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STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC (SCE)

DEPARTMENT OF INFRASTRUCTURE AND GEOMATIC ENGINEERING

FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

I, hereby confess that I have prepared this report on my own effort. I also admit not to receive or give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge that everything mentioned in the report is true.

Name

Student Signature

: …………………………………………

Matric No. : …………………………………………

Date

: …………………………………………

 FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. PAGE NO.: 1/5 DEPARTMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE AND GEOMATIC ENGINEERING EDITION: REVIEW NO.: EFFECTIVE 3/01/12 TEST TITLE : FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY TEST DATE: AMENDMENT 3/01/12 DATE: 1.0 OBJECTIVE TO DETERMINE PERMEABILITY OF SOILS OF INTERMEDIATE AND LOW PERMEABILITY (LESS THAN 10 -4 m/s), I.E. SILTS AND CLAYS. 2.0 LEARNING OUTCOME At the end of this experiment, students are able to:  Describe the general accepted practice to determine the coefficient of permeability of silts and clays.  Identify the relationship between permeability and pore size of the fine grained soils.  Determine the coefficient of permeability of silts and clays. 3.0 THEORY In the falling head test a relatively short sample is connected to a standpipe which provides both the head of water and the means of measuring the quantity of water flowing through the sample. Several standpipes of different diameters are normally available from which can be selected the diameter most suitable for the type of material being tested. In permeability tests on clays, much higher hydraulic gradients than are normally used with sands can be applied, and are often necessary to induce any measurable flow. The cohesion of clays provides resistance to failure by piping at gradients of up to several hundred, even under quite low confining or surcharge pressures. Dispersive clays however are very susceptible to erosion at much lower gradient. The falling head principle can be applied to an undisturbed sample in a sampling tube and to a sample in an oedometer consolidation cell. The equation used in determining the permeability of fine grained soils is given in Equation 1. Permeability , k m / s )  2.303aL  h   log  1 (1) ( 1000  A  t 10   h   2 Where: a = area of cross-section of standpipe tube (mm 2 ) A = area of cross section of sample (mm 2 ) h1 = heights of water above datum in standpipe at time t1 (mm) h2 = heights of water above datum in standpipe at time t2 (mm) L = heights of sample (mm) t = elapsed time in sec

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.

PAGE NO.:

2/5

DEPARTMENT:

INFRASTRUCTURE AND GEOMATIC ENGINEERING

EDITION:

REVIEW NO.:

TEST TITLE : FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY TEST

EFFECTIVE

DATE:

3/01/12

AMENDMENT

DATE:

3/01/12

4.0 TEST EQUIPMENTS

1. Permeameter cell, comprising:

Cell body, with cutting edge (core cutter), 100 mm diameter and 130 mm long. Perforated base plate with straining rods and wing nuts. Top clamping plate. Connecting tube and fittings.

Figure 1: Compaction permeameter (Courtesy of ELE International, 2007)

 FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. PAGE NO.: 3/5 DEPARTMENT: EDITION: INFRASTRUCTURE AND GEOMATIC ENGINEERING REVIEW NO.: EFFECTIVE 3/01/12 TEST TITLE : FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY TEST DATE: AMENDMENT 3/01/12 DATE: 5.0 PROCEDURES 1. Assemble apparatus, a. The apparatus is set up as shown in Figure 2. The volume of water passing through a sample of low permeability is quite small and a continuous supply of de-aired water is not necessary, but the reservoir supplying the de-airing tank should be filled with distilled or de-ionised water 2. Calibrate manometer tubes, a. The areas of cross-section of the three manometer tubes should be determined as follows for each tube: i. Fill the tube with water up to a known mark near the top of the scale, observed to the nearest mm, ii. Runoff water from the tube into a weighted beaker, until the level in the tube has fallen by about 500mm or more, iii. Read the new water level on the scale, to the nearest mm, iv. Weigh the beaker containing water from the tube (weighings should be to the nearest 0.01g) v. The diameter of the manometer can be calculated as follows: diameter , a  1000 m w mm 2 h 1  h 2 If mw = mass of water (g), h1 = initial level in tube (mm), h2 = final level in tube (mm), A = area of cross-section of tube (mm 2 ) vi. Repeat the measurements two or three times for each tube, and average the results. 3. Prepare cell, a. Dismantle the cell, b. Check the cell body is clean and dry, and weigh it to the nearest 0.1g, c. Measure the mean internal diameter (D) and length (L) to the nearest 0.5mm 4. Prepare sample, a. Undisturbed sample can be taken by means of core cutter. b. Make sure that the sample is a tight fit in the body and there are no cavities around the perimeter through which water could pass, 5. Assemble cell 6. Connect cell 7. Saturate and de-air sample 8. Fill manometer system 9. Run test a. Open screw clip at inlet to allow water to flow down through the sample, and observe the water level in the standpipe, b. As soon as it reaches the level h1, start the timer clock, c. Observe and record the time when the level reaches h3, and when it reaches h2, then stop the clock, d. Close screw clip at inlet
 FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. PAGE NO.: 4/5 DEPARTMENT : EDITION: INFRASTRUCTURE AND GEOMATIC ENGINEERING REVIEW NO.: EFFECTIVE 3/01/12 TEST TITLE : FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY TEST DATE: AMENDMENT 3/01/12 DATE: 10. Repeat test 11. Calculate permeability 12. Report result Figure 2: Falling head permeability cell with manometer tubes (Courtesy of ELE International, 2007)
6.0
Operator:
Sample area, A:
Mass of mould:
Mass of sample:
Bulk density, :
Moisture content:
Standpipe diameter:
Reference
point
1 (900 mm)
2 (800 mm)
3 (700 mm)
Calculations:
7.0 QUESTIONS
1.
2.

Permeability, k (m/s) =

FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.

DEPARTMENT:

INFRASTRUCTURE AND GEOMATIC ENGINEERING

TEST TITLE : FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY TEST

 Sample no: 1 Date: 100 mm Sample length, L:

7854 mm 2

Sample volume, V:

 960 g Mass of sample+mould: 1710 g Voids ratio: 1.2 16.43 kN/m 3 Dry density, : 40 % Test temperature: 4.05 mm Standpipe area, a:

Height above

datum, y

(mm)

Height above

outlet, h

(mm)

Point

1-2

2-3

Test

 2.303aL log 10    h 1    1000  A  t h 2

PAGE NO.:

EDITION:

REVIEW NO.:

EFFECTIVE

DATE:

AMENDMENT

DATE:

130 mm

1021 cm 3

2670 g

14.94 kN/m 3

c

5/5

3/01/12

3/01/12

mm 2

RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS

Location: Batu Pahat

Soil description: Clayey silt

Method of preparation: Hand trim into mould

Sample diameter, D:

S.G. measured/assumed: 2.7

Height ratios
Time, t
(sec)

Determine the coefficient of permeability for the given soil sample.

Give a conclusions for this test.