket bodies and satellites and many are fragments. The debris in the orbit is the
result of the explosion of the fuel tanks and batteries as well as from the impact of high-
velocities between the objects. Debris with size 10 cm and above are traceable by the radars
but the one smaller than it move unseen in the orbit, which would result in catastrophic
collision among these materials.

The researchers agreed to the point that the debris-environment in the orbit would become
unstable within few decades and this phenomenon is called Kessler Syndrome. Removal of five
to ten large debris, every year can be the solution to reverse the process of debris growth in the
orbit. European Space Agency in 2012 launched Clean Space initiative that aims at developing
the technology to capture and remove space debris safely.

Prof Heiner Klinkrad was the chairman for the 6th European Conference on Space Debris in
Darmstadt, Germany.


Researchers at St. Andrews, the Max Planck Institute for Informatics in Germany and Montana
Tech in the US created a keyboard layout, said to be great for the touch screen devices like
smartphones er.

Dr. Per Ola and tablets. The new keyboard, researchers claimed, can make thumb-typing faster
and easiKristensson of the St Andrews University explained that the typical QWERTY keyboard
trapped its users in suboptimal text entry interfaces. New design of the keyboard is called
KALQ, in order of its keys on one line.

The creators of this keyboard made use of the computational optimisation techniques in order
to identify the best performance. The virtual keyboard was created in alliance. This keyboard
would be accessible to the users free of cost for the Android-based devices.

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The research team explained that two-thumb typing becomes very different ergonomically in
comparison to the typing on physical QWERTY keyboards. QWERTY keyboards in turn were
developed in late 19th century by the typewriters.

The researchers claimed that any normal user making use of the QWERTY keyboard on any
touch screen device could type just 20 words per minute, which is way too low than the normal
physical keyboards available with the computers. Researchers explained that a process by
which optimization of a keyboard for two thumbs could be done, was by minimizing the long
typing sequences which involved the use of single thumb only.

It was additionally imperative that the letter keys which were used frequently should be placed
alongside in order to reduce the typing time. Optimal layout involved reducing the moving time
of thumbs as well as enabling the typing on alternating sides of touch screen device.

In the new keyboard, all vowels were placed in area which was assigned to right thumb, while
the left thumb had more keys. With error-correction algorithm, the users who were trained
could reach 37 words in a minute. KALQ provided better performance to users. The new
keyword work of the researchers will now be presented at CHI 2013 Conference (the ACM
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems) in Paris on 1 May 2013.


Around 1200 light years away from Earth, there are five planets which are circling around the
sun-like star called Kepler-62 in Lyra constellation, according to the latest discovery made by
the scientists by making use of Kepler space telescope of NASA. Two of these planets, named
Kepler-62f and Kepler-62e are said to be in such a position that they might have water on their
surface, a condition which is necessary to support life.

Kepler scientist William Borucki, with NASAs Ames Research Center in California explained that
this is strongest evidence of the existence of Earth-sized planets in the stars habitable zone.
These two new Earth-like planets are outermost pair which is circling the Kepler-62 star.

The most distant planet is Kepler-62f, which is around 1.4 times as huge as that of Earths size.
It can orbit its parent star in 267 days. Other Earth-like planet called Kepler-62e is 1.6 times as
big as the size of Earth and it orbits around the star in 122 days.

However, whether one of these or both these plants have water on their surface or not is
beyond the Keplers technical capabilities or the capabilities of any other telescope. This is so
because Kepler actually works by checking the slight dips in light which come from the star that
is caused by the planet passing by. Checking the information is very cumbersome process. Every
downloaded data from Kepler has 18000 events of interests to the scientists.

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It is important to note that the scientists are still studying the Kepler-62, which means that
there might be chances of existence of other planets that have longer orbital periods. Earlier,
the Kepler team discovered a star that had six planets in its orbit. European researchers on the
other hand had made use of various telescopes to discover seven-planet system.


