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point in a plane obtained by measuring absolute porosity n: the percentage of the

AAPG abbr: American Association of parallel to the x-axis. Compare ordinate. total bulk volume of a rock sample that is
Petroleum Geologists. absolute (abs) adj: independent or composed of pore spaces or voids. See
AAPL abbr: American Association of unlimited, such as an absolute condition, or porosity.
Petroleum Landmen. completely unadulterated, such as alcohol. absolute pressure n: total pressure
abaft adv: 1. toward the stem of a ship or absolute density n: the density of a solid or measured from an absolute vacuum. It
mobile offshore drilling rig. 2. behind. 3. liquid substance at a specified temperature. equals the sum of the gauge pressure and
farther aft than. See aft. Sometimes referred to as true density or the atmospheric pressure. Expressed in
abandon v: to cease producing oil and gas density in vacuo. See density. pounds per square inch.
from a well when it becomes unprofitable or absolute dynamic viscosity n: the force in absolute temperature scale n: a scale of
to cease further work on a newly drilled well dynes that a stationary flat plate with a temperature measurement in which zero
when it proves not to contain profitable surface area of 1 square centimetre exerts degrees is absolute zero. On the Rankine
quantities of oil or gas. Several steps are on a similar parallel plate 1 centimetre away absolute temperature scale, which is based
involved: part of the casing may be removed and moving in its own plane with a velocity on degrees Fahrenheit. water freezes at
and salvaged; one or more cement plugs of 1 centimetre per second, the space 492' and boils at 672". On the Kelvin
are placed in the borehole to prevent between the plates being filled with the absolute temperature scale, which is based
migration of fluids between the different liquid in question. It is a measure of the on degrees Celsius, water freezes at 273
formations penetrated by the borehole; and resistance that the liquid offers to shear. and boils at 373. See absolute zero.
the well is abandoned. In most oil-producing absolute error n: the difference between the absolute viscosity n: the property by which
states, it is necessary to secure permission result of a measurement and the true value a fluid in motion offers resistance to shear
from official agencies before a well may be of the measured quantity as determined by and flow. Usually expressed as newton
abandoned. means of a suitable standard device. seconds/metre.
abandoned well n: a well not in use absolute humidity n: the amount of absolute zero n: a hypothetical temperature
because it was a dry hole originally, or moisture present in the air. It may be at which there is a total absence of heal
because it has ceased to produce. Statutes expressed in milligrams of water per cubic Since heat is a result of energy caused by
and regulations in many states require the metre of air. Compare relative humidity. molecular motion, there is no motion of
plugging of abandoned wells to prevent the molecules with respect to each other at
absolute kinematic viscosity n: the value
seepage of oil, gas, or water from one absolute zero.
obtained when the absolute dynamic
stratum of underlying rock to another. absorb v: I. to take in and make part of an
viscosity is divided by the density
abandonment n: termination of a (expressed in grams per cubic centimetre) existing whole. 2. to recover liquid hydro-
jurisdictional sale or service. Under Section of the liquid at the temperature concerned. carbons from natural or refinery gas in a
7(b) of the Natural Gas Act, the Federal gas- absorption plant. The wet gas enters
absolute mass n: the expression of a fluid's
Energy Regulatory Commission must the absorber at the bottom and rises to die
weight (mass) in terms of its weight in a
determine in advance that the "present or top, encountering a stream of absorption oil
future public convenience and necessity" or (a light oil) travelling downward over bubble-
absolute open flow n: the maximum flow
depletion of gas supplies requires cap trays, valve trays, or sieve trays. The
rate that a well could theoretically deliver
termination. light oil removes, or absorbs, the heavier
with zero pressure at the face of the
abandonment pressure n: the average liquid hydrocarbons from the wet gas. See
reservoir pressure at which an amount of bubble-cap tray, sieve tray, valve tray.
gas insufficient to permit continued
absolute ownership n: the theory that
economic operation of a producing gas well
minerals such as oil and gas are fully owned
is expelled. abd, abdn abbr: abandoned;
in place before they are extracted and
used in drilling reports.
reduced to possession. Despite this theory,
abnormal pressure n: pressure exceeding title to oil and gas may be lost by legitimate
or falling below the pressure to be expected drainage and by the rule of capture. Also
at a given depth. Normal pressure increases called ownership in place. See rule of
approximately 0.465 pow1ds per square capture.
inch per foot of depth or 10.5 kilopascals per absolute permeability n: a measure of the
metre of depth. Thus, normal pressure at ability of a single fluid (such as water, gas,
1,000 feet is 465 pounds per square inch; at or oil) to flow through a rock formation when
1,000 metres it is 10,500 kilopascals. See the formation is totally filled (saturated) with
pressure gradient. that fluid. The permeability measure of a
aboard adv: on or in a ship, offshore drilling rock filled with a single fluid is different from
rig, helicopter, or production platform. the permeability measure of the same rock
abrasion n: wearing away by friction.
filled with two or more fluids. Compare
ABS abbr: American Bureau of Shipping.
effective permeability, relative permeability.
abscissa n: the horizontal coordinate of a

Absorbent 2 acidity

Absorbent n: see absorption oil. title and other relevant documents. inch). The fluid is used to actuate the
absorber n: 1. A vertical, cylindrical Compare stand- up title opinion. blowout preventer stack.
vessel that recovers heavier abstract company n: a private accuracy n: the ability of a measuring
hydorcarbons from a mixture of company in the business of preparing instrument to indicate values closely
predominantly lighter hydrocarbons. abstracts of title approximating the true value of the
Also called absorption tower. 2. A vessel and performing related services. Also quantity measured.
in which gas is dehydrated by being called abstract plant. accuracy curve of a volume meter n:
bubbled through glycol. See absorb. abstract of title n: a collection of all of a plot of meter factor as a function of
the recorded instruments affecting title to flow rate used to evaluate the meter's
a tract of land. Compare base abstract. performance. See flow rate, meter
abstract plant n: see abstract company. factor:
abyssal adj: of or relating to the bottom acetic acid n: an organic acid
waters of the ocean. compound sometimes used to acidise
Ac abbr: altocumulus. oil wells. It is not as corrosive as other
AC abbr: alternating current. acids used in well treatments. Its
accelerated aging test n: a procedure chemical formula is C2~O2' or
whereby a product may be subjected to CH3COOH.
intensified but controlled conditions of acetylene welding n: a method of
heat, pressure, radiation, or other joining steel components in which
variables to produce, in a short time, acetylene gas and oxygen are mixed in
the effects of long- time storage or use a torch to attain the high temperatures
under normal conditions. acceleration necessary for welding. As an early type
stress n: when a crane is hoisting a of welding (it was also called
load, the additional force the load oxyacetylene welding), its primary
imposes on a wire rope or a sling when disadvantage was the seepage of
the load's speed increases. molten weld material onto the interior
accelerator n: a chemical additive that surface of the pipe, often leading to
absorber capacity n: the maximum
reduces the setting time of cement. See corrosion problems.
volume of natural gas that can be
cement, cementing materials. ACGIH abbr: American Conference of
processed through an absorber at a
accelerometer n: an instrument that Governmental and Industrial Hygienists.
specified absorption oil rate, temperature,
detects changes in motion or measures acid n: any chemical compound. one
and pressure without exceeding pressure
acceleration. accessory equipment n: element of which is hydrogen, that
drop or any oilier operating limitation.
any device that enhances the utility of a dissociates in solution to produce free
absorption n: 1. the process of sucking
measurement system, including hydrogen ions. For example,
up, taking in and making part of an
readouts, registers, monitors, and hydrochloric acid. HCI, dissociates in
existing whole. Compare adsorption. 2.
liquid- or flow-conditioning equipment. water to produce hydrogen ions, H+,
the process in which short wave
accrete v: to enlarge by the addition of and chloride ions, CI-. This reaction is
radiation is retained by regions of the
external parts or particles. expressed chemically as HCI + H+ + CI-
accumulate v: to amass or collect. . See ion.
absorption dynamometer n: a device
When acid brittleness n: see hydrogen
that measures mechanical force. The
oil and gas migrate into porous embrinlement.
energy measured is absorbed by
formations, the quantity collected is acid clay n: a naturally occurring clay
frictional or electrical resistance.
called an accumulation. that,
absorption gasoline n: the gasoline
accumulator n: 1. a vessel or tank that after activation, usually with acid, is
extracted from natural gas by putting
receives and temporarily stores a liquid used mainly as a decolourant or refining
the gas into contact with oil in a vessel
used in a continuous process in a gas agent, and sometimes as a
and subsequently distilling the gasoline
plant. See drip accumulator. 2. on a desulphuriser, coagulant, or catalyst.
from the heavier oil.
drilling rig, the storage device for acid fracture v: to part or open
absorption oil n: a hydrocarbon liquid
nitrogen-pressurised hydraulic fluid, fractures in productive hard limestone
used to absorb and recover components
which is used in operating the blow out formations by using a combination of oil
from natural gas being processed. Also
preventers. See blowout preventer and acid or water and acid under high
called wash oil.
control unit. pressure. See formation fracturing.
absorption plant n: a plant that
acid gas n: a gas that forms an acid
processes natural gas with absorption
when mixed with water. In petroleum
production and processing, the most
absorption-refrigeration cycle n: a
common acid gases are hydrogen
mechanical refrigeration system in which
sulphide and carbon dioxide. Both
the refrigerant is absorbed by a suitable
cause corrosion, and hydrogen sulphide
liquid or solid. The most CODlD1only
is very poisonous.
used refrigerant is ammonia; the most
acidity n: the quality of being acid.
commonly used absorbing medium is
Relative acid strength of a liquid is
water. Compare compression-
measured by pH. A liquid with a pH
refrigeration cycle. accumulator bottle n: a bottle-shaped below 7 is acid. See pH.
absorption tower n: see steel cylinder located in a blowout
absorber. preventer control unit to store nitrogen
abstract-based title opinion n: a title and hydraulic fluid under pressure
opinion based on a complete abstract of (usually at 3,(XK)pounds per square
acidise 3 adjustable choke

activation n: a reaction in which an element

acidise v: to treat oil-bearing limestone or has been changed into an unstable isotope
other formations with acid for the purpose of during bombardment by neutrons.
increasing production. Hydrochloric or other active mud tank n: one of usually two,
acid is injected into the formation under three, or more mud tanks that holds drilling
pressure. The acid etches the rock, enlarging mud that is being circulated into a borehole
the pore spaces and passages through which during drilling. They are called active tanks
the reservoir fluids flow. Acid also removes because they hold mud that is currently
formation damage by dissolving material being circulated.
plugging the rock surrounding the wellbore.
The acid is held under pressure for a period actual pressure n: the sum of the ideal
acoustic signatures n pl: the characteristic pressure and the dynamic pressure.
of time and then pumped out, after which the
patterns for various degrees of cement
well is swabbed and put back into production. actual residue gas remaining n: the volume
bonding between the casing and the
Chemical inhibitors combined with the acid of gas remaining after processing in a plant.
borehole that appear on an oscilloscope
prevent corrosion of the pipe. actual strength n: see breaking strength.
display when a sonic cement bond log is
acid recovery plant n: plant for the adapter kit n: a kit comprising a setting
recovery of sulfuric acid from acid sludge. sleeve, adapter rod, and adjustment nut for
acoustic survey n: a well-logging method in setting drillable or permanent tools on
acid sludge n: material of high specific which sound impulses are generated and wireline or by using hydraulic setting tools.
gravity formed during the chemical refining transmitted into the formations opposite the
treatment of oils by sulphuric acid and adapter spool n: a joint to connect blowout
wellbore. The time it takes for the sound
usually separable by settling or preventers of different sizes or pressure
impulses to travel through the rock is
centrifuging. Also called acid tar. ratings to the casing head.
measured and recorded. Subsequent
acid stimulation n: a well stimulation interpretation of the record (log) permits additive n: 1. in general, a substance added
method using acid. See acidise. estimation of the rock's porosity and fluid in small amounts to a larger amount of
content. another substance to change some
acid tar n: see acid sludge.
acoustic well logging n: the process of characteristic of the latter. In the oil industry,
acid treatment n: a method by which recording the acoustic characteristics of additives are used in lubricating oil, fuel,
petroleum-bearing limestone or other sub- surface formations, based on the time drilling mud, and cement. 2. in cementing, a
formations are put into contact with an acid required for a sound wave to travel a substance added to cement to change its
to enlarge the pore spaces and passages specific distance through rock. The rate of characteristics to satisfy specific conditions
through which the reservoir fluids flow. travel depends on the composition of the in die well. A cement additive may work as
formation, its porosity, and its fluid content. an accelerator, retarder, dispersant, or other
acid wash n: an acid treatment in which an
Also called sonic logging. reactant.
acid mixture is circulated through a wellbore
to clean it. acquired land n: land owned by the United adhesion n: a force of attraction that causes
acknowledgement n: a declaration or an States, acquired by deed or otherwise. Such molecules of one substance to cling to those
avowal of any act or fact made by a land has never been in the public domain or of a different substance.
signatory party to a document to a notary was in the public domain at one time and adiabatic change n: a change in the
public or other public official authorised to was later reacquired by purchase, volume, pressure, or temperature of a gas,
take an acknowledgement to give it legal condemnation, or donation. occurring without a gain or loss of heat.
effect. acreage contribution n: acreage owned in adiabatic compression n: compression of
acoustic log n: a record of the the vicinity of a test well being drilled by air or gas that exists when no heat is
measurement of porosity, done by another party and contributed to the driller of transferred between the air or gas and
comparing depth to the time it takes for a the well in return for information obtained surrounding bodies (such as the cylinders
sonic impulse to travel through a given from its drilling. The assignment of and pistons in a compressor). It is
length of formation. The rate of travel of the information is usually made on completion of characterised by an increase in temperature
sound wave through a rock depends on the the well. during compression and a decrease in
composition of the formation and the fluids it acre-foot n: a unit of volume often used in temperature during expansion.
contains. Because the type of formation can oil reservoir analysis, equivalent to the adiabatic expansion n: the expansion of a
be ascertained by other logs, and because volume (as of oil or water) necessary to gas, vapour, or liquid stream from a higher
sonic transit time varies with relative cover 1 acre to a depth of 1 foot pressure to a lower pressure with no change
amounts of rock and fluid, porosity can acre-ft abbr: acre-foot. in enthalpy of the stream.
usually be determined in this way.
across prep: over. The term usually relates adjustable choke n: a choke in which the
acoustic position reference n: a system conditions of fluid flow 00 me side of a piece position of a conical needle, sleeve, or plate
consisting of a beacon positioned on the of equipment to conditions on the opposite may be changed with respect to their seat to
seafloor to transmit an acoustic signal, a set side (e.g., a pressure drop across a vary the rate of flow; may be manual or
of three or four hydrophones mounted on separator). automatic. See choke.
the hull of a floating offshore drilling vessel
to receive the signal, and a position display ACSR abbr: aluminum cable steel- reinforced
unit to track the relative positions of the rig conductor.
and the drill site. Monitoring of the display ACT abbr: automatic custody transfer.
unit aids in accurate positioning of the rig activated charcoI n: a form of carbon
over the site. characterised by a high absorptive and
adsorptive capacity for gases, vapours,
aIM1 colloidal solids.
adjustable spacer sub 4 air cleaner

aeration n: the injection of air or gas into a setting. The process is sometimes called
adjustable spacer sub n: a sub run below
liquid. In the oil industry a common form of curing. See cure.
a dual or triple packer to permit the correct
aeration is the injection of natural gas into agency n: a federal entity such as a
space-out. See space-out.
reservoir liquids standing in a well. Aeration department, a bureau, a corporation, a
Adjustment n: the operation of bringing a
with natural gas reduces the density of the commission, or a division under the US
measuring instrument, such as a meter, into
liquids and allows declining reservoir government that is charged by Congress to
a satisfactory state of performance and
pressure to lift the liquids. See gas lift. administer, implement, and enforce US law.
administrative penalties n pi: penalties or aerial cooler n: see air-cooled exchanger. agglomerate n: the groups of larger
fines handed down by administrative aerial river crossing n: a river crossing individual particles usually originating in
agencies, such as the EPA. technique in which a pipeline is either sieving or drying operations.
administrator n: person appointed by the suspended by cables over a waterway or agglomeration n: the grouping of individual
court to administer the estate of someone attached to the girders of a bridge designed particles.
who dies without a will (intestate). to carry vehicular traffic.
aggregate n: a group of two or more
ADS abbr: atmospheric diving system. aerobic adj: requiring free atmospheric particles held together by strong forces.
adsorbent n: a solid used to remove oxygen for normal activity. Aggregates are stable with normal stirring,
components from natural gas that is being aerobic bacteria n pi: bacteria that require shaking, or handling; they may be broken by
processed. free oxygen for their life processes. Aerobic treatment such as ball milling a powder or
adsorption n: the adhesion of a thin film of a shearing a suspension.
bacteria can produce slime or scum, which
gas or liquid to the surface of a solid. Liquid accumulates on metal surfaces, causing agitator n: a motor-driven paddle or blade
hydrocarbons are recovered from natural gas oxygen-concentration cell corrosion. used to mix the liquids and solids in drilling
by passing the gas through activated char-
AESC abbr: Association of Energy Service mud.
coal, silica gel, or other solids, which extract
the heavier hydrocarbons. Steam treatment Companies. A-h abbr: ampere-hour.
AFE abbr: authority for expenditure. affiant n: AIME abbr: American Institute of Mining,
of the solid removes the adsorbed
the person who makes a sworn Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers.
hydrocarbons, which are then collected and
re-condensed. The adsorption process is statement.
air-actuated adj: equipment activated by
also used to remove water vapour from air or affidavit n: a written affirmation of fact made compressed air, as are the clutch and the
natural gas. Compare absorption. and sworn to before a notary public or other air-balanced pumping unit n: a beam
adsorption plant n: a plant that processes authorised official. The official signs a pumping unit on which the counterbalancing
natural gas with an adsorbent. certificate called a jurat, which states that is done by means of an air cylinder.
the affidavit was signed and sworn to before
ad valorem tax n: 1. a state or county tax
him or her.
based on the value of a property. 2. tax
imposed at a percent of a value. affiliated company n: a company that is
either directly or indirectly controlled and/or
advance payment agreement n: an
owned by another firm or company.
agreement between a producer and a
purchaser to make an advance payment for A-frame n: 1. a derrick or crane shaped like
gas to be delivered at a future date. the letter A and used to handle heavy loads.
advection fog n: a fog caused by the 2. an A-shaped openwork structure that is
movement of warm, moist air over a surface the stationary and supporting component of
with a temperature less than the dew point the mast of a jackknife rig and to which the
of the air. Also called sea fog. mast is anchored when it is in an upright or
drilling position. 3. the uppermost section of
adverse possession n: a method of air bit n: a roller cone bit that is specially
a standard derrick, shaped like the letter A
asserting and gaining title to property designed for air or gas drilling. It is very
and used as a support in lifting objects such
against other claimants, including the owner similar to a regular bit, but features screens
as the crown block to the water table.
of record. The claim through adverse over the bearings to protect them from
possession must include certain acts (as aft adv: toward or near the stem of a ship clogging with cuttings and thicker hardfacing
required by statute) over an uninterrupted or offshore drilling rig. on the shirttail to protect them from
interval of time. It must also be, in most aftercooler n: on a supercharged engine, a abrasive, high-velocity air or gas drilling
states, "open," "notorious," and "hostile." device, cooled by either air or by engine fluid.
aeolian adj: deposited by wind. coolant, that reduces the temperature of air cleaner n: a device installed on an
the engine's exhaust. It is necessary to cool engine's air intake to remove foreign
aeolian deposit n: a sediment deposited
the exhaust's temperature because the materials, such as dirt or dust, from the air
by wind.
exhaust drives the supercharger, which before it enters the engine.
aerated mud n: drilling mud into which air
forces air into the engine's intake manifold.
or gas is injected. Aeration with air or gas
The temperature of the supercharged air
reduces the density of the mud and allows
must be at an acceptable level; otherwise,
for faster drilling rates. The lighter aerated
the engine will run too hot. See
mud does not develop as much pressure
on bottom as a normal mud. The lower
afternoon tour (pronounced tower) n: see
pressure allows the cuttings made by the
evening tour.
bit to easily break away from the bit's
cutters; the cutters therefore always AGA abbr: American Gas
contact fresh, undrilled formation. Association.
age v: to allow cement to mature, or reach
a stage harder than that of immediate
air cleaner element 5 alkane

air cleaner element n: see air cleaner filter air hoist n: a hoist operated by compressed disengages from the flywheel gear. Air-
element. air; a pneumatic hoist. Air hoists are often motor starters are installed on large
air cleaner filter element n: the part of an mounted on the rig floor and are used to lift industrial engines like those used on a
engine's air cleaner that traps dust and dirt joints of pipe and other heavy objects. drilling rig.
particles in the intake air that passes through
air tube clutch n: a clutch containing an
the element. Filter elements are designed to
inflatable tube that, when inflated, causes
trap most, but not all, of the foreign material
the clutch to engage the driven member.
that may be in the air taken in by an engine.
When the tube is deflated, disengagement
(If the filter elements trapped all particles,
they would have to be replaced too frequently
to be practical.) Some elements, after they air vapour eliminator n: a device used to
become clogged with dust, can be cleaned separate and remove gases from a liquid to
and reused; others must be discarded and be measured to prevent an error in liquid
replaced. measurement.
air-cooled exchanger n: an atmospheric fin alarm n: a warning device triggered by the
tube exchanger that utilises air for cooling. presence of abnormal conditions in a
Ambient air contacts the external fins by fan- machine or system. For example, a low-
forced or natural draft. Also called air-fin unit water alarm automatically signals when the
or aerial cooler. water level in a vessel falls below its preset
air-cut adj: having inadvertent mechanical air induction system n: the network of minimum. Offshore, alarms are used to warn
incorporation of air into a liquid system. devices by which air is taken into an engine personnel of dangerous or unusual
air diving n: diving in which a diver uses a for combustion in the cylinders. conditions, such as fires and escaping
normal atmospheric mixture of oxygen and air injection n: 1.the injection of air into a gases.
nitrogen as a breathing medium. It is limited reservoir in a pressure maintenance or an in aIidade n: a surveying instrument consisting
to depths less than 190 feet (58 metres) situ combustion project. 2. the injection of of sighting device, index, and reading or
because of the dangers of nitrogen narcosis; fuel into the combustion chamber of a diesel recording device.
however, dives with bottom times of 30 engine by means of a jet of compressed air.
minutes or less may be conducted to a aliphatic hydrocarbons n pi: hydrocarbons
maximum of 220 feet (67 metres). air-jacketed thermometer n: a glass-stem that have a straight chain of carbon atoms.
thermometer totally encased in a glass Compare aromatic hydrocarbons.
air drilling n: a method of rotary drilling that
sheath, which provides air space between
uses compressed air as the circulation aliphatic series n: a series of open-chained
the thermometer and the liquid in which the
medium. The conventional method of hydrocarbons. The two major classes are
unit is immersed.
removing cuttings from the wellbore is to d1e series with saturated bonds and the
use a flow of water or drilling mud. air knocking n: on a diesel engine, a series with unsaturated bonds.
Compressed air removes the cuttings with phenomenon that occurs when trapped air
alkali n: a substance having marked basic
equal or greater efficiency. The rate of in the fuel injection system enters the
(alkaline) properties, such as a hydroxide of
penetration is usually increased engine's cylinder with the fuel. The fuel-air
an alkali metal. See base.
considerably when air drilling is used; mixture ignites but, because of the extra air
however, a principal problem in air drilling is in the fuel, the engine cylinder misfires and alkaline (caustic) flooding n: a method of
the penetration of formations containing knocks or hammers. The problem should be improved recovery in which alkaline
water, since the entry of water into the corrected promptly to prevent damage to the chemicals such as sodium hydroxide are
system reduces the ability of the air to engine. injected during a water flood or combined
remove the cuttings. with polymer flooding. The chemicals react
air mass n: a body of air that remains for an
with the natural acid present in certain crude
air eliminator n: a part of a LACT unit in- extended period of time over a large land or
oils to form surfactants within the reservoir.
stalled ahead of the metering equipment to sea area with uniform heating and cooling
The surfactants enable the water to move
separate and remove mass volumes of air properties. The air mass will acquire
additional quantities of oil from the depleted
and gas from the fluid. characteristics (such as temperature and
reservoir. Compare chemical flooding,
air-fin unit n: see air-cooled exchanger. moisture content) of the underlying region.
polymer flooding, water flooding.
airfoil n: a body designed to provide a air mass source region n: an area over
alkalinity n: the combining power of a base,
desired reaction force when in motion relative which an air mass rests and develops
or alkali, as measured by the number of
to the surrounding air. temperature and moisture characteristics
equivalents of an acid with which it reacts to
air gap n: the distance from the normal level typical of that location.
form a salt. Any solution that bas a pH
of the sea surface to the bottom of the hull or air-motor starter n: on an engine, a device greater than 7 is alkaline. See pH.
base of an offshore drilling platform or rig. powered by compressed air that starts the
air gun n: 1. a hand tool that is powered alkane n: see paraffin.
engine. The compressed air, when allowed
pneumatically. 2. a chamber filled with to enter the starter motor by means of a
compressed air, often used offshore in valve, causes a gear on the starter to
seismic exploration. As the gun is trailed engage a gear attached to the outer edge of
behind a boat, air is released, making a low the engine's flywheel. The rotating starter
frequency popping noise, which penetrates gear moves the flywheel gear, which causes
the subsurface rock layers and is reflected the engine's pistons to move. If fuel, air,
by the layers. and, on spark-ignition engines, electric
Sensitive hydrophones receive the spark are present in the engine, the engine
reflections and transmit them to recording will start after a few rotations. As soon as
equipment on the boat. the engine starts, the starter gear
alkanolamine 6 (ACGIH)

alluvial fan n: a large, sloping sedimentary would occupy at the pressure and
alkanolamine n: a chemical family of
deposit at the mouth of a canyon, laid temperature of the mixture.
specific organic compounds, including
down by intermittently flowing water,
monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine A-mast n: an A-shaped arrangement of
especially in arid climates, and composed
(OEA), and triethanolamine (TEA). These upright poles, usually steel, used for lifting
of gravel and sand. The deposit tends to
chemicals, and proprietary mixtures heavy loads. See A-frame.
be coarse and unworked, with angular,
containing them and other amines, are used ambient conditions n pi: the conditions
poorly sorted grains in thin, overlapping
extensively for the removal of hydrogen (pressure, temperature, humidity, etc.) of
sheets. A line of fans may eventually
sulphide and carbon dioxide from other the medium surrounding the case of a
coalesce into an apron that grows broader
gases and are particularly adapted for meter, instrument, transducer, etc.
and higher as the slopes above are eroded
obtaining the low acid gas residuals that are
away. ambient pressure n: the pressure of the
usually specified by pipelines.
alkanolamine process n: a continuous medium that surrounds an object.
operation liquid process for removing acid ambient temperature n: the temperature of
gas from natural gas by using chemical the medium that surrounds an object.
absorption with subsequent heat addition to
strip the acid gas components from the Amerada bomb n: a wireline instrument for
absorbent solution. measuring bottomhole temperature or
pressure. It contains a clock-driven
alkyl n: a compound derived from an
recording section and either a pressure
alkane by removing one hydrogen atom.
element or a temperature element. It is thin
alkylation n: a process for manufacturing enough to pass downhole through small
components for 100-octane gasoline. An tubing.
alkyl group is introduced into an organic
compound either with or without a catalyst. American Association of Petroleum
Now usually used to mean alkylation of ALP abbr: articulated loading platform. Geologists (AAPG) n: a leading national
isobutane with propene, butenes, or industry organisation established to
alpha particle n: one of the extremely
hexenes in d1e presence of concentrated disseminate scientific and technical ideas
small particles of an atom that is ejected
sulphuric acid or anhydrous hydrofluoric and data in the field of geology as it relates
from a radioactive substance (such as
acid. to oil and natural gas exploration and
radium or uranium) as it disintegrates.
production. Its official publications are the
alligator grab n: a fishing device used to Alpha particles have a positive charge.
AAPG Bulletin and the AAPG Explorer:
pick up relatively small objects like
alternating current (A C) n: current in Address: P.O. Box 979; Tulsa, OK 74101;
wrenches that have fallen or have been
which the charge-flow periodically reverses (918) 584-2555.
dropped into the wellbore. The alligator
and whose average value is zero. Compare
grab's jaws are pinned open before the tool American Association of Petroleum
direct current.
is run into the well. The jaws snap shut Landmen (AAPL) n: an international
over the fish when contact is made. alternator n: an electric generator that trade organisation of landmen and related
produces alternating current. professionals. Its official publication is The
all-level sample n: in tank sampling, a
sample that is obtained by submerging a altocumulus (Ac) n: a white or gray mid- Landman. Address: 4100 Fossil Creek
stoppered beaker or bottle to a poinias level cloud that appears as closely Blvd.; Fort Worth, TX 76137; (817) 847-
near as possible to the draw-off level, then arranged rolls. This type of cloud is 7700.
opening the sampler and raising it at a rate composed of either ice crystals or water
American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) n:
that makes it about three-quarters full droplets.
US organisation that sets standards and
(maxi- mum 85%) as it emerges from the altostratus n: a bluish or gravish layer of specifications for ships and ship
liquid. uniform mid-level clouds that cover large equipment manufactured in the United
allocation n: the distribution of oil or gas portions of the sky. This type of cloud is States. The organisation also makes
produced from a well per unit of time. In a composed of either ice crystals or water inspections during offshore rig
state using proration, this figure is droplets. construction and conducts periodic
established monthly by its conservation alumina n: aluminum oxide (Al202)' used as surveys to ensure that requirements for
agency. an abrasive, refractory, catalyst, and classification are maintained. Its official
allocation meter n: see tail gate. publications are Records of the American
allonge n: see rider. Bureau of Shipping and ABS Activity Re-
aluminum bronze n: an alloy of copper and
allotted land n: Native American land port. Address: 2 World Trade Centre;
aluminum that may also include iron, 106th floor; New York, NY 10048; (212)
designated for use by a specific individual,
manganese, nickel, or zinc. 839- 5000.
although the title is still held by the United
States. aluminum cable steel-reinforced American Conference of Governmental
allowable n: the amount of oil or gas that conductor n: wire line made of braided and Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) n: a
can be produced legally from a well. In a aluminum wires, which is strengthened by professional multinational organisation of
state using proration, this figure is the addition of steel wires, and which persons employed by governmental units
established monthly by its conservation conducts electricity. responsible for full-time programs of
agency. See proration. aluminum stearate n: an aluminum salt of hygiene and worker health and protection.
alloy n: a substance with metallic proper- stearic acid used as a defoamer. See Address: 1330 Kemper Meadow Drive;
ties that comprises two or more elements stearate. Cincinatti, Ohio 45240; (513) 742-2020.
in solid solution. See ferrous alloy, non- Amagat-Leduc rule n: states that the
ferrous alloy. volume occupied by a mixture of gases
equals the sum of the volumes each gas
(AGA) 7 angle-control section

American Gas Association (AGA) n: a AMI abbr: area of mutual interest. floating drilling vessels are often secured
national trade association whose members amine n: any of several compounds over drill sites by large anchors like those
are US and Canadian distributors of employed in treating natural gas. Amines used on ships. For pipelines, a device that
natural, manufactured, and mixed gases. are generally used to remove hydrogen secures pipe in a ditch.
AGA provides information on sales, sulphide from water solutions and carbon anchor buoy n: a floating marker used in a
finances, utilisation, and all phases of gas dioxide from gas or liquid streams. spread mooring system to position each
transmission and distribution. Its official ammeter n: an instrument for measuring anchor of a semi-submersible rig or drill
publications are AGA Monthly and electric current in amperes. ship. See spread mooring system.
Operating Section Proceedings. Address:
amortisation n: I. the return of a debt anchoring system n: in pipeline
1515 Wilson Boulevard; Arlington, VA
(principal and interest) in equal annual construction, a combination of anchors used
22209; (703) 841-8400; fax (703) 841-
instalments. 2. the return of invested to hold a lay barge on station and move it
principal in a sinking fund. forward along the planned route. Lay-barge
American Institute of Mining, anchors may weigh in excess of 20 tons (18
Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers ampere (A) n: the fundamental unit of
tonnes), and a dozen or more may be
(AIME) n: parent group of the Society of electrical current; 1 ampere = 6.28 x 1018
Petroleum Engineers (SPE). See Society of electrons passing through the circuit per
Petroleum Engineer. Its official publication is second. One ampere delivers I coulomb in 1 anchor key n: a device on the deadline tie-
the Journal of Petroleum Technology. second. ampere-hour n: a unit of electricity down anchor used to secure the drilling line.
Address: 345 East 47th Street; New York, equal to the amount produced in 1 hour by a
anchor packer n: a packer designed for sit-
NY 10017; (212) 705-7695. flow of I ampere. See ampere.
ting on a pipe that rests on bottom, such as
ampere turn n: the number of turns in a a tail pipe or liner. See packer:
American National Standards
coil multiplied by the number of amperes of
Institute(ANSI) n: serves as clearinghouse anchor pattern n: the pattern of minute
current flowing through the coil.
for nationally coordinated voluntary projections from a metal surface produced
standards for fields ranging from information amplifier n: a device for increasing the by sandblasting, shot blasting, or chemical
technology to building construction. magnitude of a quantity such as an etching to enhance the adhesiveness of
Address: 11 W. 42nd Street, 13th floor; New electrical measurement signal. Amplifiers surface coatings.
York, NY 10036; (212) 642-4900. may be used to increase a transmitted and
anchor seal assembly n: a seal assembly
received measurement signal.
American Petroleum Institute (API) n: oil run on the production tubing that allows the
trade organisation (founded in 1920) that is amplitude modulation (am) n: modulation tubing to be landed properly in the casing's
the leading standardising organisation for of the amplitude of a radio carrier wave in seal bore when tubing weight alone is not
oilfield drilling and producing equipment. It accordance with the strength of the audio or sufficient to seat the tubing.
maintains departments of transportation, other signal.
anchor wash pipe spear n: a fishing tool
refining, marketing, and production in
amplitudes n pi: shapes and heights of the installed inside washover pipe to prevent a
Washington, DC. It offers publications
peaks in a spontaneous potential curve. fish stuck off bottom from falling to bottom
regarding standards, recommended
anaerobic adj: active in the absence of free during a washover. Slips on the anchor
practices, and bulletins. Address: 1220 L
oxygen. washpipe spear engage the inside of the
Street NW; Washington, DC 20005; (202)
washover pipe as the pipe travels downhole
682-8000. anaerobic bacteria n pi: bacteria that do
around the fish.
not require free oxygen to live or that are not
American Society for Testing and anchor weight n: a weight installed in a
destroyed by its absence. Under certain
Materials (ASTM) n: organisation that sets tank to which the guide wires or cables for
conditions, anaerobic bacteria can cause
guidelines for the testing and use of an automatic tank gauge float are attached
scale to form in water-handling facilities in
equipment and materials. Its publications to hold them taut and plumb.
oilfields or hydrogen sulphide to be
are ASTM Standardisation News, Book of
produced from sulphates. andesite n: finely crystalline, generally light-
Standards, Cement and Concrete
coloured extrusive igneous rock com- posed
Aggregates Journal, Composites analog adj: of or pertaining to an
largely of plagioclase feldspar with smaller
Technology & Research, Geo technical instrument that measures a continuous
amounts of dark-coloured minerals.
Testing Journal, Journal of Forensic variable that is proportional to another
Compare diorite.
Science, and Journal of Testing and variable over a given range. For example,
Evaluation. Address: 100 Barr Harbor; West temperature can be represented or anemometer n: an instrument for
Conshohocken, PA 19428; (610) 832-9500. measured as voltage, its analog. measuring wind speed in the atmosphere.
The most common types are cup, vane, and
American Society of Mechanical analog data n: information indicated by a
hot-wire anemometers.
Engineers (ASME) n: organisation whose continuous form, usually a needle or pointer
equipment standards are sometimes used moving across a dial face. Compare digital aneroid barometer n: a barometer
by the oil industry. Its official publication is readout. consisting of a flexible, spring-filled metal
Mechanical Engineering. Address: 345 East cell from which air has been removed and a
analog signal n: the representation of the
47th Street; New York, NY 10017; (212) mechanism that registers. See barograph.
magnitude of a variable in the form of a
705-7788; fax (212) 705-7856. angle-azimuth indicator n: see riser angle
measurable physical quantity that varies
American Society of Safety Engineers smoothly rather than in discrete steps. indicator.
(ASSE) n: organisation that establishes anchor n: a device that secures, or fastens, angle-control section n: the part of a
safety practices for several industries. Its equipment. In producing wells with sucker groove on the drawworks drum that
publications are Professional Safety and rod pumps, a gas anchor is a special changes direction. Grooves run parallel to
Society Update. Address: 1800 East section of perforated pipe installed below each other, except in the angle-control
Oakton; Des Plaines, IL 60018-2187; (847) the pump. It provides a space for gas to section, where each groove is machined at
699-2929. break out of the oil. In offshore drilling,
angle of deflection 8 anoxia

a slight angle. This angled part of the

groove causes the wire rope being spooled
onto the drum to change direction so that
the next wrap of rope on the drum lies in
between the wraps of rope already on the
drum. Also called a crossover section.

angle of deflection n: in directional drilling,

the angle at which a well diverts from vertical;
usually expressed in degrees, with vertical
being 0'.
angular velocity n: a measure of the time
angle of deviation n: see drift angle. required for a flowing medium. such as a annular pressure n: fluid pressure in an
angle of dip n: the angle at which a fluid. to change its angular displacement. annular space, as around tubing within
formation dips downward from the horizontal. casing.
anhydrite n: the common name for
angle of drift n: see drift angle. anhydrous calcium sulphate. caS4. annular production n: production of
anhydrous adj: without water. formation fluids through the production
angle of heel n: the angle in degrees that a casing annulus.
floating vessel inclines to one side or the aniline n: liquid chemical derived from
benzene or from benzene and ammonia. It is annular space n: the space between two
used as a solvent and in the organic concentric circles. In the petroleum industry,
angle of loading n: in crane operations, synthesis of other substances. it is usually the space surrounding a pipe in
when a sling with two legs is attached to each aniline point n: the lowest temperature at the wellbore, or the space between tubing
end of a load, the slant or the angle the two which the chemical aniline and a solvent and casing, or the space between tubing and
legs make as measured from horizontal. A (such as the oil in oil-base muds) will mix the well bore; sometimes termed the annulus.
reduction in the strength of a sling must be completely. In general, the oil of oil-base
allowed for angles other than 90 degrees. muds should have an aniline point of at least
angle of wrap n: the distance that the brake 150"F (66"C) to obtain maximum service life
band wraps around the brake flange. from the rubber components in the mud
Drawworks have an angle of wrap of 270' or system.
more. anion n: 1. a negatively charged ion. 2. the
angle-stem assembly n: a type of ion in an electrolysed solution that migrates
thermometer used on oil tanks. The to the anode. See ion. Compare cation.
graduated part of the thermometer is angled annealed glass n: glass that has been
at least 90 from the temperature-sensitive treated with a heating and cooling process
portion. The angle conforms to the shell of that toughens it and reduces its brittleness.
the tank and permits easy reading of the
anniversary date n: the date, usually one
year from the effective date of the lease, by
angle-stem thermometer n: a glass-stem which rentals must be paid to maintain the
thermometer in which the tail is bent at an lease in effect in the absence of drilling or
annular velocity n: the rate at which mud is
angle to the stem so that the tail can be production.
travelling in the annular space of a drilling
mounted in a horizontally disposed
annubar n: a gas measurement device that well.
thermowell, leaving the scale vertical for
consists of a mutiple-ported Pitot tube
greater ease of reading. annulus n: see annular space.
installed inside a pipe through which gas is
angle sub n: see bent sub. flowing; it is installed perpendicular to the anode n: 1. one of two electrodes in an
flow of gas. The length of the annubar is electrolytic cell; represented as the negative
angular misalignment n: one type of equal to the diameter of the pipe in which it terminal of the cell, it is the area from which
misalignment in a chain-and-sprocket drive. is installed. An annubar senses the electrons flow. In a primary cell, it is the
The shafts are not parallel to each other (they difference between total flowing pressure electrode that is wasted or eaten away. 2. in
form an angle) in either the horizontal or the and static pressure; gas volume is cathodic protection systems, an electrode to
vertical plane. This pulls the link plates on calculated from this difference. See Pitot which a positive potential of electricity is
one side tighter than those on the other side; tube. applied, or a sacrificial anode, which protects
thus, one side of the chain and sprockets a structure by forming one electrode of an
wears faster than the other. Link plates on annular adj: pertaining to the annulus. The
electric cell.
only one side of the chain break because of annulus is sometimes referred to as the
annular space. anomaly n: a deviation from the norm. In
angular unconformity n: an unconformity annular blowout preventer n: a large geology the term indicates an abnormality
valve, usually installed above the ram such as a fault or dome in a sedimentary
in which formations above and below are
not parallel. See unconformity. preventers, that forms a seal in the annular bed.
space between the pipe and the wellbore or,
anoxia n: an undersupply of oxygen
if no pipe is present, in the wellbore itself.
reaching the tissues of the body, possibly
Compare ram blowout preventet:
causing permanent damage or death. Also
called hypoxia.
ANSI 9 arenite

2 m
ANSI abbr: American National Standards pits at the University of Houston. The API Sw = aRw / O Rt
Institute. gamma ray unit is defined as 1/200 of the Archimedes's Principle n: the buoyant
difference in log deflection between two force exerted on a body suspended in a fluid
anticipated load n: (1) in designing or
zones of different gamma ray intensity. The is proportional to the density of the fluid.
ordering hoisting (lifting) equipment, the
test pit is constructed so that the average
maximum weight that the equipment will be Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) n:
midcontinent shale will record about 100 API
able to safely lift. (2) on diesel electric rigs, nineteen million acres on Alaska's north-
gamma ray units.
the maximum amount of electric power that east coast that are believed to contain 600
the generators will have to produce to API gravity n: the measure of the density or million to 9 billion barrels (954 billion to 143
adequately power the rig. gravity of liquid petroleum products in the trillion litres) of oil. Opening of the area to oil
United States; derived from relative density exploration and production is the subject of
anticipated surface pressure n: pressure
in accordance with the following equation: much debate between environmentalists
expected to be measured at the surface
after a well is drilled and completed. and oil-industry personnel.
API gravity at 60F =
[141.5 + relative density 60/60F] -131.5 arctic submersible rig n: a mobile
anticlinal trap n: a hydrocarbon trap in
submersible drilling structure used in arctic
which petroleum accumulates in the top of API gravity is expressed in degrees, 1 D.
areas. The rig is towed onto the drilling site
an anticline. See anticline. API being equivalent to 1.0, the specific
and submerged during periods when the
gravity of water. See gravity.
anticline n: rock layers folded in the shape water is free of ice. All equipment below the
of an arch. Anticlines sometimes trap oil and API MPMS abbr: American Petroleum waterline is surrounded by a caisson to
gas. Compare syncline. Institute's Manual of Petroleum protect it from damage by moving ice. The
Measurement Standards. drilling deck has no square comers so that
anticyclonic wind n: the wind associated
API neutron unit n: the standard unit of moving ice can better flow around it. See
with a high-pressure area.
measurement for neutron logs. submersible drilling rig.
antifoam n: a substance used to prevent Standardisation of this unit results from the
foam by greatly increasing surface tension. calibration of each logging tool model in the
Compare defoamer. API neutron test pit at the University of
antifreeze n: a chemical added to liquid that Houston.
lowers its freezing point. Often used to
APO abbr: after payout; commonly used in
prevent water in an engine's cooling system
the land department of an oil company.
from freezing.
apparent compressibility n: the algebraic
antiknock compound n: a substance, such
sum of the actual compressibility of a liquid
as tetraethyl lead or other compounds,
and the volume change per unit volume of
added to the fuel of an internal-combustion
the confining container caused by a unit
engine to prevent detonation of the fuel.
change in pressure at constant temperature.
Antiknock compounds effectively raise the
arc weld v: to join metals by utilising the arc
octane rating of a fuel so that it burns apparent power n: the product of volts and
created between the welding rod, which
properly in the combustion chamber of an amperes in an AC circuit when voltage and
serves as an electrode, and a metal object.
engine. See octane rating, tetraethyl lead. current are measured separately. If voltage
The arc is a discharge of electric current
and current are not in phase, apparent
antiknock rating n: the measurement of across an air gap. The high temperature
power is greater than true power.
how well an automotive gasoline resists generated by the arc melts both the
detonation or pinging in a spark-ignition apparent viscosity n: the viscosity of a electrode and the metal, which fuse.
engine. drilling fluid as measured with a direct- area of mutual interest n: an area, usually
indicating, or rotational, viscometer. outlined on a plat attached to a farmout
antilog abbr: antilogarithm.
appraisal well n: a well drilled to confirm agreement or described in an exhibit, that
antilogarithm n: a second number whose and evaluate the presence of hydrocarbons allows both parties the first right of refusal
logarithm is the first number. See logarithm. in a reservoir that has been found by a wild- on leases acquired by either party after the
antiwhirl bit n: a drill bit, usually a cat well. agreement is executed.
polycrystalline diamond bit, that is designed APR abbr: a trademark name for an annular area rate clause n: see minimum lawful
to prevent the bit's drilling a spiral-shaped price clause.
pressure-responsive valve for a DST string.
hole because it whirls off centre as it rotates. arenaceous adj: pertaining to sand or
See bit whirl. apron n: 1. a body of coarse, poorly sorted sandy rocks (such as arenaceous shale).
sediments formed by the coalescence of
ANWR abbr: Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. arenite n: a sandstone in which less than
alluvial or detrital fans along the flanks of a
API abbr: American Petroleum Institute. 15% of the total volume is silt and clay.
mountain range. 2. a similar body of turbidite
API cement class n: a classification system sediments formed by the coalescence of
for oilwell cements, defined in API submarine debris fans along the base of the
Specification 10A. continental slope.
API-certified adj: said of a tool that meets aquifer n: 1. a permeable body of rock
the American Petroleum Institute's minimum capable of yielding groundwater to wells and
standard. springs. 2. the part of a water drive reservoir
API gamma ray unit n: the standard unit of that contains the water.
gamma ray measurement. Standardisation Archie's equation n: the formula for
of this unit results from the normalisation of evaluating the quantity of hydrocarbons in a
the detector-measurement systems of all formation. The form of the equation depends
primary service companies in the API test on its specific use. The basic equation is-
argillaceous 10 atomic weight

argillaceous adj: pertaining to a formation longer commonly used because asbestos Expressway, Suite 428; Dallas, TX 75206;
that consists of clay or shale (such as can cause respiratory illness. (214) 692-0771.
argillaceous sand). as-delivered Btu n: the number of Btus astern adv or adj: 1. at or toward the stem of
arkose n: sandstone composed largely of contained in a cubic foot of natural gas a ship or an offshore drilling rig; abaft. 2.
feldspar grains and deriving from granitic adjusted to reflect the actual water content of behind the ship or rig.
source rocks. the gas at delivered pressure, temperature, ASTM abbr: American Society for Testing
armature n: a part made of coils of wire and gravity conditions. and Materials.
placed around a metal core, in which ash n: noncombustible residue from the ASTM distillation n: any distillation made in
electric current is induced in a generator, or gasification or burning of coal or a heavy accordance with ASTM procedure. Generally
in which input current interacts with a hydrocarbon. refers to a distillation test to determine the
magnetic field to produce torque in a motor. ASME abbr: American Society of Mechanical initial boiling point, the temperature at which
armored case n: a corrosion-resistant Engineers. percentage fractionations of the sample are
metal case in which a glass-stem asphalt n: a hard brown or black material distilled, the final boiling point, and quantity of
thermometer can be placed to minimise the composed principally of hydrocarbons. It is residue.
risk of breakage. insoluble in water but soluble in gasoline and athwart prep or adv: from side to side of a
arm's-length bargaining n: negotiations can be obtained by heating some petroleum, ship or offshore drilling rig.
between a willing buyer and a willing seller, coal tar, or lignite tar. It is used for paving and
atm abbr: atmosphere.
which should result in a price that truly roofing and in paints.
reflects the market. atmosphere (atm) n: a unit of pressure equal
asphalt-base oil n: see naphthene-base oil.
to the atmospheric pressure at sea level, 14.7
aromatic hydrocarbons n pi: asphalt enamel n: an asphalt-base enamel pounds per square inch (101.325 kilopascals)
hydrocarbons derived from or containing a applied as a coating to pipe that is to be
benzene ring. Many have an odour. Single- atmospheres absolute n pi: total pressure at
buried. The asphalt is combined with finely
ring aromatic hydrocarbons are the a depth underwater, expressed as multiples
ground mica, clay, soapstone, or talc and
benzene series (benzene, ethylbenzenes, of normal atmospheric pressure.
applied while hot. Combined with a
and toluene). Aromatic hydrocarbons also subsequent wrapping, this coating protects atmospheric diving system (ADS) n: a one-
include naphthalene and anthracene. the buried pipe from corrosion. person atmospheric suit rated to depths of
Compare aliphatic hydrocarbons. 2,300 feet (701 metres). Advantages include
asphaltic crude n: petroleum with a high
aromatisation n: the conversion of allowing the operator to work in a safe
proportion of naphthenic compounds, which
aliphatic or alicyclic compounds to aromatic environment for debris salvage or recovery
leave relatively high proportions of asphaltic
hydrocarbons. operations.
residue when refined.
arpent n: a French unit of measurement, atmospheric pressure n: the pressure
asphaltic material n: one of a group of solid.
equal to 191.833 feet (58.5 metres). exerted by the weight of the atmosphere. At
liquid, or semisolid materials that are pre-
sea level, the pressure is approximately 14.7
artesian well n: a well in which water flows dominantly mixtures of heavy hydrocarbons
pounds per square inch (101.325 kilo-
to the surface under natural pressure. and their non-metallic derivatives and are
pascals), often referred to as 1 atmosphere.
obtained either from natural bituminous
articulated loading platform (ALP) n: Also called barometric pressure.
deposits or from the residues of petroleum
offshore platform in which the riser is jointed
refining. atmospheric pressure cure n: the aging of
to allow for changes in water level, current,
specimens for test purposes at normal
and so on. ASSE abbr: American Society of Safety
atmospheric pressure for a designated period
artificial island n: an artificial gravel island Engineers.
of time under specified conditions of
sometimes used in shallow Arctic waters as assignment n: a transfer of rights and
temperature and humidity.
a base on which drilling and production interests in real or personal property or rights
under a contract-for example, the transfer of atoll n: a coral island consisting of a reef
equipment is erected.
an oil and gas lease from the original lessee surrounding a lagoon.
artificial lift n: any method used to raise oil
to another party. atom n: the smallest quantity of an element
to the surface through a well after reservoir
assignment clause n: a clause in any capable of either entering into a chemical
pressure has declined to the point at which
instrument that allows either party to the combination or existing alone.
the well no longer produces by means of
natural energy. Sucker rod pumps, gas lift, instrument to assign all or part of his or her atomic number n: a number that expresses
hydraulic pumps, and submersible electric interest to others. the number of protons and an equal number
associated free gas n: see associated gas. of electrons in each atom of an element.
pumps are the most common means of
artificial lift. associated gas n: natural gas that overlies atomic weight n: a number that
and contacts crude oil in a reservoir. Where approximates the number of protons plus the
artificial satellite n: an information reservoir conditions are such that the number of neutrons in an atom; it expresses
collecting instrument that orbits the earth. As production of associated gas does not the relative weights of atoms.
abbr: altostratus. substantially affect the recovery of crude oil in
asbestos n: term applied to many heat the reservoir, such gas may also be
resistant and chemically inert fibrous reclassified as non-associated gas by a
minerals, some forms of which are used in regulatory agency. Also called associated
certain drilling fluids. It finds only limited use free gas. See gas cap.
because prolonged exposure can cause Association of Energy Service Companies
respiratory illness. (AESC) n: organisation that sets some of the
asbestos felt n: a wrapping material standards, principles, and policies of oilwell
consisting of asbestos saturated with asphalt; servicing contractors. Its official publication is
one element of pipeline coatings. It is no Well Servicing. Address: 6060N. Central
atomise 11 automatic wire welding

