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11/2/2016 GmailSQLCourse1of25DatabaseFundamentalsPart1

VirajRanaware<virraajranaware009@gmail.com>

SQLCourse1of25DatabaseFundamentalsPart1
1message

Guru99<support@guru99.com> Wed,Oct12,2016at12:01AM
To:viraj<virraajranaware009@gmail.com>

HiViraj,

ThankyouforsigningupforthefreeSQLcourse.Letsgetstarted

Whatisadatabase?WhatisSQL?

Beforewelearnaboutdatabase,let'sunderstand

WhatisData?

Insimplewordsdatacanbefactsrelatedtoanyobjectinconsideration.Forexampleyourname,age,height,weight,etc
aresomedatarelatedtoyou.Apicture,image,file,pdfetccanalsobeconsidereddata.

Whatisadatabase?

Adatabaseisasystematiccollectionofdata.Databasessupportstorage
andmanipulationofdata.Databasesmakedatamanagementeasy.Let's
discussfewexamples.

Anonlinetelephonedirectorywoulddefinitelyusedatabasetostoredata
pertainingtopeople,phonenumbers,othercontactdetails,etc.

Yourelectricityserviceproviderisobviouslyusingadatabasetomanage
billing,clientrelatedissues,tohandlefaultdata,etc.

Let'salsoconsiderthefacebook.Itneedstostore,manipulateandpresent
datarelatedtomembers,theirfriends,memberactivities,messages,
advertisementsandlotmore.

Wecanprovidecountlessnumberofexamplesforusageofdatabases.

WhatisaDatabaseManagementSystem(DBMS)?

DatabaseManagementSystem(DBMS)isacollectionofprogramswhichenablesitsuserstoaccessdatabase,
manipulatedata,reporting/representationofdata.Italsohelpstocontrolaccesstothedatabase.

DatabaseManagementSystemsarenotanewconceptandassuchhadbeenfirstimplementedin1960s.Charles
Bachmen'sIntegratedDataStore(IDS)issaidtobethefirstDBMSinhistory.Withtimedatabasetechnologiesevolvedalot
whileusageandexpectedfunctionalitiesofdatabaseshavebeenincreasedimmensely.

TypesofDBMS

Let'sseehowtheDBMSfamilygotevolvedwiththetime.FollowingdiagramshowstheevolutionofDBMScategories.

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11/2/2016 GmailSQLCourse1of25DatabaseFundamentalsPart1

Thereare4majortypesofDBMS.Let'slookintothemindetail.

HierarchicalthistypeofDBMSemploysthe"parentchild"relationshipofstoringdata.ThistypeofDBMSisrarely
usednowadays.Itsstructureislikeatreewithnodesrepresentingrecordsandbranchesrepresentingfields.The
windowsregistryusedinWindowsXPisanexampleofahierarchicaldatabase.Configurationsettingsarestored
astreestructureswithnodes.

NetworkDBMSthistypeofDBMSsupportsmanytomanyrelations.Thisusuallyresultsincomplexdatabase
structures.RDMServerisanexampleofadatabasemanagementsystemthatimplementsthenetworkmodel.

RelationalDBMSthistypeofDBMSdefinesdatabaserelationshipsinformoftables,alsoknownasrelations.
UnlikenetworkDBMS,RDBMSdoesnotsupportmanytomanyrelationships.RelationalDBMSusuallyhavepre
defineddatatypesthattheycansupport.ThisisthemostpopularDBMStypeinthemarket.Examplesofrelational
databasemanagementsystemsincludeMySQL,Oracle,andMicrosoftSQLServer.

ObjectOrientedRelationDBMSthistypesupportsstorageofnewdatatypes.Thedatatobestoredisinformof
objects.Theobjectstobestoredinthedatabasehaveattributes(i.e.gender,ager)andmethodsthatdefinewhatto
dowiththedata.PostgreSQLisanexampleofanobjectorientedrelationalDBMS.WhatisSQL?