Scientists in the third week of April 2013 discovered a giant galaxy called HFLS3 in the Universe
which is 12.8 Billion light years away from Earth. The newly found galaxy is believed to produce
3000 Suns every year. It has stars having a total mass nearly 40 billion times the mass of our
Sun. The galaxy is shrouded in a dust cloud which is 100 billion times the mass of Sun.

The age of the galaxy has been estimated around 800 million years old which makes it as one of
the youngest galaxies in the Universe. The astronomers used 12 orbiting and ground-based
telescopes to discover HFLS3. The galaxy was described as a maximum star-burst galaxy due to
its prodigious star formation rate.


Scientists produced a disease-resistant piglet called Pig-26 using a new technique which is
simpler than cloning, paving way for genetically modified meat. The new technique is called
gene editing and Pig 26 is the first animal to be created through gene editing. It was born in
December 2012 at Edinburghs Roslin Institute, where the cloned sheep Dolly was created in
the year 1996.


Pig 26 was created through a process called gene editing.

It is faster and more efficient than other methods.

It is immune to African swine fever which can kill within 24 hours.

The new scientific development could bring GM meat a step closer.


Hobbit Humans, who are said to be the tiny creatures living on remote Indonesian island of
Flores till around 12000 years ago, had larger brains than thought, as per the recent research
conducted by National Museum of Nature and Science in Tokyo. This research also
strengthened the fact that hobbits evolved from the ancestors Homo erectus.

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Homo erectus, are said to have evolved into our species in Africa. The study revealed that
environment as well as location could have created the difference between the individual who
looked similar to us, and someone who looked familiar to hobbit. The Hobbit Humans were
extremely short in height (36) and they had relatively shorter legs in comparison to their feet
and arms.

Kaifu, a senior researcher at the National Museum of Nature and Science in Tokyo who
conducted the study along with lead author Daisuke Kubo and Reiko Kono, made use of high-
resolution micro-CT scanning in order to study about the brain regions of hobbit human skulls.
In the scans, it was found out that the brains measured 426 cc in comparison to estimated 400
cc. 426 cc is just around the same size like the brain of a chimpanzee.

However, this study indicated that the difference meant it was possible for the Homo erectus to
have evolved from the brains like these. The researchers indicated towards the fact that Homo
erectus who lived on the mainland, moved to the isolated islands of Flores. The unique
evolution of the Hobbits suggested that once they got on the island, they did not move out. The
researchers explained that according to the theory, big mammals decrease and small mammals
increase in their body sizes on the isolated island due to energetic demands.

Dean Falk, the team of whom estimated that Hobbits brain were smaller, explained that the
new measurements were the most precise ones available till date. This is so because these
measurements were done with great care and improved and advanced methods.


The researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, United States on 14 April 2013
announced that they had bio-engineered a kidney that can be marked a step-ahead in the quest
to help patients suffering from Kidney Failure. The researchers as an experiment transplanted
the bio-engineered kidney into rats and discovered that the experiment was successful.

The success of the experiment has laid a way for building replacement structures of lungs, livers
and hearts. The process of kidney transplant into the rat involved taking out a rat kidney and
stripping out its living cells by using a solution made of detergent and leave behind a shell made
of collagen. Further, the rats empty structure with living cells was repopulated that comprised
human endothelial cells that lined the walls of kidney blood vessels and kidney cells taken from
newborn rat.

Then the cells were seeded in the correct part of the kidney with the help of a muscle duct that
is called ureter as a tube and then transplanted the organ into the living rat from which the
kidney was removed. The result of the experiment was that the new kidney started filtering the
blood and produced urine as soon as the blood supply was restored.

The results of the experiment had brought human being a step-closer to create lab grown
organs for humans. The team of researchers was led by Harald Ott.

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The discovery also helps scientists better understand the origin and evolution of Saturn's ring
system and changes in the planet's atmosphere. Those bands were not seen again until the
astronomers observed the planet in near-infrared wavelengths with the W M Keck Observatory
on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The ring rain's effect takes place in Saturn's ionosphere, where charged
particles are produced when the otherwise neutral atmosphere is exposed to a flow of
energetic particles or solar radiation.