atomise v: to spray a liquid through a automatic drilling control unit n: see systematic basis, which can be tested to
restricted opening, causing it to break into automatic driller. determine the quality of the liquid flowing in
tiny droplets and mix thoroughly with the automatic fill-up shoe n: a device usually the line. An automatic sampling device
surrounding air. installed on the first joint of casing to consists of a probe inserted into the line, an
attachment efficiency n: in crane regulate automatically the amount of mud in extractor, a timer or other device that
operations, the relative strength of a sling's the casing. The valve in this shoe keeps controls the sampling rate, and a small tank
end attachment, such as a loop eye or a mud from entering the casing until mud (sample receiver) that holds the samples.
swaged terminal, which attaches the sling to pressure causes the valve to open, allowing automatic shutdown n: a system in which
the load to be lifted by the crane. The less mud to enter. certain instruments are used to control or to
efficient the attachment is, the more the maintain the operating conditions of a
sling's strength is reduced. process. If conditions become abnormal, this
attapuigite n: a fibrous clay mineral that is a system automatically stops the process and
viscosity-building substance; used principally notifies the operator of the problem.
in saltwater-base drilling muds. Also called automatic slips n pi: a device, operated by
fuller's earth. air or hydraulic fluid, that fits into the opening
attest v: to verify or witness, by a designated in the rotary table when the drill stem must be
company official, the signature of the signing suspended in the wellbore (as when a
company officer and the affixing of the official connection or trip is being made). Automatic
company or corporation seal. The title of the slips, also called power slips, eliminate the
company official executing the instrument need for roughnecks to set and take out slips
and the title of the company official attesting it manually. See slips.
should appear under the signatures.
automatic tank gauge n: an instrument that
auger n: a boring tool that consists of a shaft automatically measures and displays liquid
with spiral channels. An auger may be used levels or ullages in one or more tanks
to bore the hole for a pipeline that must cross continuously, periodically, or on demand.
automatic gauge n: a measuring device in-
beneath a roadbed.
stalled on the outside of a tank to permit automatic tank gauge tape n: a metal tape
authority for expenditure n: an estimate of observation of the depth of the liquid inside. used to connect the liquid level-detecting
costs prepared by a lease operator and sent
automatic gauging tape n: the flexible element and the gauge-head mechanism.
to each non operator with a working interest
for approval before work is under taken. measuring or connecting element that is automatic temperature compensator n: a
Normally used in connection with well-drilling used to measure the liquid level in tanks by meter accessory that enables a meter that is
operations. the automatic gauge method. measuring volume at stress temperature to
automatic J n: a mechanism in packers and register the equivalent volume at a reference
automated plant n: a plant that contains
other tools in which straight pickup or set- or base temperature.
instruments for the measurement and control
of temperatures, pressures, flow rates, and down action will set or release the tool. automatic Yawl tank gauging system n: a
properties of resulting products and thereby Rotation is not needed to set or release a system that automatically measures and
makes necessary corrections in the plant tool with an automatic J. displays liquid levels or ullage in one or more
operating conditions so as to maintain automatic positioner n: see hook vessel tanks on a continuous, periodic, or on-
specification products. Such a plant contains positioner: demand basis.
shutdown and other automatic devices for
automatic positioner lock n: a device 00 a automatic welding n: a welding technique
minimising damage in the absence of
drilling rig's hook that allows the hook to for joining pipe ends. Two general types of
operating personnel.
rotate freely when hoisting the drill string out automatic welding used in pipeline
automatic cathead n: see breakout cat- of open (uncased) hole but automatically construction are submerged-arc welding and
head, cathead. makeup cathead. rotates the elevators to face the derrickhand automatic wire welding.
automatic choke n: an adjustable choke that when they reach the monkeyboard. Allowing automatic wire welding n: an automatic
is power-operated to control pressure of flow. the elevators to rotate prevents them from welding process utilising a continuous wire
See adjustable choke. damaging the open hole and prevents the feed and a shielding gas. Automatic wire
drilling line from becoming twisted. The welding is similar to semiautomatic welding
automatic control n: a device that regulates
positioner lock can also lock die elevators except that manual adjustment of the rate of
various factors (such as flow rate, pressure,
into one position when tripping in cased hole wire feed and amount of shielding gas is
or temperature) of a system without
where it is not necessary to allow the unnecessary. See also semiautomatic
supervision or operation by personnel. See
elevators to rotate freely. welding.
automatic custody transfer n: a system for automatic pumping station n: an
automatically measuring and sampling oil or automatically operated station installed on a
products at points of receipt or delivery. See pipeline to provide pressure when a fluid is
lease automatic custody transfer. being transported.
automatic sampler n: a device that, when
automatic driller n: a mechanism used to installed in a pipe or flow channel and
regulate the amount of weight 00 the bit actuated by automatic control equipment.
without the presence of personnel. Automatic enables a representative sample to be
drillers free the driller from the sometimes obtained of the fluid flowing therein.
tedious task of manipulating the drawworks
brake to maintain correct weight on the bit. automatic sampling n: the gathering of
Also called an automatic drilling control unit. small quantities of liquid from a pipeline on a
automation 12 azimuth angle indicator

automation n: automatic, self-regulating mum or minimum boiling point, which is

control of equipment, systems, or either higher or lower than that of its
processes. See instrumentation. components.

autotransformer n: a transformer with only azimuth n: 1. in directional drilling, the

one winding, part of which is used for either direction of the wellbore or of the face of a
the primary or secondary conductor, and deflection tool in degrees (0"-359") clock-
part of which is used as both primary and wise from true north. 2. an arc of the horizon
secondary conductors. measured between a fixed point (such as
true north) and the vertical circle passing
auxiliaries n pi: equipment on a drilling or through the centre of an object.
workover rig that is not a direct part of the
azimuth angle indicator n: see riser angle
rig's drilling equipment, such as the
equipment used to generate electricity for rig
lighting or the equipment used to mix drilling
auxiliary brake n: a braking mechanism on
the drawworks, supplemental to the
mechanical brake, that permits the lowering
of heavy hook loads safely at retarded rates
without incurring appreciable brake
maintenance. There are two types of
auxiliary brake-the hydrodynamic and the
electrodynamic. In both types, work is
converted into heat, which is dissipated
through liquid cooling systems. See
electrodynamic brake, hydrodynamic brake.
auxiliary equipment n: see auxiliaries.
auxiliary meter equipment n: equipment
such as strainers, air separators, or flow
conditioners installed in conjunction with a
meter to protect or improve the performance
of the meter; does not include
instrumentation and accessories driven by
the meter's output rotation or pulses.
average (avg) n: approximately or
resembling an arithmetic mean, specifically,
about midway between extremes.
average sample n: in tank sampling, a
sample that consists of proportionate parts
from several sections of the tank.
average value n: the average of all the
instantaneous values of current or voltage in
one-half a cycle of AC electricity; equal to
0.636 times the maximum value.
avg abbr: average.
Avogadro's law n: states that under the
same conditions of pressure and
temperature, equal volumes of all gases
contain equal numbers of molecules. Also
called Avogadro's hypothesis.
Avogadro's number n: 6.024 x 1023.
axial compression n: pressure produced
parallel with the cylinder axis when casing
hits a deviation in the hole or a sticky spot
and stops. The force pushing down on the
pipe causes axial compression.
axial flow turbine meter n: a velocity-
measuring device in which gas flow is
parallel to the rotor axis and the speed of
rotation is proportional to the rate of flow.
azeotrope n: a mixture of liquids that distills
without a change in composition. The
azeotropic mixture exhibits a constant maxi-
the drill pipe may be disengaged from the direction, guide the flow, or promote mixing
B abbr: bottom of ; used in drilling reports. liner by conventional right-hand rotation. within a tank or vessel. 2. a device that is
babbitt n: metal alloy, either tin-based or back-off wheel n: see wheel-type back-off seated on the bit pin, in a tool joint, or in a
lead-based, used primarily in friction wrench. drill pipe float, to centralize the lower end of a
bearings. backout v: to overcome the positive go-devil while permitting the bypass of drilling
backbarrier complex n: the depositional electrical potentials of anodic areas in fluid.
environments associated with a shallow cathodic protection systems. bag filter n: on an engine, a bag-shaped
lagoon shoreward from a coastal barrier back-pressure n: 1. the pressure maintained piece made of cotton or fiber cloth that fits
island. These environments are highly on equipment or systems through which a into a special holder in the fuel system piping.
variable and may include tidal channels, salt fluid flows 2. in reference to engines, a term Fuel is circulated through the bag, which
marshes, shell reefs, and mangrove swamps, used to describe the resistance to the flowof removes foreign matter from the fuel.
among others. exhaust gas through the exhaust pipe. 3. the baguio n: a tropical cyclone in the
back emf n: voltage induced in the armature operating pressure level measured down- Philippines. Also called baruio.
of a motor by the magnetic field in which it is stream from a measuring device4. bail n: a cylindrical steel bar (similar to the
turning. Also called counter emf. See back-pressure valve n: 1. a valve used to handle or bail of a bucket, only much larger)
electromotive force. regulate back-pressure on equipment or that supports the swivel and connects it to
backfilling n: the technique for covering a systems through which a fluid flows. 2. a the hook. Sometimes, the two cylindrical
completed pipeline so that adequate fill valve used to regulate automatically a bars that support the elevators and attach
materal is provided underneath the pipe as uniform pressure on the inlet side of the them to the hook are called bails or links. v:
well as above it. Backfilling prevents pipe valve. to recover bottomhole fluids, samples, or drill
damage caused by loose rock, abrasion, backshore n: that part of the seashore that cuttings by lowering a cylindrical vessel
shifting, and washouts. lies between high-tide and storm-flood level. called a bailer to the bottom of a well, filling it,
background gas n: in drilling operations, gas back up v: to hold one section of an object and retrieving it.
that returns to the surface with the drilling such as pipe while another section is being
mud in measurable quantities but does not screwed into or out of it.
cause a kick. Increases in background gas backup element n: a metal sealing ring on
may indicate that the well is about to kick or either side of the center packing element of
has kicked. an annular blowout preventer to limit the
backhaul n: a transport of gas by packer's extrusion.
displacement against the flow on a single backup ring n: a cylindrical ring employed to
pipeline, so that the gas is redelivered back up (or assist) a sealing member against
upstream of its point of receipt. extrusion under temperature and pressure.
backhoe n: an excavating machine fitted with backup tongs n pl: the tongs latched on the
a hinged arm to which is rigidly attacheda drill pipe joint hanging in the totary by the
bucket that is drawn toward the machine in slips, used to keep the pipe from turning as
operation. The backhoe is used for the makeup or breakout tongs (the lead
excavating and for clearing blasted rock out tongs) apply torque to make up or break out
of the ditch during ditching and pipe laying. the tightened tool joint connection. Compare
back-in n: an option right reserved by the lead tongs.
granting company of a farmout to convert an backup wrench n: any wrench used to hold
overriding royalty to a working interest once a pipe or a blot to prevent its turning while
the conditions for such back-in have been another length of pipe or a nut is being
met. Compare election at casing point. screwed into or out of it.
back-in unit n: a portable servicing or backwash v: to reverse the flow of fluid from
workover rig that is self-propelled, using the a water injection well to get rid of sediment
hoisting engines for motive power. Because that has clogged the wellbore.
the driver's cab is mounted on the end BACT abbr: best-available control
opposite the mast support, the unit must be technology.
backed up to the wellhead. See carrier rig, bacteria n pl: a large, widely distributed
drive-in unit. group of typically one-celled micro-
back off v: the procedure whereby one organisms. See anaerobic bacteria, sulfate
threaded piece (such as a pipe) is unscrewed reducing bacteria.
from another. bactericide n: anything that destroys
back-off connector n: see washover back- bacteria.
off connector. bad oil n: oil that contains a sufficient
back-off joint n: a section of pipe with left- amount of sediment and water to make it
hand threads on one end and conventional unaccetable to a pipeline or other oil
right-hand threads on the other. In setting a transportation system.
liner, a back-off joint is attached to it so that baffle plate n: 1. a partial restriction,
generally a plate, placed to change the

bailer 14

bailer n: a long, cylindrical container fitted ballast movement n: a voyage or voyage leg banana peel n: a thin sheet of steel
with a valve at its lower end, used to remove made without any paying cargo in the created when a washover pipe's rotary
water, sand, mud, drilling cuttings, or oil from vessel's tanks. To maintain proper stability, shoe grinds into the casing and mills a
a well in cable-tool drilling. trim, or draft, seawater is usually carried portion of the casing. It can be prevented
during such movements. Also called ballast by selecting a shoe diameter that is much
bailing v: the operation of cleaning mud leg or ballast passage. smaller than the diameter of the casing but
cuttings and other material from the bottom of ballast passage n: see ballast movement. is still of adequate diameter to remove the
the well bore with a bailer. ballast tank n: any shipboard tank or tanker material that is sticking the fish.
bailing drum n: the reel around which the compartment normally used for carrying
bank draft n: see draft.
bailing line is wound. See bailing line. saltwater ballast. When these compartments
or tanks are not connected with the cargo bar v: to move or turn (as a flywheel) with a
bailing line n: the cable attached to a bailer, bar used as a lever.
system, they are called segregated ballast
passed over a sheave at the top of the
tanks or systems. barefoot completion n: see open-hole
derrick, and spooled on a reel.
ball bearing n: a bearing in which a finely completion.
bail pin n: a large steel dowel (pin) that machined shaft (a journal) turns on freely
barge n: 1. a flat-decked, shallow-draft
attaches the swivel's bail to the swivel's body. rotating hardened-steel spheres that roll
vessel, usually towed by a boat. Barges are
Normally, swivels have two bail pins, one for easily within a groove or track (a race) and
not self-propelled. They are used to transport
each side of the bail where it attaches to the thus convert sliding friction into rolling friction.
oil or products on rivers, lakes, and inland
body. See bail. See ball race.
waterways. Also, a complete drilling rig may
bail throat n: the inside curve in the ball catcher n: a cylindrical tube placed
be assembled on a barge and the vessel
swivel's bail where the bail hangs from the around the retrieving neck of a retrievable
used for drilling wells in lakes and in inland
travelling block's hook. See bail. bridge plug to catch debris or frac balls.
waters and marshes. Similarly, well service
ball cock n: a device for regulating the level
balance point n: the point at which enough and workover equipment can be mounted on
of fluid in a tank. It consists of a valve
pipe has been snubbed into the hole to allow a barge. 2. an offshore drilling vessel built in
connected to a hollow floating ball that, by
the pipe's weight to overcome the upward the shape of a ship. Unlike a ship, however, it
rising or falling, shuts or opens the valve.
force of well pressure. See snubbing, is not self-propelled. Also called a drill barge.
balled-up bit n: see ball up.
stripping in.
ballistic prover n: see small-volume prover.
bail n: a spherical object that, when pumped ball joint n: see flex joint.
down the hole, operates certain hydraulic ball mill n: a hollow drum that contains
tools. material to be ground or pulverised, heavy
bail-and-seat valve n: a device used to steel or ceramic balls, and a liquid such as
restrict fluid flow to one direction. It consists water. The drum is rolled or agitated so that
of a polished sphere, or ball, usually of metal, the balls crush or polish the material as they
and an annular piece, the seat, ground and roll about.
polished to form a seal with the surface of the ball-mill v: to use a ball mill to grind, polish,
baric wind law n: see Buys-Ballots law.
ball. Gravitational force or the force of a or pulverise metal or stone particles.
barite n: barium sulphate, BaSO4; a mineral
spring holds the ball against the seat. flow in balloon v: in reference to tubing under the
frequently used to increase the weight or
the direction of the force is pre- vented, while effects of temperature changes, sucker rod
density of drilling mud. Its relative density is
flow in the opposite direction overcomes the pumping, or high internal pressure, to
4.2 (i.e., it is 4.2 times denser than water).
force and unseats the ball. increase in diameter while decreasing in
See barium sulphate, mud.
length. Compare reverse-balloon.
ballast n: 1. for ships, water taken on board barium sulphate n: a chemical compound of
ball-out v: to plug open perforations by using
into specific tanks to permit proper angle of barium, sulphur, and oxygen (BaS4), which
ball sealers.
repose of the ve.'lSe1 in the water, and to may form a tenacious scale that is very
ball race n: a track, channel, or groove in
assure structural stability. 2. for mobile off- difficult to remove. Also called barite.
which ball bearings turn.
shore drilling rigs, weight added to make the barograph n: an aneroid barometer that
ball sealers n pi: balls made of nylon, hard
rig more seaworthy, increase its draft, or continuously records atmospheric pressure
rubber, or both and used to shut off
submerge it to the seafloor. Seawater is values on a graph or chart.
perforations through which excessive fluid is
usually used for ballast, but sometimes barometer n: an instrument for measuring
being lost.
concrete or iron is also used to lower the rig's atmospheric pressure. See aneroid
ball up v: 1. to collect a mass of sticky
centre of gravity permanently. barometer, mercury barometer.
consolidated material, usually drill cuttings,
ballast control n: the act of maintaining a on drill pipe, drill collars, bits, and so forth.
floating offshore drilling rig on even keel, A bit with such material attached to it is
regardless of weather or load conditions. called a balled-up bit. Balling up is
frequently the result of inadequate pump
ballasted condition n: the condition of a
pressure or insufficient drilling fluid. 2. in
floating offshore drilling rig when ballast has
reference to an anchor, to fail to hold on a
been added.
soft bottom, pulling out, instead, with a
ballast engineer n: on a semi submersible large ball of mud attached.
drilling rig, the person responsible for
ball valve n: a flow-control device
maintaining the rig's stability under all
employing a ball with a rotating mechanism
weather and load conditions.
to open or close the tubing.
ballast leg n: see ballast movement.
barometric pressure 15 batch treatment

barometric pressure n: see atmospheric reaction is written chemically as NaOH + HCl form thick sequences of sedimentary rock. 2.
pressure. -+ NaCI + H2O. the area drained by a stream and its
base abstract n: an abstract of title that tributaries. 3. a geologii: structure in which
barrel (bbl) n: 1. a measure of volume for contains full and complete copies of all strata are inclined toward a common centre.
petroleum products in die United States. {A)e recorded instruments from the sovereignty of
barrel is the equivalent of 42 US gallons or the soil to the date the same is completed as basket n: a device placed in the drill or work
0.15899 cubic meters (9,702 cubic inches). set forth in the abstractor's certificate. string that catches debris when a drillable
One cubic metre equals 6.2897 barrels. 2. object is being milled or drilled downhole.
the cylindrical part of a sucker rod pimp in base exchange n: the replacement of cat-
whid1 the piston like plunger moves up and ions associated with a clay surface by those basket grapple n: an expandable,
down. Operating as a piston inside a cylinder, of another element, e.g., the conversion of cylindrically shaped gripping mechanism that
the plunger and ~I create pressure energy to sodium clay to calcium clay. is fitted into an overshot to retrieve fish from
lift well fluid to the surface. the borehole. See grapple.
base gas n: the volume of gas needed as
barrel compressor n: a special type of permanent inventory to maintain adequate basket hitch n: in crane operations, a
centrifugal compressor with a barrel-shaped underground storage reservoir pressures and method of attaching a sling to a load in which
housing. deliverability rates throughout the withdrawal both ends of the sling are passed under the
season. load and then attached to the crane's hook.
barrel equivalent n: a laboratory unit used base line n: I. the fore and aft reference line
for evaluating or testing drilling fluids. One at the upper surface of the flat plate keel at basket sub n: a fishing accessory run above
gram of material, when added to 350 the centre line for flush shell plate vessels. 2. a bit or a mill to recover small, nondrillable
millilitres of fluid, is equivalent to 1 pound of the thickness of the garboard strake above pieces of metal or junk in a well.
material added to one 42-gallon barrel of that level for vessels having lap seam shell
fluid. plating. batch n: 1. a specific quantity of material that
barrel-mile n: a unit of measure for pipeline is processed, treated. or used in one
shipment of oil or liquid product that signifies base load n: as applied to gas, a given send- operation. 2. in corrosion control, a quantity
1 barrel moved 1 mile. out of gas remaining fairly constant over a of chemical corrosion inhibitors injected into
barrel reamer n: in pipeline construction, a period of time and usually not temperature the lines of a production system. 3. in oilwell
cylindrical device fitted on both ends with sensitive. For example, residential base load cementing, a part of the total quantity of
hollow cutting teeth, used in directionally is a given send-out of gas consumed by cement to be used in a well. 4. in pipelining, a
drilled river crossings. Used during the p111- clothes dryers, water heaters, and in cooking. quantity of one weight or type of crude or
back portion of a crossing effort, the barrel base map n: horizontal representation of liquid product pumped next to one of different
reamer opens the hole and keeps the pull on nongeologic surface features such as weight or type.
course. streams, roads, buildings, survey bench-
barrels per day (bpd) n: in the United marks, and property lines. batch cementing n: in oilwell cementing, the
States, a measure of the rate of flow of a pumping of cement in partial amounts, or
well; the total amount of oil and other fluid basement rock n: igneous or metamorphic batches, as contrasted with pumping it all in
produced or processed per day. rock, which seldom contains petroleum. one operation.
barring n: turning over an engine by hand. A Ordinarily, it lies below sedimentary rock.
solid-steel rod (a bar) is inserted into special When it is encountered in drilling, the well is batching n: in pipelining, the pumping of a
holes in the engine's flywheel. By lifting up or usually abandoned. quantity of crude or product of one weight
pressing down on the bar, the flywheel can base metal n: 1. any of the reactive metals at next to one of different weight or type.
be turned, which rotates the pistons in the the lower end of the electrochemical series. Usually, a small amount of mixing occurs
cylinders. Barring is used as a precautionary 2. metal to which cladding or plating is where the two batches come in contact.
measure before starting an engine that has applied.
not been run in some time. base pressure n: the pressure exerted by a batching sphere n: a large rubber ball
bar sand n: reservoir rock formed from a specific number of molecules contained in a placed in a pipeline to separate batches and
mass of sand, gravel, or alluvium deposited specific volume (usually I cubic foot) at a prevent mixing.
on the bed of a stream, sea, or lake by waves specific temperature. Base pressure is a
and currents. factor used in calculating gas volume. batch mixer n: a cement-mixing system in
baruio n: see baguio. Standard base pressure varies from state to which dry cement and water are blended by a
state. In Texas, for example, base pressure stream of air. The primary disadvantages are
baryte n: variation of barite. See barite. is 14.73 psia at 6().F. In Louisiana, base uneven mixing and volume limitations.
pressure is 15.025 psia at 6()F.
basalt n: an extrusive igneous rock that is base price II: the value of natural gas, usually batch treating n: the process by which a
dense, fine grained, and often dark gray to at the wellhead, before any imposition of single quantity of crude oil emulsion is broken
black. Compare gabbro. taxes, gathering, compression, or other into oil and water. The emulsion is gathered
charges, as stated in a gas sales contract. and stored in a tank or container prior to
base n: a substance capable of reacting with basicity II: pH value above 7 and the ability to treating. Compare flow-line treating.
an acid to form a salt. A typical base is neutralise or accept protons from .:ids.
sodium hydroxide (caustic), with the chemical basic sediment n: see sediment. batch treatment n: in corrosion control, the
formula NaOH. For example, sodium basic sediment and water (BS&W) n: see injection of a quantity of chemical corrosion
hydroxide combines with hydrochloric acid to sediment and water (S& W). inhibitors into the lines of a production
form sodium chloride (a salt) and water. This basin n: 1. a local depression in the earth's system, usually on a regular schedule.
crust in which sediments can accumulate to
bath 16 benzene ring

bath n: liquid placed in a container and held bearing n: 1. an object, surface, or point that benchmark price n: the price per barrel of
at a controlled temperature to regulate the supports. 2. a machine part in which another certain crude oils such as West Texas
temperature of any system placed in it or part (such as a journal or pin) turns or slides. intermediate and North Sea Brent, which
passing through it. serves as an indicator of worldwide oil prices.
battery n: 1. an installation of identical or bearing cap n: a device that is fitted around
nearly identical pieces of equipment (such as a bearing to hold or immobilise it. bending load pressure n: the force created
a tank battery or a battery of meters). 2. an bearing pin n: a machined extension around on an object by applying the weight of an-
electricity storage device. which are placed bit bearings. other object so that the weight bends or
Baume gravity n: specific gravity as Beaufort scale n: a numerical ranking tends to bend the first object.
measured by the Baume scale. Two arbitrary system that provides an estimate of the force
scales are employed: one for liquids lighter of wind and the height of waves. Higher- bending stress n: in crane operations,
than water and the other for liquids heavier scale values correlate with higher forces. stress that is imposed on the wires making
than water. This scale is also used to up a wire rope's strand or on the wire rope
describe the density of acid solutions. bed n: a specific layer of earth or rock that itself when the wire rope is bent or curved.
presents a contrast to other layers of different
Baume scale n: either of two arbitrary material lying above, below, or adjacent to it. Bendix n: the brand name for a type of
scales-one for liquids lighter than water and friction clutch in an electric starter for small
the other for liquids heavier than water-that bedding plane n: the surface that separates engines. When electric current is applied to
indicates specific gravity in degrees. each successive layer of a stratified rock the starter, the friction clutch (the Bendix)
from the preceding layer. It is here that minor moves forward to engage a pinion gear on
bbl abbr: barrel. changes in sediments or depositional the starter with a ring gear on the engine
bbV acre-ft abbr: barrels per acre-foot. bbVd conditions can be observed. flywheel. As the starter's pinion rotates, it
abbr: barrels per day. rotates the ring gear, which moves the
Bcf abbr: billion cubic feet. bed load n: the gravel and coarse sand that flywheel to turn the engine over.
Bcf/d abbr: billion cubic feet per day. are rolled and bounced along the bottom of a
b/d abbr: barrels per day; often used in flowing stream. Compare dissolved load, bends n: a highly painful and potentially fatal
drilling reports. suspended load. condition in which air or other breathable
BID abbr: barrels per day. bedrock n: solid rock just beneath the soil. gases come out of solution in the blood-
BOC abbr: bottom dead centre belching n: slang. See flow by heads. stream and cause distress or death. So
bell v: to flare the end of a cylindrical object named because the bending joints of the
beam n: (1) the extreme width (breadth) of so that it resembles the bottom of a bell. body are most often affected. Also called
the hull of a ship or mobile offshore drilling decompression sickness.
rig. (2) a walking beam. See walking beam. belled box n: a tool joint box which has been
subjected to a torque which has resulted in bent housing n: a special housing for the
beam-balanced pumping unit n: a beam permanent enlargement of the box diameter. positive-displacement downhole mud motor,
pumping unit that has a counterbalance This normally occurs adjacent to the box which is manufactured with a bend of 10 to
weight on the walking beam. sealing shoulder. 30 to facilitate directional drilling.
beam counterbalance n: the weights on a
beam pumping unit installed on the end of bell hole n: a hole shaped like a bell, larger bentonite n: a colloidal clay, composed
the walking beam, which is opposite the end at the top than at the bottom. A bell hole may primarily of montmorillonite, that swells when
over the well. The counterbalance offsets, or be dug beneath a pipeline to allow access for wet. Because of its gel-forming properties,
balances, the weight of sucker rods and other workers and tools. bentonite is a major component of water-
downhole equipment installed in the well. base drilling muds. See gel, mud.
bell nipple n: a short length of pipe (a nipple)
beam pumping unit n: a machine designed installed on top of the blowout preventer. The bentonite extenders n pi: a group of
specifically for sucker rod pumping. An top end of the nipple is flared, or belled, to polymers that can maintain or increase the
engine or motor (prime mover) is mounted on guide drill tools into the hole and usually has viscosity of bentonite while flocculating other
the unit to power a rotating crank. The crank side connections for the fill line and mud clay solids in the mud. With bentonite
moves a horizontal member (walking beam) return line. extenders, desired viscosity can often be
up and down to produce reciprocating bellows n pi: a pressure-sensing element of maintained using only half the amount of
motion. This reciprocating motion operates cylindrical shape whose walls contain bentonite that would otherwise be required.
the pump. Compare pump jack. convolutions that cause the length of the
bellows to change when pressure is applied. bent sub n: a short cylindrical device
beam well n: a well whose fluid is being lifted bellows meter n: see orifice meter. installed in the drill stem between the bottom
by rods and pump actuated by a beam most drill collar and a downhole motor. Its
pumping unit. belt n: a flexible band or cord connecting and purpose is to deflect the downhole motor off
wrapping around each of two or more pulleys vertical to drill a directional hole. See drill
bean n: a nipple or restriction placed in a line to transmit power or impart motion. stem.
(a pipe) to reduce the rate of flow of fluid belt guard n: a protective grill or cover for a benzene n: C6H6' colourless, volatile,
through the line. Beans are frequently placed belt and pulleys. flammable toxic liquid aromatic hydrocarbon
in Christmas trees to regulate the flow of benchmark n: a marking on the pin and the used as a solvent and as a motor fuel.
fluids corning out of the well. Also called a box of a tool joint that gauges the amount of benzene ring n: the structural arrangement
flow bean. See Christmas tree. metal that can be safely removed when of atoms believed to exist in benzene.
dressing (facing) the pin or box shoulder.
bequeath 17 bit dresser

bequeath v: to make a gift of personal at the point of destination on their paying the
property by means of a will. Compare devise. stipulated freight.
Bernoulli's theorem n: a mathematical biochemical adj: involving chemical
expression of the conservation of energy in reactions in living organisms.
streamline flow; the theorem states that the biofacies n: a part of a stratigraphic unit that
sum of the ratio of the pressure to the mass differs in its fossil fauna and flora from the
density, the product of the gravitational rest of the unit.
constant and the vertical height. and the biogenic adj: produced by living organisms.
square of the velocity divided by 2 are bioherm n: a reef or mound built by small
constant. organisms and their remains, such as coral,
best-available control technology (BACT) plankton, and oysters. Originally a wave- bit n: the cutting or boring element used in
n: an air emission standard of technology resistant coral structure served as an anchor drilling oil and gas wells. The bit consists of a
determined by the states on a case-by-case for calcareous debris that formed limestone. cutting element and a circulating element.
basis. The BACT is applied in attainment It was tectonically submerged, or the sea The cutting element is steel teeth, tungsten
areas that meet or exceed NAAQS. and level rose faster than the corals could build it, carbide buttons, industrial diamonds, or
states can consider cost and economic and it was eventually buried beneath marine polycrystalline diamonds (PDCs). The
impact when determining exactly what the shales. A bioherm is often porous enough to circulating element permits the passage of
BACT is and how it will be applied in a hold large accumulations of hydrocarbons, drilling fluid and utilises the hydraulic force of
specific case. especially if it has been dolomitized. A the fluid stream to improve drilling rates. In
beta particle n: one of the extremely small bioherm is a stratigraphic trap. rotary drilling, several drill collars are joined
particles, sometimes called rays, emitted biomass n: the total mass of living to the bottom end of the drill pipe column,
from the nucleus of a radioactive substance organisms per unit volume per unit of time. and the bit is attached to the end of the drill
such as radium or uranium as it disintegrates. bioremediation n: I. the process of breaking collars.
Beta particles have a negative charge. down organic wastes with microbes. Bacteria
beta ratio ( ) n: measure of the relationship that are naturally present in the environment bit breaker n: a special device that fits into a
use microbial enzymes to break down die bit breaker adapter (a plate that goes into the
of the size of the pipe through which fluid is
materials into a soluble form that passes rotary table) and conforms to the shape of
flowing and the size of a restriction, such as
through the cell walls of the bacteria. The the bit. Rig workers place the bit to be made
an orifice.
bacteria metabolise d1e material and convert up or broken out of the drill stem into the bit
bevel gear n: one of a pair of toothed wheels
it into components d1at are more readily breaker and lock the rotary table to hold the
whose working surfaces are inclined to non-
assimilated in d1e environment, such as bit breaker and bit stationary so that they can
parallel axes.
water or carbon dioxide (i.e., a gardener's tighten or loosen the bit.
BFPH abbr: barrels of fluid per hour; used in
compost pile). 2. the creation of engineered bit breaker adapter n: a heavy plate that fits
drilling reports.
and managed conditions to boost natural into the rotary table and holds the bit breaker;
BRA abbr: bottomhole assernbly.
bioremediation processes. Nutrients are a device used to hold the bit while it is being
bhhp abbr: bit hydraulic horsepower.
added to stimulate the bacteria naturally made up or broken out of the drill stem.
bhp abbr: brake horsepower.
present in the waste. Oxygen ari1 pH levels bit cone n: on a roller cone bit, a cone-
BHP abbr: bottomhole pressure.
are adjusted for maximum effectiveness, and, shaped steel device from which the
BHT abbr: bottomhole temperature.
if conditions are right, the bacteria grow in manufacturer either mills or forges steel
bias drilling n: see directional drilling.
large numbers and break down the teeth, or into which the manufacturer inserts
Big Inch n: the first cross-country pipeline
hydrocarbons much more rapidly than with tungsten carbide buttons. Most roller cone
with a 24-inch (61-centimetre) diameter. The
natural bioremediation. In cases in which the bits have three cones, which roll, or rotate, on
1,340-mile (2,157 -kilometre) Big Inch was
necessary bacteria are not already present in bearings as the bit rotates. As the cones roll
begun in 1942 with government financing as
the waste, suppliers can provide diem along over the formation, the cutters on the cone
a part of an emergency construction program
with die appropriate nutrients. scrape or gouge the formation to remove the
(War Emergency Pipelines) to meet the
biosphere n: the thin zone of air, water, and rock.
demand for petroleum products during World
soil where all terrestrial life exists. bit cutter n: the cutting elements of a bit.
War II.
biota n pi: the animals, plants, fungi, etc., of a bit dresser n: 1. a member of a cable-tool
big-inch pipe n: thin-walled pipe of high
region or period. drilling crew who repairs bits. 2. a machine
tensile strength with a diameter of 20 inches
biotic adj: relating to life, biologic; relating to used to repair, sharpen, and gauge bits.
(51 centimetres) or more.
bilge radius n: the radius of the rounded the actions of living organisms.
portion of a vessel's shell that connects the biotite n: a type of mica that is high in
bottom to the sides. magnesium and dark in colour.
billet n: a solid steel cylinder used to produce birdcage n: a wire rope that has been
seamless casing. The billet is pierced flattened and the strands of which have been
lengthwise to form a hollow tube that is spread. v: to flatten and spread the strands of
shaped and sized to produce the casing. a wire rope.
bill of lading n: a document by which the birdcaged adj: see wickered.
master of a ship acknowledges having birdcaged wire n: wire rope used for hoisting
received in good order and condition (or the that has had its wires distorted into the shape
reverse) certain specified goods consigned of a birdcage by a sudden release of load.
by a particular shipper, and binds himself or bird-dog v: to supervise another too closely
herself to deliver them in similar condition,
unless the perils of the sea, fire, or enemies
prevent it, to the consignees of the shippers
bit drift 18 block and bleed valve

bit drift n: the tendency of the bit to move blanket gas n: a gas phase above a liquid blind ram preventer n: a blowout preventer
other than vertically, caused by an interaction phase in a vessel. It is placed there to protect in which blind rams are the closing elements.
between the rotation of the bit and the the liquid from contamination, to reduce the See blind ram.
varying resistance of the formation being hazard of detonation, or to pressure the blizzard box n: a housing built around
drilled. liquid. The gas has a source outside of the controls on equipment that is sensitive to
bit gauge n: a circular ring used to deter- vessel. cold. such as heater-treaters.
mine whether a bit is of the correct outside blank flange n: a solid disk used to dead- BLM abbr: Bureau of Land Management.
diameter. Bit gauges are often used to end, or close off, a companion flange. block n: any assembly of pulleys on a
determine whether the bit has been worn blanking plug n: a plug used to cut of flow of common framework; in mechanics. one or
down to a diameter smaller than liquid. more pulleys. or sheaves. mounted to rotate
specifications allow; such a bit is described blank joint n: a heavy wall sub placed in the on a common axis. The crown block is an
as undergauge. tubing string opposite flowing perforations. assembly of sheaves mounted on beams at
bit hydraulic horsepower n: the measure of blank liner n: liner with no perforations. the top of the derrick or mast. The drilling line
hydraulic power expended through the bit blank off v: to close off (as with a blank flange is reeved over the sheaves of the crown
nozzles for cleaning the bit cutters and the or bull plug). block alternately with the sheaves of the
hole bottom. blank pipe n: pipe, usually casing, with no travelling block. which is hoisted and lowered
bit matrix n: on a diamond bit, the material perforations. in the derrick or mast by the drilling line.
(usually powdered and fused tungsten blasthole drilling n: the drilling of holes into When elevators are attached to a hook on a
carbide) into which the diamonds are set. the earth for the purpose of placing a blasting conventional travelling block. and when drill
bit nozzle n: see nozzle. charge (such as dynamite) in them. blasting pipe is latched in the elevators. the pipe can
bit pin n: the threaded element at the top of n: see shooting rock. be raised or lowered in the derrick or mast.
a bit that allows it to be made up in a drill blasting mats n pi: coverings used to See crown block, travelling block.
collar or other component of the drill stern. contain flying debris and rock caused by the
bit program n: a plan for the expected use of explosives during pipeline ditching.
number and types of bits that are to be used blast joint n: a tubing sub made of abrasion-
in the drilling of a well. The bit program takes resistant material. It is used in a tubing string
into account all the factors that affect bit where high-velocity flow through perforations
performance so that reliable cost calculations may cause external erosion.
can be made. bld abbr: bailed; used in drilling reports.
bit record n: a report that lists each bit used bleed v: to drain off liquid or gas, generally
during a drilling operation, giving the type, the slowly, through a valve called a bleeder. To
footage it drilled. the formation it penetrated, bleed down, or bleed off, means to release
its condition, and so on. pressure slowly from a well or from
bit shank n: the threaded portion of the top pressurised equipment.
of the bit that is screwed into the drill collar. bleeder valve n: a special valve used to
Also called the pin. bleed pressure slowly from a line or vessel.
bit sub n: a sub inserted between the drill Also called a blow-down valve.
collar and the bit. See sub. bleed line n: a pipe through which pressure
bitumastic material n: a compound of is bled, as from a pressurised tank, vessel, or
asphalt and filler that is used to coat metals other pipe.
exposed to corrosion or weathering. blending stock n: a petroleum product that
bitumen n: a substance of dark to black is mixed, or blended, with another petroleum
colour consisting almost entirely of carbon product.
and hydrogen with very little oxygen, blend sample n: a representative sample
nitrogen, or sulphur. Bitumens occur naturally taken from any suitable JX>int in a tank. or block and bleed valve n: a high-integrity
and can also be obtained by chemical from a tank side sample connection after valve with double seals and with provision for
decomposition. mixing the tank contents and before any determining whether either seal leaks.
bituminous shale n: see oil shale. significant separation of phases bas
bit walk n: the tendency of the bit to drill in occurred.
the direction of rotation in an inclined hole; blind n: a circular metal disk installed in a
e.g., a right-rotating bit walks to the right pipeline to prevent flow by fastening it
bit whirl n: the motion a bit makes when it between flanges. v: to close a line to prevent
does not rotate around its centre but instead flow.
drills with a spiral motion. It usually occurs to blind drilling n: a drilling operation in which
a bit drilling in a soft or medium soft formation the drilling fluid is not returned to the surface;
when the driller does not apply enough rather. it flows into an under- ground
weight or does not rotate the bit fast enough. formation. Sometimes blind-drilling
A whirling bit drills an overgauge hole (a hole techniques are resorted to when lost
larger than the diameter of the bit) and circulation occurs.
causes the bit to wear abnormally. blind ram n: an integral part of a blowout
bl abbr: black; used in drilling reports. black preventer. which serves as the closing
granite n: see diorite. element on an open hole. Its ends do not fit
blackout n: the total loss of power on a around the drill pipe but seal against each
drilling rig or production facility other and shut off the space below
blank casing n: casing without perforations. completely. See ram.
block billing 19 boil weevil

block billing n: FERC proposal calling for reservoir without being replaced by injected blowout preventer operating and control
separation of old and new gas into blocks. or gas. system n: See blowout preventer control
batches. for interstate sales and shipping. blow-down valve n: see bleeder valve. unit.
blown adj: supercharged. See supercharge. blowout preventer rams n pi: the closing
block diagram n: a three-dimensional blown oil n: fatty oil the viscosity of which has and sealing components of a preventer.
perspective view of a cube. or block. of earth. been increased by blowing air through it at an Corresponds to the gate in the gate valve.
It is developed from cross sections of the elevated temperature.
area. blowoff cock n: a device that permits or blowout preventer stack n: the assembly of
block squeeze n: a technique in squeeze arrests a flow of liquid from a receptacle or well-control equipment including preventers.
cementing in which (1) the zone below the through a pipe, faucet. tap, or stop valve. spools. valves. and nipples connected to the
producing interval is perforated and a high top of the wellhead.
pressure squeeze carried out; (2) the zone blowout n: an uncontrolled flow of gas, oil, or blowout sticking n: jamming or wedging of
the producing interval is perforated and other well fluids into the atmosphere. A the drill string in the borehole by sand or
squeezed off in a similar manner; (3) the hole blowout, or gusher, occurs when formation shale that is driven uphole by formation fluids
is drilled out; and (4) the producing interval is pressure exceeds the pressure applied to it during a blowout.
perforated. The purpose of block squeezing by the column of drilling fluid. A kick warns of
is to isolate the producing interval and an impending blowout. See kick. BLPD abbr: barrels of liquid per day; usually
prevent communication with the sand used in reference to total production of oil
immediately above and below the producing blowout preventer n: one of several valves and water from a well.
interval. installed at the wellhead to prevent the blue pod n: see hydraulic control pod.
block valve n: a valve that completely shuts escape of pressure either in the annular BO abbr: barrels of oil; used in drilling
off flow of a fluid. It is usually either space between the casing and the drill pipe reports.
completely open or completely closed. or in open hole (i.e., hole with no drill pipe) bob n: see gaugers bob.
during drilling or completion operations. bob-tail plant n: an extraction plant without
blooey line n: the discharge pipe from a wen Blow- out preventers on land rigs are located fragmentation facilities.
being drilled by air drilling. The blooey line is beneath the rig at the land's surface; on body lock ring n: an internal mechanism
used to conduct the air or gas used for jackup or platform rigs, at the water's surface; employed in certain tools to lock cones to the
circulation away from the rig to reduce the and on floating offshore rigs, on the seafloor. mandrel.
fire hazard as well as to transport the cut- See annular blowout preventet; ram blowout
tings a suitable distance from the wen. See preventer: body wave n: transverse or longitudinal
air drilling. seismic waves transmitted in the interior of
bloom n: the colour of fluorescent light an elastic solid or fluid and not related to a
exhibited by some oils when viewed by boundary surface.
reflected light. This usually differs from the boilaway test n: see weathering test.
colour as seen by transmitted light. boiler n: a closed pressure vessel that has a
blow v: 1. to supercharge an engine. See furnace equipped to bum coal. oil. or gas and
supercharge. 2. to depressure. See that is used to generate steam from water.
blowby n: the percentage of gases that boiler feed water n: water piped into a boiler
escape past the piston rings from the from which steam is generated.
combustion chamber into the crankcase of an boiler fuel n: fuel suitable for generating
engine. steam or hot water in large industrial or
blow case n: 1. a pressurised device electricity-generating utility applications.
blowout preventer control panel n:
capable of transferring liquid; sometimes
controls, usually located near the driller's
used to transfer crude oil and water mixtures boiler fuel gas n: natural gas used as a fuel
position on the rig floor, that are manipulated
if pump agitation would create unwanted for the generation of steam or hot water.
to open and close the blowout preventers.
emulsions. 2. a small tank in which liquids
See blowout preventer.
are accumulated and drained by applying gas boiler house v: (slang) to make up or fake a
or air pressure above the liquid level. Such a report.
blowout preventer control unit n: a device
vessel is usually located below a pipeline or
that stores hydraulic fluid under pressure in
other equipment at a location where an boiling point n: the temperature at which the
special containers and provides a method to
outside power source is not convenient for vapour pressure of a liquid becomes equal to
open and close the blowout preventers
removing the drained liquids. Sometimes the pressure exerted on the liquid by the
quickly and reliably. Usually, compressed air
referred to as a drip. surrounding atmosphere. The boiling point of
and hydraulic pressure provide the opening
blow down v: to empty or depressure a water is 212F or 100C at atmospheric
and closing force in the unit. See blowout
vessel. Also called depressure. pressure (14.7 pounds per square inch
preventer. Also called an accumulator.
gauge or 101.325 kilopascals).
bIowdown n: 1. the emptying or
blowout preventer drill n: a training
depressurising of material in a vessel. 2. the boil weevil n: (slang) an inexperienced rig or
procedure to determine that rig crews are
material thus discarded. oilfield worker; sometimes shortened to
familiar with correct operating practices to be
followed in the use of blowout prevention
blowdown period n: that period following the
completion of a cycling or pressure
maintenance operation in a reservoir in which
the remaining gas is produced from the
boll weevil comer 20 bottomhoIe assembly