StructuredQuerylanguage(SQL)pronouncedas"SQL"orsometimesas"SeeQuel"isactuallythestandardlanguage
fordealingwithRelationalDatabases.SQLcanbeeffectivelyusedtoinsert,search,update,deletedatabaserecords.
Thatdoesn'tmeanSQLcannotdothingsbeyondthat.Infactitcandolotofthingsincluding,butnotlimitedto,optimizing
andmaintenanceofdatabases.RelationaldatabaseslikeMySQL,Oracle,MsSQLserver,Sybase,etcusesSQL!SQL
syntaxesusedinthesedatabasesarealmostsimilar,exceptthefactthatsomeareusingfewdifferentsyntaxesandeven
proprietarySQLsyntaxes.

Example:

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11/2/2016 GmailSQLCourse1of25DatabaseFundamentalsPart1
WhatisNoSQL?

NoSQLisanupcomingcategoryofDatabaseManagementSystems..Itsmaincharacteristicisitsnonadherenceto
RelationalDatabaseConcepts.NOSQLmeans"NotonlySQL".

ConceptofNoSQLdatabasesgrewwithinternetgiantssuchasGoogle,Facebook,Amazonetcwhodealwithgigantic
volumesofdata.Whenyouuserelationaldatabaseformassivevolumesofdata,thesystemstartsgettingslowintermsof
responsetime.Toovercomethis,wecouldofcourse"scaleup"oursystemsbyupgradingourexistinghardware.The
alternativetotheaboveproblemwouldbetodistributeourdatabaseloadonmultiplehostsastheloadincreases.Thisis
knownas"scalingout".

NOSQLdatabasearenonrelationaldatabasesthatscaleoutbetterthanrelationaldatabasesandaredesignedwithweb
applicationsinmind.TheydonotuseSQLtoquerythedataanddonotfollowstrictschemaslikerelationalmodels.With
NoSQL,ACID(Atomicity,Consistency,Isolation,Durability)featuresarenotguaranteedalways

WhyitmakessensetolearnSQLafterNOSQL?

WiththeadvantagesofNOSQLdatabasesoutlinedabovethatscaleoutbetterthanrelationalmodels,youmightbe
thinkingwhyonewouldstillwanttolearnaboutSQLdatabase?

Well,NOSQLdatabasesaresortofhighlyspecializedsystemsandhavetheirspecialusageandlimitations.NOSQLsuit
moreforthosewhohandleshugevolumesofdata.Thevastmajority,userelationaldatabasesandassociatedtools.

RelationaldatabaseshavethefollowingadvantagesoverNOSQLdatabases

SQL(relational)databaseshaveamaturedatastorageandmanagementmodel.Thisiscrucialforenterpriseusers.

SQLdatabasessupportthenotionofviewswhichallowuserstoonlyseedatathattheyareauthorizedtoview.The
datathattheyarenotauthorizedtoseeiskepthiddenfromthem.

SQLdatabasessupportstoredprocedureswhichallowdatabasedeveloperstoimplementpartofthebusiness
logicintothedatabase.

SQLdatabaseshavebettersecuritymodelscomparedtoNoSQLdatabases.

Theworldhasnotdeviatedfromuseofrelationaldatabases.Thereisgrowingademandforprofessionalswhocanhandle
relationaldatabases.ThuslearningdatabasesandSQLstillholdsmerit.

Summary

DBMSstandsforDatabaseManagementSystem.

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11/2/2016 GmailSQLCourse1of25DatabaseFundamentalsPart1
WehavefourmajortypesofDBMSsnamelyHierarchical,Network,Relational,ObjectOriented

ThemostwidelyusedDBMSistherelationalmodelthatsavesdataintableformats.ItusesSQLasthestandard
querylanguage

SQLisstandardlanguageusedtoqueryadatabase

Thedatabaseapproachhasmanyadvantageswhenitcomestostoringdatacomparedtothetraditionalflatfile
basedsystems

Awesome!

LookoutinyourinboxforthenextDatabaseFundamentalsPart2ofourSQLcourse.

Allthebest
Guru99Team

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