A team of US scientists on 8 April 2013 designed a new adaptive material inspired by human
tears. The new material was inspired by dynamic, self-restoring systems in Nature, such as the
liquid film that coats our eyes. Individual tears join up to form a dynamic liquid film with an
obviously significant optical function that maintains clarity, while keeping the eye moist,
protecting it against dust and bacteria, and helping to transport away any wastes -- doing all of
this and more in literally the blink of an eye.

The bio-inspired material is a continuous liquid film that coats, and is infused in, an elastic
porous substrate, which is what makes it so versatile. With this design architecture in place, the
team has thus far demonstrated the ability to dynamically control, with great precision, two key
functions: transparency and wet ability.


Researchers at the Institute of Cancer Research in London and the Royal Marsden NHS
Foundation Trust revealed that men suffering from prostate cancer and the inherited gene
mutation have worst kinds of ailments. The gene called BRCA2 is associated with hereditary
breast cancer and also the ovarian and prostate cancer. Researchers revealed that men having
BRCA2 gene are more prone to prostate cancer and it was also revealed that they are likely to
have an aggressive form of tumour with poor survival rates. Men like these needed immediate
treatment for survival. It was also revealed that one out of 100 men suffering from prostate
cancer might have BRCA2 mutation. For men like these, immediate radiotherapy or surgery can
work, even in the cases where the disease is in its infancy.


Prostate Cancer is a men-typical ailment which is very difficult to predict at the early

The disease grows at a very slow or very fast pace.

It is difficult to detect Prostate Cancer because a lot of men can live with the disease
without showing any signs of this disease.

Over 40000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer on a yearly basis.

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For a lot of men suffering from Prostate Cancer, treatment is not required immediately.
However, researchers revealed that men, who have BRCA2 gene along with prostate cancer,
should be treated immediately because in their case tumour spreads at a faster pace.

Prof Ros Eeles and his colleagues at The Institute of Cancer Research in London and The Royal
Marsden NHS Foundation Trust revealed that men with BRCA2 gene should be treated faster
because of the greater degree of fatality.

In the research, records of these prostate cancer patients were studied. 61 men having BRCA2
gene and 18 men having BRCA1 gene mutation along with 1940 men with none of these
mutations were studied. It was clear after the study that men with BRCA2-mutations had less
survival chances. These men lived an average of 6.5 years after the diagnosis in comparison to
12.9 years for the non-carriers of this mutation.

It is worth noticing that people who have a family history of ovarian or breast cancer along with
prostate cancer can go for BRCA1/2 testing at diagnosis. Nevertheless, this testing is not offered
to all the patients diagnosed with prostate cancer in UK.


Scientists found very strong evidence that aerosols from burning fossil fuels were affecting
coral growth. In fact, these sooty particles can cool sea surface temperatures and limit the size
of reefs. However scientists suggested that this chilling effect could stop the corals from
bleaching in warmer waters.

Coral reefs across the world are under pressure from a range of human impacts. This does not
kill them but makes them much more likely to die. The recent discovery found that as well as
the warming waters, fine particulates of different types are affecting reefs near Belize and

These aerosols consist of soot from burning coal, elements from volcanic eruptions and
sulphates from fossil fuels. They circulate in the atmosphere and can block solar radiation and
make clouds more reflective. In their study, the scientists examined records from coral
skeletons, ship observations and climate models to compare coral growth rates from 1880 to
2000. They discovered that there was a correlation between increases in atmospheric aerosols
and decreases in the growth rates of coral. There was so much intense effect on the reefs that
the researchers believe it usurps other factors.


The medium range nuclear capable Agni-II missile was on 7 April 2013 successfully test-fired
with a strike range of more than 2000 km from the Wheeler Island off Odisha coast.

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The two-stage missile equipped with advanced high accuracy navigation system, guided by a
novel scheme of state of the earth command and control system was propelled by solid rocket
propellant system.

The 20-metre long Agni-II is a two-stage, solid-propelled ballistic missile. It has a launch weight
of 17 tonnes and can carry a payload of 1000 kg over a distance of 2000 km. The state-of-the-
art Agni-II missile was developed by Advanced Systems Laboratory (ASL) and integrated by the
Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL), Hyderabad.