boll weevil comer n: (slang, obsolete) the are conducted before they enter the larger material contained in a barrel, case, bag, or
work station of an inexperienced rotary vessel. A boot aids in the separation of gas cake.
helper, on the opposite side of the rotary from from wet oil. Also called a flume or conductor bottled gas n: liquefied petroleum gas
the rotary helper who sets pipe back on the pipe. 2. a large pipe connected to a process placed in small containers for sale to
rig floor during trips. tank to provide a static head that can absorb domestic customers.
surges of fluid from the process tank. Also
boll weevil hanger n: a tubing hanger. called surge column. bottleneck n: an area of reduced diameter in
bomb n: a thick-walled container, usually boot basket n: see junk sub. pipe caused by excessive longitudinal strain
steel, used to hold devices that determine or by a combination of longitudinal strain and
and record pressure or temperature in a boot sub n: a device made up in the drill the swaging action of a body. A bottleneck
wellbore. See bonomhole pressure. stem above the mill to collect bits of junk may result if the downward motion of the drill
ground away during a milling operation. pipe is stopped with the slips instead of the
bomb hanger n: a device set in a tubing During milling, drilling mud under high brake.
coupling to facilitate the landing of pressure pressure forces bits of junk up the narrow bottleneck elevator n: an elevator that is
bombs (recorders). space between the boot sub and hole wall. bored to match the 18-degree taper of a tool
bond n: the adhering CK joining together of When the junk reaches the wider annulus joint.
two materials (as cement to formation). v: to above the boot sub and pressure drops bottle test n: a test in which different
adhere or to join to another material. slightly, the junk falls into the boot sub. A chemicals are added to bottle samples of an
bonnet n: the part of a valve that packs off boot sub also can be run above the bit during emulsion to determine which chemical is the
and encloses the valve stem. routine drilling to collect small pieces of junk most effective at breaking the emulsion into
that may damage the bit or interfere with its oil and water. Once an effective chemical is
bonus consideration n: a cash payment by operation. Also called a junk sub or junk boot. determined, varying amounts of it are added
the lessee for the execution of an oil and gas to bottle samples of the emulsion to
lease by the mineral owner; expressed as BOP abbr: blowout preventer. determine the minimum amount required to
dollars per acre. Occasionally, an oil payment BOPD abbr: barrels of oil per day. break the emulsion effectively.
or overriding royalty may be reserved as a BOPE abbr: blowout preventer equipment.
bonus by a lessor in addition to regular BOP stack n: the assembly of blowout bottle-type submersible rig n: a mobile
royalty. preventers installed on a well. submersible drilling structure constructed of
boom n: 1. a movable arm of tubular or bar bore n: 1. the inside diameter of a pipe or a several steel cylinders or bottles. When the
steel used on some types of cranes or drilled hole. 2. the diameter of the cylinder of bottles are flooded, the rig submerges and
derricks to support the hoisting lines that an engine. v: to penetrate or pierce with a rests on bottom; when water is removed from
carry the load. 2. floating device used to rotary tool. Compare tunnel. the bottles, the rig floats. The latest designs
contain oil. 3. a period of high activity in the of this type of rig drill in water depths up to
oil industry. bored crossing n: a hole under a road, rail- 100 feet (30.5 metres). See submersible
road, stream, or other obstacle under which a drilling rig.
boom dog n: a ratchet device on a crane pipeline must cross. It is created by using an bottom angle n: the angle formed where the
that prevents the boom of the crane from auger or other type of drill. bottom and the side of the oil tank meet.
being lowered but still permits it to be raised. borehole n: a hole made by drilling or boring; usually nearly 9()'.
Also called a boom ratchet. a wellbore.
bottom dead centre (BOC) n: the
boomer n: 1. (slang) an oilfield worker who borehole ballooning n: an effect that occurs positioning of the piston at the lowest point
moves from one centre of activity to another; when certain shale zones are penetrated by possible in the cylinder of an engine; often
a floater or transient. 2. a device used to the wellbore and the pressure exerted by the marked on the engine flywheel.
tighten chains on a load of pipe or other drilling mud exceeds the pressure exerted by
equipment on a truck to make it secure. the shale. The pressure differential causes bottom guide wire anchor n: a bar welded
boom pendant n: the large-diameter wire the borehole to flex, or balloon, and the to the bottom of a tank to which guide wires
rope or the strands that support the boom of borehole no longer behaves as a fixed, rigid or cables for the float of an automatic tank
a crane. cylinder. gauge are attached.
boom ratchet n: see boom dog. borehole-contact log n: any logging device bottom hold-down n: a mechanism for
boom stop n: the steel projections on a whose operation depends on a portion of the anchoring a bottomhole pump in a well;
crane struck by the boom if it is raised too logging tool touching the wellbore. located on the lower end of the pump.
high or lowered too far. borehole effect n: false influence on well Compare top hold-down.
booster station n: an installation on a logging measurement caused by the bore-
pipeline that maintains or increases pressure hole environment, e.g., diameter, shape, bottomhole n: the lowest or deepest part of
of the fluid corning through the pipeline and rugosity, type of fluid, or mud cake. a well. adj: pertaining to the bottom of the
being sent on to the next station or terminal. wellbore.
borehole pressure n: the total pressure
booster-type pump n: usually a small pump exerted in the wellbore by a column of fluid bottomhoIe assembly n: the portion of the
mounted upstream of anod1er pump that and any back-pressure imposed at the drilling assembly below the drill pipe. It can
charges the fluid being pumped prior to the surface. be very simple - composed of only the bit and
fluid's reaching the main pump. drill collars - or it can be very complex and
borings sample n pi: obtained by collecting made up of several drilling tools.
boot n: 1. a tubular device placed in a the chips made by boring holes with a ship
vertical position, either inside or outside a auger from the top to the bottom of the
larger vessel, and through which well fluids
bottomhole choke 21 box threads

bottomhole choke n: a device with a bottomhole pump n: any of the rod pumps, submersible rigs and jack up rigs. See mobile
restricted opening placed in the lower end of high-pressure liquid pumps, or centrifugal offshore drilling unit.
the tubing to control the rate of flow. See pumps located at or near the bottom of the bottoms-up time n: the time required for
choke. well and used to lift the well fluids. See mud to travel up the borehole from the bit to
bottomhole contract n: a contract providing centrifugal pump. hydraulic pumping. the surface.
for the payment of money or other submersible pump. sucker rod pumping. bottom time n: the total amount of time,
considerations upon the completion of a well bottomhole separator n: a device used to measured in minutes, from the time a diver
to a specified depth. separate oil and gas at the bottom of wells to leaves the surface until he or she begins the
bottomhole flow regulator n: see increase the volumetric efficiency of the ascent.
bottomhole choke. pumping equipment. bottom water n: water found below oil and
bottomhole heater n: an electric heater bottomhole temperature n: temperature gas in a producing formation.
screwed onto lengths of tubing and lowered measured in a well at a depth at the mid- bottom-water drive n: see water drive.
into the well. It raises the bottomhole point of the thickness of the producing zone. bottom water sample n: a spot sample of
temperature of the well to prevent bottom-intake electric submersible pump free water taken from beneath the petroleum
solidification of paraffin in subsurface n: a submersible pump configuration in which contained in a ship or barge compartment or
equipment. the pump and die motor sections are a storage tank.
bottomhole letter n: a contract providing for reversed, with the pump intake through a bottom wiper ping n: a device placed in the
the payment of money or other C(X1Siderati~ stinger at the bottom of the unit. It is used cementing head and run down the casing in
on the completion of a well to a specified where casing size prohibits the desired front of cement to clean the mud off the walls
depth, regardless of whether the well is a production volume because of tubing friction of the casing and to prevent contamination
producer of oil or gas or is a dry hole. loss or pump diameter restriction. between the mud and the cement.
bottomhole money n: money paid by a bottom loading pressure n: the pressure bounce dive n: a rapid dive with a very short
contributing company in exchange for the exerted on the bottom hull of a column- bottom time to minimise decompression time.
information received from the drilling on the stabilised semisubmersible drilling rig when Bourdon tube n: a pressure-sensing
completion of a wen to a specified depth, the hull is submerged to drilling water depth. element consisting of a twisted or curved
regardless of whether the well is a producer bottom plug n: a cement wiper plug that tube of noncircular cross section, which tends
of oil or gas or is a dry hole. precedes cement slurry down the casing. The to straighten when pressure is applied
bottomhole packer n: a device, installed plug wipes drilling mud off the walls of the internally. By the movements of an indicator
near the bottom of the hole, that blocks pas- casing and prevents it from contaminating the over a circular scale, a Bourdon tube
sage through the annular space between two cement. See cementing, wiper plug. bottom- indicates the pressure applied.
strings of pipe. See packer. pull method n: an offshore pipe- bowl n: in drilling operations, an insert that
bottomhole plug n: a bridge plug or cement line construction technique in which the pipe fits into the opening of a master bushing and
plug placed near the bottom of the bole to string remains below the surface while it is accommodates the slips.
shut off a depleted, water-producing, or towed to its final location. bowline knot n: a knot used primarily in
unproductive zone. bottoms n pi: 1. the liquids and the residue lifting heavy equipment with the catline, since
bottomhole pressure n: 1. the pressure at that collect in the bottom of a vessel (such as it can be readily tied and untied regardless of
the bottom of a borehole. It is caused by the tank bottoms) or that remain in the bottom of the weight of the load on it.
hydrostatic pressure of the wellbore fluid and, a storage tank after a period of service. 2. the bow lines n pl: the lines running from the
sometimes, by any back-pressure held at the residual fractions remaining at the bottom of bow of a mobile offshore drilling rig,
surface, as when the well is shut in with a fractionating tower after lighter components especially the forward mooring lines.
blowout preventers. When mud is being have been distilled off as vapours. box n: the female section of a connection.
circulated, bottomhole pressure is the bottom sample n: in tank sampling, a See tool joint.
hydrostatic pressure plus the remaining sample obtained from the material near the box and pin n: see tool joint.
circulating pressure required to move the bottom surface of the tank, container, or line box tap n: old-style tap with longitudinal
mud up the annulus. 2. the pressure in a well at a low point. grooves across the threads. See tap, taper
at a point opposite the producing formation, bottomset bed n: the part of a marine delta tap.
as recorded by a bottomhole pressure bomb. that lies farthest from shore. It consists of silt box threads n pi: threads on the female
bottomhole pressure bomb n: a pressure- and clay extending well out from the toe of section, or box, of a tool joint. See tool joint.
tight container (bomb) used to record the the steep delta face. Such beds grow slowly,
pressure in a well at a point opposite the out of reach of most of the effects of river
producing formation. current and wave action.
bottomhole pressure gauge n: an bottom sub n: a device run at or near the
instrument to measure bottomhole pressure. bottom of the tubing sting to which production
Also called bottomhole pressure bomb. tools can be attached.
bottomhole pressure test n: a test that bottoms up n: a complete trip from the
measures the reservoir pressure of the well, bottom of the wellbore to the top.
obtained at a specific depth or at the mid- bottom-supported offshore drilling rig n: a
point of the producing zone. A flowing type of mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU)
bottomhole pressure test measures pressure that has a part of its structure in contact with
while the well continues to flow; a shut-in the seafloor when it is on site and drilling a
bottomhole pressure test measures pressure well. The remainder of the rig is supported
after the well has been shut in for a specified above the water. The rig can float. however,
period of time. See bottomhole pressure. allowing it to be moved from one drill site to
bottomhole pressure gauge. another. Bottom-supported units include
Boyle's law 22 breathe

Boyle's law n: the principle that states that at curvature of the band and attached to it with breaker points n: contacts that interrupt the
a fixed temperature, the volume of an ideal countersunk screws. See brake band. current in the primary circuit of the ignition
gas or gases varies inversely with its brake Bange n: the surface on a winch, system in a spark-ignition engine.
absolute pressure. As gas pressure drum, or reel to which the brake is applied to breaking down v: unscrewing the drill stem
increases, gas volume decreases control the movement of the unit by means of into single joints and placing them 00 the
proportionately. friction. pipe rack. The operation takes place 00
bpd or BPD abbr: barrels per day. brake horsepower n: the power produced by completion of the well, or in changing from
BPH abbr: barrels per hour; used in drilling an engine as measured by the force applied one size of pipe to another. See lay down
reports. to a friction brake or by an absorption pipe.
B-P mix n: a liquefied hydrocarbon product dynamometer applied to the shaft or the breaking strength n: in crane operations,
composed chiefly of butanes and pr0- pane. flywheel. the amount of load that causes a wire rope or
If it originates from a refinery, it may also brake lining n: the part of the brake that a sling to fail. Also called actual strength.
contain butylenes and propylene. presses on the brake drum. On the draw- Compare minimum acceptance strength.
BPO abbr: before payout; commonly used in works, the circular series of brake blocks are nominal strength.
land departments. bolted to the brake bands with counter- sunk break out v: 1. to unscrew one section of
brackish water n: water that contains brass bolts; the lining is the frictional, or pipe from another section, especially drill
relatively low concentrations of soluble salts. gripping, element of a mechanical brake. pipe while it is being withdrawn from the
Brackish water is saltier than fresh water but brake linkage n: everything from the dead wellbore. During this operation, the tongs are
not as salty as salt water. ends of the brake bands to the brake lever. used to start the unscrewing operation. 2. to
bradding n: a condition in which the weight brake rider n: (slang) a driller who is said to separate, as gas from a liquid or water from
on a bit tooth has been so great that the tooth rely too heavily on the drawworks brake. an emulsion.
has dulled until its softer inner portion caves brake rim n: see brake linkage. breakout block n: a heavy plate that fits in
over the harder case area. braking capacity n: how much weight the the rotary table and holds the drill bit while it
bradenhead n: (obsolete) casinghead. Glen brake can stop in a given length of time. is being unscrewed from the drill collar. See
T. Braden invented a casinghead in the branch line n: a line, usually a pipe, joined to bit breaker.
1920s that became so popular that all and diverging from another line. branded breakout cathead n: a device attached to
casingheads were called bradenheads. distributor n: gasoline wholesaler who, under the catshaft of the drawworks that is used as
bradenhead flange n: a flanged connection the supplier's brand name, provides his or a power source for unscrewing drill pipe;
at the top of the oil well casing. her own financing, transportation, and usually located opposite the driller's side of
bradenhead gas n: see casinghead gas. storage and who may also retail. brash n: a the drawworks. See cathead.
bradenhead squeeze n: a process used to mass of ice fragments. breakout tongs n pi: tongs that are used to
repair a hole in the casing by pumping brass running nipple n: a device used in the start unscrewing one section of pipe from
cement down tubing or drill pipe. First. the flow cross of the Christmas tree as a thread another section, especially drill pipe coming
casinghead, or bradenhead, is closed to protector while the rods are being run. Be- out of the hole. Compare makeup tongs. See
prevent fluid from moving up the casing. cause it is brass, it prevents friction sparks. also tongs.
Then the rig's pumps are started. Pump breadth n: the greatest overall dimension breakover n: the change in the chemistry of
pressure moves the cement out of the tubing measured perpendicular to the longitudinal a mud from one type to another. Also called
or pipe and, since the top of the casing is centreline of the hull of a mobile offshore conversion.
closed, the cement goes into the hole in the drilling rig. Also called the beam. break tour (pronounced "tower") v: to
casing. The tubing or pipe is pulled from the break v: to begin or start (e.g., to bleak begin operating 24 hours a day. Moving the
well and the cement allowed to harden. The circulation or break tour). rig and rigging up are usually carried on
hardened cement seals the hole in the breakaway torque n: see starting torque. during daylight hours only. When the rig is
casing. Although the term "bradenhead break circulation v: to start the mud pump for ready for operation at a new location, crews
squeezing" is still used, the term restoring circulation of the mud column. break tour.
,."bradenhead" is obsolete. See annular Because the stagnant drilling fluid has breathe v: to move with a slight, irregular
space. casinghead, squeeze. thickened or gelled during the period of no rhythm. Breathing occurs in tanks of vessels
braided sling n: in crane operations, a sling circulation, high pump pressure is usually when vapours are expelled and air is taken
made from a braided wire rope. required to break circulation. in. For example, a tank of crude oil expands
braided wire rope n: a rope formed by breakdown n: 1. a failure of equipment. 2. in because of the rise in temperature during the
plaiting (braiding) several strands of wire a fracture treatment or a squeeze job, the day and contracts as it cools at night,
rope. failure of formation rock to withstand expelling vapours as it expands and taking in
brake n: a device for arresting the motion of pressure, allowing it to rupture. adj: air as it contracts. Tubing breathes when it
a mechanism, usually by means of friction. as pertaining to the amount of pressure needed moves up and down in sequence with a
in the drawworks brake. Compare at the wellhead to rupture the formation in a sucker rod pump.
electrodynamics brake. hydrodynamic brake. fracture treatment or a squeeze job (as in
brake band n: a part of the brake formation breakdown pressure).
mechanism consisting of a flexible steel band breakdown torque n: the maximum torque
lined with a material that grips a drum when an induction motor will develop as load is
tightened. On a drilling rig, the brake band increased, starting from full speed at no load
acts on the flanges of the drawworks drum to until the motor begins to stall.
control the lowering of the travelling block breaker n: a surface wave that has become
and its load of drill pipe, casing, or tubing. too steep to be stable.
brake block n: a section of the lining of a breaker plate n: see bit breaker adapter.
brake band shaped to conform to the
breather 23 bug blower

breather n: a small vent in an otherwise bring on a well v: to bring a well on-line, that bubble, of gas enter the annulus, the bubble
airtight enclosure for maintaining equality of is, to put it on producing status. British chopper allows mud in the drill string to be
pressure inside and outside. thermal unit (Btu) n: a measure of heat diverted into the gas bubble by means of an
breathing n: see tubing movement. energy equivalent to the amount of heat opening, or port, in the tool. The mud from
breathing bag n: part of the semiclosed needed to raise 1 pound of water 1F at or the drill string mixes with and spreads out the
circuit breathing apparatus, used to mix gas near its point of maximum density (39.1F). large gas bubble so that the gas cannot
and ensure low breathing resistance. Equivalent to 0.252 kilogram- calorie or 1,055 expand to a great extent as it nears the
breccia n: a conglomerate rock composed joules. surface. Reducing the amount of bubble
largely of angular fragments greater than brittleness n: the state of having rigidity but expansion reduces pressure on the casing
0.08 inch (2 millimetres) in diameter. little tensile strength. Compare toughness. near the surface and thus minimises the
buckling stress n: bending of pipe that may brkn abbr: broken; used in drilling reports. chances of formation fracture and an
occur because of hole deviation. Pipe may broaching n: blowing out of formation fluids underground blowout.
bend because of the angle of the hole or be- outside the casing and under the rig. bubble point n: 1. the temperature and
cause of an abrupt deviation such as a bromine value n: the number of centigrams pressure at which part of a liquid begins to
dogleg. of bromine that are absorbed by 1 gram of oil convert to gas. For example, if a certain
brecciation n: the breaking of solid rock into under certain conditions. This is a test for the volume of liquid is held at constant pressure,
coarse, angular fragments by faulting or degree of unsaturatedness of a given oil. but its temperature is increased, a point is
crushing. Brownian movement n: the random reached when bubbles of gas be- gin to form
Brent n: a major area of oil production in the movement exhibited by microscopic particles in the liquid. That is the bubble point.
British sector of the North Sea. when suspended in liquids or gases. It is Similarly, if a certain volume of liquid is held
bridge n: 1. an obstruction in the borehole, caused by the impact of molecules of fluid at a constant temperature but the pressure is
usually caused by the caving in of the well or surrounding the particle. reduced, the point at which gas begins to
the borehole or by the intrusion of a large brush n: a carbon block used to make an form is the bubble point. Compare dew point.
boulder. 2. a tool placed in the hole to retain electrical connection between the rotor of a 2. the temperature and pressure at which
cement or other material; it may later be generator or motor and a circuit. gas, held in solution in crude oil, breaks out
removed, drilled out, or left permanently. BS&W abbr: basic sediment and water. API of solution as free gas.
bridge over n: a phenomenon that some- Committee on Petroleum Measurement bubble tower n: a vertical cylindrical vessel
times occurs when a well blows out. Rocks, prefers simply S&W. in which bubble caps and bubble-cap trays
sand, clay, and other debris clog the hole and Bscf/d abbr: billion standard cubic feet per are arranged.
stop the blowout. day. bubble tray n: see bubble-cap tray.
bridge plug n: a downhole tool, composed Btu abbr: British thermal unit. buck up v: to tighten up a threaded
primarily of slips, a plug mandrel, and a bubble bucket n: a bucket of water into connection (such as two joints of drill pipe).
rubber sealing element, that is run and set in which air from the drill stem is blown through buddy system n: a method of pairing two
casing to isolate a lower zone while an upper a hose during the first low period of a drill persons for their mutual aid or protection.
section is being tested or cemented. stem test. In drill stem testing, the flow into The buddy system is used to ensure that
bridge socket n: a forged or cast steel fitting the bubble bucket is an easy way to judge each crew member is accounted for,
for a wire rope or a strand. It has a basket flow and shut-in periods. particularly in situations where hydrogen
with adjustable bolts that secure rope ends. bubble cap n: a metal cap, mounted on a sulphide may be encountered.
bridging materials n pI: the fibrous, flaky, or tray, that has openings allowing vapour buffer n: any substance or combination of
granular material added to a cement slurry or bubbles in a gas-processing tower to contact substances that, when dissolved in water,
drilling fluid to aid in sealing formations in cool liquids, causing some of the vapour to produces a solution that resists a change in
which lost circulation has occurred. See lost condense to liquid. its hydrogen ion concentration with the
circulation, lost circulation material. bubble-cap tray n: a perforated steel tray on addition of acid or base.
bridle n: a cable on a pumping unit, looped which bubble caps are mounted. Bubble caps bug blower n: (slang) any large fan
over the horsehead and connected to the and trays are arranged in bubble towers, installed on a drilling rig or production facility
carrier bar to support the polished rod clamp. cylindrical vessels set vertically. See sieve to move large quantities of air across the rig
See sucker rod pumping. tray. valve tray. floor or other area.
bridle sling n: in crane operations, a sling
composed of several legs, the tops of which
are gathered in a fitting that goes over the
crane's lifting hook. See leg.
bright oil n: oil that contains little or no
bright spot n: a seismic phenomenon that
shows up on a seismic, or record, section as
a sound reflection that is much stronger than
usual. A bright spot sometimes directly
indicates natural gas in a trap. See record
brine n: water that has a large quantity of
salt, especially sodium chloride, dissolved in
it; salt water. bubble chopper n: a special well-control tool
bring in a well v: to complete a well and put made up in the drill pipe usually just above
it on producing status. the drill collars. Should a large quantity, or
builder's monogram 24 burst strength

builder's monogram n: a plate on a tank bull plug n: a threaded nipple with a Bureau of Land Management (BLM) n: an
built to API specifications that records the rounded, closed end used to stop up a hole agency within the Department of the Interior
name of the manufacturer, erection date of or close off the end of a line. (DOI) that is responsible for managing the
the tank, and nominal diameter, height, and nation's public lands and resources in a
capacity. building assembly n: see fulcrum bull shaft n: see crankshaft. combination of ways that best serves the
assembly. buildup test n: a test in which a bull wheel n: one of the two large wheels needs of the American people. The re-
well is shut in for a prescribed period of time joined by an axle and used to hold the drilling sources on public lands under BLM authority
and a bottom hole pressure bomb run in the line on a cable-tool rig. include recreation; forestry; fish and wildlife;
well to record the pressure. From these data bump a well v: to cause the pump on a range; timber; minerals; water-shed;
and from knowledge of pressures in nearby pumping unit to hit the bottom of the well by wilderness; and natural, scientific, and
wells, the effective drainage radius or the having too long a sucker rod string in the unit. cultural values. Address: Dept. of the Interior,
presence of permeability barriers or other bumped adj: in cementing operations, Main Interior Bldg.; Washington, DC 20240;
production deterrents surrounding the pertaining to a cement plug that comes to Director's Office (202) 452- 5125.
wellbore can be estimated. rest on the float collar. A cementing operator
may say, "I've a bumped plug" when the plug burette n: graduated glass tube with small
bulb n: the temperature-sensing (detecting) strikes the float collar. opening and stopcock used for delivering
element of a temperature-measuring device. measured quantities of liquid or for
measuring liquid or gas received or
bulkhead n: an interior wall that subdivides a bumper jar n: a device discharged.
ship or a mobile offshore drilling rig into made up in the drill buried hill n: an elevation on an ancient land
compartments. string that, when surface that is covered by younger
bulkhead deck n: the highest deck to which actuated, de- livers a sedimentary rocks.
water bulkheads extend on a ship or a mobile heavy downward blow buried valley n: a depression in an ancient
offshore drilling rig. to the string. A bumper land surface that is concealed by younger
bulk modulus n: the ratio of the intensity of jar has a hollow body deposits.
stress to the volume of strain produced by that moves upward burner tip n: an attachment to a natural gas
stress. when the drill string is line for a burner head that forms a burner
bulk plant n: a wholesale distributing point picked up. When the port modified for a specific application. The
for products made from natural gas and string is dropped burner tip represents the end of the
petroleum. quickly, the jar body transportation of natural gas from the
bulk tank n: on a drilling rig, a large metal produces a sharp wellhead and includes its consumption. By
bin that usually holds a large amount of a downward blow on the definition, it also includes its consumption as
certain mud additive, such as bentonite, that tubing or pipe made up a feedstock (an ingredient in manufactured
is used in large quantities in the makeup of below the jar. If down- products) and its use in pipeline operations
the drilling fluid. Also called a P-tank. ward blows can free a and other overhead activities.
bullet perforator n: a tubular device that, fish, a bumper jar can
when lowered to a selected depth within a be very effective. burning point n: the lowest temperature at
well, fires bullets through the casing to which an oil or fuel will bum when an open
provide holes through which the formation flame is held near its surface.
fluids may enter the wellbore. bumper sub n: a percussion tool run on a
fishing string to jar downward or upward on a bum over v: to use a mill to remove the
stuck fish to knock it free. The bumper sub outside area of a permanent downhole tool.
body moves up and down on a mandrel.
bum pit n: an earthen pit in which waste oil
bump off a well v: to disconnect a pull-rod and other materials are burned.
line from a central power unit. bum shoe n: a milling device attached to the
bottom of washpipe that mills or drills debris
Buna-N n: a nitrile rubber used in seals and accumulated around the outside of the pipe
packing units throughout the oilfield. being washed over. Usually, a bum shoe has
bullets n pI: the devices loaded into bunker C oil n: see residuals. pieces of very hard tungsten carbide
perforating guns to penetrate casing and bunkers n: heavy fuel oil (#6 oil) used by embedded in it. Also caned a rotary shoe.
cement and for some distance into the ships as fuel to power the vessel. See washpipe.
formation when the guns are fired. See gun- burst pressure n: the amount of internal
perforate. buoyancy n: the apparent loss of weight of pressure, or stress, required to burst casing
bull gear n: the large circular gear in a mud an object immersed in a fluid. If the object is or other pipe. When the pipe's internal
pump that is driven by the prime mover and floating, the immersed portion displaces a pressure is greater than its external pressure,
that, in turn, drives the connecting rods. volume of fluid the weight of which is equal to the pipe bursts.
the weight of the object. burst rating n: the pressure at which a
bullheading n: 1. forcing gas back into a buoyant weight n: the weight of the drill manufacturer has determined that a pipe or
formation by pumping into the annulus from stem in a mud-filled borehole. Buoyant vessel will burst from internal pressure.
the surface. 2. any pumping procedure in weight is less than the weight of the drill burst strength n: a pipe or vessel's ability to
which fluid is pumped into the well against buoyant effect of stem in air because of the withstand rupture from internal pressure.
pressure. mud on the drill stem.
bury barge 25 bypass valve

bury barge n: a vessel used to bury a pipe- butylene n: hydrocarbon member of the
line beneath the seafloor. The barge moves olefin series, with the chemical formula C4H8.
forward by means of anchors. A jet sled is Its official name is butene.
lowered over the pipeline; as the barge pulls Buys-Ballot's law n: a law that clarifies the
it over the pipe, high-pressure jets of water relationship between the horizontal wind
remove soil from beneath the pipe, allowing direction in the earth's atmosphere and the
the pipe to fall into the jetted-out trench. distribution of pressure. The law states that if
bury sled n: in pipeline construction, a pipe- one stands facing the wind, the barometric
straddling device, fitted with nozzles, spoil pressure to the right is lower than to the left
from beneath the pipe is removed and in the Northern Hemisphere. This
pumped to one side of the trench. The line relationship is reversed in the Southern
then sages naturally into position in the Hemisphere. Also known as the baric wind
trench. law.
bus n: an assembly of electrical conductors BW abbr: barrels of water; used in drilling
for collecting current from several sources reports.
and distributing it to feeder lines so that it will BWPD abbr: barrels of water per day.
be available where needed. Also called bus BWPH abbr: barrels of water per hour; used
bar. in drilling reports.
bus bar n: see bus. by heads n: intermittent flow in a flowing
bushing n: 1. a pipe fitting on which the well.
external thread is larger than the internal by pass n: 1. a pipe connction around a
thread to allow two pipes of different sizes to valve or other control mechanism that is
be connected. 2. a removable lining or sleeve installed to permit passage of fluid through
inserted or screwed into an opening to limit the line while adjustments or repairs are
its size, resist wear or corrosion, or serve as being made on the control. 2. a delivery of
a guide. gas to a customer by means of a pipeline
butane n: a paraffin hydrocarbon, C4H10 , other than that customer's traditional
that is a gas in atmospheric conditions but is supplier. For example, delivery of gas to an
easily liquefied under pressure. It is a end user directly off a transmission pipeline
constituent of liquefied petroleum gas. See without moving the gas through the end
commercail butane, field-grade butane, user's traditional local distribution company
normal butane. supplier.
butane, commercial n: see commercial bypass valve n: a valve that permits flow
butane. around a control valve, a piece of equidment,
butanes required n pl: the quantity of butane or a system.
extracted in a precessing plant for wich lease
settlement is included in the settlement made
for natural gasoline by virtue of the gasoline
settlement's being used on a higher vapour
pressure natural gasoline actually extracted.
Sometimes called free butane or excess
butene n: see butylene
Butterworth tank cleaning system n: trade
name for appratus for cleaning and freeing oil
tanks of gas by means of high-pressure jets
of hot water. It consistes essentially of
opposed double nozzles, which rotate slowly
about their horizontal and vertical axes and
project two streams of hot water at a
pressure of 175 psi (1,206 kilo pascals)
against all inside surfaces of the deck, bulk-
heads, and shell plating.
button bit n: a drilling bit with tungsten
carbide inserts on the cones that resemble
plugs or buttons. See roller cone bit.
button bit n: a drilling bit with tungsten
carbide "buttons" in lieu of conventional
wicker-type teeth to set tools in very hard
button up v: to secure the wellhead or other
buttress n: a special type of heavy-duty
pump installation is made possible by power equipment below the waterline of an Arctic
C abbr: Celsius (formerly centigrade). See cables submersible rig, thereby protecting the
Celsius scale. designed for tensile loads in excess of equipment from damage by moving ice.
C sym: coulomb. 100,000 pounds (45,360 kilo- grams).
C' n: 1. the rate of flow in cubic feet per hour caisson-type drilling platform n: a drilling
at base conditions. Also called flow cable-tool drilling n: a drilling method in platform that rests on a steel or concrete
coefficient. 2. a factor used in the calculation which the hole is drilled by the rig's caisson. Used mainly in the Arctic, caisson-
of gas volume flow through an orifice meter, equipment dropping a sharply pointed and type drilling platforms are mobile offshore
now largely supplanted by an equation heavily weighted bit on bottom. The bit and
formulated in 1992. Mathematical weight are attached to a cable, and the rig's drilling units built to withstand the ravages of
accounting for variations in pressure, equipment repeatedly drops the cable to drill moving ice in Arctic waters.
temperature, density, and so on, of a gas as the hole.
it flows through an orifice of a particular caisson-type platform rig n: see caisson-
size. Also called orifice flow constant; type drilling platform. platform rig.
formerly called flow coefficient. cake n: see filter cake.

CAA abbr: Clean Air Act. cake comistency n: the character or state
cable n: 1. a rope of wire, hemp, or other of the drilling mud filter cake. According to
strong fibers; often, but not always, API RP I3B, such notations as "hard," "soft,"
personnel in the petroleum industry call it "tough," "rubbery," and "firm" may be used
cable wire rope. 2. braided wire used to to convey some idea of cake consistency.
conduct electricity, often called power cable.
cable-guide assembly n: fishing equipment cake thickness n: the thickness of drilling
used to recover wireline tools stuck in the mud filter cake.
hole when the wireline or cable is intact. It
consists of a cable hanger, spear point rope calcareous adj: containing or composed
socket, spearhead overshot, conventional largely of calcium carbonate, or calcite
overshots, drill pipe, and elevators. (CaCO3)'
calcite n: calcium carbonate, CaCO3'

calcium n: one of the alkaline earth

elements with a valence of 2 and an atomic
weight of about 40. Calcium compounds are
a common cause of water hardness.
Calcium is also a component of lime,
gypsum, and limestone.
cable-wind pumping unit n: a sucker rod
pumping unit. not commonly used. that calcium carbonate n: a chemical
employs cable wound around a spool. one combination of calcium, carbon, and
end going into the hole. the other with a oxygen, CaCO3' It is the main constituent of
suspended counterweight. This type of unit lime-stone. It forms a tenacious scale in
can achieve 40- to SO-foot ( 12- to 24- water-andling facilities and is a cause of
metre) stroke lengths. reducing dynamic water hardness.
loads, rod reversals. gas locking. and power
usage and can be applied to deep pump

cable-guide fishing n: a method of cage n: in a sucker rod pump, the device

retrieving wireline tools using a cable-guide that contains and confines the valve ball and
assembly. keeps it the proper operating distance from
the valve seats.
cable hanger n: a fishing device made up
on a cable-guide assembly to prevent the cage wrench n: a special wrench designed
cable form falling in the hole. It is used in for use in connecting the cage of a sucker
the recovery of wireline tools. rod pump to the sucker rod string.

cable-suspended submersible pump n: a caisson n: 1. one of several columns made

form of electric submersible pumping for of steel or concrete that serve as the
artificial lift, in which the pump can be run or foundation for a rigid offshore platform rig,
pulled on the power cable. This type of such as the concrete gravity platform rig. 2.
a steel or concrete chamber that surrounds

calcium chloride 27 capacitor

relations, and other matters of interest to

calcium chloride n: a moisture-absorbing calibration tank n: see prover tank. members. Address: 540 5th Avenue SW,
chemical compound, or desiccant, CaCI2, caliper n: an instrument with two legs or jaws Suite 800; Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2P
used to accelerate setting times in cement that can be adjusted for measuring linear OM2; (403) 264-4311; fax (403) 263-3796.
and as a drying agent. It is also added to dimensions, thickness, or diameters. canal-lay construction n: a pipeline
fresh water to increase the water's weight caliper log n: a record showing variations in
and to give it desirable properties during well wellbore diameter by depth, indicating undue construction technique used in swamps and
completion or workover. enlargement due to caving in, washout, or
calcium contamination n: dissolved calcium other causes. The caliper log also reveals marshes. The first of several barges clears
ions in sufficient concentration to impart corrosion, scaling, or pitting inside tubular the right-of-way and digs a trench large
undesirable properties, such as flocculation, goods. enough to float itself and the following
reduction in yield of bentonite, and increased barges.
fluid loss, in a drilling fluid. See also candela (cd) n: the fundamental unit of
anhydrite, calcium carbonate, calcium luminous intensity in the metric system.
sulphate, gypsum, lime. canted leg adj: pertaining to an independent-
calcium hydroxide n: the active ingredient leg jack up rig designed so that the legs may
of slaked (hydrated) lime, and the main be slanted outward to increase support
constituent in cement (when wet). Referred to against lateral stresses when the unit is on
as "lime" in field terminology. Its symbol is the seafloor.
Ca(OH)2 cantilever n: beams that project outward
calcium magnesium carbonate n: a from a structure and are supported only at
chemical combination of calcium, one end.
magnesium, carbon, and oxygen, CaMgCO3. cantilevered jackup n: a jackup drilling unit
It is the main constituent of dolomite. in which the drilling rig is mounted on two
Compare calcium carbonate. cantilevers that extend outward from the
calcium sulphate n: a chemical compound barge hull of the unit. The cantilevers are
of calcium, sulphur, and oxygen, CaS4. Al- supported only at the barge end. Com- pare
though sometimes considered a contaminant keyway.
of drilling fluids, it may at times be added to
them to produce certain proper- ties. Like
calcium carbonate it forms scales in water-
handling facilities, which may be hard to
remove. See anhydrite, gypsum.
calcium-treated mud n: a freshwater drilling
mud using calcium oxide (lime) or calcium call on oil n: an option to buy crude oil for an
sulphate (gypsum) to retard the hydrating extended period of time.
qualities of shale and clay formations, thus CALM abbr. catenary anchor leg mooring.
facilitating drilling. Calcium-treated muds calorie n: the amount of heat energy
resist salt and anhydrite contamination but necessary to raise the temperature of I gram
may require further treatment to prevent of water 10 Celsius. It is the metric equivalent
gelation (solidification) under the high of the British thermal unit.
temperatures of deep wells. calorimeter n: an apparatus used to deter-
canvas packer n: (obsolete) a device for
calibration n: the adjustment or mine the heating value of a combustible
sealing the annular space between the top of
standardising of a measuring instrument or of material.
a liner and the existing casing string.
a standard capacity measure, a tank prover, cam n: an eccentrically shaped disk,
CAODC abbr: Canadian Association of
or a pipe prover. Log calibration is based on mounted on a camshaft, that varies in
Oilwell Drilling Contractors.
the use of a permanent calibration facility of distance from its centre to various points on
capacitance (C) n: the ratio of an impressed
the American Petroleum Institute at the its circumference. As the camshaft is rotated,
electrical charge on a conductor to the
University of Houston to establish standard a set amount of motion is imparted to a
change in electrical potential; measured in
units for nuclear logs. follower riding on the surface of the cam. In
farads. See capacitor.
calibration coefficient n: pulse per unit the intenal-combustion engine, cams are
capacitance probe n: a device used in most
volume. used to operate the intake and exhaust
net-oil computers that senses the different
calibration constant n: in turbine valves.
dielectric constants of oil and water in a
operations, a constant that accounts for the Cameron gauge n: a pressure gauge usually
water-oil emulsion. See dielectric constant.
difference between theoretical rotor speed used in lines or manifolds.
capacitor n: an electrical device that. when
and actual rotor speed. cam follower n: output link of a cam
wired in the line of an electrical circuit, stores
calibration table n: 1. a table that shows the mechanism.
a charge of electricity and returns the charge
capacities of, or volumes in, a tank for camshaft n: the cylindrical bar used to sup-
to the line when certain electrical conditions
various liquid levels measured from the dip port a rotating device called a cam.
occur. Also called a condenser.
point or from the ullage reference point. Also Canadian Association of Oil well Drilling
called gauge or tank capacity table. 2. a table Contractors (CAODC) n: a trade association
that is developed by recognised industry that represents virtually 100% of the rotary
methods to represent volumes in each tank drilling contractors and the majority of well
according to the liquid (image) or empty service rig operators in western Canada. The
space (ullage) measured in the tank. Also organisation concerns itself with research,
called tank capacity table, tank table. education, accident prevention, government
capacity indicator 28 carnotite

capacity indicator n: a device fitted to a capped well n: a well capable of production carbon log n: a record that indicates the
proving tank to indicate the position of the but lacking wellhead installations and a presence of hydrocarbons by measuring
liquid surface in relation to the reference pipeline connection. carbon atoms and that reveals the presence
mark corresponding to the nominal capacity caprock n: 1. a disklike plate of anhydrite, of water by measuring oxygen atoms. Oil and
of the proving tank, thus enabling the gypsum, limestone, or sulphur overlying most water saturations can be closely
determination of the tank's liquid contents. salt domes in the Gulf Coast region. 2. approximated without the requirement of
capacity rating n: a rating equal to the impermeable rock overlying an oil or gas adequate salinity of known concentration to
maximum number of cubic feet of gas that reservoir that tends to prevent migration of oil calculate saturations (as in resistivity and
will pass through a meter when the pressure or gas out of the reservoir. pulsed neutron surveys).
differential across the meter equals a 0.5- captive customers n pi: buyers who can carbon monoxide n: a colourless, odourless
inch water column and the flowing pressure purchase natural gas from only one supplier gaseous compound of carbon and oxygen,
is 0.25 psig. and have no access to alternate fuel sources. CO. A product of incomplete combustion, it is
capacity table n: a table that tells the This term is usually applicable to residential extremely poisonous to breathe.
quantity of liquid contained in a tank at any and small commercial users, but can, under carbonyl sulphide n: a chemical compound
given level. certain conditions of alternative fuel of the aldehyde groups containing a carbonyl
cap a well v: to control a blowout by placing availability, be applied to large industrial and group and sulphur, COS A contaminant in
a very strong valve on the wellhead. See electric utility users as well. Also called core gas liquids, it is usually removed to meet
blowout. customers. sulphur specifications.
cap bead n: the final welding pass made to capture cross section n: the tendency of carboxymethyl cellulose n: a
complete the uniting of two joints of pipe. elements in their compounds to reduce nonfermenting cellulose product used in
cap gas n: natural gas trapped in the upper energy or number of particles by absorbing drilling fluids to combat contamination from
part of a reservoir and remaining separate them. The more densely populated an area anhydrite (gypsum) and to lower the water
from any crude oil, salt water, or other liquids may be, the more certain it is that energy will loss of the mud.
in the well. be absorbed or that the particles will be carburetion n: the mixing of fuel and air in
retained within the atomic structure. the carburetor of an engine.
capture gamma ray n: a high-energy carburetor n: the device in a spark-ignition
gamma ray emitted when the nucleus of an internal-combustion engine in which fuel and
atom captures a neutron and becomes air are mixed in controlled quantities and
intensely excited. Capture gamma rays are proportions.
counted by the neutron logging detector. carburise v: to impregnl1te or combine with
carbonate n: 1. a salt of carbonic acid. 2. a carbon.
compound containing the carbonate radical carcinogen n: cancer-causing material or
(CO3)' 3. a carbonate rock. substance.
carbonate mud n: a mud that forms on the care abbr: Conservation Award for
seafloor by the accumulation of calcite Respecting the Environment.
particles. It may eventually become cargo manifest n: a document that lists the
limestone. goods or materials carried by a ship, train,
carbonate reef n: see reef. airplane, or truck.
carbonate rock n: a sedimentary rock com- cargo quantity option certificate n: a
posed primarily of calcium carbonate (calcite) certificate signed by vessel representatives
capillaries n pi: very small fissures or cracks or calcium magnesium carbonate (dolomite). acknowledging the amount of cargo that they
in a formation through which water or carbonation n: 1. a chemical reaction that intend to load. In general, most product
hydrocarbons flow. produces carbonates. 2. in geology, a form of cargoes have a tolerance based on supplier,
capillarity n: the rise and fall of liquids in chemical weathering in which a mineral receiver, or vessel capabilities. Each party
small-diameter tubes or tubelike spaces, reacts with carbon dioxide (in solution as involved with the loading agrees to the
caused by the combined action of surface carbonic acid) to form a carbonate mineral. quantity to be loaded.
tension (cohesion) and wetting (adhesion). carbon black n: very fine particles of almost carnotite n: see radioactive tracer.
See capillary pressure. pure amorphous carbon, usually produced
capillary meter seal n: the liquid seal that from gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons by
reduces slippage between moving parts of a thermal decomposition or by controlled
meter. combustion with a restricted air supply. It is
capillary pressure n: a pressure or adhesive used in the manufacture of carbon paper,
force caused by the surface tension of water. tires, cosmetics, and so on.
This pressure causes the water to adhere carbon dioxide n: a colourless, odourless
more tightly to the surface of small pore gaseous compound of carbon and oxygen, A
spaces than to larger ones. Capillary product of combustion and a filler for fire
pressure in a rock formation is comparable to extinguishers, this heavier-than-air gas can
the pressure of water that rises higher in a collect in low-lying areas, where it may
small glass capillary tube than it does in a displace oxygen and present the hazard of
larger tube. anoxia.
capitalise v: in accounting, to include carbon dioxide excess n: see hypercapnia.
expenditures in business accounts as assets carbonic adj: of or relating to carbon,
instead of expenses. carbonic acid, or carbon dioxide.
capitalised adj: pertaining to expenditures carbonise v: to convert into carbon or a
treated as assets instead of expenses. carbonic residue.
carriage 29 casinghead

carriage n: the transportation of a third cased hole n: a wellbore in which casing has allows a more uniform cement sheath to form
party's natural gas by a pipeline as a been run. around the pipe.
separate service for a fee, as opposed to the cased.hole fishing n: the procedure of re- casing collar n: a coupling between two
pipeline's transportation of its own system's covering lost or stuck equipment in a well joints.
supply of natural gas. bore in which casing has been run. casing coupling n: a tubular section of pipe
carried interest n: an interest in oil and gas case-hardened adj: hardened (as for a that is threaded inside and used to connect
properties that belongs, for example, to a ferrous alloy) so that the surface layer is two joints of casing.
working interest owner or unleased land- harder than the interior. casing cutter n: a heavy cylindrical body.
owner who agrees to a joint operation without case law n: see common law. fitted with a set of knives, used to free a
being willing to pay a share of the costs of cash flow n: the difference between inflow section of casing in a well. The cutter is run
the operation. An interest may be carried until and outflow of funds over a period of time. downhole on a string of tubing or drill pipe,
the well pays out, at which point it may stop Cash flow can be positive (profit) or negative and the knives are rotated against the inner
or may continue for the life of production. (loss). walls of the casing to free the section that is
Stated another way, an agreement between cash flow analysis n: an economic analysis stuck.
two or more working interests whereby one that relates investments to subsequent
party (the carried party) does not share in revenues and also makes possible a
lease revenue until a certain amount of comparison between investments. It usually
money has been recovered by the other party also includes the general plan to be used for
(the carrying party). The carrying party pays the figuring of federal income tax on the
costs applicable to the carried party's investments.
interests in the property and is reimbursed
out of the revenue applicable to the carried
party's interest.
carrier n: a pipeline, trucking company, or
marine transportation company that
transports oil or gas.
carrier bar n: yoke or clamp fastened to a
pumping well's polished rod and to which the
bridle of the pumping unit's horsehead is
carrier pipe n: term used to refer to a pipe-
line when other pipe, called casing, is used casing n: 1. steel pipe placed in an oil or gas
with it in crossing under roadbeds and rail- well to prevent the wall of the hole from
road rights-of-way. See casing. caving in, to prevent movement of fluids from
carrier rig n: a large, specially designed, one formation to another, and to improve the casing elevator n: see elevators.
self-propelled workover rig that is driven efficiency of extracting petroleum if the well is casing float collar n: see float collar.
directly to the well site. Power from a carrier productive. A joint of casing may be 16 to 48 casing float shoe n: see float shoe.
rig's hoist engine or engines also propels the feet (4.8 to 14.6 metres) long and from 4.5 to casing gun n: a perforating gun run into the
rig on the road. While a carrier rig is primarily 20 inches (11.4 to 50.8 centimetres) in casing string. Most perforating guns are run
intended to perform workovers, it can also be diameter. Casing is made of many types of into the well through the tubing string. casing
used to drill relatively shallow wells. A carrier steel alloy, which vary in strength, corrosion hanger n: a circular device with a frictional
rig may be a back-in type or a drive-in type. resistance, and so on. 2. large pipe in which gripping arrangement of slips and packing
Compare back-in unit, drive-in unit. a carrier pipeline passes under railroad rings used to suspend casing from a
rights-of-way and some roads to shield the casinghead in a well.
pipeline from the unusually high load casinghead n: a heavy, flanged steel fitting
stresses of a particular location. State and connected to the first string of casing. It
local regulations identify specific locations provides a housing for slips and packing
where casing is mandatory. assemblies, allows suspension of
casing adapter n: a swage nipple, usually intermediate and production strings of casing,
beveled, installed on the top of a string of and supplies the means for the annulus to be
carrier unit n: see carrier rig.
pipe that does not extend to the surface. It sealed off. Also called a spool.
carved-out interest n: an interest in oil and
prevents a smaller string of pipe or tools from
gas created out of a greater interest and
hanging up on the top of the column when it
assigned by the owner. Examples are the
is run into the well.
grant of an overriding royalty interest out of a
casing burst pressure n: the amount of
working interest and the grant of an oil
pressure that, when applied inside a string of
payment out of a working interest.
casing, causes the wall of the casing to fail.
cascade system n: in systems supplying a
This pressure is critically important when a
breathable source of air to workers wearing
gas kick is being circulated out, because gas
breathing equipment in a toxic atmosphere.
on the way to the surface expands and exerts
a serial connection of air cylinders in which
more pressure than it exerted at the bottom
the output of air from one adds to that of the
of the well.
casing centraliser n: a device secured
cased adj: pertaining to a wellbore in which
around the casing at regular intervals to
casing has been run and cemented. See
centre it in the hole. Casing that is centralised
casinghead gas 30 catenary

casinghead gas n: gas produced with oil. allowing the rollers to contact all sides of the low temperatures and pressures. 2. a motor
casinghead gas contract n: a contract used casing and restore it to roughly its original gasoline refining process in which heavy
by industry for the purchase and sale of condition. hydrocarbon components are broken down
casinghead gas. casing scraper n: a bladed tool used to into light hydrocarbon components using
gasoline n: (obsolete) natural gasoline. scrape away junk or debris from inside catalysts and relatively low temperatures and
casing overshot n: see casing-patch tool. casing; it is usually run into the casing on drill pressures. It produces a gasoline that has a
casing pack n: a means of cementing casing pipe or tubing. higher octane rating and a lower sulphur
in a well so that the casing may, if necessary, casing seal receptacle n: a casing sub content than that produced by thermal
be retrieved with minimum difficulty. A special containing a seal bore and a left-handed cracking.
mud, usually an oil mud, is placed in the well thread; it is run as a crossover sub between catastrophism n: the theory that the earth's
ahead of the cement after the casing has casing sizes and to provide a tubing anchor. landforms assumed their present
been set. Nonsolidifying mud is used so that casing seat n: the location of the bottom of a configuration in a brief episode at the
it does not bind or stick to the casing in the string of casing that is cemented in a well. beginning of geologic history-possibly in a
hole in die area above the cement Since the Typically, a casing shoe is made up on the single great catastrophic event-and have
mud does not gel for a long time, the casing end of the casing at this point. remained relatively unchanged since that
can be cut above the cemented section and casing seat test n: a procedure whereby the time. Compare uniformtarianism.
retrieved. Casing packs are used in wells of formation immediately below the casing shoe catcher n: a device fitted into a junk basket
doubtful or limited production to permit reuse is subjected to a pressure equal to the that retains the junk picked up by the basket
of valuable lengths of casing. pressure expected to be exerted later by the catch samples v: to obtain cuttings for geo-
casing-pack v: to cement casing in a well in drilling fluid or by the drilling fluid and the logical information as formations are
a way that allows for easy retrieval of back-pressure created by a kick. See leak- penetrated by the bit The samples are
sections of casing. See casing pack. off test. obtained from drilling fluid as it emerges from
casing-patch tool n: a special tool with a casing shoe n: see guide shoe. casing slip the wellbore or, in cable-tool drilling, from the
rubber packer or lead seal that is used to n: see spider. bailer. Cuttings are carefully washed until
repair casing. When casing is damaged casing spear n: a fishing tool designed to they are free of foreign matter, dried, and
downhole, a cut is made below the dam- grab casing from the inside so that when the labelled to indicate the depth at which they
aged casing, the damaged casing and the spear is retrieved, the attached casing comes were obtained.
casing above it are pulled from the well, and with it. cat cracker gas n: gas that is a by-product of
the damaged casing is removed from the casing spider n: see spider. refining liquid hydrocarbons in a catalytic
casing string. The tool is made up and casing string n: the entire length of all the cracker.
lowered into the well on the casing until it en- joints of casing run in a well. Most casing categorical exclusion n: a category of
gages the top of the casing that remains in joints are manufactured to specifications actions that do not individually or
the well, and a rubber packer or lead seal in established by API, although non-API cumulatively have a significant effect on the
the tool forms a seal with the casing that is in specification casing is available for special human environment and that have been
the well. The casing-patch tool is an situations. Casing manufactured to API found to have no such effect in procedures
overshot1ike device and is sometimes called specifications is available in three length adopted by a federal agency when
a casing overshot. ranges. A joint of range 1 casing is 16 to 25 implementing NEPA regulations. Therefore,
casing point n: 1. the depth in a well at feet (4.8 to 7.6 metres) long; a joint of range neither an environmental assessment nor an
which casing is set, generally the depth at 2 casing is 25 to 34 feet (7.6 to 10.3 metres) environmental impact statement is required.
which the casing shoe rests. 2. the objective long; and a joint of range 3 casing is 34 to 48 catenary n: the curve assumed by a perfectly
depth in a drilling contract, either a specified feet (10.3 to 14.6 metres) long. The out- side flexible line hanging under its own weight
depth or the depth at which a specific zone is diameter of a joint of API casing ranges from between two fixed points. A suspension
penetrated. When the depth is reached, the 4Yz to 20 inches (11.43 to 50.8 centimetres). bridge is an example of a catenary structure;
operator makes a decision with respect to casing sub n: a sub used to join two an anchor chain is a catenary.
running and setting a production string of dissimilar joints of casing.
casing. Under some farm- out and letter casing swage n: a solid cylindrical body
agreements, some owners are carried to pointed at the bottom and equipped with a
casing point. tool joint at the top for connection with a jar. It
casing pressure n: the pressure in a well is used to make an opening in a collapsed
that exists between the casing and the tubing casing and drive it back to its original shape.
or the casing and the drill pipe. casing tongs n pi: large wrench used for
casing protector n: a short threaded nipple turning when making up or breaking out
screwed into the open end of the coupling casing. See tongs.
and over the threaded end of casing to casing-tubing annuals n: in a wellbore, the
protect the threads from dirt accumulation space between the inside of the casing and
and damage. It is made of steel or plastic. the outside of the tubing.
Also called thread protector. Cat n: 1. short for an industrial or gas engine
casing rack n: see pipe rack. manufactured by Caterpillar, Inc. 2. short for
casing roller n: a tool composed of a any piece of industrial equipment. such as a
mandrel on which are mounted several bulldozer manufactured by Caterpillar, Inc.
heavy-duty rollers with eccentric roll surfaces. catalyst n: a substance that alters,
It is used to restore buckled, collapsed, or accelerates, or instigates chemical reactions
dented casing in a well to normal diameter without itself being affected.
and roundness. Made up on tubing or drill catalytic cracking n: 1. the breaking down of
pipe and run into the well to the depth of the heavier hydrocarbon molecules into lighter
deformed casing, the tool is rotated slowly, hydrocarbons using catalysts and relatively
catenary anchor leg mooring 31 cementre