Agni-II is part of the Agni series of missiles developed by DRDO which includes Agni-I with a 700
km range, Agni-III with a 3000 km range, Agni-IV with 4000 km range and Agni-V more than
5000 km range. The last trial of Agni-II conducted on 9 August 2012 from the same base, was a
total success.


Researchers in the first week of April developed a New Laser powered Camera System that can
take image of any object from a distance of about one kilometer by creating high-resolution 3D
The technique on which the camera is based is called Time-of-Flight (ToF) navigation systems
for autonomous vehicles. In this principle of photography, to capture the image of the far away
object, a laser beam is bounced on the object and measure the time that is taken by the beam
of light to be back to the detector.

The research on the time-of-flight technology of imaging was conducted by the team of
researchers from Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh, Scotland that was led by Professor
Gerald Buller.


US Scientists in the first week of April 2013 identified Genetic markers that could help in
detecting Alzheimers disease. The research in Neuron detects mutations which impacts the
building up of certain proteins in the brain. High levels of these phosphorylated tau (ptau)
proteins increase the chance of Alzheimers disease in humans.

The recent scientific finding could help understand the changes that occur in the brains of
Alzheimer's patients. This study helps scientists to better understand the way the brain changes
when dementia develops.

One of the new gene variants was also shown to be linked to a small increased risk of
developing Alzheimer's and a greater risk of cognitive decline. The scientists used genetic

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information from several people to carry out their experiment.UK experts said the study adds
to the number of genetic markers that have been linked to the development of Alzheimer's


A recent study conducted by Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich found out
that the compounds (metabolites) which are found in the exhaled breath are as unique as the
fingerprints of an individual. The metabolites have always been seen as the waste products of
the chemistry of someones body, but the uniqueness of these metabolites was never shown.

The study suggested that these metabolites could be very useful for the purpose of medical
diagnosis, just like that found in the blood or urine. The breath test is said to be non-invasive
and their results are also available instantly, which is why a breath test can be convenient,
especially for doping tests or anaesthesia.

The lead author of the study, Renato Zenobi explained that in Chinese medicine in the
traditional times, tongue, pulse and also the breath are used for diagnosis of ailments.

Earlier researches have also depicted that particular kind of bacteria responsible for lung
infections or stomach cancers can be detected using the exhaled breath.

During the study, the team took breath samples of 11 volunteers over four time slots of nine
working days. The samples were then run through the mass spectrometer, a device which is
used to effectively measure the masses of the chemical compounds in breath. Uniqueness of
the exhaled breath was thus detected.

Breath test is non-invasive as well as immediate in nature, which makes it very promising. For
example, it could be used for determination of appropriate dosage in anaesthesia.
Now, the team is also working along with the pulmonologists for detection of signs of lung-
related ailments such as breath cancer, sarcoidosis and asthma.


Facebook on 4 April 2013 released the software called Home, which puts the feeds from
Facebook on Android phones home screen. Software would become the wrapper for Android
operating system. It will become the primary way of handling the phone.

The images, messages as well as the notifications will be visible on the main screen of Android
phones. Earlier, these were accessible through the downloadable application.

The Home software of Facebook will conceal all other applications and will pipe the entire
content as well as the chat performed through Facebook, on the home screen. The software

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into the Ocean after the Saturn 5 launches to the moon during Apollo 11 moon mission. Two
Saturn V first-stage engines were recovered by the Bezos Expeditions from 3 miles beneath
Atlantic Ocean.

Around 40 years ago, NASA had sent a total of seven missions to Moon out of which six had
carried astronauts successfully. Jeff Bezos announced that the serial numbers on these engines
were not found, which made it difficult for them to identify the mission for which they were

Restoration work will now be carried out on the engines which will continue to remain a US
Government property, after which they would be put on the public display. One of these
engines would be at public display at Washington DC's Smithsonian National Air and Space
Museum. Other one would be displayed at Museum of Flight in Seattle.