catenary anchor leg mooring (CALM) n: a substances by formation waters that may still spaces between clastic particles, causing
type of offshore mooring in which the facility be present. See vug. them to become consolidated into
is anchored by at least six anchors; it caving n: collapsing of the walls of the sedimentary rock. 2. precipitation of a binding
generally has no storage facility. wellbore. Also called sloughing. material around grains or minerals in rocks.
cathead n: a spool-shaped attachment on cavings n pi: particles that fall off (are cement bond n: the adherence of casing to
the end of the catshaft. around which rope for sloughed from) the wall of the wellbore. cement and cement to formation. When
hoisting and moving heavy equipment on or Compare cuttings. casing is run in a well, it is set, or bonded, to
near the rig floor is wound. See break- out cavitation n: the formation and collapse of the formation by means of cement.
cathead, makeup cathead. vapour gas-filled cavities that result from a cement bond log n: an acoustic logging
sudden decrease and increase of pressure. method based on the fact that sound travels
Cavitation can cause mechanical damage to at different speeds through materials of
adjacent surfaces in meters, valves, pumps, different densities. The fact that sound travels
and pipes at locations where flowing liquid faster through cement than through air can
encounters a restriction or change in be used to determine whether the cement
direction. has bonded properly to the casing.
Cb abbr: cumulonimbus. cement bond survey n: an acoustic survey
CBHT abbr: circulating bottomhole or sonic-logging method that records the
temperature. quality or hardness of the cement used in the
CBL abbr: cement bond log. annulus to bond the casing and the
Cc abbr: cirrocumulus. formation. Casing that is well bonded to the
cathead spool n: see co/head. cc abbr: cubic centimetre. formation transmits an acoustic signal
cathode n: 1. one of two electrodes in an CCL abbr: casing collar log. quickly; poorly bonded causing transmits a
electrolytic cell, represented as the positive cd abbr: candela. signal slowly. See acoustic survey. acoustic
terminal of a cell. 2. in cathodic protection ceiling n: the height above the ground up to well logging.
systems, the protected structure that is the base of the lowest layer of clouds when cement casing v: to fill the annulus between
representative of the cathode and is over half the sky is obscured. the casing and wall of the hole with cement to
protected by having a conventional current ceiling price n: the maximum lawful price support the casing and prevent fluid
flow from an anode to the structure through that may be charged for the first sale of a migration between permeable zones.
the electrolyte. specified NGPA category of natural gas. cement channelling n: when casing is being
cathodic protection n: a means of cellar n: a pit in the ground, usually lined with cemented in a borehole, the cement slurry
preventing the destructive electrochemical concrete, steel pipe, or wood, that provides can fail to rise uniformly between the casing
process of corrosion of a metal object by additional height between the rig floor and and the borehole wall, leaving spaces devoid
using it as the cathode of a cell with a the wellhead to accommodate the installation of cement. Ideally, the cement should
sacrificial anode. Current at least equal to of blowout preventers, rathole, mousehole, completely and uniformly surround the casing
that caused by the corrosive action is and so forth. It also collects drainage water and form a strong bond to the borehole wall.
directed toward the object, offsetting its and other fluids for subsequent disposal. cement dump bailer n: a cylindrical
electrical potential. cellar deck n: the lower deck of a double- container with a valve used to release small
cation n: a positively charged ion; the ion in decked semisubmersible drilling rig. See batches of cement in a remedial cementing
an electrolysed solution that migrates to the milin deck, Texas deck. operation.
cathode. See ion. Compare anion. cellophane n: a thin, transparent material cementre n: a retrievable cement squeeze
catline n: a hoisting or pulling line powered made from cellulose and used as a lost tool that is used in remedial cementing. See
by the cathead and used to lift heavy circulation material. See cementing milterials. remedial cementing; secondary cementing.
equipment on the rig. See cathead. Celsius scale n: the metric scale of
catshaft n: an axle that crosses through the temperature measurement used universally
drawworks and contains a revolving spool by scientists. On this scale, O' represents the
called a cathead at either end. See cathead. freezing point of water and 100. its boiling
catwalk n: I. the ramp at the side of the point at a barometric pressure of 760 mm.
drilling rig where pipe is laid to be lifted to the Degrees Celsius are converted to degrees
derrick floor by the catline or by an air hoist. Fahrenheit by using the following equation:
See carline. 2. any elevated walkway. F = 9/5 (C) + 32.
caustic soda n: sodium hydroxide, NaOH. It The Celsius scale was formerly called the
is used to maintain an alkaline pH in drilling centigrade scale; now, however, the term
mud and in petroleum fractions. "Celsius" is preferred in the International
caustic treater n: a vessel holding sodium System of Units (SI).
hydroxide or other alkalis through which a cement n: a powder consisting of alumina.
solution flows for removal of sulphides, silica, lime, and other substances that
mercaptans, or acids. hardens when mixed with water. Extensively
cave-in n: the collapse of the walls of the used in the oil industry to bond casing to the
wellbore. walls of the wellbore.
cavern n: a natural cavity in the earth's crust cement additive n: a material added to
that is large enough to permit human entry. cement to change its properties. Chemical
Commonly formed in limestone by ground- accelerators, chemical retarders, and weight-
water leaching. Compare vug. reduction materials are common additives.
cavernous formation n: a rock formation See cementing materials.
that contains large open spaces, usually cementation n: I. the crystallisation or
resulting from the dissolving of soluble precipitation of soluble minerals in the pore
cementing 32 CFR

cementing n: the application of a liquid slurry the middle. Compare side-door elevators. An electric submersible pump is a centrifugal
of cement and water to various points inside See elevators. pump.
or outside the casing. See primary centreline n: the middle line of the hull of a centrifuge n: a machine that uses centrifugal
cementing, secondary cementing. squeeze mobile offshore drilling rig from stem to stem, force to separate substances of varying
cementing. as shown in a waterline view. densities. A centrifuge is capable of spinning
cementing barge n: a barge containing the centre of buoyancy n: the centre of gravity substances at high speeds to obtain high
cementing pumps and other equipment of the fluid displaced by a floating body (such centrifugal forces. Also called the shake-out
needed for oilwell cementing in water as a ship or mobile offshore drilling rig). or grind-out machine.
operations. centre of flotation n: the geometric centre of centrifuge test n: a test to determine the
cementing basket n: a collapsible or folding the water plane at which a mobile off- shore amount of S&W in samples of oil or emulsion.
metal cone that fits against the walls of the drilling rig floats and about which a rig rotates The samples are placed in tubes and spun in
wellbore to prevent the passage of cement; when acted on by an external force without a a centrifuge, which breaks out the S&W.
sometimes called a metal-petal basket. change in displacement. CEQ abbr: Council on Environmental Quality.
cementing head n: an accessory attached to centre of gravity n: the point at which an cerci. abbr: Comprehensive Environmental
the top of the casing to facilitate cementing of object can be supported so that it balances, Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of
the casing. It has passages for cement slurry and at which all gravitational forces on the 1980.
and retainer chambers for cementing wiper body and the weight of the body are certificate n: a certificate of public
plugs. Also called retainer head. concentrated; the centre of mass. convenience and necessity issued under the
cementing materials n pi: a slurry of port- centre of pressure n: the point at which all Natural Gas Act.
land cement and water and sometimes one wind pressure forces are concentrated. certificate natural gas n: any natural gas
or more additives that affect either the centre spear n: a barbed fishing tool used to that has a certificate issued and that in effect
density of the mixture or its setting time. The snag and retrieve broken wireline from the is transported by an interstate pipeline.
portland cement used may be high early wellbore. certified copy n: a copy made from records
strength, common (standard), or slow set- centigrade scale n: see Celsius scale. in a recorder's or county clerk's office and
ting. Additives include accelerators (such as centimetre (cm) n: a unit of length in the certified to by the recorder or county clerk as
calcium chloride), retarders (such as gyp- metric system equal to one-hundredth of a being an exact copy of the paper on file or of
sum), weighting materials (such as barium metre (1-2 metre). record.
sulphate), lightweight additives (such as centimetre-gram-second (cgs) n: a variant certs n pi: (slang) certifications of materials
bentonite), or a variety of lost circulation of the metric system in which the measures on physical and chemistry properties.
materials (such as mica flakes). are founded on the centimetre, gram, and cessation of production clause n: a clause
cementing pump n: a high-pressure pump second rather than directly on the kilogram in an oil and gas lease that provides the
used to force cement down the casing and and metre. lessee with the right to begin new operations
into the annular space between the casing centipoise (cp) n: one-hundredth of a poise; within a stated time period should production
and the wall of the borehole. a measure of a fluid's viscosity, or resistance cease.
cementing time n: the total elapsed time to flow. cetane number n: a measure of the ignition
needed to complete a cementing operation. central facility n: an installation serving two quality of fuel oil. The higher the cetane
cement kIinker n: a substance formed by or more leases and providing one or more of number, the more easily the fuel is ignited.
melting ground limestone, clay or shale, and such functions as separation, compression, CFG abbr: cubic feet of gas; used in drilling
iron ore in a kiln. Cement kIinker is ground dehydration, treating, gathering, or delivery of reports.
into a powdery mixture and combined with gas and oil. CFR abbr: I. Code of Federal Regulations. 2.
small amounts of gypsum or other materials centraliser n: see casing centralise Coordinating Fuels and Equipment Re-
to form cement. central oil-treating station n: a processing search Committee.
cement plug n: 1. a portion of cement placed network used to treat emulsion produced
at some point in the well bore to seal it. 2. a from several leases, thus eliminating the
wiper plug. See cementing, wi per plug. need for individual treating facilities at each
cement retainer n: a tool set temporarily in lease site.
the casing or well to prevent the passage of centrifugal compressor n: a compressor in
cement, thereby forcing it to follow another which the flow of gas to be compressed is
designated path. It is used in squeeze moved away from the centre rapidly, usually
cementing and other remedial cementing by a series of blades or turbines. It is a
jobs. continuous-flow compressor with a low
cement system n: a particular slurry pressure ratio and is used to transmit gas
containing cement and water, with or without through a pipeline. Gas passing through the
additives. compressor contacts a rotating impeller, from
Cenozoic era n: the time period from 65 which it is discharged into a diffuser, where
million years ago until the present. It is its velocity is slowed and its kinetic energy
marked by rapid evolution of mammals and changed to static pressure. Centrifugal
birds, flowering plants, grasses, and shrubs, compressors are nonpositive-displacement
and little change in invertebrates. machines, often arranged in series on a line
centre distance n: in a chain-and-sprocket to achieve multistage compression.
drive, the distance between the centres of the centrifugal force n: the force that tends to
two sprockets or the shafts they fit on. pull all matter from the centre of a rotating
centre-latch elevators n: elevators that have mass.
the handles and latch arranged so that when centrifugal pump n: a pump with an impeller
a crew member opens the latch, they part in or rotor, an impeller shaft, and a casing,
which discharges fluid by centrifugal force.
chain 33 chemical consolidation

chain n: in offshore drilling, a heavy line charts. The department's responsibilities

constructed of iron bars looped together and include calculating the gas flow from the
used for a mooring line. information on the chart. Today, charts have
chain and gear drive n: see chain drive. been largely supplanted by electronic read-
chain-and-sprocket drive n: a type of drive outs generated by computer controlled
that consists of a loop of chain that goes sensors at the orifice meter station. These
around two shafts with sprockets fitted on the readouts are transmitted to the company's
shafts. The driving shaft provides power and computers in a central, or district, office,
the driven shaft receives power. When the where they are recorded and read.
sprocket on the driving shaft turns, the chain chain width n: in roller chain, the width of the chase pipe v: to lower the drill stem rapidly a
moves and turns the driven sprocket. chain- rollers, which is the distance between the few feet into the hole and then stop it
and-sprocket transmission n: a selective inside faces of the roller link plates. suddenly with the drawworks brake. A surge
transmission made up primarily of chain-and- chamber gas lift n: a specialised form of of pressure in the mud in the drill stem and
sprocket drives. There are three two-strand intermittent-flow gas lift that functions in the annular space results and may help to flush
chain-and-sprocket drives and a pair of gears same way as other forms, except that, when out debris accumulated in or on die pipe. The
for reversing, located between the input shaft the injection gas is off, incoming well fluids pressure surge may break down a formation,
coming from the compound, and the output accumulate in a chamber having a larger however, causing lost circulation, or may
shaft on a mechanically driven drawworks. diameter than the tubing. For the same damage the bit if it is near the bottom.
Each of these chain-and- sprocket drives has volume of fluid, hydrostatic head and chase threads v: to clean and deburr the
a different sprocket ratio to provide three wellbore pressure at the formation are both threads of a pipe so that it will make up
speeds to the high-drum drive and three to reduced. properly.
the low-drum drive. Com- pare gear change house n: a small building, or dog- cheater n: a length of pipe fitted over a
transmission. house, in which members of a drilling rig or wrench handle to increase the leverage of
chain case n: see chain guard. roustabout crew change clothes, store the wrench. Use of a larger wrench is usually
chain drive n: a mechanical drive using a personal belongings, and so on. preferred. Also called a snipe.
driving chain and chain gears to transmit change rams v: to take rams out of a blow- checkerboard farnout n: an agreement for
power. Power transmissions use a roller out preventer and replace them with rams of the acquisition of mineral rights (i.e., oil and
chain, in which each link is made of side a different size or type. When the size of a gas leases) in a checkerboard pattern of
bars, transverse pins, and rollers on the pins. drill pipe is changed, the size of the pipe alternate tracts, usually beginning, in the
A double roller chain is made of two rams must be changed to ensure that they case of farmouts, with the drill site tract.
connected rows of links, a triple roller chain seal around the pipe when closed (unless check meter n: a device for measuring gas
of three, and so forth. variable-bore pipe rams are in use). throughput, usually installed in conjunction
chain guard n: in a chain-and-sprocket drive, channeling n: when casing is being with the primary measuring device owned
a case that protects workers from the moving cemented in a borehole, the cement slurry and operated by the party having the
drive. It also protects die drive from dirt and is can fail to rise uniformly between the casing obligation to provide measurement services
part of the cooling and lubrication systems. and the borehole wall, leaving spaces, or at a specific point on a pipeline system.
Some enclose only one drive and some channels, devoid of cement. Ideally, the check valve n: a valve that permits flow in
enclose several drives. May be made of cement should completely and uniformly one direction only. If the gas or liquid starts to
sheet metal or plate metal. Heavier guards surround the casing and form a strong bond reverse, the valve automatically closes,
also support the shafts on bearings. Both to the borehole wall. See cement channeling. preventing reverse movement. Commonly
types have access panels for inspection and charcoal test n: a test standardised by the referred to as a one-way valve.
maintenance. American Gas Association and the Gas Chemelectric treater n: a brand name for an
chain of title n: recorded transfers (links) in Processor Association for determining the electrostatic treater.
title from patent to present. natural gasoline content of a given natural chemical n: a substance defined under
chain reducer n: a reduction unit between a gas. The gasoline is adsorbed from the gas HAZCOM (OSHA) as any element, chemical
prime mover and a beam pumping unit that on activated charcoal and then recovered by compound, or mixture of elements and/or
reduces the prime mover's output speed by distillation. The test is described in Testing compounds.
means of a series of chains. Code 101-43, a joint AGA and GPA Chemical barrel n: a container in which
chain tongs n pi: a hand tool consisting of a publication. various chemicals are mixed prior to addition
handle and chain that resembles the chain on charge stock n: oil that is to be treated in, or to drilling fluid.
a bicycle. In general, chain tongs are used for charged to, a particular refinery unit. chemical consolidation n: the procedure by
turning pipe or fittings of a diameter larger Charles's law n: an ideal gas law that states which a quantity of resinous material is
than that which a pipe wrench would fit. The that at constant pressure the volume of a squeezed into a sandy formation to
chain is looped and tightened around the fixed mass or quantity of gas varies directly consolidate the sand and to prevent its
pipe or fitting, and the handle is used to turn with the absolute temperature; that is, at a flowing into the well. The resinous material
the tool so that the pipe or fitting can be constant pressure, as temperature rises, gas hardens and creates a porous mass that
tightened or loosened. volume increases proportionately. permits oil to flow into the well but holds back
charter party n: an agreement by which a the sand at the same time. See sand
ship owner agrees to place an entire ship, or consolidation.
part of it, at the disposal of a merchant or
other person to carry cargo for an agreed-
upon sum.
chart integration department n: part of a
company that interprets and processes the
Information obtained from the orifice meter
chemical cut off 34 Christmas tree

chemical cut off n: a method of severing chiller n: a heat exchanger that cools the bean; the larger the opening. the greater
steel pipe in a well by applying high-pressure process fluids with a refrigerant. the flow.
jets of a very corrosive substance against the chip hold-down effect n: the holding of choke control panel n: a panel or board on
wall of the pipe. The resulting cut is very formation rock chips in place as a result of the rig floor, usually near the driller's position,
smooth. high differential pressure in the wellbore (i.e., that allows a person to remotely adjust the
chemical cutter n: a fishing tool that uses pressure in the wellbore is greater than size of the opening of a choke installed in the
high-pressure jets of chemicals to sever pressure in the formation). This effective- its choke manifold. By adjusting the choke's
casing, tubing, or drill pipe stuck in the hole. the cutting action of the bit by retarding opening, the operator can increase or
chemical fingerprinting n: the process of circulation of bit cuttings out of the hole. decrease the amount of back-pressure being
tracking down the source of an illegal waste chk abbr: choke; used in drilling reports. held on the well by the choke. Usually, the
discharge through sampling the waste and chlorine n: a greenish-yellow, acrid gas (CI) panel also has pressure gauges and other
possible sources to determine which source that irritates the skin and mucous instruments to help the operator control the
matches the discharge best. Fingerprinting is membranes and causes breathing difficulties. well.
expensive, but in large damage cases, it can chlorine log n: a record of the presence and choke flow n: see criticalflow.
help prove or disprove whether a substance concentration of chlorine in oil reservoirs. choke flow line n: see choke line.
was discharged from a particular source. See chlorine survey. choke line n: a pipe attached to the blowout
chemical flooding n: see alkaline (caustic) preventer stack out of which kick fluids and
flooding, micellarpolymer flQoding. mud can be pumped to the choke manifold
chemical inhibitor n: liquid chemical com- when a blowout preventer is closed in on a
pounds that are injected into lines carrying kick.
fluids that contain H2S, Most of these choke manifold n: an arrangement of piping
inhibitors are designed to coat equipment and special valves, called chokes. In drilling,
surfaces to physically isolate them from mud is circulated through a choke manifold
compressive substances. Others react with when the blowout preventers are closed. In
sulfur compounds to form less-destructive well testing, a choke manifold attached to the
compounds. wellhead allows flow and pressure control for
chemical inventory n: an inventory required test components down- stream.
by HAZCOM. Under HAZCOM, all employers choke nipple n: see bean.
must keep a complete list, or inventory, of all choke pressure n: see back-pressure.
hazardous materials on site. choker hitch n: in crane operations, a method
chemical protective clothing n: clothing of attaching a sling to a load in which one
that is designed to protect against a specific chlorine survey n: a special type of radio- end of the sling is passed around the load,
chemical hazard (i.e., suits or aprons made activity-logging survey used to measure die through an attachment or an eye on the other
of or coated with chemical-resistant materials relative amount of chlorine in the formation. end, and then to the crane's hook. As the
like butyl rubber, neoprene, or polyvinyl Rocks with low chlorine content are likely to load is lifted by the crane, the hitch tightens
chloride). contain gas or oil; rocks with high chlorine on the load.
chemical pump n: an injection pump used to content usually contain salt water only. choker sling n: a wire rope sling that forms
introduce a chemical into a fluid stream or choke n: a device with an orifice installed in CHRISTMAS a slip noose around an TREE
receptacle. a line to restrict the flow of fluids. Surface object to re moved or lifted by a crane.
chemicals n pi: in drilling-fluid terminology, a chokes are part of the Christmas tree on a Christmas tree n: the conbul valves,
chemical is any material that produces well and contain a choke nipple, or bean. with pressure gauges, and chokes assembled at
changes in the viscosity, yield point, gel a small-diameter bore that serves to restrict the top of a well to control the flow of oil and
strength, fluid loss, and surface tension. the flow. Chokes are also used to control the gas after the well has been drilled and
chemical treatment n: any of many rate of flow of the drilling mud out of the hole completed. It is used when reservoir pressure
processes in the oil industry that involve the when the well is closed in with the blow-out is sufficient to cause reservoir fluids to flow to
use of a chemical to effect an operation. preventer and a kick is being circulated out of the surface.
Some chemical treatments are acidising, the hole. See adjustable choke. bottomhole
crude oil demulsification, conclusion choke. positive choke.
inhibition, paraffin removal, scale removal,
drilling fluid control, refinery and plant
processes, cleaning and plugging operations,
chemical flooding, and water purification.
chert n: a rock of precipitated silica whose
crystalline structure is not easily discemible
and that fractures conchoidally (like glass).
Flint, jasper, and chat are forms of chert.
chicken hook n: a long steel pole with a
hook on one end that allows one of the rotary
choke angle n: in crane operations, the
helpers to release the safety latch on the
angle between the vertical part and choked
drilling hook so that the bail of the swivel can
part of a choker sling. As this angle de-
be removed (as when the kelly is set back
creases, the load-lifting capacity of the sling
prior to making a trip). Also called a
also decreases. See choker sling.
shepherd's stick, or hook.
choke bean n: a device placed in a choke
Chicksan line n: a flexible coupling used in
line that regulates the flow through the choke.
high-pressure lines.
Flow depends on the size of the opening in
chromate 35 Class I injection wells

chromate n: a compound in which chromium circulate-and-weight method n: see con- cirrus n: a high-level, white, feather like
has a valence of 6, e.g., sodium bichromate. current method. cloud that is composed of ice crystals.
Chromate may be added to drilling fluids circulate the short way v: see reverse citations n pi: notations that appear in
eimer directly or as a constituent of chrome circulation. government documents for cross-referencing
lignites or chrome lignosulfonates. In certain circulating and releasing overshot n: an information.1f you are reading a regulation
areas, chromate is widely used as a external gripping tool that allows direct that refers to another regulation or to a
corrosion inhibitor, often in conjunction with circulation through the tool and the fish to different section in the same regulation, the
lime. keep the wellbore lubricated during fishing. citation will be listed so that you may refer to
chromatograph n: an analytical instrument See overshot. the appropriate material for more information.
mat separates mixtures of substances into circulating components n pi: the equipment city gas station n: see city gate station.
identifiable components by means of included in the drilling fluid circulating system city gate station n: a station to which a
chromatography. of a rotary rig. Basically, the components transmission company delivers gas to the
chromatograph tests n pi: a laboratory consist of the mud pump, the rotary hose, the distribution company. This is the point at
analysis of a gas sample to determine me swivel, the drill stem, the bit, and the mud which interstate and intrastate pipelines sell
composition of me gas. The analysis will return line. and deliver gas to local distribution
determine the percentage of each component circulating density n: see equivalent companies. Usually built adjacent to a natural
of the gas; this percentage can be used to circulating density. gas transmission line in a sparsely populated
calculate liquid volume percentage, GPMs, circulating fluid n: see drilling fluid, mud. area on the outskirts of a population centre.
Btu, and gravity. circulating head n: an accessory attached to Also called city gas station, town border
chromatography n: a method of separating the top of the drill pipe or tubing to form a station.
a solution of closely related compounds by connection with the mud system to permit civil law n: see statute law.
allowing it to seep through an adsorbent so circulation of the drilling mud. In some cases, civil penalties n pi: penalties for damages to
mat each compound is adsorbed in a it is also a rotating head. private individuals or organisations typically
separate layer. circulating pressure n: the pressure determined by a court decision on suits filed
chrome lignite n: mined lignite, usually generated by the mud pumps and exerted on against private individuals or corporations.
leonardite, to which chromate has been the drill stem. Cl form: chlorine.
added or has reacted. The lignite can also be circulating rate n: the volume flow rate of clabbered adj: (slang) commonly used to
causticised with either sodium or potassium the circulating drilling fluid usually ex- describe moderate to severe flocculation of
hydroxide. pressed in gallons or barrels per minute in mud due to various contaminants. Also called
Ci abbr: cirrus. the United States. Elsewhere, it is expressed gelled-up.
arc abbr: circulated; used in drilling reports. in cubic metres per minute. cladding n: metal coating bonded to another
circle wrench n: see wheel-type back-off circulation n: the movement of drilling fluid metal usually by means of high heat and
wrench. out of the mud pits, down the drill stem, up pressure.
circuit n: a complete electrical path from one the annulus, and back to the mud pits. See clamp n: a mechanical device used to hold
terminal of a source of electricity to me other, normal circulation, reverse circulation. an object in place. For example, a leak-repair
usually connected to a load. When me circuit circulation sleeve n: see sliding sleeve. clamp, or saddle clamp, holds a piece of
is closed, electric current flows through it; circulation squeeze n: a variation of metal with the same curvature as the pipe
when it is opened, me current flow stops. squeeze cementing for wells with two over a hole in a line, effecting a temporary
circular reader n: a metering instrumentation producing zones in which (1) the upper fluid seal. A wireline clamp holds the end of a wire
system component mat counts me sand is perforated; (2) tubing is run with a rope against the main rope, while a polished-
revolutions of me index shaft. packer, and the packer is set between the rod clamp attaches the top of the polished
circulate v: to pass from one point through- two perforated intervals; (3) water is rod to the bridle of a pumping unit
out a system and back to me starting point. circulated between the two zones to remove Class I injection wells n pi: a classification
For example, drilling fluid is circulated out of as much mud as possible from the channel; of injection wells under Safe Drinking Water
the suction pit, down the drill pipe and drill (4) cement is pumped through the channel Act that are related to hazardous, industrial
collars, out the bit, up the annulus, and back and circulated; (5) the packer is released and nonhazardous, and municipal wastewater
to the pits while drilling proceeds. picked up above the upper perforation, a low disposal below underground sources of
squeeze pressure is applied, and the excess drinking water.
cement is circulated out. The process is
applicable where there is communication
behind the pipe between the two producing
zones because of channelling of the primary
cement or where there is essentially no
cement in the annulus.
circulation valve n: an accessory employed
above a packer, to permit annulus-to-tubing
circulation or vice versa.
cirrocumulus n: a white high-level cloud that
is composed primarily of ice crystals. This
type of cloud forms from cirrus or cirrostratus
clouds and has a rippled appearance. status
n: a very thin, white, high-level cloud that
produces halos visible around the sun or
moon. This type of cloud is composed of ice
crystals and appears as a thin veil in the sky.
Class II injection wells 36 cloud point

Class II injection wells n pi: a classification other manner processed or handled. with the which air is not allowed to enter, thereby
of injection wells under SDWA that are ultimate goal of making the site safer for preventing corrosion or scale.
related to oil and gas activity. Typically, these people or the environment. close in v:.1. to shut in a well temporarily
wells are used to dispose of produced waters Clean Water Act (CWA) n: law that that is capable of producing oil or gas. 2. to
into depleted oil formations below drinking regulates the discharge of toxic and nontoxic close the blowout preventers on a well to
water sources; to inject produced water from pollutants into the surface waters of the control a kick. The blowout preventers close
production operations back into the United States. Under the jurisdiction of both off the annulus so that pressure from below
producing zone; to inject fluids for enhanced the EPA and the Army Corps of Engineers, cannot flow to the surface.
recovery; and to store hydrocarbons. CWA's short-term goal is to make surface close nipple n: a very short piece of pipe
classic rock n: a sedimentary rock com- waters safe for recreation, fishing, and other threaded its entire length.
posed of fragments of preexisting rocks. The uses. Its long-term goal is to eliminate all closing gauge n: the measurement in a tank
principal distinction among clastics is grain harmful discharges into surface waters. after a delivery or receipt. Compare opening
size. Conglomerates, sandstones, and shales clearance n: 1. the distance by which one gauge.
are clastic rocks. object clears another. 2. the amount of space closing machine n: a machine that braids
clastics n pi: I. sediments formed by the between two objects. wires into strands and strands into rope in the
breakdown of large rock masses by clearance pocket n: a device mounted on manufacture of wire rope. Also called a
climatological processes, physical or the cylinder of a compressor that allows the stranding machine.
chemical. 2. the rocks formed from these amount of clearance space to be adjusted. closing ratio n: the ratio between the
sediments. Clearance space may have to be adjusted to pressure in the hole and the operating-piston
clastic texture n: rock texture in which compensate for increases or decreases in pressure needed to close the rams of a blow-
individual rock, mineral, or organic fragments the load on the compressor. out preventer.
are cemented together by an amorphous or clearance sample n: in tank sampling, a closing unit n: see blowout preventer control
crystalline minera1 such as calcite. Compare spot sample taken 4 inches (100 milli- unit.
crystalline texture. metres) below the level of the tank outlet. closing-up pump n: an electric or hydraulic
Claus process n: a process to convert clearance space n: in a reciprocating pump on an accumulator that pumps
hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur by compressor, the volume between the top of hydraulic fluid under high pressure to the
selective oxidation. the piston and the cylinder head with the blowout preventers so that they may be
clay n: I. a term used for particles smaller piston at the top of its stroke. closed or opened.
than \1156 millimetre (4 microns) in size, clearance volume n: the amount of space closure n: I. the vertical distance between
regardless of mineral composition. 2. a group between the travelling and standing val~ in a the top of an anticline., or dome, and the bot-
of hydrous aluminum silicate minerals (clay sucker rod pump when the pump is at the tom, an indication of the amount of producing
minerals). 3. a sediment of fine clastics. bottom of its stroke. formation that may be expected. 2. the
clay extender n: any of several substances - clear brine n: a drilling fluid made up mainly process of closing down a site, such as
usually organic compounds of high molecular of chemical salts, such as sodium chloride, plugging and abandoning a well or filling in a
weight-that, when added in low calcium chloride, or potassium chloride. Clear pit.
concentrations to a bentonite or to certain brine contains little or no clay or other solid cloud on a title n: a claim or encumbrance
other clay slurries, will increase the viscosity material and is virtually transparent. It is often that, if upheld by a court, would impair the
of the system. See low-solids mud. used when drilling into a producing formation owner's title to the property.
Clean Air Act (CAA) n: one of the first because clear brine minimises formation cloud point n: the temperature at which
environmental laws passed by the federal damage. See completion fluid formation paraffin wax begins to congeal and become
government. The CAA addresses and damage. cloudy.
regulates airborne pollution that may be clear water drilling n: drilling operations in
potentially hazardous to public health or which plain water (usually salt water) is used
natural resources. as the circulating fluid.
clean ballast n: ballast that is free of any cleat n: see coal clear.
measurable quantity of hydrocarbon cleaning clevis n: see shackle.
and priming machine n: a self- propelled CLFP abbr: choke-line friction pressure.
machine with a rotating set of brushes and clingage n: the amount of oil that adheres to
buffers that removes from pipe surface any the wall of a measuring or prover tank after
loose material and applies a thin coat of draining.
primer to prepare the pipe for coating. Clinton flake n: finely shredded cellophane
clean out v: to remove sand, scale, and used as a lost circulation material for cement.
other deposits from the producing section of clip n: a U-bolt or similar device used to
the well to restore or increase production. fasten parts of a wire cable together.
cleanout door n: an opening made to permit closed circuit n: 1. a life-support system in
removal of sediments from the bottom of a which the gas is recycled continually while
tank. Usually a plate near ground level is the carbon dioxide is removed and oxygen
removed from the side of the tank to make added periodically. 2. a television installation
the door. in which the signal is transmitted by wire to a
cleanout tools n pi: the tools or instrument, limited number of receivers.
such as bailers and swabs, used to clean out closed-in pressure n: see shut-in pressure.
an oilwell. closed stationary tank prover n: see positive-
clean-up operation n: (HAZWOPER) an volume prove1:
operation during which hazardous sub- closed system n: a water-handling system
stances are removed, contained, incinerated, (such as a saltwater-disposal system) in
neutralised, stabilised. cleaned up, or in any
clump weights 37 coiled-tubing workover

clump weights n pi: special segmented coating n: any material that forms a exchangers. In more complex installations, a
weights attached to the guy wires of a guyed continuous film over a metal surface to tube bundle is used instead of a coil.
compliant platform that keep the guy wires prevent corrosion damage. coiled tubing n: a continuous string of
taut as the platform jacket moves with the coating flaw n: a gap or flaw in pipe coating. flexible steel tubing, often hundreds or thou-
waves and current of the water. As tension Coating flaws, which must be repaired to sands of feet long, that is wound onto a reel,
on a guy wire is lessened, one or more prevent corrosion problems, are detected often dozens of feet in diameter. The reel is
segments of the weight drop to the seafloor through mechanical or visual inspections of an integral part of the coiled tubing unit,
and re-establish tension on the wire. As the line. Also called holiday. which consists of several devices that en-
tension increases on a guy wire, the tension coating machine n: a machine that applies sure the tubing can be safely and efficiently
pulls one or more segments off the seafloor an even layer of coating material to pipe inserted into the well from the surface. Be-
so that the wire is not over stressed. surface. Most coating machines also apply cause tubing can be lowered into a well
clutch n: a coupling used to connect and outer wrapping on the pipe. without having to make up joints of tubing,
disconnect a driving and a driven part of a Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) n: an running coiled tubing into the well is faster
mechanism, especially a coupling that annual paperback set of all the final and and less expensive than running
permits the former part to engage the latter permanent agency rules and regulations conventional tubing. Rapid advances in the
gradually and without shock. In the oilfield, a published in the Federal Register. The CFR use of coiled tubing make it a popular way in
clutch permits gradual engaging and is divided into 50 titles, which represent which to run tubing into and out of a well.
disengaging of the equipment driven by a broad areas subject to federal regulation. Also called reeled tubing.
prime mover. v: to engage or disengage a coefficient n: a number that serves as a coiled-tubing unit n: the equipment for
clutch. measure of some property or characteristic transporting and using coiled tubing,
cm abbr: centimetre. and that is commonly used as a factor in including a reel for the coiled tubing, an
cm2 abbr: square centimetre. computations. injector head to push the tubing down the
cm abbr: cubic centimetre. coefficient of cubical expansion n: see well, a wellhead blowout preventer stack, a
CMC abbr: carboxymethylcellulose. coefficient of expansion. power source (usually a diesel engine and
CO form: carbon monoxide. coefficient of discharge n: the ratio of hydraulic pumps), and a control console. A
CO2 form: carbon dioxide. actual flow to theoretical flow. unique feature of the unit is that it allows
coagulation n: see flocculation. coefficient of elasticity n: see modulus of continuous circulation while it is being
coal n: a carbonaceous, rocklike material elasticity . lowered into the hole. A coiled tubing unit is
that forms from the remains of plants that coefficient of expansion n: the increment in usually mounted on a trailer or skid.
were subjected to biochemical processes, volume of a unit volume of solid, liquid, or coiled-tubing workover n: a workover per-
intense pressure, and high temperatures. It is gas for a rise of temperature of I' at constant formed with a continuous steel tube, normally
used as fuel. pressure. Also called coefficient of cubical 0.75 inch to I inch (1.9 to 2.54 centimetres)
coal cleat n: the cleavage or fracture plane expansion, coefficient of thermal expansion, outside diameter, which is run into the well in
of coal as found in a mine or in a coal de- expansion coefficient, expansivity. one piece inside the normal tubing. Lengths
posit. Natural gas often migrates through coefficient of expansion adjuster n: an of the tubing up to 16,000 feet (4,877 metres)
cleats. accessory for a meter that is used with an are stored on the surface on a reel in a
coalesce v: to unite as a whole. automatic temperature compensator. It is manner similar to that used for wireline. The
coalescence n: 1. the change from a liquid used to regulate the magnitude of unit is rigged up over the wellhead. The
to a thickened, curdlike state by chemical temperature compensation consistent with tubing is injected through a control head that
reaction. 2. the combining of globules in an the coefficient of expansion of the liquid seals off the tubing and makes a pressure-
emulsion caused by molecular attraction of being metered. tight connection.
the surfaces. coefficient of thermal expansion n: see
coalescer n: a device used to cause the coefficient of expansion.
separation and removal of one liquid from an- COFCAW abbr: combination of forward
other. May be used to remove water from a combustion and water flooding. Also called
petroleum liquid sample withdrawn from a wet combustion.
pipeline. cofferdam n: the empty space between two
coal fine n: coal crushed sufficiently finely to bulkheads that separates two adjacent
pass through a screen. compartments. It is designed to isolate the
coal gas n: gas produced from coal and two compartments from each other, thereby
used for fuel. It contains primarily hydrogen, preventing the liquid contents of one
methane, and carbon monoxide. compartment from entering the other in the
coal tar epoxy n: a thermosetting resin event of the failure of the bulkhead of one to
made from the by-product of the retain its tightness. In oil tankers, cargo
carbonisation of bituminous coal. It is used as spaces are always isolated from the rest of
a coating because of its adhesiveness, the ship by cofferdams fitted at both ends of
flexibility, and resistance to chemicals. the tank body.
Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Act of cogeneration n: an energy-producing
1972 n: a congressional act that established process involving the simultaneous
policies for the balanced protection and wise generation of thermal and electrical energy
development of coastal resources. from a single primary heat source.
coastal zone management (CZM) program cohesion n: the attractive force between the
n: a state-level program that provides for same kinds of molecules (i.e., the force that
state review of exploration, development, and holds the molecules of a substance together).
production plans that affect the coastal zone. coil n: an accessory of tubing or pipe for
coast ice n: see fast ice. installation in condensers or heat
coke 38 commercial propane

coke n: 1. a solid cellular residue produced of a colloid and the liquid. gaseous, or solid combustion n: 1. the process of burning.
from the dry distillation of certain medium in which it is dispersed. Chemically, it is a process of rapid oxidation
carbonceous materials that contains carbon colloidal adj: pertaining to a colloid. i.e., caused by the union of oxygen from the air
as its principal constituent 2. a residue of involving particles so minute (less than 2 with the material that is being oxidised or
heavier hydrocarbons formed by thermal microns) that they are not visible through burned. 2. the organised and orderly burning
cracking and distillation and deposited in the optical microscopes. Bentonite is an ex- of fuel inside the cylinder of an engine.
reservoir during in situ combustion. This ample of a colloidal clay. come-along n: a manually operated device
residue catches fire and becomes the fuel for colloidal composition n: a colloidal that is used to tighten guy wires or move
continued combustion. suspension containing one or more colloidal heavy loads. Usually, a come-along is a
coke breeze n: crushed coke used for constituents. gripping tool with two jaws attached to a ring
packing underground anodes in cathodic colloidal suspension n: finely divided so that, when the ring is pulled, the jaws
protection systems to obtain increased anode particles of ultramicroscopic size suspended close.
efficiency at a reduced cost See coke. in a liquid. come in v: to begin to produce; to become
cold front n: the leading edge of a cold air colour test n: a visual test made against profitable.
mass that replaces warmer air. The warm air fixed standards to determine the colour of a come out of the hole v: to pull the drill stem
is lifted to ride up over the cool air. petroleum or other type of product. out of the wellbore to change the bit, to
cold wall n: the sharp water-temperature column-stabilised drilling unit n: see change from a core barrel to the bit, to run
gradient between the Gulf Stream and the semisubmersible drilling rig. electric logs, to prepare for a drill stem test,
Labrador Current. combination drive n: a combination of two to run casing, and so on. Also called trip out.
cold-work n: plastic deformation of metal at or more natural energies that work together come to see you v: (slang) to blowout. A
a temperature low enough to insure or cause in a reservoir to force fluids into a wellbore. well will "come to see you" if it blows out.
permanent strain. Possible combinations include gas-cap and commercial amount n: see commercial
coliform n: any of several bacilli found in the water drive, solution gas and water drive, and quantity.
large intestine of humans and animals; its gas-cap drive and gravity drainage. commercial butane n: a liquefied
presence in water indicates fecal pollution. combination book-block n: a piece of hydrocarbon consisting chiefly of butane or
collapse pressure n: the amount of force drilling equipment that joins the hook and butylenes and conforming to the GPA
needed to crush the sides of pipe until it travelling block into one unit designed to specification for commercial butane defined
caves in on itself. The pipe collapses when support the swivel and drill stem during in GPA Publication 2140.
the pressure outside it is greater than the drilling and to raise and lower drilling tools in commercial gauger n: someone licensed by
pressure inside it. and out of the hole. the US Customs Service to perform the
collapse resistance n: the ability of the wall combination rig n: a light rig that has the duties of independent inspector or
of a pipe or vessel to resist collapse. essential elements for both rotary and cable- independent surveyor.
collar n: 1. a coupling device used to join two tool drilling. It is sometimes used for re- commercial laboratory n: US Customs
lengths of pipe, such as casing or tubing. A conditioning wells. Service-approved laboratory, including those
combination collar has left-hand threads in combination strand n: a wire rope strand of commercial gaugers.
one end and right-hand threads in the other. that uses two or more strand designs to form commercial production n: oil and gas
2. a drill collar. See drill collar. a single strand. Compare Seale strand, production of sufficient quantity to justify
collar-lift elevator n: an elevator that is Warrington strand. keeping a well in production.
bored to match a square shouldered tool combination string n: a casing string with commercial propane n: a liquefied hydro-
joint. joints of various collapse resistance, internal carbon product consisting chiefly of pr0- pane
collar locator n: a logging device used to yield strength, and tensile strength, designed and/or propylene and conforming to the GPA
determine accurately the depth of a well; the for various depths in a specific well to best specification for commercial pro- pane as
log measures and records the depth of each withstand the conditions of that well. In deep defined in GPA Publication 2140.
casing collar, or coupling, in a well. Since the wens, high tensile strength is required in the
length of each joint of casing is written down, top casing joints to carry the load, whereas
along with the number of joints of casing that high collapse resistance and internal yield
were put into the well, knowing the number strength are needed in the bottom joints. In
and depth of the collars allows an accurate the middle of the casing, average quality is
measure of well depth. usually sufficient. The most suitable
collar locator log n: see collar locatol: combination of types and weights of pipe
collar pipe n: heavy pipe used between the helps to ensure efficient production at a
drill pipe and the bit in the drill stem. See drill minimum cost.
collar. combination trap n: I. a subsurface
collet n: a finger like device used to lock or hydrocarbon trap that has the features of
position certain tool components by both a structural trap and a stratigraphic trap.
manipulating the tubing string or downhole 2. a combination of two or more structural
tool. traps or two or more stratigraphic traps.
collision bulkhead n: the foremost bulk- combined misatignment n: a type of chain
head that extends from the bottom to the misalignment that may result from combined
freeboard deck of a drill ship. It keeps the angular and offset misalignment, or from two
main hull watertight if a collision occurs. shafts that are not level with each other.
colloid n: 1. a substance whose particles are combining weight n: see equivalent weight.
so fine that they will not settle out of combustible gas indicator n: device used
suspension or solution and cannot be seen to measure the percentage of combustible
under an ordinary microscope. 2. the mixture gas present in a sample of atmosphere.
commercial quantity 39 compounding transmission

commercial quantity n: an amount of oil and company hand n: see company driven through guides attached to outside
gas production large enough to enable the representative. legs of the jacket.
operator to realise a profit, however small. To company man n: see company compliant platform n: an offshore platform
keep the lease in force, production must be in representative. that is designed to flex with wind and waves.
quantities sufficient to yield a return in excess company representative n: an employee of Two types are the guyed-tower platform rig
of operating costs, even though drilling and an operating company who supervises the and the compliant piled tower.
equipment costs may never be recovered. operations at a drilling site or well site and composite sample n: a sample of a sub-
commingle v: to mix crude oil or oil products co-ordinates the hiring of logging, testing, stance that is made up of equal portions of
rather than moving them as separate service, and workover companies. Also two or more spot samples obtained from a
batches. See batch. called company hand, company man. tank or pipeline. In a crude oil storage tank,
commingling n: the mixing of crude oil compartment n: a subdivision of space on a one type of composite sample is taken at the
products that have similar properties, usually floating offshore drilling rig, a ship, or a top, at the bottom, and in the middle.
for convenient transportation in a pipe- line. barge. composite spot sample n: in tank sampling,
commingling facility n: an installation, compemated neutron log n: a measure and a blend of spot samples mixed in equal pro-
serving two or more leases, that provides record of limestone porosity. The log is portions for testing.
services such as gathering, separating, produced using one source and two composite stream n: 1. a flow of oil and gas
treating, and storing more economically than detectors instead of just one detector, as an in one stream. 2. a flow of two or more
several smaller facilities. uncompensated neutron log does. A different liquid hydrocarbons in one stream.
commingling gas n: gas from two or more compensated neutron log is less influenced compound n: I. a mechanism used to
sources that is combined in a single stream. by borehole effects than an uncompensated transmit power from the engines to the pump,
committed reserves n: in gas contracts, the neutron log. See borehole effect. the drawworks, and other machinery on a
amount of gas the seller has available to sell compemating index n: a meter index that drilling rig. It is composed of clutches, chains
to the buyer or buyers named in the con- has a pressure correction factor built into the and sprockets, belts and pulleys, and a
tract. gear ratio of the dial. number of shafts, both driven and driving. 2.
common carrier n: any cargo transportation compemation n: provision of a supplemental a substance formed by the chemical union of
system available for public use. Nearly all device, circuit. or special materials to two or more elements in definite proportions;
pipelines are common carriers. counteract known sources of error. the smallest particle of a chemical compound
common cement n: a regular portland compemator governor n: a type of engine is a molecule. v: to connect two or more
cement classified as either API Class A or governor that prevents hunting (an engine's power-producing de- vices, such as engines,
ASTM Type I cement. speeding up and slowing down as it seeks to to run driven equipment, such as the
common law n: a system of law based on run at the speed dictated by the engine drawworks.
court decisions, or judicial precedent, rather governor.) A compensator on the governor compounding n: 1. the act of connecting two
than on legislated statutes or executive anticipates the engine's return to its set or more power-producing devices to run
decrees. Common law began in England and speed. When an engine's speed goes faster driven equipment. 2. the act of paying an
was later used in English colonies. It is still than the set speed, the compensator drops amount on the accrued interest and the
applied in most of the United States; how- the engine's rpm; when engine speed drops principal. Compare discounting.
ever, Louisiana operates under the below set speed, the compensator increases compounding transmission n: on a
Napoleonic Code. Also called case law. the engine's rpm. Normally, engine operators mechanical-drive rig, the type of transmission
common rail n: the line in a certain type of set the compensator to keep the drop small. that sends power from the engines to the
fuel-injection system for a diesel engine that With a small speed drop, the governor and drawworks and the rotary table, and
keeps fuel at a given pressure and feeds it compensator quickly make the engine go sometimes to the mud pumps. See also
through feed lines to each fuel injector. back to control speed. See govemo1; transmission.
common-rail injection n: a fuel-injection hunting.
system on a diesel engine in which one line, compematory royalty n: payments to royalty
or rail, holds fuel at a certain pressure and owners as compensation for losses in income
feed lines run from it to each fuel injector. that they may be suffering because of failure
community property n: property, usually to develop a lease adequately.
acquired after marriage, held jointly by competitive field n: an oil or gas field com-
husband and wife. prising wells operated by various operators.
Community Right to Know n: see SARA competitive leasing n: a procedure, based
1l"tle Ill. on competitive bidding, used to acquire oil
commutator n: a series of bars connected to and gas leases to federal lands within areas
the armature coils of an electric motor or designated by USGS as known geologic
generator. As the commutator rotates in structures (KGS) or on offshore federal lands.
contact with fixed brushes, the direction of complete a well v: to finish work on a well
flow of current to or from the armature is in and bring it to productive status. See well
one direction only. completion.
comp abbr: completed or completion; used in completion fluid n: low-solids fluid or drilling
drilling reports. mud used when a well is being completed. It
compact n: see insert. is selected not only for its ability to control
compaction n: a decrease in the volume of a formation pressure, but also for the proper-
stratum due to pressure exerted by over- ties that minimise formation damage.
lying strata, evaporation of water, or other compliant piled tower n: an offshore plat-
causes. form jacket that flexes with wind, wave, and
compaction anticline n: see draped anti- current forces and is supported by piles

Comprehensive Environmental Response, compressive yield strength n: the maxi- concrete gravity platform rig n: a rigid
Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 mum stress a metal, subjected to offshore drilling platform built of steel-
(CERCLA) n: a congressional act that gives compression, can withstand without a reinforced concrete and used to drill
the government the authority to clean up any predefined amount of permanent development wens. The platform is floated to
site where there is an unremedied release of deformation. the drilling site in a vertical position. At the
a hazardous substance. Frequent]y, these site, one or more tall caissons that serve as
sites, which are referred to as "Superfund" compressor n: a device that raises the the foundation of the platform are flooded so
sites, are areas where hazardous waste has pressure of a compressible fluid such as air that the platform comes to rest on bottom.
been disposed of improperly. or gas. Compressors create a pressure Because of the enormous weight of the
differential to move or compress a vapour or platform, the force of gravity alone keeps it in
compressibility n: the change in volume per a gas, consuming power in the process. They place. See platform rig.
unit of volume of a liquid caused by a unit may be positive-displacement compressors
change in pressure at constant temperature. or nonpositive-displacement compressors.
compressibility factor n: the ratio of the actual See centrifugal compressor; jet compressor;
volume of gas at a given temperature and reciprocating compressor.
pressure to the volume of gas when
calculated by the idea] gas law. compressor clearance n: the ratio of the
volume remaining in a compressor cylinder at
compression n: the act or process of the end of a compression stroke to the
squeezing a given volume of gas into a volume displaced by one stroke of the piston.
smaller space. Usually expressed as a percentage.

compression ignition (Cl) n: an ignition compressor fuel n: natural gas burned as

method used in diesel engines by which the fuel to operate a compressor.
air in the cylinder is compressed to such a
degree by the piston that ignition occurs upon compressor station n: a facility consisting of
the injection of fuel. About a I-pound (7- one or more compressors with the necessary concrete island drilling system (CIDS) n: a
kilopascal) rise in pressure causes a ZO-F (] auxiliaries for delivering compressed gas. structure made primarily of concrete which is
O-C) increase in temperature. designed for drilling in arctic waters. The
compressor valve n: a device in a structure is very strong and is de- signed to
compression packer n: a packer that is compressor that closes while gas is being withstand the great force of moving ice.
locked in its set position by tubing weight set compressed and opens to allow the concurrent method n: a method for killing
down on it. compressed gas to discharge and well pressure in which circulation is
uncompressed gas to be drawn in. commenced immediately and mud weight is
compression pressure n: the pounds-per- brought up in steps, or increments, usually a
square-inch (kilopascal) increase in pressure Compton effect n: a reaction in which point at a time. Also called circulate- and-
at the end of the compression stroke in an gamma rays with intermediate energy levels weight method.
engine, about 500 pounds per square inch (0.6 to 2.5 million electron volts) lose their condensate n: a light hydrocarbon liquid
(3,500 kilopascals) in a diesel engine. energy by colliding with orbital electrons. obtained by condensation of hydrocarbon
vapours. It consists of varying proportions of
compression ratio n: 1. the ratio of the computerised production control (CPC) n: butane, propane, pentane, and heavier
absolute discharge pressure from a centralised computer control for a completely fractions, with little or no methane or ethane.
compressor to the absolute intake pressure. automated lea.c;e or multilease operation. condensate liquids n pi: hydrocarbons that
2. the ratio of the volume of an engine are gaseous in the reservoir but that will
cylinder before compression to its volume computing counter-printer n: a counter- separate out in liquid form at the pressures
after compression. For example, if a cylinder printer with selective means for setting price and temperatures at which separators
volume of ]0 cubic inches (10 cubic per standard unit of measurement. It can normally operate. Sometimes called distillate.
centimetres) is compressed into] cubic inch (] compute the total price for a quantity of condensate ratio n: the ratio of the volume
cubic centimetre), the compression ratio is product delivered. of liquid produced to the volume of residue
]0:]. gas produced; usually expressed in barrels
concentric piston n: tubing pressure acting per million cubic feet.
compression-refrigeration cycle n: the on the net piston area and causing a force to condensate reservoir n: a reservoir in which
refrigeration cycle in which refrigeration is be exerted on a mandrel. both condensate and gas exist in one
supplied by the evaporation of a liquid homogeneous phase. When fluid is drawn
refrigerant such as propane or ammonia. concentric-tubing workover n: a workover from such a reservoir and the pressure de-
Compare absorption-refrigeration cycle. performed with a small-diameter tubing work creases below the critical level, a liquid
string inside the normal tubing. Equipment phase (condensate) appears.
compression test n: a type of testing used needed is essentially the same as that for a condensate trap n: a device installed on or
extensively on casing head gas that has a conventional workover except that it is near the fuel tank of a drilling rig engine into
propane content of above 0.5 to ].0 gallon per smaller and lighter. which the engine operator drains condensate
thousand cubic feet to determine the liquid water. See condensate water.
hydrocarbon content of the gas. concession n: a tract of land granted by a
compression wave n: wave in an elastic government to an individual or company for
medium that causes an element of the exploration and exploitation of minerals.
medium to change volume without rotating.
condensate water 41 connate water

condensate water n: water that condenses caving in and to conduct drilling mud from the congl abbr: conglomerate; used in drilling
out the air inside a fuel tank. When the bottom of the hole to the surface when drilling reports.
temperature drops, water vapour in the air starts. Also called conductor pipe, drive pipe. conglomerate n: a sedimentary rock
that lies above the fuel in a tank condenses conductor line n: a small-diameter composed of pebbles of various sizes held
into liquid water. This water tends to fall to conductive line used in electric wireline together by a cementing material such as
the bottom of the tank where it can be operations, such as electric well logging and clay. Conglomerates are similar to sandstone
drained. It is good practice to keep the tank perforating, in which the transmission of but are composed mostly of grains more than
full of fuel to minimise the amount of air out of electrical current is required. Compare 2 millimetres (0.08 inch) in diameter. Most
which condensate water can drop. wireline. conglomerates are found in discontinuous,
condensate well n: a gas well producing conductor pipe n: 1. see conductor casing. thin, isolated layers; they are not very
from a condensate reservoir. 2. a boot, or flume. abundant. In common usage, the term
condensation n: the process by which cone n: a conical-shaped metal device into "conglomerate" is restricted to coarse
vapours are converted into liquids, chiefly which cutting teeth are formed or mounted on sedimentary rock with rounded grains;
accomplished by cooling the vapours, a roller cone bit. See roller cone bit. conglomerates made up of sharp, angular
lowering the pressure on the vapours, or cone bit n: a roller bit in which the cutters are fragments are called breccia.
both. Condensation is often the cause of the conical. See bit. conical angle n: the angle of the cone of a
presence of water in fuels. cone offset n: the amount by which lines bit. This angle may be steep, in which case
condenser n: 1. a form of heat exchanger in drawn through the centre of each cone of a the cone has a sharp taper, or it may be
which the heat in vapours is transferred to a bit fail to meet in the centre of the bit. For shallow, in which case the cone has a flatter
flow of cooling water or air, causing the example, in a roller cone bit with three cones, taper.
vapours to form a liquid. 2. a capacitor. three lines can be drawn through the centre conical drilling unit (CDU) n: a drilling
condistometer n: a thickening-time tester of each cone and extended to the centre of structure whose base is shaped like a
having a stirring apparatus to measure the the bit If these cone centrelines do not meet truncated (cut off) cone. It is designed for
relative thickening time for mud or cement in the bit's centre, the coles are said to be drilling in offshore arctic waters, where
slurries under predetermined temperatures offset In general, bits designed for drilling soft moving ice can damage the structure. The
and pressures. formations have more offset than cones for cone shape helps deflect the ice around the
condition v: to treat drilling mud with hard formations, because offset affects the base and keep it intact
additives to give it certain properties. Some- angle at which the bit teeth contact the coning n: the encroachment of reservoir
times the term applies to water used in formation. Since soft formations require a water or gas into the oil column and well
boilers, drilling operations, and so on. To gouging and scraping action by bit teeth, high because of production. The water or gas
condition and circulate mud is to ensure that offset achieves the necessary action. tends to rise near the well bore and assume
additives are distributed evenly throughout a a conical shape.
system by circulating the mud while it is
being conditioned.
conditions of approval n pi: special
conditions or additional requirements that are
attached to permits to drill, deepen, or plug
back. These conditions range from
administrative matters, such as the frequency
and number of required reports, to technical
or environmental conditions, such as
requirements for drilling mud disposal. In all
cases, these are specific conditions that
amplify or explain a requirement in OCSLA,
MMS regulations, OCS Orders, or lease cone-roof tank n: a tank with a fixed conical
stipulations. roof. connate water n: water retained in the pore
conductivity n: 1. the ability to transmit or cone shake n: shaking or vibrating of the spaces, or interstices, of a formation from the
convey (as heat or electricity). 2. an cones of a bit that occurs when the bit time the formation was created. Compare
electricallogging measurement obtained from bearings are worn. interstitial water:
an induction survey, in which eddy currents cone shell n: that part of the cone of a Toner
produced by an alternating magnetic field cone bit out of which the teeth are milled or
induce in a receiver coil a voltage into which tungsten carbide inserts are
proportionate to the ability of the formation to placed and inside of which the bearings are
conduct electricity. See induction log. housed.
conductor n: a material with a high cone skidding n: locking of a cone on a
concentration of free electrons. It readily con- roller cone bit so that it will not turn when the
duct.. an electric current. bit is rotating. Cone skidding results in the
conductor Casing n: generally, the first flattening of the surface of the cone in contact
string of casing in a well. It may be lowered with the bottom of the hole.
into a hole drilled into the formations near the confirmation well n: the second producer in
surface and cemented in place; it may be a new field, following the discovery well.
driven into the ground by a special pile driver conformable adj: layered in parallel and
(in such cases, it is sometimes called drive unbroken rows of rock, indicating that no
pipe); or it may be jetted into place in disturbance occurred during deposition of the
offshore locations. Its purpose is to prevent rock. Compare unconformity.
the soft formations near the surface from
connecting rod 42 continuous steam injection

pressure, because gas expands as it rises in continental margin n: a zone that separates
connecting rod n: 1. a forged-metal shaft the annulus. In any case, it is not a emergent continents from the deep sea
that joins the piston of an engine to the recommended well-control procedure. bottom.
crank-shaft. 2. the metal shaft that is joined to constant pit-level method n: a method of continenetal rise n: the transition zone
the bull gear and crosshead of a mud pump. killing a well in which the mud level in the pits between the continental slope and the
connecting rod bearing n: the bearing is held constant while the choke size is oceanic abyss.
between the rod and the crankshaft. Often reduced and the pump speed slowed. It is continental shelf n: a zone, adjacent ot a
called the rod bearing. not effective, and therefore is not continent, that extends from the lower
connection n: 1. a section of pipe or fitting recommended, because casing pressure waterline to the continental slope, the point at
used to join pipe to pipe or to a vessel. 2. a increases to the point at which the formation which the seafloor begins to slope off steeply
place in electrical circuits where wires join. 3. fractures or the casing ruptures, and control into the oceanic abyss.
the action of adding a joint of pipe to the drill of the well is lost. continental slope n: a zone of steep,
stem as drilling progresses. construction n: in contract law, the variable topography forming a transition from
connection gas n: the relatively small interpretation given by a court of competent the continental shelf edge to the ocean basin.
amount of gas enters a well when the mud jurisdiction for example, an interpretation of continuous development clause n: in an oil
pump is stopped for a connection to be a possibly ambiguous instrument or statute. and gas lease, a clause designed to keep
made. Since bottomhole pressure decreases consultant n: a person who contracts with drilling operations going steadily after the
when the pump is stopped, gas may enter an oil company to supervise the operations at primary term has expired. In some clauses,
the well. a drilling site or well site and to coordinate designated intervals between completion of
connector link n: in roller chain, a type of the hiring of logging, testing, service, and one well and commencement of the drilling of
link used to make a continuous loop of chain workover companies another may require the operator to develop
by connecting the two ends of the chain. The contact n: 1. In geology, any sharp or well- the leased land up to its allowable density.
connector link is a pin link with either a spring defined boundary between two different continuous flowmeter log n: a log used to
clip or a cotter to hold the pins. bodies of rock. 2. A bedding plane or determine the contribution of each zone to
conservation n: preservation; economy; unconformity that separtaes formations. the total production or injection. These
avoidance of waste. It is especially important contact angle n: the angle formed when two sureys are used to indicate chages in the
in the petroleum industry, since the amount immiscible fluids meet a solid surface. For flow pattern versus changes in conditions at
of oil and gas is finite. Many conservation example, in a reservoir where water contacts the suface, in time, in type of operation, or
practices, such as the trapping of a grain of sand or rock, it conforms to the after stimulation treatments; particularly
condensable vapours, are used in the shape of the solid and its angle of contact is useful for measuring gas well flow.
industry. at or near zero. Because of surface tension, continuous flow-responsive sampler n: a
Conservation Award for Respecting the any oil in the area does not conform to the sampler that automatically adjusts the
Environment (CARE) program n: an MMS shape of the water and grain; instead, the oil quantity of sample in proportion to the rate of
award program that recognises and surrounds the wet grain and produces angles flow.
champions exemplary actions and at the point of contact between the oil and the continuous line sampling n: see automatic
accomplishments by private companies water. sampling.
engaged in offshore energy development that contact area n: the gas-oil or oil-water continuous phase n: the liquid in which
support the broader conservation and interface in a reservoir. solids are suspended or droplets of another
environmental goals of the nation, the contact log n: any log in which the logging liquid are dispersed, sometimes called the
Department of the Interior, and the coastal sonde must be put into contact with the walls external phase. In a water-in-oil emulsion, oil
states. of the hole or casing to obtain the log. is the continuous phase. Compare internal
consideration n: a promise or an act of legal contact metamorphism n: a type of phase.
value bargained for and received in return for metamorphism that occurs when an intruded continuous sample n: a pipeline sample
a promise; an essential element of a contract. body of molten igneous rock changes the that is withdrawn in a uniform and continuous
In oil and gas leases, consideration may be rocks immediately around it, primarily ny rate or in one or more increments per minute.
payment in money or in kind; it must often be heating and by chemical alteration. continuous spinner flowmeter n: a
serious consideration. Compare bonus contact metamorphism n: a type of produciton log used to determine which of
consideration. metamorphism that occurs when an intruded several zones contributes the most to the
consistency n: the cohesion of the individual body of molten igneous rock changes the total production or, in the case of an injection
particles of a given materal (i.e., its ability to rocks immediately around it, primarily by well, which zone is receiving the most
deform or its resistance to flow). heating and by chemical alteration. injected fluids.
consistometer n: a thickening-time tester contactor n: 1. a vessel or piece of
with a stirring appratus to measure the equipment in which two or more substances
relative thickening time for mud or cement are brought together. 2. a switch used to
slurries under predetermined temperatures open or close an electric circuit.
and pressures. contaminant n: a material, usually a mud
Console n: see drillers consoel. component, that becomes mixed with cement
Consolidation n: the process by which sand slurry during displacement and that affects it
or other loose materials become firm. adversely.
constant choke-pressure method n: a continental drift n: according to a theory
method of killing a well that has kicked, in proposed by Alfred Wegener, a German
which the choke size is adjusted to maintain meteorologist, in 1910, the migration of
a constant casing pressure. This method continents across the ocean floor like rafts
does not work unless the kick is all or nearly drifting at sea. Compare plate tectonics.
all salt water. If the kick is gas, this method
will not maintain a constant bottomhole
continuous steam injection 43 converter

continuous steam injection n: see steam control head n: a special blowout preventer conventional pollutants n pi: those air
drive. used in snubbing. pollutants that fall under NAAQS:
continuous time-cycle sampler n: a controlled aggregation n: a condition in particulates, ozone, carbon monoxide,
sampler that transfers equal increments of oil which clay platelets remain stacked by a nitrogen dioxide, lead, and sulphur dioxide.
from the pipeline to the sample container at a polyvalent cation, such as calcium, and are Sometimes called criteria pollutants.
uniform rate. deflocculated by use of a thinner. conventional pump n: see fixed pump.
continuous treatment n: in corrosion controlled directional drilling n: see conventional river crossing n: a waterway
control, the constant injection of small directional drilling. crossing in which pipeline construction
quantities of chemical corrosion inhibitors into controller n: an electric device used for techniques similar to those on land are used.
the lines of a production system. governing the power that goes to an In a conventional crossing, the route is
contour map n: a map constructed with apparatus to which it is connected. graded and ditched; the pipe is welded,
continuous lines connecting points of equal control line n: a small hydraulic line used to tested, and pulled across the stream; and
value, such as elevation, formation thickness, run fluid from the surface to a downhole tool, then the pipe is tied in on each side to the
and rock porosity. such as a subsurface safety valve. cross-country line.
contract n: a written agreement that can be control panel n: switches and devices to conventional rotating system n: the rotary
enforced by law and that lists the terms under start. stop, measure, monitor, or signal what drilling system that uses a conventional
which the acts required are to be per- is taking place. swivel, a kelly, a kelly drive bushing, a master
formed. A drilling contract covers such control pod n: see hydraulic control pod. bushing, and a rotary table to turn the drill
factors as the cost of drilling the well control rack n: on a diesel engine, the rack- stem and bit. Compare top drive.
(whether by the foot or by the day), the and-pinion gear that allows the engine conventional tank n: a tank of a shape
distribution of expenses between operator operator to regulate the amount of fuel the commonly used in the petroleum industry. It
and contractor, and the type of equipment to injector forces into the combustion chamber is not constructed to withstand any
be used. of the engine. See rack-and-pinion gear. appreciable pressure or vacuum in the
contract carrier n: a facility that voluntarily control valve n: a valve designed to regulate vapour space; it may, therefore, be gauged
provides its services to others on a private the flow or pressure of a fluid. directly through an open hatch.
contractual basis. control well n: a well previously drilled in an convergence pressure n: the pressure at a
contract demand n: the amount of gas a area of drilling interest, the data from which given temperature for a hydrocarbon system
seller agrees to deliver on a periodic (daily, may be a reliable source of information in the of fixed composition at which the vapour-
monthly, annually) basis in accordance with a planning of a new well. liquid equilibrium values of the various
service agreement. The buyer need not take conventional chart n: a circular paper or components in the system become or tend to
this maximum quantity during the applicable lightweight plastic chart on which circular become unified. The convergence pressure
period. graduations are printed and on which a pen is used to adjust vapour-liquid equilibrium
contract depth n: the depth of the wellbore or stylus draws a recording indicating the values to the particular system under
at which a drilling contract is fulfilled. quantities being measured. Conventional consideration.
contracted reserves n pi: natural gas charts have a uniform scale in that minor conversion n: the change in the chemistry of
reserves dedicated to the fulfillment of gas graduations are spaced an equal distance a mud from one type to another. Reasons for
purchase contracts. between major graduations. making a conversion may be (1) to maintain
contract market n: oldest system for trading conventional completion n: a method for a stable well bore, (2) to provide a mud that
oil. Suppliers offer long-term contracts to completing a well in which tubing is set inside will tolerate higher weight, or density, (3) to
customers with the contracts specifying all 4.5-inch (1.4-centimetre) or larger casing. drill soluble formations, or (4) to protect
terms except price, which is fixed at the time Compare miniaturised completion. producing zones. Also called a breakover.
of sale. conventional coupling n: piping configuration converter n: a device for changing
contract maximum quantity n: the that uses ten diameters of straight full pipe alternating current to direct current or vice
maximum quantity of gas the seller is upstream of a meter and straightening vanes; versa; usually, if the device changes AC to
required to make available to the purchaser the downstream contains five or more full DC, it is called a rectifier.
during a specified period under terms of a pipe diameters.
gas sales contract. Conventional Electric Log n: an electric log
contract minimum quantity n: the minimum in which current flow in the logging tool was
quantity of gas the seller is required to make dispersed through the mud in the wellbore
available to the purchaser during a specified prior to entering the formation. As a result,
period under terms of a gas sales contract. formation resistivity measurements were
contractor n: see drilling contractor: often inaccurate. These logs are no longer
contract volume n: quantity of gas based on used.
measurement conditions and procedures conventional gas-lift mandrel n: see gas-
specified in a gas sales contract. lift mandrel.
control board n: a panel on which are conventional gravel pack n: a type of gravel
grouped various control devices such as pack in which the well's production packer is
switches and levers, along with indicating removed and a service packer is run in with
instruments. the gravel pack assembly. After packing, the
control chart n: a chart of successive meter service tool is retrieved and the production
factors (or relative meter errors) generally packer rerun.
plotted as a function of time. Used to conventional mud n: a drilling fluid
evaluate meter stability and to determine containing essentially clay and water; no
when meter performance has departed from special or expensive chemicals or
its normal range. conditioners are added.
convey 44 corrosion cell

convey v: to transfer title to property from metallic, partly solid, and partly molten coring n: the process of cutting a vertical,
one party to another, usually by means of a interior of the earth, about 4,400 miles (7,084 cylindrical sample of the formations en-
written instrument. kilometres) in diameter. 3. the central, axial countered as an oilwell is drilled. The
coolant n: a cooling agent, usually a fluid, member of a wire rope around which the purpose of coring is to obtain rock samples,
such as the liquid applied to the edge of a strands are laid. v: to obtain a solid, or cores, in such a manner that the rock
cutting tool to carry off frictional heat or a cylindrical formation sample for analysis. See retains the same properties that it had before
circulating fluid for cooling an engine. radiator core. it was removed from the formation.
coolant pump n: see water pump. coring reel n: see sand reel.
cooler n: a heat exchanger that reduces the Coriolis force n: an apparent force caused
temperature of a fluid by transferring the heat by the rotation of the earth about a vertical
to a nonprocess medium. axis. This force causes wind or water to
cooling tower n: a structure in which air move clockwise in the Northern Hemi- sphere
contact is used to cool a stream of water that and counter clockwise in the South- em
has been heated by circulation through a Hemisphere.
system. The air flows countercurrently or corkscrew n: the buckling of tubing in a
crosscurrently to the water. large-diameter pipe or casing.
cooling water n: treated fresh water that core analysis n: laboratory analysis of a Corod n: a trade name for a special form of
circulates inside a diesel engine to transfer core sample to determine porosity, sucker rod. Corod, or continuous rod,
heat. cooperative n: an organisation or penneability, lithology, fluid content, angle of normally has no joints between the downhole
company that collects money or resources dip, geological age, and probable productivity pump and the surface. It is installed into the
from several companies into a common-use of the formation. well by unwinding it from a reel. See sucker
pool, which can be utilised by any core barrel n: a tubular device, usually from rod.
cooperative member if the need arises. One 10 to 60 feet (3 to 18 metres) long, run at the correlate v: to relate subsurface information
of the largest private oil spill response bottom of the drill pipe in place of a bit and obtained from one well to that of others so
cooperatives is the Marine Spill Response used to cut a core sample. that the formations may be charted and their
Corporation (MSRC), formed by a group of core bit n: a bit that does not drill out the depths and thicknesses noted. Correlations
US oil companies. centre portion of the hole, but allows this are made by comparing electrical well logs,
Coordinating Research Council, Inc. centre portion (the core) to pass through the radioactivity logs, and cores from different
(CRC) n: a nonprofit organisation sup- ported round opening in the centre of the bit and into wells.
jointly by the American Petroleum Institute the core barrel. correlative rights n pi: rights afforded the
and the Society of Automotive Engineers, core catcher n: the part of the core barrel owner of each property in a pool to produce
Inc. It administers work of the CFR and other that holds the formation sample. without waste his or her equitable share of
committees that correlate test work and other core customers n pi: see captive customers. the oil and gas in such pool.
studies on fuels, lubricants, engines, and core cutter head n: the cutting element of the corrodent n: a corrosion agent, e.g., acid.
engine equipment. Address: 219 Perimeter core barrel assembly. In design it corrosion n: any of a variety of complex
Centre Parkway, Suite 400; Atlanta, GA corresponds to one of the three main types of chemical or electrochemical processes, e.g.,
30346; (770) 396-3400. bits: drag bits with blades for cutting soft rust, by which metal is destroyed through
co-owners n pi: see cotenants. formations; roller bits with rotating cutters for reaction with its environment.
copolymer n: a substance formed when two cutting medium-hard formations; and corrosion cell n: an area on a corrodable
or more substances polymerise at the same diamond bits for cutting very hard formations. substance (usually metal) where corrosion
time to yield a product which is not a mixture core-drill v: to obtain a core from the bot- occurs because electrical current is able to
of separate polymers but a complex having tom of an existing well by using a core bit. flow.
properties different from either polymer See core (defn. I), core bit.
alone. See polymer. Examples are polyvinyl core marker n: a metal device that is placed
acetatemaleic anhydride copolymer (clay in the inner core barrel before coring. When
extender and selective and selective all of the core has been removed from the
flocculant), acrylamide-carboxylic and core barrel, the core marker falls out to
copolymer (total flocculant). indicate that the barrel is empty. Also called a
copper loss n: see J2R loss. rabbit.
copper strip test n: a test using a small strip corer n: a tool used to obtain cylindrical
of pure copper to determine qualitatively the samples of rock and other materials from the
corrosivity of a product. wellbore.
copper sulfate electrode n: a commonly core sample n: 1. a small portion of a
used nonpolarising electrode used in formation obtained by using a core bit in an
corrosion control to measure the electrical existing wellbore. See core bit. 2. a spot
potential of a metal structure to a surrounding sample of the contents of an oil or oil product
electrolyte to determine the potential for storage tank usually obtained with a thief, or
corrosion damage or to monitor the core sampler, at a given height in the tank.
effectiveness of existing control measures. core thief n: see thief.
See half-cell. core-type junk basket n: a device made up
cord n: a small-diameter wire rope or strand. on a fishing string that drills a formation core
cordage n: all of the rope on a ship or an surrounding and containing the fish to be
offshore drilling rig. retrieved. It has two sets of catchers: one to
cordonazo n: a tropical cyclone in Mexico. break off the drilled core, and another to form
core n: 1. a cylindrical sample taken from a a basket below the core and the fish.
formation for geological analysis. 2. the
corrosion control 45 crank wash

corrosion control n: the measures used to counterbalancing n: the placing of a weight crane n: a machine for raising, lowering, and
prevent or reduce the effects of corrosion. on a mechanism to restore it to equilibrium, revolving heavy pieces of equipment,
These practices can range from simply or balance. especially on offshore rigs and platforms.
painting metal, to isolating it from moisture counterbore n: flat-bottomed enlargement of crank n: an arm keyed at right angles to a
and chemicals and insulating it from galvanic the mouth of a cylindrical bore. v: to enlarge shaft and used for changing radius of rotation
currents, to cathodic protection, in which a part of a hole by means of a counter- bore. or changing reciprocating motion to circular
galvanic or impressed direct electric current countercurrent n: a current that flows motion or circular motion to reciprocating
renders a pipeline cathodic, thus causing it to adjacent to, but in the opposite direction of, motion. On a beam pumping unit, the crank is
be a negative element in the circuit. The use an accompanying current. connected by the pitman to the walking
of chemical inhibitors and closed systems are counter emf n: see back emf. beam, thereby changing circular motion to
other examples of corrosion control. countershaft n: a shaft that gets its reciprocating motion.
corrosion coupon n: a metal strip inserted movement from a main shaft and transmits it crank arm n: a steel member connected to
into a system to monitor corrosion rate and to to a working part. each end of the shaft extending from each
indicate corrosion inhibitor effectiveness. counterweight n: see counterbalance side of the speed reducer on a beam
corrosion fatigue n: metal fatigue weight. pumping unit.
concentrated in corrosion pits. See fatigue. couplant n: that which couples. crank-balanced pumping unit n: a beam
corrosion inhibitor n: a chemical substance couple v: to join, connect with a coupling. pumping unit that has the counterbalance
that minimises or prevents corrosion in metal coupling n: 1. in piping, a metal collar with weight on the crank arm.
equipment. internal threads used to join two sections of crankcase n: die housing that encloses the
corrosion-resisting steel n: a steel alloy threaded pipe. 2. in power transmission, a crankshaft of an engine.
that contains chromium and nickel and that connection extending longitudinally between crank pin n: a cylindrical projection on a
does not corrode as quickly as normal steel a driving shaft and a driven shaft. Most such crank that holds a connecting rod and is held
alloys. couplings are flexible and compensate for by a bearing.
corrosion test n: one of a number of tests to minor misalignment of the two shafts. crankshaft n: a rotating shaft to which
determine qualitatively or quantitatively the courtesy rights n: the rights of a husband to connecting rods are attached. It changes up
corrosion-inducing compounds in a product. a life interest in all of his wife's inheritable and down (reciprocating) motion to circular
corroosiveness n: the tendency to wear lands. These rights come into effect on her (rotary) motion.
away a metal by chemical attack. death, provided the couple have children crank throw n: on a crankshaft, the highly
corrosive product n: a hydrocarbon product capable of inheriting. Effective in some polished and accurately machined portion of
that contains corrosion-inducing com- pounds states. the crankshaft to which a piston rod is
in excess of the specification limits for a covalent reaction n: a method of forming attached.
sweet product. compounds in which atoms share electrons, crank wash n: an off-line method of
corrosivity n: the quality of being corrosive. thus forming nonpolar, or covalent, unions. compressor cleaning in which the
cosurfactant n: a surfactant, generally an coverall clause n: see Mother Hubbard compressor is washed with water and
alcohol, added to a micellar solution to ad- clause. detergent or solvents. Ineffective for
just the viscosity of the solution, maintain its cover depth n: the measurement from the removing baked-on contaminants.
stability, and prevent adsorption of the main top of a pipeline to the top of the soil used to
surfactant by reservoir rock. cover the pipeline along a right-of-way. Ditch
cotenants n pi: persons who hold depth and cover requirements are regulated
possessory interests, from title or a lease, in by the US Department of Transportation.
the same piece of land. Also called co- cover requirements n pi: requirements,
owners or tenants in common. usually set by a regulatory agency,
cotton core n: see fiber core. concerning the characteristics and manner of
coulomb (C) n: the metric unit of electric covering a pipeline.
charge. CP abbr: casing pressure or casing point;
Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) used in drilling reports.
n: a council established under NEPA as the CPC abbr: computerised production control.
agency responsible for ensuring that other CfI. abbr: the correction for pressure on
federal agencies comply with the pro- visions liquid; a factor used during a proving run to
stated in NEPA. adjust for pressure on the liquid in the prover
counterbalance n: see tong counterbalance. and pipe.
counterbalance effect n: the effect of Cps abbr: the correction for pressure on
counterweights on a beam pumping unit. The steel; a factor used during a proving run to
approximate ideal counterbalance effect is adjust for pressure on the steel of the prover
equal to half the weight of the fluid plus the and pipe.
buoyant weight of the rods. cracked gas n: hydrocarbon gases formed in
counterbalance system n: see two-step the catalytic cracking process.
grooving system. cracked naphtha n: the hydrocarbon liquid
counterbalance weight n: a weight applied lighter than kerosene that can be recovered
to compensate for existing weight or force. by catalytic or thermal cracking in a refinery.
On pumping units in oil production, cracking n: the process of breaking down
counterweights are used to offset the weight large chemical compounds into smaller
of the column of sucker rods and fluid on the compounds under the influence of heat or
upstroke of the pump, and the weight of the catalysts. In petroleum refining, the two major
rods on the downstroke. types of cracking are thermal cracking and
catalytic cracking.
crater 46 crown block

crater v: (slang) to cave in; to fail. After a critical speed n: the speed reached by an both an oil and a gas zone, with the gas zone
violent blowout, the force of the fluids engine or rotating system that corresponds to on the bottom.
escaping from the wellbore sometimes blows a resonant frequency of the engine or crossover section n: see angle-control
a large hole in the ground. In this case, the system. Often, in combination with power section.
well is said to have cratered. Equipment impulses, critical speed can cause damaging crossover sub n: a sub that allows different
craters when it fails. shock waves. sizes and types of drill pipe to be joined.
crawler n: a self-propelled X-ray machine critical temperature n: the highest cross sea n: the irregular wave patterns
that rides inside pipe to examine welds for temperature at which a substance can be produced when different wave systems cross
possible defects. separated into two fluid phases-liquid and each other at an angle.
CRC abbr: Coordinating Research Council, vapour. Above the critical temperature, a gas cross section n: I. the property of atomic
Inc. cannot be liquefied by pressure alone. nuclei of having the probability of collision
crd abbr: cored; used in drilling reports. critical value n: see critical point, defn. 1. with a neutron. The nucleus of a lighter
creaming or emulsiom n: the settling or critical velocity n: the velocity at the element is more likely to collide with a
rising of the particles of the dispersed phase transitional point between laminar and neutron than is the nucleus of a heavier
of an emulsion. Identifiable by a difference in turbulent fluid flow. See laminar flow, element. Cross section varies with the
colour shading of the layers formed. turbulent fluid flow. critical volume n: the elements and with the energy of the neutron.
Creaming can be either upward or down- specific volume of gas at its critical 2. a geological or geophysical profile of a
ward, depending on the relative densities of temperature and pressure. vertical section of the earth.
the continuous and dispersed phases. critical weight n: weight placed on the bit cross sectional area n: total area of the wall
created fracture n: fracture induced by that results in tension on the drill string, which thickness if the pipe were to be cut
means of hydraulic or mechanical pressure causes the mill string to vibrate at tile rotary transversally.
exerted on the formation. crest n: the top of a speed being used. A drill stem operating with cross-thread v: to screw together two
wave. critical weight and at the critical speed for threaded pieces when the threads of the
Cretaceous ad}: of or relating to the geologic that weight will have stresses develop that pieces have not been aligned properly.
period from about 135 million to 65 million cause very rapid failure. crown n: I. the crown block or top of a derrick
years ago at the end of the Mesozoic era, or critical zone n: in tanks with floating roofs, or mast. 2. the top of a piston. 3. a high spot
to the rocks formed during this period, the vertical range in which the gauging formed on a tool joint shoulder as the result
including the extensive chalk deposits for measurements are not accurate. of wobble.
which it was named. crooked bole n: a wellbore that has been crown block n: an assembly of sheaves
crew n: 1. the workers on a drilling or unintentionally drilled in a direction other than mounted on beams at the top of the derrick
workover rig, including the driller, the vertical. It usually occurs where there is a or mast and over which the drilling line is
derrickhand, and the rotary helpers. 2. any section of alliterating hard and soft strata reeved. See block, reeve the line. sheave.
group of oilfield workers. steeply inclined from the horizontal.
crew chief n: the driller or head well puller in crooked bole country n: an area in which
charge of operations on a well servicing rig particular subsurface formations make it
that is used to pull sucker rods or tubing. difficult to keep a drilled hole straight.
crg abbr: coring; used in drilling reports. cross assignment n: when several
criminal penalties n pi: penalties (fines or producers, either voluntarily or by state
imprisonment) for damages against society regulation, pool acreages to form a "unit."
or government, typically determined by court They may cross-assign their leases to one
cases brought against individuals or another, creating a common obligation to
corporations. each royalty owner.
criteria pollutants n pi: the six air pollutants cross-bedding n: sedimentation in which
listed under NAAQS in the CAA: ozone, laminations are transverse to the main
carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide,lead. stratification planes.
nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter. crosshead n: the block in a mud pump that
Sometimes called conventional pollutants. is guided to move in a straight line and
critical density n: the density of a substance serves as a connection between the pony rod
at the critical temperature and pressure. and the Commenting rod.
critical flow n: the rate of flow of a fluid that cross linking n: a process of molecular
is equivalent to the speed of sound in that bridging of polymers with other chemical
fluid. substances that alters viscosity and shear
critical-flow prover n: a pipe-shaped device rates to enhance lifting of bit cuttings and
with a restriction, usually an orifice or nozzle, increase drilling rates.
that is used to measure the velocity of gas crossover n: the place at each end of the
flow during an open-flow test of a gas well. drawworks drum where the drilling line being
critical point n: 1. the point at which, in spooled onto or off of the drum stops moving
terms of temperature and pressure, a fluid in one direction and starts moving in the
cannot be distinguished as being either a gas other direction. Also called turn back.
or a liquid, i.e., the point at which die physical crossover joint n: a length of casing with one
properties of a liquid and a gas are identical. thread on the field end and a different thread
2. one of the places along die length of in the coupling, used to make a changeover
milling line at which strain is exerted as pipe from one thread to anod1er in a string of
is run into or pulled out of the hole. casing.
critical pressure n: the pressure needed to cover packer n: a type of packer developed
condense a vapour at its critical temperature. for a dual-completion well in which there are
crown frame flanges 47 curtailment

crown frame flanges n pi: projections on the Ctl abbr: the correction for temperature of current n: 1. the flow of electric charge or the
frame to which the crown block is attached. liquid; a factor used during proving to convert rate of such flow, measured in amperes. 2.
Crown-O-Matic n: see crown saver: the temperature of a liquid to a standard the predominantly horizontal movement of
crown platform n: the working platform at temperature. ocean waters.
the top of the derrick or mast that permits Cts abbr: the correction for temperature of current meter n: an instrument that records
access to the sheaves of the crown block and steel; a factor used during proving to adjust an ocean current's speed and direction
provides a safe working area for service to the temperature of the prover steel to a (along with temperature, salinity, pressure,
the gin pole. See crown block. standard temperature. and other variables). The current meter is
crown saver n: a device mounted near the CU abbr: cubic. moored in position by an anchor or weight on
drawworks drum to keep the driller from Cu abbr: cumulus. the ocean bottom that is connected to a float
inadvertently raising the travelling block into cubic centimetre (cm ) n: a commonly used at the surface.
the crown block. A probe senses when too unit of volume measurement in the metric curtailment n: reduction in service or
much line has been pulled onto the drum, system equal to 10-6 cubic metre, or I purchases below contracted-for levels.
indicating that the travel block is about to millilitre. The volume of a cube whose edge is Curtailment of gas sales service is a method
strike the crown. The probe activates a 1 centimetre. of balancing a utility's natural gas
switch that simultaneously disconnects the cubic foot (ft3) n: the volume of a cube, all requirements with its natural gas supply.
drawworks from its power source and edges of which measure I foot. Natural gas in There is usually a hierarchy of customers for
engages the drawworks brake. the United States is usually measured in the curtailment plan based on priority of us-
crown walkaround n: the structure at the top cubic feet. with the most common standard age according to established regulatory
of the drilling derrick or mast that supports cubic foot being measured at roof and 14.65 standards of priority. A customer may be
the crown block. Also called water table. pounds per square inch absolute, although required to cut back partially or totally to
crow's nest n: an elevated walkway where base conditions vary from state to state. eliminate this take of gas, depending on the
employees work (as on the top of a derrick or cubic metre (m ) n: a unit of volume severity of the shortfall between gas sup- ply
a refinery tower). measurement in the metric system, replacing and demand and the customer's position in
crude oil n: unrefined liquid petroleum. It the previous stagnant unit known as the the hierarchy. From the customer's
ranges in gravity from 9. API to 55. API and barrel, which was equivalent to 35 imperial standpoint. curtailment may also mean a
in colour from yellow to black. and may have gallons or 42 US gallons. The cubic metre reduction by the customer of its takes of gas
a paraffin, asphalt, or mixed base. If a crude equals approximately 6.2898 barrels. from its supplier. Curtailment of a
oil, or crude, contains a sizeable amount of cumulonimbus n: a cloud formed from a transportation service occurs when demands
sulphur or sulphur compounds, it is called a cumulus cloud that has reached great vertical for service exceed the capacity of the
sour crude; if it has little or no sulphur, it is development. This type of cloud has a top pipeline. Capacity curtailment is based on
called a sweet crude. In addition, crude oils composed of ice crystals and a bottom contract rather than end-use priority. All
may be referred to as heavy or light composed of water droplets. Also called a interruptible service must be entirely cur-
according to API gravity, the lighter oils thunderhead. tailed before any firm service is curtailed.
having the higher gravities. cumulus n: a white, puffy cloud with a dark Currently, interruptible transportation service
crude oil average domestic first purchase base. Its shape is constantly changing. is curtailed based on position in the first-
price n: the average price at which all Prominent in the summer months, cumulus come, first-served queue. Firm transportation
domestic crude oil is purchased. Before clouds generally cover only 25% of the sky. service is usually curtailed on a pro rata
February 1976, the price represented an cup case thermometer n: a holder for a basis.
estimate of the average of posted prices; mercury-in-glass thermometer that
since then, it represents an average of actual incorporates a small metal container into
first purchase prices. Frequently called which the bulb of the thermometer is inserted
wellhead price. and that serves to hold a small sample of
crude oil refinery input n: total crude oil liquid the temperature of which is being
(including lease condensate input to crude oil measured. The liquid in the cup keeps the
distillation units and other processing units. bulb sub-merged in liquid until the
crude oil stocks n: stocks of crude oil and temperature is recorded.
lease condensate held at refineries, in pipe- cup pecker n: a device made up in the drill
lines, at pipeline terminals, and on leases. stem and lowered into the well to allow the
crust n: the outer layer of the earth, varying casing and blowout presenters to be
in thickness from 50 to 30 miles (10 to 50 pressure- tested. The sealing device is cup-
kilometres). It is composed chiefly of oxygen, shaped and is therefore called a cup.
silicon, and aluminum. cup test n: see packer test.
cryogenic plant n: a gas-processing plant cup-type elements n pi: rubber seals that
that is capable of producing natural gas liquid are energised by pressure and not by
products, including ethane, at very low mechanical force.
operating temperatures. cure v: to age cement under specified
cryogenics n: the study of the effects of very conditions of temperature and pressure.
low temperatures. cure a title v: to remedy defects and
crystalline e n: rock texture that is the result omissions that, in the opinion of the
of progressive and simultaneous interlocking examining attorney, could make the present
growth of mineral crystals. Compare clastic owner's claim to property questionable. To
texture. cure a title. a title examiner may require
crystallisation n: the formation of crystals additional facts not evident in the material
from solutions or melts. examined. The curative material is usually
Cs abbr: cirrosttatus. obtained in recordable form.
cushion 48 CZM

cushion n: a quantity of water, drilling fluid, sides) of the bit that scrapes, gouges, or cycling plant n: a plant that cycles residue
or compressed gas placed inside drill pipe or otherwise removes the formation to make gas back into the reservoir.
tubing to control both annular and formation hole. 2. the parts of a reamer that actually cyclogenesis n: the development of a low-
pressures. Usually mud in the pipe or tubing contact the wall of the hole and open it to full pressure system, or cyclone.
supports prevents the pipe or tubing from gauge. A three-point reamer has three cyclone n: 1. a low-pressure area, around
collapsing; mud also holds back formation cutters; a six-point reamer has six cutters. which wind flow is counter-clockwise in the
pressure pushing up the pipe or tubing. But Cutters are available for different formations. Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the
sometimes, such as in drill stem testing, it is cutting in n: an action of wire rope during Southern Hemisphere. The term is
necessary to have empty pipe or tubing loose drum spooling in which a layer of rope sometimes used to describe storms occurring
downhole. The cushion protects the pipe or spreads apart so that the next layer travels in in the atmosphere; in the Indian Ocean it is
tubing until it is in place. It also allows control the groove produced. Crushing, flattening, or used to designate a tropical cyclone. 2. a
of the rising formation pressure as the distorting of the rope results. device for the separation of various particles
cushion is removed, as in drill stem testing, to cuttings n pI: the fragments of rock from a drilling fluid, most commonly used as
prevent formation damage. dislodged by the bit and brought to the a desander. The fluid is pumped tangentially
cushion gas n: see blanket gas. sulphur in the drilling mud. Washed and dried into a cone, and the fluid rotation provides
custodian n: also called a lease operator or cuttings samples are analysed by geologists enough centrifugal force to separate particles
pumper. See pumper. to obtain information about the formations by mass weight.
custody transfer n: the changing of the drilled. cyclonic wind n: the wind associated with a
ownership of or the responsibility for low-pressure area.
quantities of gas, petroleum, or petroleum cyclonite n: a powerful, highly explosive
products. See also lease automatic custody material (cyclo-trimethylene-trinitramine)
transfer: used as the main charge in jet perforating
cut n: 1. portion or fraction of hydrocarbons guns. Also called RDX. See jet-perforate.
that have been separated according to cycloparaffin n: a saturated nonaromatic
boiling point or gravity. 2. the line of hydrocarbon compound with ring-shaped
demarcation on the measuring scale made molecules. of the general chemical formula
by the material being measured. CnH2n' Also called naphthene.
cut and fill v: to cut down high ground or fill cylinder n: 1. the unit of an internal-
in low ground to achieve a uniform grade for combustion engine in which combustion and
cuttings-sample log n: a record of hydro-
a pipeline. compression take place. 2. a chamber in a
carbon content in cuttings gathered at the
cut-and-fill boundary n: the limits to which a pump from which the piston expels fluid.
shale shaker; usually recorded on the mud
crew may cut and fill when laying a pipeline. cylinder block n: a housing that has one or
cut drilling fluid n: a drilling mud whose more cylinders in it. See engine block.
CWA abbr: Oean Water Act.
density has been decreased by the cylinder gas n: liquefied petroleum gas,
cycle n: the number of strokes a piston
entrainment of formation fluids or air. oxygen, acetylene. or any other gas that is
makes from one intake stroke to another
cut fluorescence test n: a test involving the C(XD- pressed and confined in a pressure
intake stroke. Diesel engines may have either
observation of a formation sample immersed cylinder.
two strokes or four strokes per cycle.
in solvent and under ultraviolet light. If any cylinder head n: the device used to seal the
cycle condense n: condense produced from
hydrocarbons, which fluoresce under top of a cylinder. In modem drilling rig
cycle gas.
ultraviolet light, are in the sample, they will engines, it also houses the valves and has
cycle gas n: gas that is compressed and
dissolve and appear as streamers or streaks exhaust passages. In four-cycle operation,
returned to the gas reservoir to minimise the
of colour different from the solvent. the cylinder head also has intake passages.
decline of reservoir pressure.
cutoff valve n: a special valve on an engine Also called head.
cyclic compound n: a compound that
that, when activated, blocks the flow of fuel to cylinder liner n: a removable. replaceable
contains a ring of atoms.
the engine to make it stop running. sleeve that fits into a cylinder. When the
cyclic steam injection n: the injection of
cut oil n: an oil that contains water, usually in sliding of the piston and rings wears out the
steam into the rock surrounding a production
the form of an emulsion. Also called wet oil. liner. it can be replaced without the block's
well to lower the viscosity of heavy oil and
cutterhead n: in pipeline construction, the having to be replaced.
increase its flow into the wellbore. Steam
lead component in a directional drilling CZM abbr: coastal zone management. actual
injection may be followed by immediate
assembly. A circular steel band ringed with boring of the hole for the pipeline under the
production or by closing the well (called the
conical cutting teeth, the cutterhead does the waterway being crossed. Also called fly
soak phase) to allow even heat distribution
actual boring of the hole for the pipeline cutter.
before production is begun. The cycle of
under the waterway being crossed. Also
injection, soak, and production is repeated as
called fly cutter.
long as the oil yield is profitable. Also called
steam soak and huff 'n' puff.
cyclic stressing n: stress that occurs on a
pipe. vessel. or machine in cycles. such as
the sucker rod string.
cycling n: the process by which effluent gas
from a gas reservoir is passed through a gas-
processing plant or separation system and
the remaining residue gas returned to the
reservoir. The word recycling is sometimes
cutters n pI: 1. on a bit used on a rotary rig, used for this function, but it is not the
the elements on the end (and sometimes the preferred term.
D&A abbr: dry and abandoned; used in dart n: a device, similar to a ball, used to daywork rates. In effect, daywork rates pay
drilling reports. manipulate hydraulically operated down- hole the drilling contractor by the hour rather than
daily contract quantity (DCQ) n: that daily tools. See ball. by the foot.
quantity of gas, formulated on some basis dart-type inside blowout preventer n: a drill DC abbr: I. direct current. 2. drill collar; used
(usually a combination of reserves and pipe inside blowout preventer that is installed in drilling reports.
delivery capacity or delivery capacity only). on top of the drill stem when the well is DCFR abbr: discounted cash flow rate of
that the pipeline company will attempt to kicking through the drill stem. It is stabbed in return.
take; mayor may not equal the take-or-pay the open position and then closed against the DDC abbr: deck decompression chamber.
quantity. pressure. The valve that closes is dart- dead end n: the end of a brake band that is
daily drilling report n: a record made each shaped, thus the name. anchored to the drawworks frame and does
day of the operations on a working drilling rig database n: a complete collection of not move.
and, traditionally. phoned or radioed in to the information, such as contained on magnetic deadline n: the drilling line from the crown
office of the drilling company every morning. disks or in the memory of an electronic block sheave to the anchor. so called
Also called morning report. See driller's computer. because it does not move. Comparefastline.
report. datum n: any numerical or geometrical
Dalton's law n: the law that states that the quantity or quantities that serve as a
pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the reference or base for other quantities.
sum of the partial pressures of the gases of datum elevation n: a reference elevation, or
which it is composed. Also called law of height, used in mapping, usually sea level.
partial pressures. datum level n: a height. or elevation, usually
damage clause n: the clause in an oil and sea level, from which altitudes are measured
gas lease that specifies that the lessee will in surveys.
be liable to the surface owner for damage to datum plate n: a level metal plate attached
growing crops and other listed items. to the tank shell or bottom and located
dampener n: an air- or inert gas-filled de- directly under the gauging reference point to
vice that minimises pressure surges in the provide a fixed contact surface from which
output line of a mud pump. Sometimes called liquid depth measurement can be made.
a surge dampener. datum point n: the point to which all
dampening n: the dissipation of energy in measurements for the calibration of a tank
motion of any type. especially oscillatory are related.
motion, and the consequent reduction of davit n: an A-frame that booms out 5 to 10
deadline anchor n: see deadline tie-down
decay of the motion. feet over the side of a barge. It has a cable or
damper n: a valve or plate used to regulate chain that is lowered to pick up pipeline. A
deadline sheave n: the sheave on the crown
the flow of air or other gas. diver attaches the pipeline to the line and it is
block over which the deadline is reeved.
damping sub n: see Shock Sub. reeled in on the davit.
D&P platform n: a drilling and production daylight tour (pronounced "tower") n: in
platform. Such an offshore platform is a large areas where three 8-hour tours are worked,
structure with room to drill and Complete a the shift of duty on a drilling rig that starts at
number of wells. or about daylight. Compare evening tour;
darcy (Pl. darcys) n: a unit of measure of graveyard tour.
permeability. A porous medium has a day tank n: a fuel tank in the fuel supply
permeability of 1 darcy when differential system for a diesel engine between the main
pressure of 1 atmosphere across a sample 1 supply tank and the engine that holds a
centimetre long and I square centimetre in limited amount of fuel.
cross section will force a liquid of 1 centipoise day tour (pronounced "tower") n: in areas
of viscosity through the sample at the rate of where two 12-hour tours are worked. a period
1 cubic centimetre per second. The of 12 daylight hours worked by a drilling or
permeability of reservoir rocks is usually so workover crew when equipment is being run
low that it is measured in millidarcys. around the clock.
Datty's law n: a law stating that the rate of daywork adj: descriptive of work done on
flow of a fluid through a rock varies directly daywork rates.
with the amount of interconnected pore daywork rates n pi: the basis for payment on
space (permeability) and the applied drilling contracts when footage rates are
pressure and varies inversely with the suspended (as when the drilling rig is used in
viscosity, or flow resistance, of the fluid. taking extra cores. logging. or other activities
that delay actual drilling) or when the contract
calls for the entire well to be drilled at