NASA, in the meanwhile announced that this was a historic recovery that would allow in
exploring the important artifacts about its first efforts of sending human beings out of the
Earths orbit.


Saturn V was the American human-rated expendable rocket which was used by Apollo
of NASA and Skylab from 1967 until 1973. NASA launched a total of 13 Saturn Vs from
Kennedy Space Center, Florida.
It is said to be the heaviest, tallest as well as the most powerful rocket ever brought to
the operational status. It holds a record of heaviest launch vehicle payload ever.
Up to date, Saturn V is only launch vehicle that transported humans beyond low Earth
The Saturn V first-stage rocket engines were developed by Rocketdyne. These engines
were used in Saturn V.
First F-1 engines were made use in S-IC first stage of each Saturn V, which was in turn
used as the launch vehicle in Apollo Program.
F-1 is the most powerful single-chamber liquid-fueled rocket engine.


An international team of astronomers led by ASTRON astronomer Dr. George Heald, in the third
week of March 2013 discovered an unknown huge radio galaxy, by making use of the powerful
International LOFAR Telescope (ILT), built by ASTRON. The galaxy was discovered in the LOFAR's
first all-sky imaging survey called Multi-frequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS).

The new source which was equivalent to the size of full Moon was identified while analysis of
the MSSS images. The radio emission was observed, which is associated with the material that
is ejected from one of the members of interacting galaxy triplet system. Physical extent of this

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material is said to be much larger than system of galaxy, which actually extends millions of light
years across the intergalactic space.

It is important to note that the MSSS is still under process. The newly found galaxy is the
member of group of objects known as Giant Radio Galaxies (GRGs). GRGs, as the name suggest,
are kind of radio galaxies which have huge physical size, indicating towards the fact that either
they are very old or very powerful. LOFAR is one of the most efficient tools for exploring the
GRGs because it is very sensitive to the large objects. LOFAR operates at low frequencies which
are very much suitable for observation of the old sources.

The team of astronomers which is performing this ongoing MSSS comprises of 50 members
from different institutes, most of which are in Italy, Poland, France, Netherlands and Germany.


ASTRON stands for Dutch Stichting ASTRonomisch Onderzoek in Nederland. It is actually the
Dutch foundation that conducts research in radio astronomy. Radio astronomy is basically the
subfield of astronomy which conducts study of the celestial objects located at the radio


LOFAR stands for Low-Frequency Array for radio astronomy. It was built as well as designed by
Netherlands astronomical foundation called ASTRON. Its operations are managed by the
ASTRON's radio observatory.

LOFAR is basically the largest connected radio telescope built by making use of the new concept
based on range of omni-directional antennas.


The MSSS conducted by LOFAR is determined effort to analyse the northern sky at extremely
low radio frequencies, between wavelengths varying from 2m to 10m. Primarily, the aim of this
survey is performing the initial scan of sky for creating the all-sky model which will in turn help
in deeper observations.


Astronomers at the Herschel Space Observatory in the Month of March 2013 found some of
the youngest stars ever seen in the Universe.

The findings of new stars which is known by protostars was also contributed by Observations
from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope
in Chile, a collaboration involving the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Germany, the
Onsala Space Observatory in Sweden, and the European Southern Observatory in Germany.

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It has been observed that dense envelopes of gas and dust surround the fledging stars known
as protostars, making their detection difficult. The 15 newly observed protostars turned up by
surprise in a survey of the biggest site of star formation near our solar system, located in the
constellation Orion.

The finding of these new stars is giving scientists a glance into one of the earliest and least
understood phases of star formation and it can be a witnessing moment of the phases when a
star begins to form. Astronomers long had investigated the stellar nursery in the Orion
Molecular Cloud Complex, a vast collection of star-forming clouds, but had not seen the newly
identified protostars until Herschel observed the region.


Herschel spied the protostars in far-infrared, or long-wavelength, light, which can shine through
the dense clouds around burgeoning stars that block out higher-energy, shorter wavelengths,
including the light our eyes see.