deadline tie-down anchor 50 deflect-to-connect connection

deadline tie-down anchor n: a device to pressure. It is especially equipped to help deep-well pump n: a production pump
which the deadline is attached, securely divers complete their decompression designed for service in a deep well.
fastened to the mast or derrick substructure. schedules and may also be used to treat deethanised liquid n: hydrocarbon mixture
Also called a deadline anchor. diving casualties. One or more of the remaining after the removal of ethane and
deadman n: 1. a buried anchor to which guy compartments may be installed on the deck lighter hydrocarbons.
wires are tied to steady the derrick, mast, of a work boat or barge. deferred production agreement n: an
stacks, and so on. 2. an anchoring point declination n: 1. the angle, variable with agreement between working-interest owners
against which the winch on a boring machine geographic position, between the direction in of a lease under which an owner's share of
for pipe lining can pun. which a magnetic needle points and the true the gas reserves under the lease is
dead oil n: oil in which little or no gas is meridian. 2. a turning aside or swerving. considered to remain in the reservoir while
dissolved. decompression n: the process of gradually the other owner's share of the gas is being
dead sheave (pronounced "shiv") n: the lowering elevated ambient pressure to produced.
sheave on a crown block over which the eliminate dissolved gases from a diver's deficiency gas n: the difference between the
deadline is reeved. blood- stream and tissues. quantity of gas a purchaser is obligated by a
deadweight ton (dwt) n: a unit of capacity of decompression sickness n: a condition gas sales contract to take or to pay for if not
tank ships equal to the difference in tons resulting from the formation of gas bubbles in taken and the quantity of gas actually taken.
between the ship's displacement when a diver's blood or tissues during ascent. deficiency payment n: the amount paid by
unloaded and when loaded. Failure to rid tissues of the inert gas may the purchaser for the quantity of deficiency
dead well n: 1. a wen that has ceased to cause a wide variety of symptoms, including gas as required by a gas sales contract.
produce oil or gas, either temporarily or pain, nausea, paralysis, unconsciousness, deflection n: a change in the angle of a well-
permanently. 2. a wen that has kicked and temporary blindness, and even death. Also bore. In directional drilling, it is measured in
been killed. called the bends. degrees from the vertical.
deadwood n: any fitting, appurtenance, or decompression table n: a profile of ascent
structural member that affects the capacity of rates and breathing mixtures that safely
an oil storage tank. It is positive if it increases reduce the pressure on a diver to
tank capacity and negative if it decreases atmospheric after a dive. The table shows
capacity. depths, bottom times, decompression stops,
dead wraps n: the first of several wraps of and total decompression times.
wire rope around the drawworks drum that decontaminants n pi: materials added to
will never be played out (unspooled) as the cements or cement slurries to counteract the
rope moves off the drum. effects of contamination.
deaerator n: a device used for removing air decontamination n: (under HAZWOPER)
or other noncondensable gases from a the removal of hazardous substances from
process stream or steam condensate and employees and their equipment to the extent
boiler feed water. necessary to preclude the occurrence of
Dean-Stark apparatus n: a device that uses foreseeable adverse health effects.
a solvent to reflux, or flow back over, a decontrol n: the act of ending federal
sample to clean it. Such a device extracts oil government control of the wellhead price of deflection tool n: a device made up in the
or salt-laden water efficiently without harming new natural gas sold in interstate commerce. drill string that causes the bit to drill at an
the core samples. Also called deregulation. angle to the existing hole. It is often called a
DEA unit n: a treating system using dedication n: the commitment of reserves of kickoff tool. because it is used at the kick-off
diethanolamine (DEA) for reduction of natural gas to a buyer or lessor. point to start building angle.
hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, carbonyl deed of trust n: an instrument used to deflect-to-connect connection n: an under-
sulfide, and other acid gases from sour transfer legal title to property as security for water pipe-joining technique in which the pipe
process streams. the repayment of a loan or the fulfillment of is pulled to a target area in line with the
debug v: to detect, locate, and correct mal- some other obligation. Compare mortgage. platform but to one side of it. The connection
functions in a computer, instrumentation, or deep drilling n: any drilling project that is is made by winding or otherwise deflecting
other type of system. deeper than average for a given area or time the pipe laterally until it mates with the riser
deburr v: to remove small projections (burrs) period. connection. Compare direct pull-in
from metal pieces or threads. deepen v: to increase the depth of a well. connection.
debutanised liquid n: hydrocarbon mixture Deepening is generally a workover operation
remaining after the removal of butane and carried out to produce from a deeper
lighter hydrocarbons. formation or to control excessive gas found in
debutaniser n: a unit of equipment for the upper levels of a reservoir.
separating butane, with or without lighter deep-sea dress n: see standard dress.
components, from a mixture of hydrocarbons deep tank n: one of the bulk liquid tanks on
and leaving a bottoms product that is freighters, usually under the cargo holds.
essentially butane free. deep test well n: see exploration well.
decanewton n: ten times the newton, which deep water n: in offshore operations. water
is the unit of force in the metric system. depths greater than normal for the time and
decision tree n: a graphic representation of current technology.
predicted financial gains or losses for the deepwater adj: of or pertaining to operations
outcomes of several courses of action. in deep water.
deck n: (nautical) floor. deepwater drilling n: offshore drilling
deck decompression chamber n: a operations in relatively deep oceans or seas.
chamber in which excessive pressure can It presents a number of special problems
gradually be reduced to atmospheric related to water depth.
deflocculation 51 density log

deflocculation n: the dispersion of solids operations and keeping the lease valid. May tanks to a diver's ambient pressure so that
that have stuck together in drilling fluid, be paid monthly, quarterly, or annually. he or she can breathe the air with no
usually by means of chemical thinners. See delineation well n: a well drilled in an resistance. Also called open-circuit regulator.
flocculation. existing field to determine, or delineate, the demethaniser n: see rich-oil demethaniser.
defoamer n: any chemical that prevents or extent of the reservoir. demulsifier n: a chemical with properties
lessens frothing or foaming in another agent. deliquescence n: the liquefaction of a solid that cause the water droplets in a water-in-
deformation n: the action of earth stresses substance due to the solution of the solid by oil emulsion to merge and settle out of the
that results in folding, faulting, shearing, or adsorption of moisture from the air. oil, or oil droplets in an oil-in-water emulsion
compression of rocks. deliverability n: the ability of a gas to be to coalesce, when the chemical is added to
degasser n: the device used to remove delivered. the emulsion. Also called emulsion breaker.
unwanted gas from a liquid, especially from deliverability capacity n: the maximum See demulsify, emulsion breaker.
drilling fluid. amount of gas a producer can deliver to the demulsifier-solvent stock n: a combination
degradation product n: an unwanted purchaser at a specified delivery point. of a demulsifier and solvent that is used
substance produced because of some deliverability plot n: a graph that compares during testing for the suspended S& W con-
reaction such as cracking, dehydrogenation, flowing bottom hole pressure of a well with tent of oil and during other operations.
or polymerization. The term implies the production in barrels of oil per day to show demulsify v: to resolve an emulsion,
formation of a contaminant or low-value the relationship between draw down and the especially of water and oil, into its
product. producing rate. Its main purpose is to find the components. See emulsion treating.
degrade v: to break down a compound; to most efficient flow rate for the well. densification n: the process of making a
deteriorate. deliverability test n: a type of test for either substance heavier, or denser. For example,
degree API n: a unit of measurement of the an oil well or a gas well to determine the in a gas plant, a product may be densified.
American Petroleum Institute that indicates actual flow rate. Densilog n: a logging company's name for a
the weight, or density, of oil. See API gravity. delivery n: I. the actual volume delivered density log.
degree-day n: a unit of temperature and through a meter during a proving or metering densimeter n: a device that measures the
time, computed per day, equivalent to the operation. 2. a volume of delivered liquid that specific gravity or relative density of a gas,
difference between a 65F (18.3C) base and is measured by a meter. A batch or tender liquid, or solid.
a daily mean temperature (when the latter is may also be called a delivery. See batch. densitometer n: see densimeter.
less than 65F). The total of degree-days for delivery capacity (DC) n: the total daily rate density n: the mass or weight of a substance
a given period of time can be used to that seller maintains and can deliver on per unit volume. For instance, the density of
estimate energy requirements such as the demand over an extended period to buyer. a drilling mud may be 10 pounds per gallon,
amount of fuel oil needed to heat a building. delivery gas n: natural gas delivered to a 74.8 pounds/cubic foot, or 1,198.2
dehydrate v: to remove water from a sub- distribution point, such as a gas plant or a kilograms/cubic metre. Specific gravity,
stance. Dehydration of crude oil is normally city gate. Compare redelivery gas. relative density, and API gravity are other
accomplished by treating with emulsion deliveryman n: a shipper's representative units of density.
breakers. The water vapor in natural gas who takes delivery of oil from a pipeline density log n: a special radioactivity log for
must be removed to meet pipeline company at a terminal or junction. open-hole surveying that responds to
requirements; a typical maximum allowable delivery ticket n: see measurement ticket. variations in the specific gravity of
water vapor content is 7 pounds per million delivery tube n: a small device used inside a formations. It is a contact log (i.e., the
cubic feet (3.2 kilograms per million cubic bottle when tap sampling. The tube al- lows logging tool is held against the wall of the
metres) per day. for the delivery of liquid from the tank into the hole). It emits neutrons and then measures
dehydration n: the removal of water or water bottle with little or no splashing. the secondary gamma radiation that is
vapor from gas or oil. delta n: see lacustrine delta. marine delta. scattered back to the detector in the
dehydration plant n: a plant having delta connection n: three-wire connection instrument. The density log is an excellent
equipment or apparatus for effecting used in three-phase circuits, resembling the porosity-measure device, especially for
dehydration. Greek letter delta (A). Used alone or in shaley sands. Some trade names are
dehydrator n: equipment or apparatus for various combinations with wye connections. Formation Density Log, Gamma- Gamma
effecting dehydration. demand n: the quantity of oil, gas, or other Density Log, and Densilog.
dehydrogenation n: the process of petroleum products, or commodities (such as
removing hydrogen from a compound. electricity) wanted at a specified time and
delamination n: a phenomenon in which price.
layers of surface metal peel away from the demand meter n: a quantity recorder that
rest of the metal body. Journal (plain) measures and integrates the instantaneous
bearings sometimes fail by delamination. demands on a circuit during a given period,
delayed (chronic) health hazard n: usually 15 minutes.
carcinogens and other hazardous chemicals demand rate n: the highest rate of power
that cause an adverse effect on a target consumption for a minimum period of 15
organ (as defined by the Code of Federal minutes during a billing period, usually one
Regulations) that manifests itself after a long month. This rate is registered on a demand
period of time following or during repeated meter.
contact with the substance. demand regulator n: the part of the open-
delay rental n: a sum of money payable to circuit diving system that allows a diver to
the lessor by the lessee for the privilege of expel all used air directly into the water and
deferring the commencement of drilling avoid rebreathing exhaled carbon dioxide.
The regulator reduces the air pressure in the
dent 52 desiccant

dent n: a small depression made b, striking overriding royalty, production payment assembly of heavy beams used to elevate
or pressing. Sometimes called, ding. interest, and net profits interest. the derrick and provide space to install
Department of Energy (DOE) n: a federal depletion drive n: see gas drive. blowout preventers, casingheads, and so
department set up to provide a frame- work depletion n: the laying down of sediments or forth. Because the standard derrick must be
for a complete and balanced national energy other potential rock-forming material. assembled piece by piece, it has largely
plan through coordination and ad- depositional environment n: the set of been replaced by the mast, which can be
ministration of the energy functions of the physical, chemical, and geological conditions lowered and raised without disassembly.
federal government. It is responsible for long- (such as climate. stream flow, and sediment Compare mast.
term, high-risk research and development of source) under which a rock layer was laid
energy technology, the marketing of federal down.
power, energy conservation, the nuclear depreciation n: 1. decrease in value of an
weapons program, energy regulatory asset such as a plant or equipment due to
programs, and a central energy data normal wear or passing of time; real property
collection and analysis program. Address: (land) does not depreciate. 2. an annual
1000 Independence Ave. SW; Washington, reduction of income reflecting the loss in
DC 20585; (202) 586-5000. useful value of capitalized investments by
Department of the Interior (DOl) n: a reason of wear and tear. The concept of
federal department set up as the nation's depreciation recognizes that the purchase of
principal conservation agency. The DOl is an asset other than land will benefit several
responsible for nationally owned lands and accounting cycles (periods) and should be
natural resources. It fosters wise use of land expensed periodically over its useful life.
and water resources, protects fish and wild- depressure v: to release the pressure
life, preserves the environmental and cultural contained in a tank, vessel, or pipe to a
derrick floor n: also called the rig floor or the
values of national parks and historic places, predetermined value. See bleed.
depropaniser n: a unit of equipment for drill floor. See rig floor.
and provides for the enjoyment of life through
derrickhand n: the crew member who
outdoor recreation. Address: 1849 C Street separating propane, with or without lighter
handles the upper end of the drill string as it
NW; Washington, DC 20240; (202) 208- components. from a mixture of hydrocarbons
3100. and leaving a bottoms product that is is being hoisted out of or lowered into the
Department of Transportation (DOT) n: a essentially propane-free. hole. On a drilling rig, he or she is also
depth n: 1. the distance to which a well is responsible for the circulating machinery and
federal department that develops regulations
governing transportation. Each mode of drilled, stipulated in a drilling contract as the conditioning of the drilling or workover
transportation has a different administration. contract depth. Total depth is the depth after fluid.
derrickman n: see derrickhand.
The administrations under DOT include the drilling is finished. 2. on offshore drilling rigs,
desalt v: to remove dissolved salt from crude
US Coast Guard, the Federal Aviation the distance from the baseline of a rig or a
Administration, the Federal Highway ship to the uppermost continuous deck. 3. oil. Sometimes fresh water is injected into the
crude stream to dissolve salt for removal by
Administration, the Federal Railroad the maximum pressure that a diver attains
Administration, the National Highway Traffic during a dive. expressed in feet (metres) of electrostatic treaters.
desander n: a centrifugal device for
Safety Administration, the Urban Mass seawater.
depth in n: the depth of the wellbore when a removing sand from drilling fluid to prevent
Transportation Administration, the Saint
Lawrence Seaway Development new bit or other tool is run in. Compare depth abrasion of the pumps. It may be operated
Corporation, and the Research and Special mechanically or by a fast-moving stream of
depthometer n: a device used to measure fluid inside a special cone-shaped vessel, in
Programs Administration. Address: 400 7th
Street SW; Washington, DC 205W; (202) the depth of a well or the depth at a specific which case it is sometimes called a
366-4000. point in a well (such as to the top of a liner or hydrocyclone. Compare desiller.
descent and distribution laws n: the laws
departure n: see deviation. to a fish) by counting the turns of a calibrated
deplete v: to exhaust a supply. An oil and wheel rolling on a wireline as it is lowered in a state that determine the disposition of
gas reservoir is depleted when most or all into or pulled out of the well. property among heirs in the absence of a
economically recoverable hydrocarbons have depth out n: the depth of the wellbore when
desiccant n: a substance able to remove
been produced. a bit or other tool is pulled out of the hole.
depletion n: 1. the exhaustion of a resource. Compare depth in. water from another substance with which it is
in contact. It may be liquid (e.g., triethylene
2. a reduction in income reflecting the derating factor n: the percentage of the
exhaustion of a resource. The concept of rated power output that a given motor can glycol) or solid (e.g., silica gel).
depletion recognizes that a natural resource deliver without being thermally overloaded.
such as oil is used up over several deregulation n: see decontrol.
accounting periods and permits the value of deregulation clause n: a clause in a con-
this resource to be expensed periodically as tract currently governed by regulatory price
the resource is exhausted. ceilings to provide a process to reset the
depletion allowance n: a reduction in US price of gas should price controls and
taxes for owners of an economic interest in regulatory authority cease.
minerals in place to compensate for the derrick n: a large load-bearing structure,
exhaustion of an irreplaceable capital asset. usually of bolted construction. In drilling, the
This economic interest includes mineral standard derrick has four legs standing at the
interest, working interest in a lease, royalty, comers of the substructure and reaching to
the crown block. The substructure is an
desiccator 53 DF

sends an electric current through a cable to a deviation and azimuth indicator n: see
desiccator n: a device used for removing pulse generator. double recorder.
moisture from substances. For drying core detent n: a mechanism that keeps one part deviation effect n: when a gas is confined
samples, the desiccator is a container with a in a certain position relative to that of an- within a pressure-tight container, the
bottom section holding moisture-absorbing other; it can be released by applying force to tendency of the gas pressure to be slightly
chemicals and a top section in which the one of the parts. above or below that which is normally
sample is placed. detergent n: in lubricating oils and in some expected because of the attraction or
design factor n: the ratio of the ultimate load engine fuels, a chemical that is added to the repulsion of individual gas molecules.
a vessel or structure will sustain to the oil or to the fuel that suspends dirt, carbon, deviation survey n: an operation made to
permissibly safe load placed on it. Such and other foreign matter in the oil or fuel. As determine the angle from which a bit has
safety factors are incorporated into the a result of the detergents in motor oil, the oil deviated from the vertical during drilling.
design of casing, for example, to allow for will very quickly appear dirty because it is There are two basic deviation-survey, or drift-
unusual burst, tension, or collapse stresses. suspending the particles. survey, instruments: one reveals the drift
design factor of wire rope n: see safety determinable fee n: an interest in property angle; the other indicates both the angle and
factor of wire rope. that will end at the happening or the direction of deviation.
design water depth n: 1. the vertical nonhappening of a particular event. In some devise v: to make a gift of real property (e.g.,
distance from the ocean bottom to the states, an oil and gas lease is considered a land) by means of a will. Compare bequeath.
nominal water level plus the height of determinable fee in real estate. Devonian adj: of or relating to the geologic
astronomical and storm tides. 2. the deepest detonation n: 1. an explosion. 2. the knock period from about 400 million to 350 million
water in which an offshore drilling rig can or ping produced when fuel of too-low octane years ago in the Paleozoic era, or to the
operate. rating is used in the engine. Compare rocks formed during this period, including
desilter n: a centrifugal device for removing preignition. those of Devonshire, England, where
very fine particles, or silt, from drilling fluid to deuterium n: the isotope of the element outcrops of such rock were first identified.
keep the amount of solids in the fluid at the hydrogen that has one neutron and one dew point n: the temperature and pressure
lowest possible point. Usually, the lower the proton in the nucleus; atomic weight is at which a liquid begins to condense out of a
solids content of mud, the faster is the rate of 2.0144. gas. For example, if a constant pressure is
penetration. The desilter works on the same development and production plan n: a held on a certain volume of gas but the
principle as a desander. Com- pare plan required by the MMS before temperature is reduced, a point is reached at
desander. development and production can take place which droplets of liquid condense out of the
Desk and Derrick Club n: an association of in the OCS. The MMS approves or gas. That point is the dew point of the gas at
employees in the petroleum and allied disapproves the plan based on that pressure. Similarly, if a constant
industries. The principal function of the group environmental, technical, and economic temperature is maintained on a volume of
is to provide informational and educational considerations. gas but the pressure is increased, the point
programs for the enlightenment of its development drilling n: drilling d1at occurs at which liquid begins to condense out is the
members about the industry they serve. after the initial discovery of hydrocarbons in a dew point at that temperature. Compare
Membership ranges from secretaries through reservoir. Usually, several wells are required bubble point.
managers and directors of companies. to adequately develop a reservoir. dew-point recorder n: a device used by gas
Address: 4823 S. Sheridan, Suite 308- A; development well n: 1. a well drilled in transmission companies to determine and to
Tulsa, OK 74145; (918) 622-1675. proven territory in a field to complete a record continuously the dew point of the gas.
desorb v: to remove an absorbate or pattern of production. 2. an exploitation well. dew-point spread n: the difference between
adsorbate from an absorbent or adsorbent. deviation n: departure of the wellbore from the actual air temperature and the dew-point
desorption n: the process of removing an the vertical, measured by the horizontal temperature.
absorbate or adsorbate from an absorbent or distance from the rotary table to the target. dew-point temperature n: the temperature
adsorbent. The amount of deviation is a function of the at which the rate at which water vapor leaves
destroctive testing n: a procedure in which drift angle and hole depth. The term is a gas equals the rate at which water vapor
a weld is tom apart so that its structure can sometimes used to indicate the angle from enters the gas at a given pressure.
be examined. Destructive testing is used which a bit has deviated from the vertical dew-point tester n: a high-pressure
primarily during the qualification procedures during drilling. See drift angle. stainless steel or nickel-plated brass
required of all welders who work on chamber with a magnifying window, a
pipelines. sample inlet. a pressure gauge, a tripod
desulfurise v: to remove sulfur or sulfur socket. a gas outlet. and an angle-mounted
compounds from oil or gas. mirror. It ascertains dew point by observing
detector n: a device used to sense or the temperature and the pressure at which
ascertain the presence of such items as condensation occurs on and disappears from
objects, radiation, poisonous gases, or the mirror.
chemicals. DF abbr: derrick floor; used in drilling reports.
detector signal n: a contact closure change,
or other signal, that starts or stops a prover
counter/timer and defines the calibrated
volume of the prover.
detector switch n: in a pipe prover, an
electrical switch activated by the
displacement sphere as it moves through the
U-portion of the prover. Activating the switch
diagenesis 54 differential range

the cell wall persists and forms diatomite. For example, the pressure differential across
diagenesis n: the chemical and physical Diatoms first appeared in the Cretaceous a choke is the variation between the
changes that sedimentary deposits undergo period and still live today. pressure on one side and that on the other.
(compaction, cementation, recrystallisation, diatomaceous earth n: an earthy deposit 2. the value or volume payment
and sometimes replacement) during and made up of the siliceous cell walls of one- accompanying an exchange of oil for oil. The
after lithification. celled marine algae called diatoms. It is used payment serves as compensation for quality,
dial thermometer n: a thermometer on as an admixture for cement to produce a low- location, or gravity differences between the
which the temperature is indicated by a density slurry. oils being exchanged.
moving needle or pointer on a circular face or diatomite n: a rock of biochemical origin, differential displacing valve n: a special-
disk rather than with liquid in a glass or a which is composed of the siliceous (glassy) purpose valve used to facilitate spacing out
liquid crystal display (LCD). shells of microscopic algae called diatoms. and flanging up the well, run in on the tubing
dial-type assembly n: see dial thermometer. die n: a tool used to shape, form, or finish string.
diamagnetic adj: antimagnetic. Diamagnetic other tools or pieces of metal. For example, a differential drop n: the reduction in pressure
materials resist flux by aligning themselves at threading die is used to cut threads on pipe. that occurs as gas flows through a restriction
right angles to the lines of force in a die collar n: a collar or coupling of tool steel, in a line, such as through an orifice.
magnetic field. See ferromagnetic. threaded internally, that can be used to differential fill-up collar n: a device in-
paramagnetic. retrieve pipe from the well on fishing jobs; the stalled near the bottom of the casing. It has a
diameter n: the distance across a circle, female counterpart of a taper tap. The die valve that keeps mud out of the casing so
measured through its center. In the collar is made up on the drill pipe and that the casing can be floated into the hole to
measurement of pipe diameters, the inside lowered into the hole until it contacts the lost lessen the weight on the rig's equipment This
diameter is that of the interior circle and the pipe. If the lost pipe is stuck so that it cannot valve will, however, automatically open to let
outside diameter that of the exterior circle. rotate, rotation of the die collar on top of the mud into the casing when the pressure of the
diamond bit n: a drill bit that has small pipe cuts threads on the outside of the pipe, mud outside the casing becomes high
industrial diamonds embedded in its cutting providing a firm attachment. The pipe is then enough to collapse the joints of casing near
surface. Cutting is performed by the rotation retrieved from the hole. It is not often used the bottom of the string. Thus, this special
of the very hard diamonds over the rock because it is difficult to re- lease it from the collar, with its pressure-sensitive valve, not
surface. fish should it become necessary. Compare only allows casing to float, but also keeps it
diaphragm n: a sensing element consisting taper tap. from collapsing.
of a thin, usually circular, plate that is de- dielectric n: a substance that is an insulator, differential head n: see differential pressure.
formed by pressure applied across the plate. or nonconductor, of electricity. differential pen n: on a flow recorder, the
diaphragm meter tangent n: part of a dielectric constant n: the value of pen used to record differential pressure
diaphragm meter that regulates the length of dielectricity assigned to a substance. A across the orifice in the meter; usually
the diaphragm stroke; used to adjust the substance that is a good insulator has a high recorded in red ink on the flow recorder
volumetric displacement. dielectric constant, whereas a poor insulator chart.
diapir n: a dome or anticlinal fold in which a has a low one. The dielectric constant of oil differential pressure n: the difference
mobile plastic core has ruptured the more is lower than that of water, and on this between two fluid pressures; for example,
brittle overlying rock. Also called piercement principle a net-oil computer operates. die the difference between the pressure in a
dome. nipple n: a device similar to a die collar but reservoir and in a well bore drilled in the
with external threads. reservoir, or between atmospheric pressure
dies n pi: see insert. at sea level and at 10,000 feet (3,048
diesel-electric power n: the power supplied metres). Also called pressure differential.
to a drilling rig by diesel engines driving differential-pressure gauge n: a pressure-
electric generators; used widely. diesel- measuring device actuated by two or more
electric rig n: see electric rig. diesel engine n: pressure-sensitive elements that act in
a high-compression, opposition to produce an indication of the
internal-combustion engine used extensively difference between two pressures.
for powering drilling rigs. In a diesel engine, differential-pressure reducer n: an
air is drawn into the cylinders and electrical device that senses very small
compressed to very high pressures; ignition bellows or diaphragm movement in a bellows
occurs as fuel is injected into the com- meter. Allows a computer to calculate flow
pressed and heated air. Combustion takes rates directly by producing electrical output
place within the cylinder above the piston, differential-pressure valve n: a valve used
and expansion of the combustion products to regulate automatically a uniform difference
diapirism n: the penetration of overlying imparts power to the piston. in pressure between two locations in a
layers by a rising column of salt or other diesel fuel n: a light hydrocarbon mixture for pipeline.
easily deformed mineral caused by diesel engines, similar to furnace fuel oil; it differential range n: the extent of variation
differences in density. has a boiling range just above that of between the lowest and highest differential
diastrophism n: the process or processes of kerosene. pressures that an orifice meter can
deformation of the earth's crust that pro- diesel-oil plug n: see gunk plug. accurately measure.
duce oceans, continents, mountains, folds, diethylene glycol n: a liquid chemical used
and faults. in gas processing to remove water from the
diatom n: any of the algae of the class gas. See glycol. glycol dehydrator.
Bacillariophyceae, noted for symmetrical and differential n: 1. the difference in quantity or
sculptured siliceous cell walls. After death, degree between two measurements or units.
differential sticking 55 directional drilling

diode n: 1. an electronic device that resbicts dip weight n: a European term for a plumb
differential sticking n: a condition in which current flow chiefly in one direction. 2. a radio bob that is attached to a metal dip tape and
the drill stem becomes stuck against the wall tube that contains an anode and a cathode. that is of sufficient weight to keep the tape
of the wellbore because part of the drill stem diorite n: intrusive. or platonic. generally taut and of such shape as to facilitate the
(usually the drill collars) has become coarse-grained igneous rock composed penetration of any sludge that might be
embedded in the filter cake. Necessary largely of plagioclase feldspar with smaller present on the datum plate of a tank. Also
conditions for differential-pressure sticking, amounts of dark-colored minerals. Also called outage bob.
or wall sticking, are a permeable formation known as black granite. Compare andesite. direct-acting electric actuator n: a device
and a pressure differential across a nearly dip n: 1. a European term for the depth of on a diesel engine's governor that increases
impermeable filter cake and drill stem. Also liquid in a storage tank. 2. formation dip. See the engine's speed by increasing positive
called wall sticking. See differential pressure, formation dip. iMage. ullage. voltage going to the actuator and governor.
filter cake. dip gauge point n: a European term for the As the engine needs more fuel to go faster,
differential test n: a test taken at a particular point on the bottom of a container that the the direct-acting actuator increases positive
point in the flow of a meter, which is dip weight touches during gauging and from voltage to make the governor increase the
compared with the same flow rate on a which the measurement of the oil and water fuel flowing to the fuel injectors. See
differential curve that was established at the depths are taken. The dip point usually electrically actuated governor:
time the meter was installed. If the differential corresponds with the datum point, but any direct connection n: a straightforward
pressure reading obtained during the test is difference in levels must be designated in the connection that makes the speeds of a prime
50% higher than the original test value (at calibration table. mover and a driven machine identical.
the same flow rate), with pressure and dip batch n: a European term for the direct current (DC) n: electric current that
temperature conditions being approximately opening in the top of a container through flows in only one direction. Compare
the same, the meter is removed and the which dipping (gauging) and sampling alternating current.
cause of the increased operating resistance operations are carried out. direct heater n: used in emulsion treating to
determined. dip log n: see dipmeter survey. heat noncorrosive emulsions that are under
diffuser n: a device that uses part of the dipmeter log n: see dipmeter survey. comparatively low pressure. Types are
kinetic energy of a fluid passing through a dipmeter survey n: an oilwell-surveying tubular, fluid-jacket, internal firebox, and
machine by gradually increasing the cross method that determines the direction and volume, or jug-type. Compare indirect heater.
section of the channel or chamber through angle of formation dip in relation to the direct-indicating viscometer n: commonly
which it flows so as to decrease its speed borehole. It records data that permit called a "V-G meter:' A rotational device
and increase its pressure. computation of both the amount and direction powered by means of an electric motor or
diffusion n: 1. the spontaneous movement of formation dip relative to the axis of the handcrank. Used to determine the apparent
and scattering of particles of liquids, gases, hole and thus provides information about the viscosity, plastic viscosity, yield point, and
or solids. 2. the migration of dissolved geologic structure of the formation. Also gel strengths of drilling fluids.
substances from an area of high called dipmeter log or dip log. directional drilling n: 1. intentional deviation
concentration to an area of low dipping reference point n: a European term of a wellbore from the vertical. Although well
concentration. for a point marked on the dip hatch of a tank bores are normally drilled vertically, it is
digital adj: pertaining to data in the form of directly above the dip point to indicate the sometimes necessary or advantageous to
digits, especially electronic data stored in the position at which dipping should be carried drill at an angle from the vertical. Controlled
form of a binary code. out. directional drilling makes it possible to reach
digital readout n: a type of register on which dip plate n: a European term for datum subsurface areas laterally remote from the
the information is indicated by directly plate. dip rod n: a rigid length of wood or point where the bit enters the earth. It often
readable characters, particularly numerals. metal that is provided with a scale for involves the use of deflection tools. 2. a
Compare analog data. measurement and usually graduated in units technique of river crossing in pipeline
digital signal n: the representation of the of volume. It is used for manual construction in which the pipe is buried under
magnitude of a variable in the form of measurement of liquid in a container. Also the riverbed at very much greater than those
discrete values or pulses of a measurable called dipstick. of conventional crossings. With this
physical quantity. dip slip n: upward or downward technique, a hole in the form of an inverted
dilatant fluid n: a dilatant. or inverted plastic, displacement along a fault plane. arc is drilled beneath the river, and the
fluid is usually made up of a high dip-slip fault n: a fault in which the slip is made-up pipeline is pulled through it.
concentration of well-dispersed solids that practically in the line of the fault dip.
exhibits a nonlinear consistency curve
passing through the origin. The apparent
viscosity increases instantaneously with
increasing rate of shear. The yield point, as
determined by conventional calculations from
the direct-indicating viscometer readings, is
negative; however, the true yield point is
diluent n: liquid added to dilute or dtin a
solution. dip tape n: a European tem1 for gauging
dimensionless number n: a number that tape.
does not have a unit of measurement dip tube n: the small-diameter tube
associated with it. extending below the pump suction of a
sucker rod pump, usually inside the mud
anchor, as in a "poor boy" gas anchor.
directional drilling service company 56 displacement meter

ties in the natural gas delivery system (i.e., disk-spring compressor valve n: a type of
directional drilling service company n: a pipeline transmission company or local compressor valve in which springs and disks
business that provides directional hole distributing company) does not take title to are used to open and close the valve.
planning, sophisticated directional tools, and the natural gas but only transports it. dispatcher n: an employee responsible for
on- site assistance to the oil company Historically, a sale of natural gas to an end scheduling movement of oil through pipe-
operator of a drilling rig. user, as opposed to a "sale for resale." More lines.
directional drilling supervisor n: an recently, the term has also been applied to a dispersant n: a substance added to cement
employee of a directional drilling service sale by a producer directly to a local that chemically wets the cement particles in
company whose main job is to help the driller distribution company. the slurry, allowing the slurry to flow easily
at a well site keep the wellbore as close as disbonding n: a common coating failure in without much water.
possible to its planned course. Also called which the coating separates from the pipe. dispersed phase n: that part of a drilling
directional operator. discharge coefficient n: a measure of the mud clay, shale, barite, and other solids -
directional hole n: a wellbore intentionally efficiency with which gas flows through an that is dispersed throughout a liquid or
drilled at an angle from the vertical. See actual orifice. Compares the actual orifice's gaseous medium. forming the mud.
directional drilling. discharge rate with an ideal orifice's disperser n: see emulsifying agent.
directional operator n: see directional discharge rate. dispersible inhibitor n: an inhibitor
drilling supervisor. discharge line n: a line through which substance that can be dispersed evenly in
directional perforating n: see oriented drilling mud travels from the mud pump to the another liquid with only moderate agitation.
perforating. standpipe on its way to the wellbore. dispersion n: a suspension of extremely fine
directional survey n: a logging method that discharge of dredged material n: any particles in a liquid (such as colloids in a
records drift angle, or deflection from the addition of dredged material into US waters. colloidal solution).
vertical, and direction of the drift. A single- discharge valve n: on a mud pump, the dispersion medium n: see continuous
shot directional-survey instrument makes a valve that opens to allow mud to be pushed phase.
single photograph of a compass reading of out of the pump (discharged) by the pistons dispersoid n: a colloid or finely divided
the drift direction and the number of degrees moving in the liners. substance. See also colloid.
the hole is off vertical. A multi shot survey discharge vessel ratio n: the total displacement n: 1. the weight of a fluid
instrument obtains numerous readings in the calculated volume (TCV) by vessel (such as water) displaced by a freely floating
hole as the device is pulled out of the well. measurement on arrival, less remaining on or submerged body (such as an offshore
See directional drilling. board (ROB), divided by the TCV by shore drilling rig). If the body floats, the
directional survey instrument n: a tool that, measurement at discharge. displacement equals the weight of the body.
when lowered into the wellbore, makes a disclaimer n: complete denial and 2. replacement of one fluid by another in the
photographic record of the angle and drift of renunciation of any claim to title to property. pore space of a reservoir. For example, oil
the wellbore; that is, it records the number of Surface tenants, for example, often sign may be displaced by water.
degrees the hole is off vertical and the disclaimers (in the form of tenant consent displacement efficiency n: the proportion
direction in which it is off vertical. Several agreements) relating to the mineral estate by volume of oil swept out of the pore space
types of instrument are available; some are and title of land leased for oil and gas of a reservoir by the encroachment of an-
capable of photographing only a single exploration. other fluid. The displacing fluid may be
record - single-shot survey instruments- disconformity n: an interruption in reservoir water or gas or an injected fluid.
whereas others are capable of making sedimentation caused by erosion; the strata displacement engine n: see reciprocating
several records in one run - multishot survey above and below the disconformity are engine.
instruments. parallel. See unconformity. Compare dispIacement fluid n: in oilwell cementing,
direct measurement n: a measurement that nonconformity. the fluid. usually drilling mud or salt water,
produces a final result directly from the scale disconnect n: a device such as a switch or that is pumped into the well after the cement
on an instrument. circuit breaker used to open a circuit. is pumped into it to force the cement out of
direct pull-in connection n: an underwater discounted cash flow rate or return n: the the casing and into the annulus.
pipe-joining technique in which the pipe with rate that causes the sum of the discounted displacement meter n: 1. a meter in which a
its connector sled is steered straight onto the outflows and inflows of funds to equal the net piston is actuated by the pressure of a
matching receiver at the base of the platform. cash outlay in year zero of a project. It is measured volume of liquid, and the volume
Compare deflect-to-connect connection. used in evaluating exploration investments. swept by the piston is equal to the volume of
direct reading chart n: a type of orifice discounting n: taking account of future the liquid recorded. 2. a meter in which the
meter chart that indicates the differential value in present calculations, i.e., measuring element measures a volume of
pressure and static pressure for a particular determining present value of future dollars. liquid by mechanically separating the liquid
time period. The pressures can be read Discounting is compounding in reverse. into discrete quantities of fixed volume and
directly from the chart instead of being discovery well n: the first oil or gas well counting the quantities in volume units.
calculated from information given on the drilled in a new field that reveals the
chart. presence of a hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir.
direct-reading viscometer n: a device for Subsequent wells are development wells.
measuring the viscosity of a fluid (a fluid's discrimination n: the ability to sense and
resistance to flow) that provides a value for record the actual temperature of a liquid to
the viscosity on the device. No calculations the specified temperature increments.
have to be made since the device gives a disk lubrication n: see slinger disk
direct reading of the value. lubrication.
direct sale n: a natural gas sales transaction
in which at least one of the intermediary par-
displacement plunger 57 dogleg

lines provide gas to homes, schools, and diverter line n: a side outlet on a rig that
displacement plunger n: a device used to other buildings. directs flow away from the rig.
pump liquids, usually at high pressures, with distribution system n: a system of pipe- diverter valve n: a type of valve that
an action similar to that of a piston. lines and other equipment by which natural changes the direction of fluid flow from the
displacement rate n: a measurement of the gas or other products are distributed to intended path to an alternate route.
speed with which a volume of cement slurry customers, to lease operations, or to other divided agreement n: type of operating
or mud is pumped down the hole. points of consumption, that is, the mains, agreement that provides for sharing of costs
displacer n: a spherical or cylindrical object services, and equipment that carry or control and benefits based on participating areas
that is a component part of a pipe prover that the supply of gas from the point of local that may change.
moves through the prover pipe. The supply to and including the sales meters. divided interest n: a fractional interest in
displacer has an elastic seal that contacts distribution transformer n: an electrical minerals that, when conveyed, gives the new
the inner pipe wall of a prover to prevent device designed to reduce voltage from owner a 100% interest in the designated
leakage. The displacer is made to move primary distribution levels, usually 7,200 or fraction of the described tract. For example,
through the prover pipe by the flowing fluid 12,400 volts, to utilization voltages of 480, a one-quarter dividabl interest in an 80-acre
and displaces a known measured volume of 240, or 120 volts. See power transfornlet: (32- hectare) tract results in a 100% interest
fluid between two fixed detecting devices. distributor n: a device that directs the in 20 specific, describable acres (8 hectares)
disposal well n: a well into which salt water proper flow of fuel or electrical current to the out of that tract. Compare undivided interest.
or spent chemical is pumped, most proper place at the proper time in the proper diving bell n: a cylindrical or spherical
commonly part of a saltwater-disposal amount. compartment used to transport a diver or
system. distributor timing n: on a diesel engine with dive team to and from an underwater work
dissociation n: the separation of a molecule a distributor-type fuel injection system, the site. division order n: a contract of sale of oil
into two or more fragments (atoms, ions) by sequence in which the distributor sends fuel or gas to a purchaser who is directed to pay
interaction with another body or by the to each engine cylinder. for the oil or gas products according to the
absorption of electromagnetic radiation. district regulator station n: station to which proportions set out in the division order. The
dissolved gas n: natural gas that is in odorized gas is piped from the city gate purchaser may require execution thereof by
solution with crude oil in the reservoir. station. This station uses regulators and all owners of interest in the property.
dissolved-gas drive n: a source of natural controllers to maintain consistent pressure division order opinion n: a statement of
reservoir energy in which the dissolved gas and to ensure a constant supply of natural opinion by a title examiner on the state of the
coming out of the oil expands to force the oil gas to consumers. See also city gale station. title to land, mineral, royalty, or working
into the well bore. Also called solution-gas disulfides n pi: chemical compounds interests in a producing tract of land. This
drive. See reservoir drive mechanism. containing an -S-S linkage. They are opinion, usually in letter form, is the basis of
dissolved load n: in a flowing stream of colorless liquids completely miscible with payment to all affected owners and must
water, those products of weathering that are hydrocarbons, insoluble in water, and sweet recite all the owners' interests. Com- pare
carried along in solution. Compare bed load, to the doctor test. Mercaptans are converted drill site opinion. title opinion.
suspended load. to disulfides in treating processes employing dizzy nut n: a mechanism used in packers to
dissolved water n: water in solution in oil at oxidation reactions. lock components together.
a defined temperature and pressure. ditch n: a trench or channel made in the dk abbr: dark; used in drilling reports.
distillate n: 1. a product of distillation, i.e., earth, usually to bury pipeline, cable, and so doctor test n: a qualitative method for
the liquid condensed from the vapor on. On a drilling rig, the mud flow channel detecting hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans
produced in a still. Sometimes called from the conductor-pipe outlet is often called in petroleum distillates. The test
condensate. 2. heavy gasoline or light a ditch. See mud return line. v: to excavate a distinguishes between sour and sweet
kerosenes used as fuels. trench in which to lay pipe or cable. Ditching products.
distillate fuel oil n: light fuel oils distilled equipment and methods for pipe laying vary DOE abbr: Department of Energy.
during the refining process and used according to terrain and weather. dog n: a spring-loaded finger in a tubing end
primarily for space heating, on- and off- ditch breaker n: a device that divides a ditch locator.
highway diesel engine fuel, and electric into sections to form internal barriers to water doghouse n: 1. a small enclosure on the rig
power generation. movement. Ditch breakers are used for floor used as an office for the driller and as a
distillation n: the process of driving off gas pipelines in areas where washouts are a storehouse for small objects. 2. any small
or vapor from liquids or solids, usually by threat. building used as an office, a change house,
heating, and condensing the vapor back to ditch magnet n: a powerful magnet placed or a place for storage.
liquid to purify, fractionate, or form new in the return line between the wellbore and dogleg n: 1. an abrupt change in direction in
products. the mud pit to remove metal particles from the wellbore, frequently resulting in the
distribution n: the apportioning of daily the drilling mud. A ditch magnet is often used formation of a keyseat. 2. a sharp bend
production rates to wells on a lease. during milling operations. permanently put in an object such as a pipe,
Because there may be many wells on a diurnal tide n: a tide having one high water wire rope. or a wire rope sling.
lease, such production is apportioned on the level and one low water level a day.
basis of periodic tests rather than on the diverter n: a device used to direct fluids
individual receiving and gauging of oil at flowing from a well away from the drilling rig.
each well. When a kick is encountered at shallow
distribution main n: in a gas distribution depths, the well often cannot be shut in
system, such as in a city or town, a relatively safely; therefore, a diverter is used to allow
large pipeline through which gas is supplied the well to flow through a side outlet (a
to several smaller pipelines. The smaller divetter line).
dognut 58 downhole telemetry

double n: a length of drill pipe, casing, or correct reading of the resting angle of the
dognut n: an upper kelly cock that is tubing consisting of two joints screwed tool.
enclosed in a ball-shaped housing. together. Compare fourble, single, thribble. doughnut n: a ring of wedges or a threaded,
DOl abbr: Department of the Interior. double-acting adj: in reference to a mud tapered ring that supports a string of pipe.
dol abbr: dolomite; used in drilling reports. pump, the action of the piston moving mud dovetail n: a cutout section in a cone
dolly n: see pipe dolly. through the cylinder on both its forward and enabling positive slip movement without the
dolly assembly n: on a top-drive unit, the backward stroke. Compare single-acting. aid of conventional slip return springs.
device that attaches the unit to the guide double board n: the name used for the dowel n: a pin fitting into a hole in an abut-
rails. See guide rails, top drive. working platform of the derrickhand (the ting piece to prevent motion or slipping.
dolo abbr: dolomite; used in drilling reports. monkeyboard) when it is located at a height dower property n: in some states, that part
dolomite n: a type of sedimentary rock in the derrick or mast equal to two lengths of of an estate to which a wife is entitled (for her
similar to limestone but containing more than pipe joined together. Compare fourble board, lifetime) on the death of her husband.
50 percent magnesium carbonate; thribble board. downcomer n: a tube that conducts liquids
sometimes a reservoir rock for petroleum. double-box coupling n: a special coupling downward in a vessel such as an absorber.
dolomitisation n: the shrinking of the solid that has a female connection (box) on each downcutting n: the direct erosive action of
volume of rock as limestone turns to end and that is used to connect sucker rods flowing water on a streambed.
dolomite, i.e., the conversion of limestone to that have a male connection (pin) on each downdip adj: lower on the formation dip
dolomite rock by replacement of a portion of end. angle than a particular point.
the calcium carbonate with magnesium double-drum hoist n: a device consisting of down-draft retort n: a device that measures
carbonate. two reels on which wire rope is wound that the saturation, or the amount, of each fluid in
dolostone n: rock composed of dolomite. provides two separate hoisting drums in the a core sample by distilling the fluid from the
dome n: a geologic structure resembling an assembly. The main drum is used for pulling core with heat. The core sample is heated to
inverted bowl, i.e., a short anticline that dips tubing or drill pipe; the second drum is used about 350F (176.7C). The fluids are
or plunges on all sides. for coring and swabbing. See hoist. vaporized and cooled until they condense in
double extra-strong pipe n: a pipe receiving tubes, where they are measured.
incorporating twice as many safety design downhole adj, adv: pertaining to the well-
factors as normally used. bore.
double grip n: a tool employing gripping downhole motor n: a drilling tool made up in
devices (slips) that limit tool movement from the drill string directly above the bit. It causes
pressure either above or below the tool. the bit to turn while the drill string remains
double bull tanker n: tanker with two hulls. fixed. It is used most often as a deflection
Theoretically, the first hull absorbs all or most tool in directional drilling, where it is made up
of any impact, leaving the second hull intact between the bit and a bent sub (or,
dome-roof tank n: a storage tank with a or less damaged and thus able to contain the sometimes, the housing of the motor itself is
dome-shaped roof affixed to the shell. cargo. bent). Two principal types of down-hole
doodlebug n: (slang) a person who double jointing n: the process of welding motor are the positive-displacement motor
prospects for oil, especially by using two pipe joints together-usually on a double- and the downhole turbine motor. Also called
seismology. Also called doodlebugger. v: joint rack-to form a single piece of pipe. The mud motor.
(slang) to explore for oil, especially by using usual length of a double joint for pipeline downhole telemetry n: signals transmitted
seismic techniques in which explosive construction is 80 feet (24 metres). from an instrument located downhole to a
charges are detonated in shot holes to create double-plane roller assembly n: in a kelly receiving monitor on the surface-a surface-
shock waves (name taken from the bushing, a double set of roller assemblies readout instrument. Downhole telemetry may
resemblance of these explosions to the puffs that are installed on two levels, or planes, be transmitted via a special wireline or via
of loose dirt thrown up by the doodlebug, or within the bushing. Compare single-plane mud pulse (much as radio signals are
ant lion, when digging its funnel-shaped roller assembly. See also kelly bushing, roller transmitted through the air). Frequently,
hole). assembly. downhole telemetry is employed in
door sheet n: a plate at the base of a tank double-post mast n: a well-servicing unit determining the drift angle and direction of a
shell or wall that is removed so the tank can whose mast consists of two steel tubes. deviated wellbore. See measurement while
be cleaned. Double-pole masts provide racking platforms drilling.
dope n: a lubricant for the threads of oilfield for handling rods and tubing in stands and
tubular goods. v: to apply thread lubricant. extend from 65 to 67 feet (20 to 20.4 metres)
dope bucket n: the container in which dope so that rods can be suspended as 50-foot (
is stored on the rig floor. 15-metre) doubles and tubing set back as
dope pot n: a portable container used to 30- foot (9-metre) singles. See pole mast.
melt coal tar enamel and maintain it at the double recorder n: a device containing an
temperature required by a pipe-coating angle indicator, a timing element, and a
operation. replaceable chart that is used to measure the
doping n: 1. the process of adding certain direction and the degree of deviation as a
impurities to an element. 2. applying lubricant hole is being drilled. The timing element goes
(dope) to a tool joint or other threaded off when the tool has come to rest just above
connection. the drill bit and descends on the sharply
DOT abbr: Department of Transportation. pointed angle indicator, which then punches
a hole in the chart. The chart rotates 180.,
and a second hole is punched to verify a
downstream 59 drift diameter

drainage n: the migration of oil or gas in a drawworks drum n: the spool-shaped

downstream adv. adj: in the direction of flow reservoir toward a wellbore due to pressure cylinder in the drawworks around which
in a stream of fluid moving in a line. reduction caused by the well's penetration of drilling line is wound, or spooled.
downstream market n: the sale of products the reservoir. A drainage point is a wellbore drawworks-drum socket n: a receptacle on
after they are refined or processed. (or, in some cases, several wellbores) that the drawworks drum to which the drilling line
downstream pipeline n: a pipeline receiving drains the reservoir. is attached.
natural gas from another pipeline drainage clause n: clause in a gas sales dredged material n: material that is
at an interconnection point. contract that states that the pipeline excavated or dredged from water.
downthrow n: the wall of a fault that has company will attempt to take sufficient dress v: to sharpen, repair, or add
moved relatively downward. volume to prevent the seller from being accessories to items of equipment (such as
drained. drilling bits and tool joints).
drainage radius n: the area of a reservoir in drift n: 1. an ocean current's speed of
which a single well serves as a point for motion. 2. an observed change, usually
drainage of reservoir fluids. uncontrolled, in meter performance, meter
drainage relative permeability n: factor, etc., that occurs over a period of time.
displacement of hydrocarbons or fluids in a v: 1. to move slowly out of alignment, off
reservoir by increasing the non wetting center, or out of register. 2. to gauge or
phase saturation. See nonwetting phase. measure pipe by means of a mandrel passed
drainage time n: a fixed time period for through it to ensure the passage of tools,
draining a standard capacity measure pumps, and so on.
calibrated "to deliver." The drain period starts drift angle n: the angle at which a wellbore
when flow ceases and dripping begins and deviates from the vertical, expressed in
has the same duration as the drain period degrees, as revealed by a directional survey.
used when calibrating the standard. Also called angle of deviation, angle of drift,
drain sample n: in tank sampling, a sample and inclination. See directional survey.
downtime n: 1. time during which rig
obtained from the draw-off or discharge drift bottle n: a bottle released at sea to
operations are temporarily suspended
valve. measure currents. It contains a card stating
because of repairs or maintenance. 2. time
Drake well n: the first well drilled in the the date and location of release. The person
during which a well is off production.
United States in search of oil. Some 69 feet who finds the bottle writes on the card the
dozer n: a powered machine for earthwork
(21 metres) deep, it was drilled near date and location of the bottle's recovery and
excavation; a bulldozer.
Titusville, Pennsylvania, and was completed returns the card. Also called a floater.
DP abbr: drill pipe; used in drilling reports.
in 1859. It was named after Edwin L. Drake, drift card n: a card encased in a buoyant,
draft n: 1. the vertical distance between the
who was hired by the well owners to oversee waterproof envelope that is used to mea-
bottom of a vessel floating in water and the
the drilling. sure currents. The card states the date and
waterline. 2. a written order drawn on a
draped anticline n: an anticline composed location of release. The person who finds it
solvent bank that authorizes payment or a
of sedimentary deposits atop a reef or atoll, writes on it the date and place that it was
specified sum of money for a specific
along whose flanks greater thicknesses of found and returns it.
purpose to a named person. A draft mayor
sediments have been deposited and drift diameter n: 1. in drilling, the effective
may not be negotiable, depending on how it
compacted than atop the reef itself. Also hole size. 2. in casing, the guaranteed
is drawn up. Also called bank draft.
called compaction anticline. minimum diameter of the casing. The drift
draft marks n pi: numbers placed on the
drawdown n: I. the difference between static diameter is important because it indicates
sides or ends of a floating offshore drilling rig
and flowing bottomhole pressures. 2. the whether the casing is large enough for a
to indicate its draft.
distance between the static level and the specified size of bit to pass through.
drag n: 1. an excess of draft at the stem of a
pumping level of the fluid in the annulus of a
ship or drill ship, as compared to the bow. 2.
pumping well.
friction between a moving device (such as a
draw-off level n: the height of the valve on a
bit) and another moving or nonmoving part
liquid storage tank from which liquid exits the
(such as the formation). 3. the bending of
rock strata adjacent to a fault.
drawworks n: the hoisting mechanism on a
drag bit n: any of a variety of drilling bits that
drilling rig. It is essentially a large winch that
have no moving parts. As they are rotated on
spools off or takes in the drilling line and thus
bottom, elements of the bit make hole by
raises or lowers the drill stem and bit.
being pressed into the formation and being
dragged across it. See fishtail bit.
drag blocks n pi: spring-loaded buttons on a
packer that provide friction with casing to
retard movement of one section of a packer
while another section rotates for setting.
drag fold n: minor folds that form in an
incompetent bed when competent beds
parallel to it and on each side of it move in
opposite directions.
drawworks brake n: the mechanical brake
drag springs n: spring-loaded curved metal
on the drawworks that can prevent the
bands on a packer that operate like drag
drawworks drum from moving.
drift indicator 60 drilling fluid analysis

driller's console n: a metal cabinet on the constitute a unit of acreage sufficient to

drift indicator n: a device dropped or run rig floor containing the controls that the driller justify the expense of drilling a wildcat.
down the drill stem on a wireline to a point manipulates to operate various components drilling break n: a sudden increase in the
just above the bit to measure the inclination of the drilling rig. drill bit's rate of penetration. It sometimes
of the well off vertical at that point. It does not indicates that the bit has penetrated a high-
measure the direction of the inclination. drift pressure zone and thus warns of the
survey n: see deviation survey. possibility of a kick.
drill v: to bore a hole in the earth, usually to drilling contract n: an agreement made
find and remove subsurface formation fluids between a drilling company and an operating
such as oil and gas. company to drill and complete a well. It sets
drillable adj: pertaining to packers and other forth the obligation of each party,
tools left in the wellbore to be broken up later compensation, identification, method of
by the drill bit. Drillable equipment is made of drilling, depth to be drilled, and so on.
cast iron, aluminum, plastic, or other soft, drilling contractor n: an individual or group
brittle material. of individuals who own a drilling rig or mast
drillable squeeze packer n: a permanent and contract their services for drilling wells to
driller's control panel n: see driller's con-
packer, drillable in nature, capable of a certain depth.
withstanding extreme working pressures, for sole. drilling control n: a device that controls the
driller's log n: a record that describes each
remedial work. It has a positive flow-control rate of penetration by maintaining a pre-
formation encountered and lists the drilling
valve built in. determined constant weight on the bit. Also
drill ahead v: to continue drilling operations. time relative to depth, usually in 5- to IO-foot
called an automatic driller or automatic
drill around v: 1. to deflect the wellbore (1.5- to 3-metre) intervals.
drilling control unit.
driller's method n: a well-killing method
away from an obstruction in the hole. 2. drilling crew n: a driller, a derrickhand, and
involving two complete and separate
(slang) to get the better of someone (e.g., two or more helpers who operate a drilling or
circulations. The first circulates the kick out
"He drilled around me and got the workover rig for one tour each day.
of the well; the second circulates heavier drilling draft n: the depth at which a drilling
drill barge n: a floating offshore drilling unit mud through the wellbore.
rig rests below the water's surface.
driller's panel n: see driller's console.
with the configuration of a ship but not self- drilling engine n: an internal-combustion
driller's position n: the area immediately
propelled. Compare drill ship. engine used to power a drilling rig. From two
drill bit n: the cutting or boring element used surrounding the driller's console.
to six engines are used on a rotary rig and
driller's report n: a record kept on the rig for
for drilling. See bit. are usually fueled by diesel fuel, although
drill collar n: a heavy, thick-walled tube, each tour to show the footage drilled. tests
liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, and,
made on drilling fluid, bit record, and other
usually steel, used between the drill pipe and very rarely, gasoline can also be used.
noteworthy items. It is usually telephoned or drilling engineer n: an engineer who
the bit in the drill stem to provide weight to
radioed to the drilling contractor's main office
the bit. specializes in the technical aspects of
every morning and is therefore sometimes
called the morning report. drilling fluid n: circulating fluid, one function
driller's side n: a panel, or console, on the
of which is to lift cuttings out of the wellbore
left side of the drawworks (looking at it from
and to the surface. It also serves to cool the
the front).
bit and to counteract downhole formation
drill floor n: also called rig floor or derrick
pressure. Although a mixture of barite, clay,
floor. See rig floor.
water, and other chemical additives is the
drill in v: to penetrate the productive for-
most common drilling fluid, wells can also be
drill collar clamp n: see safety clamp. drill mation after the casing is set and cemented
drilled by using air, gas, water, or oil-base
collar slips n pi: see slips. on top of the pay zone.
mud as the drilling mud. Also called
drill collar sub n: a sub made up between drill-in fluid n: a drilling fluid specially
circulating fluid, drilling mud. See mud.
the drill string and the drill collars that is used formulated to minimize formation damage as drilling fluid analysis n: see mud analysis.
to ensure that the drill pipe and the collar can the borehole penetrates the producing zone.
be joined properly. See formation damage. Compare completion
drill column n: see drill stem. fluid.
drilled show n: oil or gas in the mud drilling and delay rental clause n: the
circulated to the surface. clause in an oil and gas lease that allows the
driller n: the employee directly in charge of a lease to expire after a given period of time
drilling or workover rig and crew. The driller's (often 1 year from the date of the lease)
main duty is operation of the drilling and unless drilling begins or delay rental is paid.
hoisting equipment, but this person is also Also called "unless" clause.
responsible for downhole condition of the drilling and spacing unit n: a parcel of land
well, operation of downhole tools, and pipe of the size required or permitted by statutory
measurements. law or by regulations of a state conservation
driller's BOP control panel n: a series of body for drilling an oil or gas well. Also called
controls on the rig floor that the driller a proration unit.
manipulates to open and close the blowout drilling blind n: drilling without mud returns,
preventers. as in the case of severe lost circulation.
drilling block n: a lease or a number of
leases of adjoining tracts of land that
drilling-fluid cycle time 61 drill site opinion

drilling superintendent n: an employee, drill pipe pressure n: the amount of

drilling-fluid cycle time n: the time required usually of a drilling contractor, who is in pressure exerted inside the drill pipe as a
for the pump to move drilling fluid down the charge of all drilling operations that the result of circulating pressure, entry of
hole and back to the surface. The cycle in contractor is engaged in. Also called a formation pressure into the well, or both.
minutes equals the barrels of mud in the hole toolpusher, rig manager, rig supervisor, or drill pipe pressure gauge n: an indicator,
divided by barrels per minute. drilling foreman. mounted in the mud circulating system, that
drilling foreman n: the supervisor of drilling drilling template n: see temporary guide measures and indicates the amount of
or workover operations on a rig. Also called a base. pressure in the drill stem. See drill stem.
rig manager, rig supervisor, rig drilling time log n: a record of the time drill pipe protector n: an antifriction device
superintendent, or toolpusher. required for a hole to be drilled; it is a record of rubber or steel attached to each joint of
drilling bead n: a special rotating head that of the rate of penetration of the bit through drill pipe to minimize wear.
has a gear-and-pinion drive arrangement to various formations encountered during the drill pipe rubber n: a rubber or elastomer
allow turning of the kelly and simultaneous drilling of a well. disk that is placed around a joint of drill pipe
sealing of the kelly against well pressure. drilling under pressure n: the continuation and is held stationary below the rotary table.
drilling hook n: the large hook mounted on of drilling operations while maintaining a seal As pipe is removed from the well, the rubber
the bottom of the traveling block and from at the top of the wellbore to prevent the well wipes mud off the outside of the pipe to
which the swivel is suspended. When drilling, fluids from blowing out. minimize corrosion.
the entire weight of the drill stem is drilling unit n: the acreage allocated to a drill pipe safety valve n: see lower kelly
suspended from the hook. well when a regulatory agency grants a well cock.
drilling in n: the operation during the drilling permit. drill pipe slips n pI: see slips.
procedure at the point of drilling into the pay drill-off test n: a method of detennining drill ship n: a self-propelled floating off-
formation. optimum weight on bit and overall bit shore drilling unit that is a ship constructed to
drilling line n: a wire rope used to support performance. A given amount of weight is put permit a well to be drilled from it. Although
the drilling tools. Also called the rotary line. on the bit and the drawworks brake is tied off not as stable as semisubmersibles, drill ships
so that no more weight is applied to the bit as are capable of drilling exploratory wells in
it drills. The time it takes for the bit to stop deep, remote waters. See floating offshore
drilling ahead with the given amount of drilling rig.
weight is measured. Different weights are
applied and the times are compared to
determine which amount is best.
drill out v: 1. to remove with the bit the
residual cement that normally remains in the
lower section of casing and the wellbore after
the casing has been cemented. 2. to remove
the settlings and cavings that are plugged
inside a hollow fish (such as drill pipe) during
a fishing operation.
drillout tool n: a device used to remove
settlings and cavings that are plugged inside drill site n: the location of a drilling rig.
drilling mud n: a specially compounded
a hollow fish (such as drill pipe) during a drill site opinion n: the written statement of
liquid'circulated through the wellbore during
fishing operation. It consists of a body inside opinion for a title examiner on the status of
rotary drilling operations. See drilling fluid,
of which is a hexagonal kelly tipped with a the title to a drill site. usually in letter form.
junk mill. It is run on drill pipe to the top of the Compare division order opinion, title opinion.
drilling out n: the operation during the drill-
ing procedure when the cement is drilled out
drill pipe n: seamless steel or aluminum
of the casing before further hole is made or
pipe made up in the drill stem between the
completion is attempted.
kelly or top drive on the surface and the drill
drilling pattern n: see well spacing.
collars on the bottom. During drilling, it is
drilling platform rig n: see platform rig.
usually rotated while drilling fluid is circulated
drilling rate n: the speed with which the bit
through it. Joints of pipe about 30 feet long
drills the formation; usually called the rate of
are coupled together by means of tool joints.
penetration (ROP).
drill pipe body n: the tubular part of the drill
drilling recorder n: an instrument that
pipe between the tool joints, which are on
records hook load, rate of penetration, rotary
each end of the pipe.
speed and torque, pump rate and pressure,
drill pipe cutter n: a tool to cut drill pipe
mud flow, and so forth during drilling. drilling
stuck in the hole. Tools that cut the pipe
rig n: see rig.
either internally or externally, permitting
drilling slot n: see keyway.
some of it to be withdrawn, are available. Jet
drilling spool n: a fitting placed in the blow-
cutoff or chemical cutoff is also used to free
out preventer stack to provide space
stuck pipe.
between preventers for facilitating stripping
drill pipe float n: a check valve installed in
operations, to permit attachment of choke
the drill stem that allows mud to be pumped
and kill lines, and for localizing possible
down the drill stem but prevents flow back up
erosion by fluid flow to the spool instead of to
the drill stem. Also called a float.
the more expensive pieces of equipment.
drum brake 62 drum brake

drill string n: the column, or string, of drill drive bushing n: see kelly bushing.
pipe with attached tool joints that transmits drive chain n: a chain by means of which a
drill stem n: all
fluid and rotational power from the kelly to machine is propelled.
members in the
the drill collars and the bit. Often, especially drive dog n: in a gas meter, part of the
assembly used
in the oil patch, the tenD is loosely applied to mechanism that drives the meter.
for rotary drilling
include both drill pipe and drill collars. drive-in unit n: a type of portable service or
from the swivel
Compare drill stem. workover rig that is self-propelled, using
to the bit,
drill string float n: a check valve in the drill power from the hoisting engines. The driver's
including the
string that will allow fluid to be pumped into cab and steering wheel are mounted on the
kelly, the drill
the well but will prevent flow from entering same end as the mast support; thus the unit
pipe and tool
the string. can be driven straight ahead to reach the
joints, the drill
drill to granite v: to drill a hole until base- wellhead. See carrier rig.
collars, the
ment rock is encountered, usually in a drive pipe n: see conductor casing.
stabilizers, and
wildcat well. If no hydrocarbon-bearing drive rollers n pi: see kelly bushing rollers.
fonnations are found above the basement, drive shaft n: in a top drive, d1e shaft that
specialty items.
the well is assumed to be dry. The term comes out of the drive's drilling motor.
Compare drill
comes from the fact that basement rock is Usually, crew members attach a saver sub (a
sometimes granite. short pipe fitting) to the drive shaft and attach
drill stem safety valve n: a special valve drill under pressure v: to carry on drilling the top joint of drill pipe to the sub. The drive
normally installed below the kelly. Usually, operations with a mud whose density is such shaft transmits the motor's rotating fon:e to
the valve is open so that drilling fluid can flow that it exerts less pressure on bottom than the drill string and bit. See top drive.
out of the kelly and down the drill stem. It the pressure in the fonnation while driven shaft n: in a chain-and-sprocket
can, however, be manually closed with a maintaining a seal (usually with a rotating drive, the shaft that receives the power.
special wrench when necessary. In one head) to prevent the well fluids from blowing Compare driving shaft.
case, the valve is closed and broken out, still out under the rig. Drilling under pressure is driving fluid n: in a hydraulic coupling or
attached to the kelly to prevent drilling mud in ad- vantageous in that the rate of penetration torque converter, the moving fluid that
the kelly from draining onto the rig floor. In is relatively fast; however, the technique impinges against blades to move the
another case, when kick pressure inside the requires extreme caution. member being driven.
drill stem exists, the drill stem safety valve is drip n: 1. the water and hydrocarbon liquids driving shaft n: in a chain-and-sprocket
closed to prevent the pressure from escaping that have condensed from the vapor state in drive, the shaft that provides the power.
up the drill stem. Also called lower kelly cock, the natural gas flow line and accumulated in Compare driven shaft.
mud saver valve. the low points of the line. 2. the receiving drlg abbr: drilling; used in drilling reports.
drill stem test (DST) n: the conventional vessel that accumulates such liquids. drogue n: a current-measuring instrument
method of formation testing. The basic drill drip accumulator n: the device used to col- that is suspended by a buoy and lowered to
stem test tool consists of a packer or lect liquid hydrocarbons that condense out of a specified ocean depth. The effect of the
packers, valves or ports that may be opened a wet gas traveling through a pipeline.drip current on the drogue is shown by the
and closed from the surface, and two or gasoline n: hydrocarbon liquid that separates movement of the buoy at the surface.
more pressure-recording devices. The tool is in a pipeline transporting gas from the well
lowered on the drill string to the zone to be casing, lease separation, or other facilities
tested. The packer or packers are set to and drains into equipment from which the
drum n: 1. a
isolate the zone from the drilling fluid column. liquid can be removed.
cylinder around
The valves or ports are then opened to allow drip lubrication n: a method of lubricating a
which wire rope is
for formation flow while the recorders chart chain-and-sprocket drive in which a reservoir
wound in the
static pressures. A sampling chamber traps drips oil onto the chain at 4 to 20 drops per
drawworlcs. The
clean formation fluids at the end of the test. minute, depending on the speed of the drive.
drawworks drum is
Analysis of the pressure charts is an A drip lubricator for a multistrand drive has a
that part of the hoist
important part of formation testing. pipe to distrioote the oil to all strands.
on which the drilling
drill stem test gases n pi: formation gases drip pot n: a device installed in a flow
line is wound. 2. a
that are produced during a drill stem test, recorder's manifold to collect liquid that may
steel container of
which is the conventional method of testing condense out the gas in the manifold and to
general cylindrical
formations. Although these gases typically minimize the chance of inaccurate differential
form. Some refined
are produced only in very small quantities and static readings caused by liquid in the
products are
and consist mainly of natural gas, they manifold lines.
shipped in steel
become an environmental concern when the drip time n: the amount of time it takes for
drums with
gases fall into the extremely hazardous the liquid clinging to the sides of a tank
substance category under SARA and are prover to fall and drip out of the vessel.
produced in sufficient quantities so that they drive n: 1. the means by which a machine is
exceed the TPQ limit set for that substance. given motion or power, or by which power is capacities of about 50 to 55 US gallons, or
Typically, wells are not set up for production transferred from one part of a machine to about 200 litres.
operations when the drill stem test is run; another. 2. the energy of expanding gas, drum brake n: a device for arresting the
consequently, gas-containment equipment is inflowing water, or other natural or artificial motion of a machine or mechanism by
not installed or operational during the running mechanisms that forces crude oil out of the means of mechanical friction; in this case, a
of the test and such gases must be released reservoir formation and into the wellbore. v: shoe is pressed against a turning drum.
or flared. to give motion or power.
drum clutch 63 dummy pipe

dry gas n: 1. gas whose water content has packer through one zone while the other is
drum clutch n: a type of friction clutch that been reduced by a dehydration process. 2. produced through the annulus. In a
has a metal housing lined with an gas containing few or no hydrocarbons miniaturised dual completion, two separate
expandable diaphragm and pads of friction commercially recoverable as liquid product. 4.5-inch (11.4-centimetre) or smaller casing
material called friction shoes. The pressure Also called lean gas. strings are run and cemented in the same
of the expanded diaphragm squeezes the dry hole n: any well that does not produce wellbore.
friction shoes against a drum attached to the oil or gas in commercial quantities. A dry
driving shaft. Friction between the shoes and hole may flow water, gas, or even oil, but not
the drum allows the clutch to engage. See in amounts large enough to justify
clutch. Compare plate clutch. production.
drumshaft n: in the drawworks, the axle on dry bole clause n: a clause in an oil and gas
which the drawworks drum rotates. See lease that allows the operator to keep the
drawworks. lease if he or she drills a dry hole. The
dry air cleaner n: on an engine, a device operator has a specified period of time in
that contains an air filter element that does which to drill a subsequent well or begin
not depend on oil to effectively filter the air paying delay rentals again.
entering the engine. Instead, the filter dry bole letter n: a fonn of support
element has a number of folds and chambers agreement in which the contributing
that b'ap dust and dirt going into the engine's company agrees to pay so much per foot
air intake. Some dry elements may be drilled by another company in return for
cleaned and reinstalled; others are discarded information gained from the drilling. The
and replaced. Compare wet air cleane1: contribution is paid only if the well is a dry
dry bed n: the solid adsorption materials hole in all formations encountered in drilling.
such as molecular sieves, charcoal, or other dry bole money n: money paid by a
materials used for purifying or for recovering contributing company on the basis of so dual induction focused log n: a log
liquid from a gas. See adsorption. much per foot drilled by the primary company designed to provide the resistivity
dry-bed dehydrator n: a device for in return for information gained from the measurements necessary to estimate the
removing water from gas in which two or drilling. The contribution is paid only if thee effects of mud filtrate invasion into the
more packages, or beds, of solid desiccant well is a dry hole in all formations formation surrounding the wellbore so that
are used. The desiccant bed is usually encountered in drilling. more reliable values for the the formation
contained in a tower and wet gas is sent dry monsoon n: a winter monsoon that resistivity may be obtained. The resistivity
through one bed for drying while the other is exhibits little or no rainfall. curves on this log are made by deep-,
prepared for later use. dry oil n: oil that has been treated so that medium-, and shallow-investigation
dry-bottom prover n: a type of open tank only small quantities of water and other induction. Visual Observation of the dual
prover that has a gauge glass on the neck of extraneous materials remain in it. induction focused log can give valuable
the prover but not on the bottom of the dry string n: the drill pipe from which drill- information regarding invasion, porosity, and
prover. Compare wet-bottom prover. ing mud has been emptied as it is pulled out hydrocarbon content. The three curves on
dry Btu n: a measure of heating value for of the wellbore. the log can be used to correct for deep
natural gas that is free of moisture. dry suit n: a protective diving garment that is invasion and obtain a better value for
Contractually, natural gas may be defined as completely sealed to prevent water entry. It is formation resistivity. Compare induction
"dry" even though it does contain some water designed to accommodate a layer of survey.
vapor, typically less than 7 pounds per insulation between the diver and die suit. dual meter counter shifter n: an
million cubic feet (3.2 kilograms per million This insulation gives a diver maximum arrangement for connecting two or more
cubic metres). This standard of warmth and protection from the water. meter counters to enable shifting the
measurement reflects the conditions under dry welding n: arc, gas, or plasma welding registration from one counter to another.
which natural gas is usually actually performed in an underwater habitat with a duck's nest n: a relatively small, excavated
delivered for first sales. gas environment at ambient pressure. earthen pit into which are channeled
dry cell n: a primary cell, such as a flashlight dry well n: see dry hole. quantities of drilling mud that overflow the
battery, in which the electrolyte is a paste. DST abbr: drill stem test. usual pits.
The term "dry" is misleading, because DST tool n: drill stem test tool; used for ductile adj: capable of being permanently
moisture is necessary for the electrolyte to formation evaluation. drawn out without breaking (e.g., wire may
function. dual-chamber fitting n: an orifice meter be ductile).
dry combustion n: the use of air as the only fitting having two chambers. The orifice plate ductility n: measure of steel's ability to
injected heat carrier during an in situ is rolled from one chamber to another; the withstand a crack or flaw without fracturing. It
combustion operation. See in situ lower chamber is isolated from the upper can be altered by changing chemical
combustion. The main difficulty with dry chamber so that the gas flow can continue composition, microstructure, and heat
combustion is that about 80 percent of the unimpeded while the plate is removed. treatment. Compare brittleness.
injected heat is lost to the formation. Compare single-chamber fitting. dummy pipe n: the pipe used to slick-bore a
Compare wet combus- tion. dual completion n: a single well that road. The dummy pipe is bored through first
dry drilling n: a drilling operation in which no produces from two separate formations at to create the hole, and the carrier pipe is
fluid is circulated back up to the surface the same time. Production from each zone is welded to it. The dummy is pulled through,
(often as a result of lost circulation). segregated by running two tubing strings with thereby positioning the carrier pipe.
However, fluid is usually circulated into the packers inside the single string of production
well to cool the bit. See blind drilling. casing, or by ruunign one tubing string with a
dummy valve 64 dyne

drilling assembly off vertical without having to

dummy valve n: a blanking valve placed in a be pulled from the hole. The device that
gas lift mandrel to block off annular causes the tool to be deflected can be
communication to the tubing. caught and retrieved with a wireline.
dump n: the volume of oil delivered to a dynamic adj: moving. active. Compare
pipeline in a complete cycle of a measuring static.
tank in a LACT installation. A series of such dynamic equilibrium n: a condition in which
dumps covered by a single scheduling ticket several processes act simultaneously to
is called a run. maintain a system in an overall state that
dump bailer n: a bailing device with a does not change with time.
release valve. usually of the disk or flapper dynamic fluid level n: the point to which the
type. used to place. or spot, material (such static fluid level drops in the casing or tubing
as cement slurry) at the bottom of the well. of a well under producing conditions.
dump meter n: a liquid-measuring device dynamic loading n: exerting force with
consisting of a small tank with narrowed continuous movement. i.e.. cyclic stressing.
sections at top and bottom that automatically dynamic miscibility n: the ability of
fills and empties itself and records the substances to mix while moving.
number of dumps. dynamic positioning n: a method by which
dump tank n: a calibrated metering tank a floating offshore drilling rig is maintained in
designed to release a specific volume of position over an offshore well location
liquid automatically. Also called a measuring without the use of mooring anchors.
tank. Generally, several propulsion units, called
dump valve n: the valve through which oil thrusters, are located on the hulls of the
and water are discharged from separators. structure and are actuated by a sensing
treaters. and so on. It is usually a motor system. A computer to which the system
valve. but may be a liquid-level controller as feeds signals directs the thrusters to maintain
well. dunefield n: an accumulation of the rig on location.
windbome sand on that part of the seashore dynamic pressure n: the sum of two
that lies above storm-flood level. deviation forces, one caused by an attractive
duplex pump n: a reciprocating pump with force between molecules, the other, by a
two pistons or plungers and used extensively repulsive force between the same molecules.
as a mud pump on drilling rigs. dynamic tensioning n: a sophisticated
monitoring system for laying pipe offshore. It
is used to control pipe release off a stinger.
This system compensates immediately for
horizontal and vertical wave motion by either
paying out the pipe string or hauling it back.
Dynamic tensioning maintains a constant
level of tension on the pipe and prevents
excessive stress on the line.
dynamometer n: 1. an instrument or
assembly of instruments used to measure
torque and other force-related properties of
rotating or reciprocating machinery. 2. in
sucker rod pumping, a device used to
indicate a variation in load on the polished
rod as the rod string reciprocates. A
duster n: a dry hole.
continuous record of the result of forces
dutchman n: 1. the portion of a stud or
acting along the axis of the polished rod is
screw that remains in place after the head
provided on a dynamometer card, from which
has inadvertently been twisted off. 2. a tool
an analysis is made of the performance of
joint pin broken off in the drill pipe box or drill
the well pumping equipment.
collar box.
dynamometer card n: a continuous record
DV tool n: originally a trademarked name. It
made by the dynamometer of the result of
is a stage cementing tool. used in selective
forces acting along the axis of the polished
zone primary cementing.
rod in sucker rod pumping.
dwt abbr: deadweight ton.
dyne n: the unit of force in the centimetre-
Dyna-DrillTM n: trade name for a down- hole
gram-second system of units, equal to the
motor driven by drilling fluid that imparts
force that gives an acceleration of 2 centi-
rotary motion to a drilling bit connected to the
metres/second squared to a 1 gram mass.
tool. thus eliminating the need to turn the
entire drill stem to make hole. Used in
straight and directional drilling.
DynaflexTM tool n: the trade name for a
directional drilling tool that deflects the
edgewater n: the water that touches the elastic deformation n: temporary changes
E&P abbr: 1. exploration and production. 2. edge of the oil in the lower horizon of a in dimensions caused by stress. The material
those activities that include subsurface formation. returns to the original dimensions after
studies, seismic and geophysical activities, edgewater drive n: see water drive. removal of the stress.
locating underground hydrocarbon deposits, edge well n: a well on the outer fringes of a elasticity modulus n: see modulus of
drilling for hydrocarbon deposits and bringing productive subsurface formation. elasticity.
hydrocarbons to the surface, well completion, eductor n: a device similar to an ejector for elastic limit n: the point at which a material
and field processing of hydrocarbons prior to mixing two fluids. permanently deforms when stressed.
entering the pipeline. 3. the upstream end of effective inside tank height n: the distance elastic modulus n: see modulus of
the petroleum industry. from the gauge point on the tank floor or elasticity,
ears n pi: protrusions added to a traveling datum plate to the top of the top angle or elastomer n: an elastic material made of
block to hold the elevators. where the tank contents would begin to synthetic rubber or plastic; often the main
earth lifting n: see pressure parting. overflow. component of the packing material in blow-
Earth Resource Technology Satellite effective permeability n: a measure of the out preventers and downhole packers.
(ERTS) n: see Landsat. ability of a single fluid to flow through a rock elbow n: a fitting that allows two pipes to be
easement n: a right that one individual or when another fluid is also present in the pore joined at an angle of less than 180., usually
company has on the surface of another's spaces. Compare absolute permeability. 90. or 45.,
land. In the petroleum industry, it usually relative permeability. elec log abbr: electric log; used in drilling
refers to the permission given by a land- effective porosity n: the percentage of the reports.
owner for a pipeline or access road to be laid bulk volume of a rock sample that is election at casing point n: a decision taken
across his or her property. composed of interconnected pore spaces to exercise or not to exercise an option to
ebb current n: the movement of the tidal that allow the passage of fluids through the participate in the completion attempt on a
current away from the shore. sample. See porosity. well, including the costs of running
ebullition n: boiling, especially as applied to effective value n: the value of an AC current completion production casing and all related
a system to remove heat from engine jacket or voltage that produces the same heating completion costs, The decision is made
water, wherein the water is permitted to boil effect as a direct current of the same when the operator is ready to run casing and
and the evolved vapours are condensed in amount; equal to 0.707 times the maximum complete the well and so ratifies the party
air-fin coolers. value. Electrical measuring devices read owning the election.
eccentric bit n: a bit that does not have a effective values unless otherwise indicated. electrical filter n: a circuit used to eliminate
uniformly round cross section; instead, the bit Also called RMS value. or reduce certain waves or frequencies while
has a protuberance that projects from one efficiency n: the ratio of useful energy leaving others relatively unchanged.
side. An eccentric bit drills a hole slightly produced by an engine to the energy put into
overgauge to compensate for certain it.
formations, such as shale or salt, that deform effluent limitation n: any restriction imposed
and enlarge after being drilled. Eccentric bits on quantities, discharge rates, and
can also ream undergauge holes. concentrations of pollutants that are
ECD abbr: equivalent circulating density. discharged from point sources into US
ecology n: science of the relationships be- waters, the waters of the contiguous zone, or
tween organisms and their environment. the ocean.
Economic Regulatory Administration efm abbr: electronic flow measurement
(ERA) n: federal agency that administers egress unit n: see emergency escape unit.
federal energy programs other than those Eh sym: oxidation-reduction potential.
regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory EHS abbr: extremely hazardous substance.
Commission. See also Department of En- EIA abbr: Energy Information Administration.
ergy. Federal Energy Regulatory Commis- eight round n: a tapered connection with 8
sion. threads per inch (centimetre). One turn
eco-out abbr: economic out. equals 0.125 inch (0.318 centimetre) of
economic out (eco-out) n: provision in gas travel. A very common oilfield connection.
purchase contracts that permits the ejector n: a nozzle like device that increases
purchaser to rescind contracts involving the velocity of a fluid, It is often used to mix
deregulated natural gas if prices of two fluids or a fluid and solids,
competitive fuels drop to the extent that elastic collision n: a collision between a
distributors cannot compete in selling the neutron and the nucleus of an atom of an
gas. element such as hydrogen. In such a
eddy current loss n: a transformer loss collision, the neutron's energy is reduced by
caused by magnetic currents induced in the exactly the amount transferred to the nucleus
core of a transformer that take energy from with which it collided. The angle of collision
the circuit. Eddy current loss is minimized by and the relative mass of the nucleus
the use of laminated cores. determine energy loss.

electrically-actuated governor 66 electrovalent reaction

electrochemical treater n: see electrostatic can tell one whether fluid is water or
electrically-actuated governor n: a treater. hydrocarbons.
hydraulic governor on an engine that has a electrode n: a conductor of electric current electromagnetism n: magnetism produced
reversible electric motor (it runs both as it leaves or enters a medium such as an by the action of a current flowing through a
clockwise and counterclockwise). By electrolyte, a gas, or a vacuum. conductor. The electromagnetic field
manipulating a remote control, the engine electrodeposition n: an electrochemical contracts and disappears when the current
operator can adjust the electric motor to process by which metal settles out of an stops flowing.
closely control the engine's speed. See electrolyte that contains the metal's ions and electromechanical adj: refers to equipment
governor; hydraulic governor. is then deposited at the cathode of the cell. comprising both mechanical and electrical
electrical potential n: voltage. electrodynamic brake n: a device mounted components, such as electromechanical
electric dehydration n: see emulsion on the end of the drawworks shaft of a valves and electromechanical counters.
breaker. drilling rig. The electrodynamic brake electromotive force (emf) n: 1. the force
electric drive n: see electric rig. (sometimes called a magnetic brake) serves that drives electrons and thus produces an
electric-drive rig n: see electric rig. as an auxiliary to the mechanical brake electric current. 2. the voltage or electric
electric generator n: a machine by which when pipe is lowered into a well. The pressure that causes an electric current to
mechanical energy is changed into electrical braking effect in an electrodynamic brake is flow along a conductor. 3. a difference of
energy, such as an electric generator on a achieved by means of the interaction of potential, or electrical, flow through a circuit
drilling rig in which a diesel engine electric currents with magnets, with other against a resistance.
(mechanical power) turns a generator to currents, or with themselves. electromotive series n: a list of elements
make electricity (electrical energy). arranged in order of activity (tendency to
electrician n: the rig crew member who lose electrons). The following metals are so
maintains and repairs the electrical arranged: magnesium, beryllium, aluminum.
generation and distribution system on the zinc, chromium, iron, cadmium, nickel, tin.
rig. copper, silver, and gold. If two metals widely
electric line n: see conductor line. separated in the list (e.g., magnesium and
electric log n: see electric well log. iron) are placed in an electrolyte and
electrodynamometer n: a quantity indicator
electric logging n: the process of running connected by a metallic conductor, an
for AC current or voltage.
an electric log. See electric well log. electromotive force is produced. See
electrolysis n: the decomposition of a
electric rig n: a drilling rig on which the corrosion.
chemical compound brought about by the
energy from the power source usually electron n: a particle in an atom that has a
passage of an electrical current through the
several diesel engines is changed to negative charge. An atom contains the same
compound or through the solution containing
electricity by generators mounted on the number of electrons and protons (which
the compound. Corroding action of stray
engines. The electrical power is then have a positive charge). Electrons orbit the
currents is caused by electrolysis.
distributed through electrical conductors to nucleus of the atom.
electrolyte n: 1. a chemical that, when
electric motors. The motors power the electronic flow measurement (efm)n: the
dissolved in water, dissociates into positive
various rig components. Compare measurement of natural gas flow in a
and negative ions, thus increasing its
mechanical rig. pipeline by the use of electronic devices,
electrical conductivity. See dissociation. 2.
electric starter n: a device that uses a including computers.
the electrically conductive solution that must
battery, an electric motor, gears, and cables electronic transfer n: the exchange of data
be present for a corrosion cell to exist.
to provide a way of starting an engine. An for business transactions by computer. Often
electrolytic moisture analyzer n: an
electrically actuated motor turns the engine used for nominations, dispatching, billing,
instrument that uses the principle that
over by means of a pinion gear in the starter and payment.
moisture is absorbed on a phosphorous
that engages a ring gear on the engine electroscanner n: device to scan and
pentoxide film between two electrodes to
flywheel. analyze paper charts electronically. Greatly
measure the amount of water in a fluid such
electric submersible pumping n: a form of increases the number of charts that can be
as gas.
artificial lift that utilizes an electric processed daily.
electrolytic property n: the ability of a
submersible multistage centrifugal pump. electic meter n: a meter that measures
substance, usually in solution, to conduct an
Electric power is conducted to the pump by voltage directly, rather than in terms of its
electric current.
a cable attached to the tubing. relation to current.
electrolyze v: to decompose by electrolysis.
electric survey n: see electric well log. electrostatic treater n: a vessel that
electromagnetic propagation tool (EPT) n:
receives an emulsion and resolves the
electric well log n: a device that emits microwaves into a
emulsion to oil, water, and usually gas, by
record of certain electrical formation and measures the way in which
using heat, chemicals, and a high-voltage
charac-teristics (such as these microwaves are affected by the
electric field. This field, produced by grids
resistivity and con- formation. By interpreting the effects,
placed perpendicular to the flow of fluids in
ductivity) of forma-tions dielectric constants of fluids can be
the treater, aids in breaking the emulsion.
traversed by the borehole. determined. Dielectric constants, in turn, can
Also called an electrochemical treater. See
It is made to identify the tell one whether fluid is water or
emulsion treating.
forma-tions, determine the hydrocarbons.
electrovalent reaction n: the most common
nature and amount of electromagnetic propagation tool (EPT)
method of forming compounds, in which a
fluids they contain, and n: device that emits microwaves into a
positively charged ion and a negatively
estimate their depth. Also formation and measures the way in which
charged ion attract each other. Compare
called an electric log or these microwaves are affected by the
covalent reaction.
electric survey. formation. By interpreting the effects,
dielectric constants of fluids can be
electrochemical series n: see
determined. Dielectric constants, in turn,
electromotive series.

element 67 EIA

in the immediate area or by maintenance laboratories to simple and expedient

element n: one of more than a hundred personnel. practices used in the field.
simple substances that consist of atoms of emergency response plan n: a plan for emulsion treating n: the process of
only one kind and that either singly or in emergency response situations that is breaking down emulsions to separate oil
combination make up all matter. For available to employees and OSHA from water or other contaminants. Treating
example, the simplest element is hydrogen, personnel for inspection and that contains plants may use a single process or a
and one of the most abundant elements is (at a minimum) pre-emergency planning and combination of processes to effect
carbon. Some elements, such as radium and coordination with outside parties; personnel demulsification, de- pending on what
uranium, are radioactive. roles, lines of authority, training, and emulsion is being treated.
elev abbr: elevation; used in drilling reports. communication; emergency recognition and emulsoid n: colloidal particles that take up
elevated tank n: a vessel above a datum prevention; safe distances and places of water. See also colloid.
line (usually ground level). refuge; site security and control; evacuation enamel coating n: a collective term for a
elevator bails n pI: see elevator links. routes and procedures; decontamination; variety of petroleum-based derivatives such
elevator links n pI: cylindrical bars that emergency alerting and response as asphalts, coal tars, grease and wax,
support the elevators and attach them to the procedures; critique of response and follow- mastics, and asphalt mastics that are used
hook. Also called elevator bails. up; and personal protective equipment to coat pipe.
elevators n pl: on conventional rotary rigs (PPE) and emergency equipment. encroachment n: see water encroachment.
and top-drive rigs, hinged steel devices with emf abbr: electromotive force. encumbrance n: a claim or charge on
manual operating handles that crew "Employee Right to Know" Standard n: property, for example, a mortgage or lien for
members latch on to a tool joint (or a sub). see Hazard Communication Standard unpaid taxes.
Since the elevators are directly connected to emulsified water n: water so thoroughly endangered species n: a species that is in
the traveling block, or to the integrated combined with oil that special treating danger of extinction.
traveling block in the top drive, when the methods must be applied to separate it from Endangered Species Act (ESA) n: an act
driller raises or lowers the block or the top- the oil. Compare free water. that declares the intentions of Congress to
drive unit, the drill pipe is also raised or emulsifier n: see emulsifying agent. conserve threatened and endangered
lowered. emulsify v: to convert into an emulsion. species and the ecosystems on which those
emulsifying agent n: a material that causes species depend. ESA provides for federal
water and oil to form an emulsion. Water designation of species determined to be
normally occurs separately from oil; if, endangered or threatened. It prohibits the
however, an emulsifying agent is present, taking of an endangered or threatened
the water becomes dispersed in the oil as species of fish, wildlife, or vegetation.
tiny droplets. Or, rarely, the oil may be end device n: for automated lease
dispersed in the water. In either case, the operation, a sensor on field equipment to
emulsion must be treated to separate the transmit status of operations, report data, or
water and the oil. take action as needed.
emulsion n: a mixture in which one liquid, endpoint n: the point marking the end of
termed the dispersed phase, is uniformly one stage of a process. In filtrate analysis,
eliminator n: see separator. distributed (usually as minute globules) in the endpoint is the point at which a particular
elliptical tank n: a tank that has an elliptical another liquid, called the continuous phase result is achieved through titration.
cross section. or dispersion medium. In an oil-in-water end-to-end plot n: in data acquisition, a
elongation n: see stretch. emulsion, the oil is the dispersed phase and printout of data obtained from the start of a
EMD abbr: 1. Electromotive Division of the water the dispersion medium; in a water- process to its completion.
General Motors Corporation. 2. a two- in-oil emulsion, the reverse holds. end user n: one who actually consumes or
stroke-cycle diesel engine manufactured by emulsion breaker n: a system, chemical, bums a product, as opposed to the one who
the General Motors Corp. device, or process used for breaking down sells or resells it.
emergency escape unit n: a self-contained an emulsion and producing two or more energy n: the capability of a body for doing
breathing apparatus that is used only for easily separated compounds (such as water work. Potential energy is this capability due
escape to a safe area. This self-contained and oil). Emulsion breakers may be (1) to the position or state of the body. Kinetic
breathing apparatus, when properly devices to heat the emulsion, thus achieving energy is the capability due to the motion of
serviced, furnishes a 5- to 15-minute supply separation by lowering the viscosity of the the body.
of breathing air. Emergency escape units emulsion and allowing the water to settle Energy Information Administration (EIA)
may have masks or hoods. Also called out; (2) chemical compounds, which destroy n: a part of the Department of Energy (DOE)
egress unit. Compare work unit. or weaken the film around each globule of the main purpose of which is to disseminate
Emergency Planning and Community water, thus uniting all the drops; (3) information such as statistics to Congress,
Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA) n: mechani- cal devices, such as settling tanks the administration, and the general public.
see SARA Title III. and wash tanks; or (4) electrostatic treaters, Address: 1000 Independence Avenue SW;
emergency response n: (under HAZ- which use an electric field to cause Washington, DC 20585; (202) 586-2363.
WOPER) a response to an uncontrolled coalescence of the water globules.
release of a hazardous substance that emulsion mud n: see oil-in-water emulsion
requires action by employees or other mud.
responders from outside the immediate emulsion test n: a procedure carried out to
release area. In other words, it is an determine the proportions of sediment and
emergency response if the release poses a dispersed compounds, such as water, in an
potential safety or health hazard, and the emulsion. Such tests may range from
release cannot be controlled by employees elaborate distillation conducted in

ENTELEC 68 epoxy

entitlement n: working-interest owner's environment of deposition n: see

Energy Telecommunications and share of production. This volume may not depositional environment.
Electrical Association (ENTELEC) n: a equal actual sales because of contractual or EOR abbr: enhanced oil recovery.
non-profit, tax-exempt organization that aids market conditions. EPA abbr: Environmental Protection
the energy industry in dealing with entrained adj: drawn in and transported by Agency.
technological advances by advising and the flow of a fluid. EP additive n: see extreme-pressure
educating members on new equipment and entrained gas n: formation gas that enters lubricant.
safety. Address: Box 795038; Dallas, TX the drilling fluid in the annulus. See gas-cut EPA generator identification number
75379- 5038; (972) 235-0655; fax (972) 235- mud. (GIN) n: a number issued to any person, by
0653. entrained liquid n: liquid particles that may site, whose act or process produces
engine n: a machine for converting the heat be carried out of the top of a distillation or hazardous waste. Such a number is required
content of fuel into rotary motion that can be absorber column with the vapors or residue by the EPA under the Resource
used to power other machines. Compare gas. Conservation and Liability Act of 1976 for
motor. entrained water n: water suspended in oil. the purpose of tracking hazardous waste.
engine block n: the cast steel or aluminum Includes emulsions but does not include EPCRA abbr: Emergency Planning and
body into which the engine manufacturer dissolved water. Community Right-to-Know Act.
bores and machines the cylinders; and onto entrapment n: 1. the underground epeiric sea n: a shallow arm of the ocean
and into which additional engine parts are accumulation of oil and gas in geological that extends from the continental shelf deep
installed. traps. 2. the accumulation in rock pores of into the interior of the continent Also called
engine fan n: a multi-bladed propeller large polymer or surfactant molecules epicontinental sea.
usually installed behind an engine's radiator, unable to move because of small exit ephemeral streams n pi: streams that last a
which moves air over an engine. It helps openings. The coiled-up molecules reduce short time.
cool the engine and equalizes the the permeability of pores to water but permit epicontinental sea n: see epeiric sea.
temperature of the air as it flows over the oil to pass through the pores. epithermal neutron n: a neutron having an
engine, thus preventing hot spots. Engine entropy n: the internal energy of a energy level of 0.02 to 100 electron volts.
power usually operates the fan, although substance that is attributed to the internal epithermal neutron log n: a special neutron
some fans have auxiliary electric motors that motion of the molecules. This energy is log used mainly in air- or gas-drilled holes to
power them when the engine is stopped. within the molecules and cannot be utilized help determine formation porosity. An
engine jacket water n: coolant, such as for external work. epithermal neutron log detects epithermal
water, that circulates through spaces in the environment n: 1. the sum of the physical, neutrons, which are neutrons released at
engine block. chemical, and biological factors that energy levels higher than those released in
engine temperature switch (ETS) n: a surround an organism. 2. the water, air, and normal neutron logging.
device on an engine that senses overheating land and the interrelationship that exists epm abbr: equivalents per million. EP mix
and shuts down the engine if overheating among and between water, air, and land and abbr: ethane-propane mix.
occurs. all living things. 3. as defined by the US epoch n: a division of geologic time; a
Engler distillation n: a test that determines government, the navigable waters, the subdivision of a geologic period.
the volatility of a gasoline by measuring the waters of the contiguous zone, the ocean epoxy n: 1. any compound characterized by
percentage of the gasoline that can be waters, and any other surface water, the presence of a reactive chemical
distilled at various temperatures. groundwater, drinking water supply, land structure that has an oxygen atom joined to
enhanced oil recovery (EOR) n: 1. the surface, subsurface strata, or ambient air each of two carbon atoms that are already
introduction of artificial drive and within the United States. bonded. 2. any of various resins capable of
displacement mechanisms into a reservoir to environmental assessment n: a detailed forming tight cross-linked polymer structures
produce a portion of the oil unrecoverable by environmental review document required characterized by toughness, strong
primary recovery methods. To restore under NEPA. adhesion, and high corrosion and chemical
formation pressure and fluid flow to a environmental impact statement n: as resistance. Epoxys are used extensively as
substantial portion of a reservoir, fluid or defined in the Environmental Quality coatings and adhesives.
heat is introduced through injection wells Improvement Act of 1970, a statement
located in rock that has fluid communication designed to "serve as an action-forcing
with production wells. See alkaline (caustic) device to ensure that the policies and goals
flooding, gas injection, micellar-polymer of the act are infused into the ongoing
flooding, primary recovery, secondary policies of the government..' Its purpose is to
recovery, tertiary recovery, thermal recovery, "avoid or minimize adverse impacts" on the
waterflooding. 2. the use of certain recovery environment by providing the environmental
methods that not only restore formation analyses (used with other relevant materials)
pressure but also improve oil displacement to make sound decisions regarding the
or fluid flow in the reservoir. These methods environment.
may include chemical flooding, gas injection, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
and thermal recovery. n: a federal agency that was created in 1970
ENTELEC abbr: Energy from a variety of existing agencies. The EPA
Telecommunications and Electrical administers air pollution, water pollution,
Association. pesticide, solid waste, noise control, drinking
enthalpy n: the heat content of fuel. A water, and toxic substances acts. It also has
thermodynamic property, it is the sum of the major research responsibilities. Ad- dress:
internal energy of a body and the product of 401 M Street SW; Washington, DC 20460;
its pressure multiplied by its volume. (202) 260-2090.