The Herschel Photo-detector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) instrument

collected infrared light at 70 and 160 micrometers in wavelength, comparable to the
width of a human hair. Researchers compared these observations to previous scans of
the star-forming regions in Orion taken by Spitzer.
Extremely young protostars identified in the Herschel views but too cold to be picked up
in most of the Spitzer data were further verified with radio wave observations from the
APEX ground telescope.
Of the 15 newly discovered protostars, 11 possess very red colors, meaning their light
output trends toward the low-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum. This output
indicates the stars are still embedded deeply in a gaseous envelope, meaning they are
very young.


A team of researchers, led by Ronnie Glud of University of Southern Denmark discovered that a
huge community of bacteria grows in depths of the Mariana Trench off the coast of the Pacific
Oceans Mariana Islands. It was found that the organisms live at the densities ten times higher
than shallower ocean floor at rim of trench.

The deepest point on entire seafloor is called The Challenger Deep and it is situated in Mariana
Trench off the coast of the Pacific Oceans Mariana Islands. This point is 36000 feet or 7.8 miles
below the surface of the ocean.


In order to explore the ecosystem that exists ultra-deep, the international team of researchers
sent the specially-designed 1300 pound robot in the depth of the Mariana Trench in 2010. This
robot was facilitated with thin sensors which could enter into the seafloor sediments in order to

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measure organic consumption of oxygen. Because all living organisms consume oxygen while
respiration, therefore it is possible to find out the amount of microorganisms living in an area
by checking the tallies on what quantity of ambient oxygen is missing from the sediments.

The team of researchers used the device for sampling the sediments at two sites with depths of
35476 and 35488 feet. It was found that large quantity of oxygen consumption took place. This
indicated that there were ten times more bacteria at the ultra-deep site than the shallower site
which was sampled just for reference around 37 miles away, at a depth of merely 19626 feet.


The robot brought out an overall 21 sediment cores from these two deep sites. The sediment
cores were kept for analysis in the lab. Even though a lot of microorganisms died after being
brought out to the surface, but it confirmed the finding that cores from Mariana Trench were
habitat to higher densities of bacterial cells than the ones which existed in the reference site.

Also, the video recording of the ocean floor was done by making use of the lights for
illuminating the dark environment. It was also discovered that certain life forms which were
larger than the bacteria on the top of the sediment, existed. It was determined that these life
forms were Hirondellea gigas, a species of amphipods. Amphipods are the small crustaceans
which are just less than one inch in terms of length.


The finding of abundant bacterial life at such a depth is very surprising because it was believed
that at such depths, not enough nutrients can be found. The Photosynthetic plankton can act as
a nutrient base for almost all the ocean food chain, but even these planktons are unable to
survive in lightless seafloor. But this research has amused the scientists because ultra-deep
trench was found to be the abode of so much bacterial activity than the shallower reference
site just nearby.

Since 2010 exploration, the team of researchers has also sent this robot to sample Japan
Trench which is roughly 29500 feet deep. The researchers now plan to sample the Kermadec-
Tonga Trench, which is 35430 feet deep.


Researchers working on the accurate calculation of the distance of Milky Way to the nearest
galaxy, led by Grzegorz Pietrzynski of the Universidad de Concepcion in Chile and Warsaw
University Observatory in Poland, found the exact distance to our nearest galaxy. The nearest
galaxy to Milky Way is called Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and it was found that it lies at a
distance of 163000 light years away or exactly 49.97 kiloparsecs.

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Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is the dwarf galaxy which floats in the space around our
galaxy, Milky Way. It floats in a similar trend like that between the Earth and the Moon.
Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) encompasses huge clouds of gas in it, which gradually
collapse, thereby forming new stars. These new stars are brightened in the colours
which are actually visible in the images that are taken by Hubble Space Telescope.
LMC also includes Tarantula Nebula which is the brightest stellar nursery in the cosmic


The findings about the distance of LMC from Milky Way are crucial because they can help in
determining the scale of our universe, which has remained a mystery ever since its inception.
These findings could also be used for determining the rate of expansion of the universe. This
rate of expansion of the universe is called Hubble Constant, which is named after an
astronomer Edwin P Hubble who discovered in 1929 that the Universe was growing

Determination of the Hubble Constant is highly important for finding out the age as well as size
of the universe. Exact distance of Milky Way to LMC has always remained one of the hugest
uncertainties which affected the past measurements.


Lead researcher Grzegorz Pietrzynski declared that they would now work on improving the
accuracy of the measurements even more. The calculations of the distance were made by
observation of the rare close pairs of stars which are called eclipsing binaries.

Eclipsing binaries are actually bound to each other gravitationally. Once per orbit, the overall
brightness from this system of stars drops as one of these stars eclipses its partner. It is possible
to find out the hugeness of the stars as well as information of their orbits by tracking changes in
the brightness carefully as well as by measuring orbital speeds of stars.

By combining this with the measurement of apparent brightness, it is possible to determine

absolutely accurate distances. In the study, a sample of stars that had extremely long orbital
periods was observed for 16 long years. These extremely long orbital periods are absolutely
perfect in order to calculate the precise distances. New measurements are useful for
decreasing the uncertainty of calculating Hubble Constant to 3 percent while improving it to
uncertainty of 2 percent in years to come.


Japan on 12 March 2013 announced that it had extracted the natural gas from frozen methane
hydrate successfully off the central coast. With this, Japan became the first country to do so in

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the world. A Japan official from Economy, Trade and Industry Ministry announced that this was
the first offshore experiment of producing natural gas from methane hydrate in the world.

Methane Hydrate, also known as clathrates are a kind of frozen confinements of molecules of
water and methane. The gas field where the natural gas was extracted from methane hydrate is
situated 50 km away from the main island of Japan in Nankai Trough.

Also, apart from Japan, certain other countries such as China, US and Canada have been
searching for the ways to exploit the methane hydrate deposits. Certain pilot experiments were
conducted in the past few years, which depicted that it was possible to extract methane from
deposits by making use of the methane hydrate which was found under the land ice.

Offshore deposits have a huge source of methane but they also raise environmental concerns
because underwater geology which encompasses them is unstable at various places. Now, the
survey of gas field is being conducted by Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation


The engineers made use of the depressurisation method which converts the methane hydrate
into the methane gas. The production tests will continue till the end of March 2013.

The government officials of Japan announced that now their aim was establishment of methane
hydrate production technologies for the purpose of practical use by 2018.


According to the Japanese study, it was estimated that around 1.1tn cubic metres of methane
hydrate existed in the offshore deposits. This is equal to the gas consumption of Japan in more
than 10 years.

According to the researchers, this extraction can prove to be very beneficial because it could
facilitate as an alternative source of energy for Japan. It is important to note that Japan as of
now imports all the energy needs.

Japan has limited natural resources. After the nuclear disaster of Fukushima plant in 2011, cost
of importing the fuel has also increased. The extraction of natural gas from methane hydrate
will therefore help Japan in reducing the pressure on natural resources as well as bringing
down the cost of import of fuel.



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India ranked third on list of countries, which distribute spam all over the world, after US and
China, as per the new report of SophosLabs. SophosLabs is the Sophoss global network of
threat analysis centres.

In the study, US was single highest ranking country, but Asia ranked at number 1 position in the
list of the continents with 36.6 percent of overall spam of the world. US sent 18.3 percent of
the junk emails overall in the world. In last few months of 2012, India topped the spam spewing
nations list, but eventually fell back to the third position. Second position was held by China.

In the study, the spam sent from December 2012 to February 2013 was tracked. China and
India took second and third positions respectively with 8.2 percent and 4.2 percent of the spam
of the world.

Other countries which ranked high included South Korea, France, Italy and Peru. Peru was
ranked at fourth position with 4.0 percent of the spam. With 3.4 percent each, France, South
Korea and Italy ranked fifth. Russia and Taiwan shared eighth position with 2.9 percent. At
tenth, eleventh and twelfth position were Spain (2.8 percent), Germany (2.7 percent) and Iran
(2.6 percent). In order to prevent spamming, the PC users can keep the anti-virus software
updated and regularly run the malware checks. Apart from this, updating passwords regularly
can also help.

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