equalizer 69 even keel

equivalent weight n: the atomic or formula estate n: the nature and extent of a person's
equalizer n: 1. a device used with weight of an element, compound, or ion ownership or right or interest in land or other
mechanical drawworks brakes to ensure divided by its valence. Elements entering property.
that, when the brakes are used, each brake into combination always do so in quantities estimated ROB (remaining on board) n:
band will receive an equal amount of tension proportional to their equivalent weights. estimated material remaining on board a
and also that, in case one brake fails, the ERA abbr: Economic Regulatory vessel after a discharge. Includes residue or
other will carry the load. A mechanical brake Administration. sediment clingage, which builds up on the
equaliser is a dead anchor attached to the era n: one of the major divisions of geologic interior surfaces of the vessel's cargo
draw works frame in the form of a yoke time. compartments.
attached to each brake band. Some erosion n: the process by which material estoppel n: a legal restraint on a person to
drawworks are equipped with automatic (such as rock or soil) is worn away or prevent him or her from contradicting a
equalisers. 2. any device used to distribute removed (as by wind or water). previous statement.
force equally on two pieces of equipment-for erosion drilling n: the high-velocity ejection estuary n: a coastal indentation or bay into
example, the pitmans on a beam pumping of " a stream of drilling fluid ". from the which a river empties and where fresh water
unit. nozzles of a jet bit to remove rock mixes with seawater. Compare marine delta.
equalizing slings n pi: in crane operations, encountered during drilling. Sometimes sand et aI. abbr: and others (Lat. et alii).
multiple-leg slings of wire rope and fittings or steel shot is added to the drilling fluid to Commonly used in oil and gas leases.
that equally distribute the load among the increase its erosive capabilities. ETBE abbr: ethyl tertiary butyl ether.
slings. ethane n: a paraffin hydrocarbon, C2H6;
equation of state n: a mathematical under atmospheric conditions, a gas. One of
expression that defines the physical state of the components of natural gas.
a homogeneous substance by relating ethene n: see ethylene.
volume to pressure and absolute ethylene n: a chemical compound of the
temperature for a given mass of the olefin series with the formula C2H4 Official
material. name is ethene.
equatorial circumference n: the ethylene glycol n: a colourless liquid used
circumference of the horizontal great circle as an antifreeze and as a dehydration
at the equator of a spherical tank. Compare medium in removing water from gas. See
great circle. glycol, glycol dehydrator.
equilibrium n: a state of balance between ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) n: a
opposing forces or actions that is either compound of ethanol and isobutylene.
erosion surface n: the upper surface of the
static or dynamic. Compare methyl tertiary butyl ether.
most recent sediment layer, formerly smooth
equilibrium constant n: see vapour-liquid ETS abbr: engine temperature switch.
and horizontal, modified by running water or et ox. abbr: and wife (Lat. et uxor, and
equilibrium ratio.
equilibrium vapour pressure n: the other agents.
woman). Commonly used in oil and gas
error and repeatability of measurements
pressure at which a liquid and its vapour are leases.
n: the closeness of the agreement between et vir abbr: and husband (Lat. et vir, and
in equilibrium at a given temperature.
equity n: those maxims and general the results of successive measurements of
man). Commonly used in oil and gas leases.
the same quantity carried out by the same
principles that developed in England to EVE abbr: external upset end.
method, under the same environment, by evaporation loss n: a loss to the
moderate the common law and allow
the same observer, with the same
remedy for injury. In the broadest sense, atmosphere of petroleum fractions through
measuring instruments, in the same
justice. evaporation, usually while the fractions are
equivalent circulating density (ECD) n: laboratory, at quite short intervals.
in storage or in process. See vaporisation.
error curve n: a curve or graph that
the increase in bottomhole pressure evaporator n: a vessel used to convert a
represents the error of a measuring device
expressed as an increase in pressure that liquid into its vapour phase.
such as a pressure gauge as a function evaporite n: a sedimentary rock formed by
occurs only when mud is being circulated.
either of the quantity measured or of any
Because of friction in the annulus as the precipitation of dissolved solids from water
other quantity that has an influence on the
mud is pumped, bottomhole pressure is evaporating in enclosed basins. Examples
slightly, but significantly, higher than when are gypsum and salt.
ERTS abbr: Earth Resource Technology
the mud is not being pumped. ECD is evening tour (pronounced "tower") n: the
calculated by dividing the annular pressure shift of duty on a drilling rig that starts in the
ES abbr: electric survey. See electric wen
loss by 0.052, dividing that by true vertical afternoon and runs through the evening.
depth, and adding the result to the mud log. Sometimes called afternoon tour. Compare
ESA abbr: Endangered Species Act.
weight Also called circulating density, mud- daylight tour; graveyard tour:
escarpment n: a cliff or relatively steep
weight equivalent even keel n: on a ship or floating offshore
equivalent dip n: a European term for the slope that separates level or gently sloping
drilling rig, the balance when the plane of
areas of land.
depth of liquid in a tank. corresponding to a flotation is parallel to the keel.
escheat n: the reversion of property to the
given ullage. It is obtained by subtracting the
state in the event that the owner thereof dies
observed ullage from the height of the ullage
without leaving a will (intestate) and has no
reference point above the dip point on the
heirs to whom the property may pass by
bottom of the tank.
equivalents per million (epm) n: the unit lawful descent. Also called unclaimed
property statute.
chemical weight of solute per million unit
ESD abbr: emergency shut down, an
weights of solution. The epm of a solute in
automated platform system to shut in an
solution is equal to the ppm (parts per
SCSSV and/or SSV.
million) divided by the equivalent weight.
est abbr: estimated; used in drilling reports.
examination of title 70 exploitation

excited state of nucleus n: the increased liquids may expand without overflowing.
examination of title n: a thorough energy condition of the nucleus of an atom Gauge point is often in the expansion dome.
inspection of the recorded documents after it has captured a neutron. On capture, Shell thickness is part of dome capacity.
pertaining to a tract's history of ownership. the nucleus emits a high-energy gamma ray expansion factor n: a multiplying factor
Title examinations are performed by called a capture gamma ray. used when calculating gas flow rate. This
attorneys who look for gaps in the chain of exciter n: a small DC generator mounted on factor corrects for the reduction in fluid
title, ambiguities, or any doubtful points that top of a main generator to produce the field density that a compressible fluid
would cloud the present owner's claim to the for the main generator. experiences when it passes through an
property. The examiner then sets forth in a execution n: the completion of a legal orifice as a result of the increased fluid
written opinion the facts and instruments instrument by the required actions-for velocity and the decreased static pressure.
that, in his or her judgement, are necessary example, by signing and delivering the Also called expansibility factor.
to make the title merchantable or legally instrument. Execution includes the actual expansion joint n: a device used to connect
defensible. delivery of the signed document to the long lines of pipe to allow the pipe joints to
excelsior n: a fibrous material used as a named grantee, lessee, or assignee. expand or contract as the temperature rises
filtering element in heaters or heater- executive rights n pi: in regard to mineral or falls.
treaters. rights and interests, the right to execute oil expansion loop n: a loop built into a pipe-
excess butanes n pl: see butanes required. and gas leases. Executive rights may not line to allow for expansion and contraction of
excess capacity n: the difference in the include the right to bonus or rentals. the line.
amount of gas between the producer's executor n: the person named in a will to expansion refrigeration n: cooling obtained
deliverability capacity and the purchaser's carry out its provisions. from the evaporation of a liquid refrigerant or
excess flow valve n: a valve used exempt adj: free or released from liability or the expansion of a gas.
automatically to prevent the liquid flow rate requirement to which others are subject. expansion thermometer n: a type of
in a pipeline from exceeding a high limit. exempt interest n: an interest owned in a thermometer that uses a known cubical
excess gas used n: gas purchased for property, usually by a charitable or a coefficient of expansion of a solid, a liquid,
lease use, surface or subsurface, when the governmental agency, that is not subject to or a gas to provide indication in terms of
amount the producer is entitled to is state production taxes as provided in the degrees of temperature.
insufficient. applicable tax regulations. Compare tax-free expansion turbine n: a device that converts
exchange agreement n: agreement interest. the energy of a gas or vapour stream into
between producers that provides for the exhaust n: the burned gases that are re- mechanical work by expanding the gas or
exchange of gas produced from one moved from the cylinder of an engine. v: to vapour through a turbine.
property or interest for gas produced from remove the burned gases from the cylinder expansivity n: see coefficient of expansion.
another property or interest. of an engine. expected value concept n: a risk analysis
exchange gas n: gas exchanged under exhaust manifold n: a piping arrangement, process that multiplies expected gain or loss
provisions of an exchange agreement. immediately adjacent to the engine, that of a decision by its probability of occurrence
exchanger n: a piping arrangement that collects burned gases from the engine and and averages all possible outcomes to
permits heat from one fluid to be transferred channels them to the exhaust pipe. choose the action with the highest expected
to another fluid as they travel counter exhaust pipe n: on an engine, flexible steel benefit.
currently to one another. In the heat tubing that connects the engine exhaust expendable gun n: a perforating gun that
exchanger of an emulsion-treating unit, heat manifold outlet to the muffler. See muffler. consists of a metal strip on which are
from the outgoing clean oil is transferred to exhaust port n: an opening in a cylinder wall mounted shaped charges in special
the incoming well fluid, cooling the oil and through which exhaust gas is expelled when capsules. After firing, nothing remains of the
heating the well fluid. In the heat exchanger the exhaust port is uncovered by the piston. gun but debris. See gun-perforate.
of a glycol dehydration unit, heat from the exhaust silencer n: see muffler; expendable plug n: a temporary plug set on
hot lean glycol flows through the inner flow exhaust stack n: see tail pipe. a pressure-setting assembly and landed
tube in the opposite direction of the cool rich exhaust valve n: the cam-operated inside a production packer. The plug
glycol, which flows through a shell built mechanism through which burned gases are temporarily converts the packer into a bridge
around the tube. ejected from an engine cylinder. plug.
exhibit n: see rider. expendable-retrievable gun n: a
expanded perlite n: a siliceous volcanic perforating gun that consists of a hollow,
rock that is finely ground and subjected to cylindrical carrier into which are placed
extreme heat. The resulting release of water shaped charges. On detonation, debris
leaves the rock particles considerably created by the exploded charges falls into
expanded and thus more porous. Expanded the carrier and is retrieved when the gun is
perlite is sometimes used in cement to pulled out of the hole; however, the gun
increase its yield and decrease its density cannot be re-used. See gun-perforate.
without an appreciable effect on its other expensed adj: deducted from income in the
properties. year in which the expenditure is incurred.
expanding cement n: cement that expands exploitation n: the development of a
as it sets to form a tighter fit around casing reservoir to extract its oil.
and formation.
expansibility factor n: see expansion
expansion coefficient n: see coefficient of
expansion dome n: a cylindrical projection
on top of a tank, tank car, or truck into which

exploitation well 71 eye splice

temporary health problems, chronic illness, threads, couplings, or tool joints may be
exploitation well n: a well drilled to permit acute illness, or death. attached. Compare internal-external upset
more effective extraction of oil from a extended nozzle n: a special bit nozzle, end, internal upset end.
reservoir. Sometimes called a development often used on large bits, that lengthens the extraction n: the process of separating one
well. nozzle and therefore places the jet of drilling material from another by means of a solvent.
exploration n: the search for reservoirs of fluid exiting the nozzle close to the bottom of The term can be applied to absorption,
oil and gas, including aerial and geophysical the hole. With large bits, where regular liquid-liquid extraction, or any other process
surveys, geological studies, core testing, nozzles can be relatively distant from the using a solvent.
and drilling of wildcats. bottom of the hole, the cleaning power of the extraction loss n: the reduction in volume
exploration and production n: see E&P. jet of drilling fluid may be lost because the of wet natural gas due to the removal of
exploration plan n: a plan required by the velocity, or speed, of the jet diminishes rap- natural gas liquids, hydrogen sulfide, carbon
MMS before exploration can take place in idly after it exits the nozzle. By extending the dioxide, water vapour, and other impurities
the OCS. The plan must include measures length of the nozzles, the jets are placed from the natural gas stream. See also
to protect the environment. The MMS closer to bottom for maximum cleaning. shrinkage.
reviews the plan, analyzes the extended-reach well n: a directionally extraction plant n: a plant equipped to
environmental effects, and determines any drilled well that has a high degree of remove liquid constituents from casinghead
appropriate mitigating measures before deflection. gas or wet gas.
approving the plan. extender n: 1. a substance added to drilling extractor n: in automatic sampling, a device
exploration well n: a well drilled either in mud to increase viscosity without adding for removing small amounts of liquid from a
search of an as-yet-undiscovered pool of oil clay or other thickening material. 2. an flowing stream and diverting these to a
or gas (a wildcat well) or to extend greatly additive that assists in getting greater yield storage container.
the limits of a known pool. It involves a from a sack of cement. The extender acts by extra-long rotary slips n pI: slips for drill
relatively high degree of risk. Exploratory requiring more water than required by neat pipe that fit into the tapered insert bowl of a
wells may be classified as (1) wildcat, drilled cement. four-pin master bushing and whose taper
in an unproven area; (2) field extension or extension n pI: tubular components length is 12 inches (324 millimetres) long.
step-out, drilled in an unproven area to attached to the bottom of a packer to extend Compare long rotary slips. See also master
extend the proved limits of a field; or (3) its bore. extension sub n: a device made up bushing, slips.
deep test, drilled within a field area but to on an overshot to lengthen it so that it can extratropical cyclone n: a cyclone that
unproven deeper zones. pass over the damaged top of a fish and develops in the middle and upper latitudes.
explosimeter n: an instrument used to securely engage an undamaged area of the extremely hazardous substance (EHS) n:
measure the concentration of combustible fish. See overshot. 1. chemical determined by the EPA to be
gases in the air. Also called a gas sniffer. extremely hazardous to a community during
explosion cover n: see explosion door: external cutter n: a an emergency spill or release as a result of
explosion door n: on an engine, one of fishing :tool containing its toxicity and physical or chemical
usually several spring-loaded, lightweight metal-cutting knives that properties. 2. (under SARA) a substance
metal plates placed over openings in the is lowered into the hole listed in appendixes A and B of 40 CPR 355.
engine's crankcase. Oxygen in the air and over the outside of a extreme-pressure lubricant n: additives
entering the base of an engine mixes with length of pipe to cut it. that, when added to drilling fluid, lubricate
the oil there. A hot spot could cause the oil The severed part of the bearing surfaces subjected to extreme
and oxygen to explode and damage the pipe can then be brought pressure.
crank- case. To prevent such damage, the to the surface. Also called extrusion n: 1. the emission of magma (as
spring- operated explosion covers (doors) an outside cutter. lava) at the earth's surface. 2. the body of
open to release the pressure from the Compare internal cutter. igneous rock produced by the process of
explosion. They then slam closed to prevent external line-up clamp n: extrusion.
more air from entering. Also called explosion a clamp used on the extrusive adj: volcanic; derived from
cover. outside of pipe to align magnetic materials poured out on the earth's
explosion-proof motor n: a motor with an two lengths of pipe. surface, as distinct from intrusive rocks
enclosure designed to contain an internal formed from magma that has cooled and
explosion and to prevent ignition of solidified beneath the surface.
surrounding gases or vapours by sparks that External line-up clamps are usually used on extrusive rock n: igneous rock fanned from
may occur in the motor. pipe with a diameter of 8 inches (20 lava poured out on the earth's surface.
explosive fracturing n: when explosives centimetres) or less. Compare internal line- eye splice n: a loop, with or without a
are used to fracture a formation. At the up clamp. thimble, formed at the end of a wire rope.
moment of detonation, the explosion externally actuated sampler n: a device Also called an eye. See thimble.
furnishes a source of high-pressure gas to that is operated by a power source other
force fluid into the formation. The rubble than the fluid being sampled, for example,
prevents fracture healing, making the use of an electric or pneumatic motor.
proppants unnecessary. Compare hydraulic external phase n: see continuous phase.
fracturing. external upset end (EVE) n: on tubing,
exposure limits n pi: the limits (based on casing, or drill pipe, the thickening at each
time of exposure, concentration of material, end of the joint such that the internal
means of contact, and material toxicity) of diameter of the joint is not affected; i.e., it
worker exposure to hazardous materials remains uniform throughout the joint's
without ill effect. Exceeding exposure limits length. Only the outside diameter is enlarged
set for various materials can result in at each end. Pipe is thickened, or upset, at
each end to increase its strength so that

stabilise or secure the safety of the drilling costs. The primary characteristic of a
operation. farmout is the obligation of the third party to
F abbr: Fahrenheit. See Fahrenheit scale. fairleader n: a device used to maintain or drill one or more wells on the farmout
F sym: farad. alter the direction of a rope or a chain so that acreage as a condition prerequisite to
FAA abbr: Federal Aviation Administration. it leads directly to a sheave or drum without completion of the transfer of title to such
fabrication n: a collective term for the undue friction. third party.
specialised connections and fittings on a fair weather cumulus n: a cumulus cloud farm out v: for a lessee, to agree to assign a
pipeline. Fabrication assemblies control that lies horizontally and shows little vertical leasehold interest to a third party, subject to
product flow, direct products to the proper development, indicating good weather stipulated conditions. See farmout.
location, aid in product separation, and conditions. fast ice n: sea ice attached to the shore.
facilitate maintenance operations. falls n pi: see parts of line. Also called coast ice.
fabrication crew n: pipeline construction fan-driven heater n: a portable electric fastline n: the end of the drilling line that is
workers responsible for welding fabrication heater that circulates air over an electric affixed to the drum or reel of the draw-
assemblies into the line. The fabrication heating element into the space to be heated. works, so called because it travels with
crew works independently of the rest of the fanglomerate n: coarse-grained. poorly greater velocity than any other portion of the
spread. face mask n: a mask made of a sorted sedimentary rock derived from line. Compare deadline.
rubber frame surrounding a clear, flat lens, sediments deposited in alluvial fans; a type
used to seal all or a portion of a diver's face of conglomerate.
from the underwater environment. Fan V-GTM meter n: trade name of a device
face seal n: a type of seal in which used to record and measure at different
deformation of the seal is accomplished by a speeds the flow properties of plastic fluids
plate or flat surface. (such as the viscosity and gel strength of
facies n: part of a bed of sedimentary rock drilling fluids).
that differs significantly from other parts of farad (F) n: the unit of electrical
the bed. capacitance.
Faraday's First Law n: the amount of any
substance dissolved or deposited in
electrolysis is proportional to the total
electric charge passed.
farm boss n: an oil company supervisor
who controls production activities within a
limited area.
farmee n: the individual or company that has
a lease farmed out to it.
farm in v: to accept, as an operator, a farm-
facility n: an installation serving two or more
out. See farmout.
leases, providing one or more functions such
farm-in n: an agreement identical to a farm-
as separation, compression, de- hydration,
out, with the operator as the third party. The
treating, gathering, or delivery.
operator takes the farm-in. See farmout.
Faciolog n: a log generated at a computer
farmor n: the individual or company that
centre that identifies various sediments, or
farms out a lease.
facies, raw log data, and a litho-analysis log.
farmout n: an agreement whereby the
factoring counter n: an electronic register
owner of a lease who does not wish to drill
capable of expressing true throughput
at the time agrees to assign the leasehold
volume. It includes selective means for
interest, or some part of it, to a third party
automatically applying meter factor.
who does wish to drill, conditional on the
Fahrenheit scale n: a temperature scale
third party's drilling a well within the
devised by Gabriel Fahrenheit, in which 32.
expiration date of the primary term of the
represents the freezing point and 212. the
lease. The assignment may include the
boiling point of water at standard sea-level
entire interest together with dry hole money,
pressure. Fahrenheit degrees may be
or partial interest or entire interest with or
converted to Celsius degrees by using the
without an override. If an override is
following formula:
retained, the owner of the lease may retain
C = 5/9 (F-32).
an option to convert such overriding royalty
fall safe adj: said of equipment or a system
retained to an agreed-upon working interest.
so constructed that, in the event of failure or
A farmout is distinguished from a joint
malfunction of any part of the system,
operating agreement by the fact that the
devices are automatically activated to
partner farming out does not incur any of the

fast sample loop 73 fee tail male

corrective action is taken to eliminate

fast sample loop n: a secondary pipeline Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) n: deviations from the operating norm.
circuit designed for quickly transferring an agency of the US Department of feed in n: in drilling, the entrance of
product sample. This arrangement enables a Transportation that sets and enforces formation fluids into the wellbore because
representative sample passing through the federal aviation requirements. Address: 800 hydrostatic pressure is less than formation
main pipeline to be brought quickly to the Independence Avenue SW; Washington, DC pressure.
sampling equipment, which may be located 20591; (202) 267-3883. feed off v: to lower the bit continuously or
some distance from the main pipeline. Federal Communications Commission intermittently by allowing the brake to
fast sheave n: that sheave on the crown (FCC) n: the US agency that sets standards disengage and the drum to turn. The feed-off
block over which the fastline is reeved. and licenses radiotelephone and radio rate is the speed with which the cable is
fathom n: a measure of ocean depth equal telegraph stations. Address: 1919 M Street unwound from the drum.
to 6 feet, or 1.83 metres. NW; Washington, DC 20554; (202) 418- feedstock n: material other than a catalyst
fatigue n: the tendency of material such as 0500. introduced into a plant for processing. With
a metal to break under repeated cyclic Federal Energy Regulatory Commission regard to natural gas, used as an essential
loading at a stress considerably less than (FERC) n: an independent agency (created component of a process for the production of
the tensile strength shown in a static test. in 1977) of the Department of Energy that a product. Use of gas as a feedstock may be
fatigue crack n: a fracture starting from a has jurisdiction over oil pipelines engaged in required because of the chemical reaction
nucleus where there is an abnormal interstate commerce. With respect to the involved, or because of the physical burning
concentration of cyclic stress and natural gas industry, the general regulatory characteristics of gas compared with other
propagating through the metal. principles of the FERC are defined in the fuels, such as temperature and by-products.
fault n: a break in the earth's crust along Natural Gas Act (NGA), and the Natural Gas Examples of feedstock use include fertiliser
which rocks on one side have been Policy Act (NGPA). The FERC also has manufacture, glass manufacture, and white
displaced (upward, downward, or laterally) jurisdiction over wholesale interstate electric brick manufacture.
relative to those on the other side. rates, hydroelectric licensing, and oil pipeline feed tank n: a vessel containing a charge
fault dip n: the vertical inclination of a fault's rates. Its predecessor was the Federal stock or a vessel from which a stream is
surface, or plane, measured from a Power Commission (FPC). Address: 888 1st continuously fed for further processing.
horizontal plane. Street NE; Washington, DC 20426; (202) fee in surface n: an estate on the surface of
fault plane n: a surface along which faulting 208-0200. land created when the owner separates or
has occurred. Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and severs his or her mineral interests from the
Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) n: congressional surface of the land.
act that regulates the manufacture, use, and fee simple n: a freehold estate on which
application of pesticides. there are no restrictions or limitations as to
Federal Land Policy and Management Act who may inherit.
of 1976 (FLPMA) n: congressional act that fee simple absolute n: an estate limited
establishes comprehensive land use absolutely to a person and to his or her heirs
guidelines for the Bureau of Land and assigns forever, without limitation or
fault trap n: a subsurface hydrocarbon trap Management (BLM) on how to manage condition.
created by faulting, in which an impermeable lands under its jurisdiction. fee tail n: a freehold estate in which there is
rock layer has moved opposite die reservoir federal lease n: an oil and gas lease on a fixed line of inheritable succession limited
bed or where impermeable gouge has federal land issued under the Mineral to the issue of the body of the grantee or
sealed the fault and stopped fluid migration. Leasing Act. Federal leases usually provide devisee and in which the regular and
step- scale or sliding-scale royalty; a flat general succession of heirs at law is cut off.
discovery royalty of one-eighth may also be fee tail female n: an estate limited by a
specified. deed or will that conveys ownership to a
Federal Oil and Gas Royalty Management person and the female heirs of his or her
Act of 1982 (FOGRMA) n: congressional body. Male heirs cannot inherit the estate.
act that was designed primarily to assure fee tail male n: an estate limited by a deed
proper and timely revenue accountability or will that conveys ownership to a person
from production and leasing of federal lands. and the male heirs of his or her body.
Federal Register n: a daily government Female heirs cannot inherit the estate.
publication that publishes proposed changes
in agency rules and regulations. It also
fauna n pi: the animals of a given region or
includes other government actions such as
period considered as a whole.
presidential proclamations and a monthly
faunal succession n: the principle that
notice of changes in existing rules and
fossils in a stratigraphic sequence succeed
one another in a definite, recognisable order.
fee n: an estate in real property, completely
"favored nation" clause n: a provision in a
owned, which the owner can sell or devise to
gas sales contract under which the seller is
his or her heirs. Often a term for
guaranteed that, if the buyer purchases gas
distinguishing private lands (fee lands) from
within a certain area close to his or her well,
federal or state lands.
that same price will be paid to the seller.
feedback control n: an automatic process
FCC abbr: Federal Communications
by which an operation is monitored and
fcp abbr: final circulating pressure.
feldspar 74 filler-wire strand

fetch n: the area of wind wave development produced at a gas processing plant. Also
feldspar n: a group of silicate minerals that where a certain wind force prevails from the called mixed butane.
includes a wide variety of potassium, same direction for a period of time. Also the field office manager n: the individual
sodium, and aluminium silicates. Feldspar distance over which the wind blows to responsible for the contractor's financial
makes up about 60 percent of the outer 9.3 generate the observed waves at a given affairs on a pipeline spread. The field office
miles (15 kilometres) of the earth's crust. position or point. manager oversees billing arrangements,
feldspathic adj: containing or largely com- fibre core n: cord or rope of vegetable or payroll, and other money-related matters.
posed of feldspar or feldspar grains. synthetic fibre used as the axial member of a field processing n: the processing of oil
female connection n: a pipe, a coupling, or rope. and gas in the field before delivery to a
a tool threaded on the inside so that only a fibrous material n: any tough, stringy major refinery or gas plant, including
male connection can be joined to it. material of threadlike structure used to separation of oil from gas, separation of
Compare male connection. prevent loss of circulation or to restore water from oil and from gas, and removal of
circulation in porous or fractured formations. liquid hydrocarbons.
fiduciary n: a person who serves, with or field processing unit n: a unit through
without bond, to act for the benefit of another which a well stream passes before the gas
in all matters connected with a specified reaches a processing plant or sales point.
undertaking. Fiduciary obligations exist, for field pump n: a pump installed in a field to
example, between trustees and the transfer oil from a production tank to a
beneficiaries of the trust. central gathering station near a main
fence diagram n: see panel diagram. field n: 1. a geographical area in which a pipeline.
fencing crew n: pipeline construction number of oil or gas wells produce from a field superintendent n: an employee of an
workers responsible for constructing continuous reservoir. A field may refer to oil company who is in charge of a particular
temporary gates at points where a right-of- surface area only or to underground oil or gas field from which the company is
way crosses fence lines. productive formations as well. A single field producing.
FeO form: ferrous oxide. may have several separate reservoirs at field support personnel n: in pipeline
FERC abbr: Federal Energy Regulatory varying depths. 2. the magnetic field in a construction, the mechanics, parts and
Commission. motor or generator, or that part of a motor or warehouse workers, truck drivers, and
FERC/FPC decontrol clause n: clause in a generator that produces a magnetic field; the others who service the machinery that
gas sales contract that covers what buyer magnetic field about any current-carrying actually lays pipe.
and seller agree to do about price in the electrical conductor. FIFRA abbr: Federal Insecticide, Fungicide,
event of decontrol. and Rodenticide Act.
FERC out n: provision in gas purchase fifty-gallon drum n: see drum.
contracts that allows the purchaser to FIB abbr: fluid in hole; used in drilling
reduce the price paid to the producer by an reports.
amount that FERC did not allow in the file for record v: to send a legal document
purchaser's rate base for ultimate pass- to the county clerk for recording.
through to the purchaser's customer. filler material n: a material added to cement
fermentation n: a decomposition process of or cement slurry to increase its yield.
certain organic substances, such as starch, filler pass n: fourth of five passes or beads
in which a chemical change is brought about in pipeline welding.
field administration n: in pipeline filler wire n: 1. small spacer wire within a
by enzymes, bacteria, or other micro
construction, the assistant superintendent wire-rope strand that positions and supports
organisms. Often referred to as "souring."
and crew foremen. other wires in the strand. 2. a wire-rope
ferromagnetic adj: highly magnetic;
field bevel n: a rebeveling of pipe ends in strand pattern that uses filler wires. See
ferromagnetic materials react to a magnet
the field. usually required because of filler-wire strand, strand pattern.
and can themselves become magnets. See
damage sustained by the pipe during filler-wire strand n: a wire rope strand in
diamagnetic. paramagnetic.
transport or because a defective weld must which two layers of wire of the same size are
ferrous alloy n: a metal alloy in which iron is
be cut out. laid around a centre wire, with the inner
a major component.
field coefficient n: a value used to quickly layer having half the number of wires of the
ferrous oxide n: a black, powdery
determine gas volume flow: it is derived from outer layer. Small wires-the filler wires - are
compound of iron and oxygen (FeO)
several factor, such as the basic orifice laid in the valleys of the inner layer.
produced in petroleum operations from the
factor (Fb), and the pressure base factor
oxidation of ferrous sulphide (FeS), a
reaction that releases a great deal of heat.
field-extension well n: see exploration well.
Also called iron monoxide.
field facility n: an installation designed for
ferrous sulphide n: a black crystalline
one or more specific field processing units-
compound of iron and sulphur (FeS)
scrubbers, absorbers, drip points,
produced in petroleum operations from the
compressors, single- or multiple-stage
reaction of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and the
separation units, low-temperature
iron (Fe) in steel. Also called iron sulphide.
separators, and other types of separation
ferrule n: a metallic button, usually
and recovery equipment. See also battery.
cylindrical in shape, normally fastened to a
field gas facility n: see central facility.
wire rope by swaging, but sometimes by
field-grade butane n: a product consisting
chiefly of normal butane and isobutane,
FeS form: ferrous sulphide.

filler-wire strand 75 filler-wire strand

filling density n: the percent ratio of the after being subjected to a set differential slots into drill pipe after it is pulledout of the
wieght of gas in a tank to the weight of water pressure for a set length of time. hole and removed from the drill string.
that the tank will hold. filter paper n: porous unsized paper for
fill line n: see fill-up line. filtering liquids. The API filtration test
fill material n: any material used for the specifies one thickness of 9-centimetre
primary purpose of replacing an aquatic area Whatman No. 50, S&S No. 576, or the
with dry land or of changing the bottom equivalent filter paper.
elevation of a water body. The term does filter press n: a device used in the testing of
not include any pollutant discharged into the filtration properties of drilling mud. See mud.
fill the hole v: to pump drilling fluid into the
wellbore while the pipe is being withdrawn to fingering n: 1. a phenomenon that often
ensure that the wellbore remains full of fluid occurs in an injection project in which the
enen though the pipe is being withdrawn to fluid being injected does not contact the
ensure that the wellbore remains full of fluid entire reservoir but bypasses sections of the
even though the pipe is withdrawn. Filing reservior fluids in a fingerlike manner.
the hole lessens the danger of a kick or Fingering is not desiratble, because portions
caving the wall of the wellbore. of the reservoir are not contacted by the
fill-up line n: the smaller of the side fittings injection fluid. 2. the same phenomenon in
on a bell nipple, used to fill the hole when which water bypasses oil in the reservoir on
drill pipe is being removed from the well. its way to the well.
fill-up rate n: the frequency with which the filtrate n: 1. a fluid that has been passed finger-type junk basket n: a fishing tool
hole is filled with drilling fluid to replace the through a filter. 2. the liquid portion of that uses fingerlike catchers to gather and
pipe removed from the hole. drilling mud that is forced into porous and trap junk at the bottom of the hole for
filter n: a porous medium through which a permeable formations next to the borehole. retrieval. Aso called a poor-boy junk basket.
fluid is passed to separate particles of filtration n: the process of filtering a fluid. fin-tube n: a tube or pipe having an
suspended solids from it. filtration loss n: the escape of the liquid extended suface in the form of fins used in
filter n: a porous medium through which a part of a drilling mud into permeable heat exchangers or other heat-transfer
fluid is passed to separate particles of formations. equipment.
suspended solids from it. filtration qualities n pl: the filtration fire v: to start and maintain the fire in a
filter cake n: 1. compacted solid or characteristics of a drilling mud. In general, boiler or heater.
semisolid material remaining on a filter after these qualities are inverse to the thickness fire bending n: one of the earliest methods
pressure filtration of mud with a standard of the filter cake deposited on the face of a for bending pipe. The joint was first placed
filter press. Thickness of the cake is porous medium and the amount of filtrate over a small bonfire and, when the heat had
reported in thirty seconds of an inch or in allowed to escape from the drilling fluid into rendered it sufficiently malleable, it was
millimetres. 2. the layer of concentrated or through the medium. placed against a tree and pressure was
solids from the drilling mud or cement slurry filtration rate n: see fluid loss. applied until the desired benk was achieved.
that forms on the walls of the borehole fin n: a thin, sharp ridge around the box or Fire bends significantly weakened the pipe.
opposite premeable formations; also called the pin shoulder of a tool joint, caused by the A cold-work process is less damaging.
wall cake or mud cake. use of boxes and pins with different sized fired heater n: a furnace in which natural
shoulders. See radiator fin. gas or ther fuel is burned to heat the gas or
final circulating pressure n: the pressure liquid passing through the furnace tubes.
at which a well is circulated during well- fire flooding n: see in situ conbustion.
killing procedures after kill-weight mud has fire hazard n: flammable, combustible
filled the drill stem. This pressure is pyrophoric and oxidizer (as defined by the
maintained until the well is completely filled Code of Federal Regulations.)
with kill-weight mud. fireman n: the member of the crew on a
final squeeze pressure n: the fluid pressure steam-powered rig who is responsible for
at the completion of a squeeze-cementing care and operation of the boilers. Compare
operation. matorman.
finding of no significat impact (FONSI) n: fire point n: the temperature at which a
an NEPA document that is required when petroleum product burns continuously after
filter cake thickness n: a measurement of agencies determine that there are no being ignited. See flash point.
the solids deposited on filter paper in thirty significant environmental impacts from a fire tube n: a pipe, or set of pipes, within a
seconds of an inch during a standard 30- proposed federal action. The FONSI states tank through which steam or hot gases are
minute API filter test. See cake thickness. the reasons why the agency came to that passed to warm a liquid or gas in the tank.
In certain areas the filter cake thickness is a conclusion. See steam coil.
measurement of the solids deposited on fine n: a fragment or particle of rock or
filter paper for 7.5 minutes. mineral that is too minute to be treated as
filter element n: see air cleaner filter ordinary coarse materal.
element. fingerboard n: a rack that supports the tops
filter loss n: the amount of fluid that can be of the stands of pipe being stacked in the
delivered through a permable filter medium derrick or mast. It has several steel
fingerlike projections that form a series of

filler-wire strand 76 filler-wire strand

fishing n: the procedure of recovering lost the face. or head. of the bit. Compare roller-
fire wall n: a structure erected to contain or stuck equipment in the wellbore. See fish. cone bit.
petroleum or a petroleum-fed fire in case a fishing assembly n: seefishing string. fixed pump n: a type of downhole hydraulic
storage vessel ruptures or collapses. Usually fishing head n: a specialised fixture on a pump that is attached to the end of tubing;
a dike is built around the petroleum storage downhole tool that will allow the tool to be the tubing must be pulled to service the
tank and a steel or stone wall is put up fished out after its use downhole. See fish. pump. See hydraulic pump. Compare free
between the prime movers and the oil fishing magnet n: a powerful permanent pump.
pumps in a pipeline pumping station. magnet designed to recover metallic objects fixed-rate contract n: a contract that enjoys
firing line n: in pipeline construction. the lost in a well. a known rate of dollars per million Btus
welding crew that takes over after the root fishing neck n: a device placed on a piece during every month of sale; the rate paid
pass and the hot pass have been made. The of equipment that is lowered into a wellbore may change from month to month. however.
firing line is responsible for the filler pass so that the equipment may be retrieved by fixed-rate royalty n: royalty calculated on
and the cap bead, which complete the joint. wireline. the basis of a fixed rate per unit of
first responder awareness level n: fishing string n: an assembly of tools made production. without regard to the actual
attaining level achieved by any employee up on drill pipe that is lowered into the hole proceeds received from the sale of such
who has been HAZWOPER trained to to retrieve lost or stuck equipment. Also production.
witness the release, make proper called a fishing assembly. fix-factored correction n: a meter
notifications, and take no further action. In fishing tap n: a tool that goes inside pipe correction to which a constant temperature
other words, if the employee has been lost in a well to provide a firm grip and permit or pressure correction is applied.
trained to recognise an emergency and to recovery of the fish. Sometimes used in ft abbr: flowed or flowing; used in drilling
notify the proper people, this person has place of a spear. reports.
attained the first responder awareness level. fishing tool n: a tool designed to recover flag n: 1. a piece of cloth. rope. or nylon
first responder operational level n: a training equipment lost in a well. strand used to mart the wireline when
level achieved by any employee who has fishing-tool operator n: the person (usually swabbing or bailing. 2. an indicator of wind
been HAZWOPER trained to take a a service company employee) in charge of direction used during drilling or workover
defensive role in emergency response. In directing fishing operations. operations where hydrogen sulphide (sour)
other words, the employee is not trained to fishtail bit n: a drilling bit with cutting edges gas may be encountered. v: 1. to signal or
stop the release, but rather to help contain of hard alloys. Developed about 1900, and attract attention. 2. in swabbing or bailing. to
the release from a safe distance and to first used with the rotary system of drilling, it attach a piece of cloth to the wireline to
prevent exposure. is still useful . drilling very soft formations. enable the operator to estimate the position
first sale of natural gas n: defined by the Also called drag bit of the swab or bailer in the well.
FERC as any sale of natural gas to any fissure n: a crack 0 fracture in a subsurface flag arm n: in a two-diaphragm. four-
interstate pipeline or intrastate pipeline, to formation. chamber diaphragm displacement meter. the
any local distribution company, or to any fitting n: a small, often standardised, part link- age that transfers oscillating motion
per- son for use by such person. from the flag rods to turn a tangent and
first sale of NGL/NGLP n: defined by FERC crank assembly.
as the first transfer for value to a class of flammable adj: capable of being easily
purchaser for which a fixed price per unit of ignited. Sometimes the term "inflammable" is
volume is determined. used. But flammable is preferred because it
fish n: an object that is left in the wellbore correctly describes the condition.
during drilling or workover operations and flange n: a projecting rim or edge (as on
that must be recovered before work can pipe fittings and openings in pumps and
proceed. It can be anything froo1 a piece of vessels), usually drilled with holes to allow
scrap metal to a part of the drill stem. v: 1. to bolting to other flanged fittings.
recover from a well any equipment left there flanged fitting n: a device that holds an
during drilling operations, such as a lost bit orifice plate centred in the line in which a
or drill collar or part of the drill string. 2. to fluid is flowing. It consists of two pieces that
remove from an older well certain pieces of (such as a coupling, valve, or gauge) are joined by placing them together and
equipment (such as packers. liners, or installed in a larger apparatus. tightening bolts and nuts. The orifice plate
screen liner) to allow reconditioning of the five-spot n: four input or injection wells fits between the two pieces. To remove or
well. located in a square pattern with the inspect the orifice plate in a flanged fitting.
production well in the centre. the line must be bled and the flow of fluid
fixed choke n: a choke whose opening is rerouted so that no pressure exists on the
one size only, that is, not adjustable. fitting.
Compare adjustable choke. flanged orifice fitting n: a two-piece orifice
fixed clearance pocket n: a clearance fitting with flanged faces that are bolted
pocket that, when open, adds a specific together.
volume to a compressor cylinder. flange tap n: in a flanged orifice fitting. a
fixed costs n pi: costs that do not vary with threaded hole on each side of the orifice
the level of operation or units produced or plate into which are screwed lines that
sold. Examples are land costs, depreciation. connect the fitting with the flow recorder.
fish eyes n pi: the appearance of the and license fees.
surface of the mud in a mud pit when dry fixed-head bit n: any bit. such as a diamond
polymer fails to dissolve fully in the mud. bit. whose cutting elements do not move on

flange union 77 Boating tap

forcefully. The current is then reduced, A float collar also prevents backflow of
flange union n: a device in which two excess flash material in the pipe is cleared. cement during a cementing operation.
matching flanges are used to join the ends and the weld is completed. floater n: see drift bottle. floating offshore
of two sections of pipe. flat n: see kelly flat. drilling rig.
flange up v: 1. to use flanges to make final flat gel n: a condition wherein the 10-minute float guide wires n pi: solid wires or flexible
connections on a piping system. 2. (slang) to gel strength is substantially equal to the cables used to guide the travel of an
complete any operation, as in, "They flanged initial gel strength. automatic gauge float.
up the meeting and went home." flat pricing n: pricing directly from the floating cover n: a lightweight covering of
flapper valve n: a hinged closure posting, without reference to gravity. either metal or plastic material designed to
mechanism operating in a pivot manner. fleet angle n: the angle created by drilling float on the surface of the liquid in a tank.
used to shut off tubing flow. Also called a line between the drawworks drum and die Alternatively, it may be supported by a float
kickstand valve. fast sheave. The line is parallel to the system so that it is just above the free liquid
flare n: an arrangement of piping and sheave groove at only one point on the surface. Used to minimise the evaporation of
burners used to dispose (by burning) of drum. As the rope moves from this point volatile products in a tank.
surplus combustible vapours, usually either way. the fleet angle is created. The floating offshore drilling rig n: a type of
situated near a gasoline plant, refinery, or fleet angle should be held to a minimum-less mobile offshore drilling unit that floats and is
producing well. v: to dispose of surplus than 1.5 degrees for grooved drums. not in contact with the seafloor (except with
combustible vapours by igniting them in the flexible drill pipe n: specially manufactured anchors) when it is in the drilling mode.
atmosphere. Raring is rarely used, because drill pipe that has several pressure- tight Floating units include barge rigs, drill ships,
of the high value of gas and the stringent air joints over the length of the pipe. These and semi-submersibles. See mobile offshore
pollution controls. joints allow the pipe to bend considerably drilling unit.
flare gas n: gas or vapour that is flared. more than regular drill pipe and are used in
flare line n: a line (pipe) that comes out of a directional wells (especially horizontal ones)
mud-gas separator and carries the where the angle of deflection from vertical is
separated gas a safe distance away from relatively abrupt.
the rig. Usually, the gas is disposed of by flex joint n: a device that provides a flexible
burning, or flaring. connection between the riser pipe and the
flare pit n: on land rigs, an earthen pit dug subsea blowout preventers. By
at the end of the flare line. Gas is flared over accommodating lateral movement of a
the flare pit to protect the surrounding area mobile offshore drilling rig, flex joints help to
from heat and fire. prevent a build up of abnormal bending load
flash n: the sudden vaporisation of a liquid pressure.
caused by a rapid decrease in pressure flipped adj: when the opposite occurs of
floating roof n: a tank covering that rests on
and/or an increase in temperature. what is intended in a drilling fluid. In an
the surface of a hydrocarbon liquid in the
flash gas n: gas released from liquid invert water-in-oil emulsion, the emulsion is
tank and rises and falls with the liquid level.
hydrocarbons as a result of an increase in said to be flipped when the continuous and
A floating roof eliminates vapour space
temperature or a decrease in pressure. dispersed phases reverse.
above the liquid in the tank and conserves
flashing n: the continuing process by which float n: 1. an element of a level-control
light fractions of the liquid.
a liquid is caused to flash. assembly designed to operate while partially
floating roof tank n: a tank in which the roof
flash point n: the temperature at which a or completely submerged in a liquid the level
floats freely on the surface of the liquid
petroleum product ignites momentarily but of which is controlled by the assembly. The
contents except at low levels, when the
does not bum continuously. Compare fire buoyancy of the liquid activates the float and
weight of the roof is transmitted by its
point. the control valve to which it is linked and
supporting legs to the tank bottom.
flash point check n: test made to verify that modifies the rate of the inflow or the outflow
floating screen n: a lightweight metal or
each product vaporises within the specified of the vessel to maintain a preset level. 2. a
plastic covering that is arranged to float on
proper temperature range. drill pipe float. 3. a long flat-bed semi-trailer.
the surface of a liquid in a container to retard
flash set n: a premature thickening or
float collar n: a special evaporation.
setting of cement slurry, which makes it
coupling device inserted Boating tank n: a tank with its main gate
one or two joints above valve open to the main line at a station. Oil
flash tank n: a vessel used for separating
the bottom of the casing may thus enter or leave the tank as pumping
the liquid phase from the gaseous phase
string that contains a rates in the main line vary.
formed from a rise in temperature and/or a
check valve to permit Boating tap system 11: a type of tap
reduction of pressure on the flowing stream.
fluid to pass downward sampling system found on liquid storage
flash welding n: 1. a form of resistance butt
but not upward through tanks. The permanently installed taps on the
welding used to weld wide, thick members or
the casing. The float out- side of the tank are attached to pipes
members with irregular faces together, and
collar prevents drilling and a floating boom inside the tank that rises
tubing to tubing. 2. in pipeline construction, a
mud from entering the and falls with the liquid level.
welding technique in which low voltage is
applied to each pipe joint while the ends are casing while it is being
in light contact. This contact produces a lowered, allowing die
rapid arcing, called flashing. After the pipe casing to float during its
ends have been adequately heated, the descent and thus
current is abruptly increased, and die pipe decreasing die load on
joints are brought together rapidly and die derrick or mast.

float shoe 78 flow recorder

proper position. Carbon dioxide cartridges continuous basis (i.e., without an interruption
float shoe n: a short. heavy, cylindrical steel inside the vest are fired when inflation is in the flow of emulsion into the tank or
section with a rounded bottom that is necessary. vessel). Compare batch treating.
attached to the bottom of the casing string. It flow n: a current or stream of fluid. flowmeter n: a device that measures the
contains a check valve and functions flowback n: fluids moving up the well. amount of fluid moving through a pipe. See
similarly to the float collar but also serves as flow bean n: a plug with a small hole drilled orifice meter; positive-displacement meter.
a guide shoe for the casing. through it, placed in the flow line at a well- flowmeter discrimination n: a measure of
float switch n: a switch in a circuit that is head to restrict flow if it is too high. Com- the smallest increment of change in the
opened or closed by the action of a float and pare chou. pulse output of a flowmeter as it relates to
that maintains a predetermined level of liquid flow by beads v: to produce intermittently. the actual volume being measured.
in a vessel. flow chart n: a record made by a recording flow monitor n: any device that senses the
float valve n: see drill pipe float. meter that shows the rate of production. state of fluid flowing in a pipeline or other
float well n: an enclosure built into the roof flow check n: a method of determining container.
of a floating roof tank to contain and guide whether a kick has occurred. The mud flow nozzle n: a restriction installed in a line
the float of an automatic tank gauge. pumps are stopped for a short period to see in which fluid is flowing that produces a
flocculates n pi: chemicals that, when whether mud continues to flow out of the pressure differential. The volume of fluid can
added to a liquid, cause it to coagulate. hole; if it does, a kick may be occurring. be determined by measurement of the
flocculating agent n: material or chemical flow coefficient n: see C'. differential. Flow nozzles can handle dirty
agent that enhances flocculation. flow computer n: computer that handles all and abrasive gases better than orifices.
flocculation n: the coagulation of solids in a calculations, analysis, and processing of flow period n: in formation testing, an
drilling fluid, produced by special additives or electronically transmitted data from a pipe- interval during which a well is allowed to flow
by contaminants. line. while flow characteristics are being
fIocs abbr: flocculates. flow-control connection n: a device that measured.
floe n: a floating ice field of any size. controls product flow and directs it to the flow pressure n: see flowing pressure.
flood v: 1. to drive oil from a reservoir into a proper location. Mainline valves and side flow proportional sample n: a sample
well by injecting water under pressure into taps are examples of flow-control taken from a pipeline during the whole
the reservoir formation. See water flooding. connections. period of transfer of a batch at a rate that is
2. to drown out a well with water. flow coupling n: a tubing sub made of proportional to the rate of flow of the liquid in
floodable length n: the length of a ship or abrasion-resistant material and used in a the pipeline at any instant.
mobile offshore drilling rig that may be tubing string where turbulent flow may cause flow range n: the range between the
flooded without its sinking below its safety or internal erosion. maximum and the minimum flow rates of a
margin line, usually a few inches below the flowing bottomhole pressure n: pressure at meter, generally determined by the limits of
freeboard deck. the bottom of the wellbore during normal oil acceptable error.
flood current n: the movement of the tidal production. flow rate n: the speed, or velocity, of fluid
current toward the shore. flowing bottomhole pressure test n: a flow through a pipe or vessel.
flood district office n: state or local office bottomhole pressure test that measures flow recorder n: a device with a chart and
that is concerned with areas that are subject pressure while the well is flowing. See pens used to record static and differential
to flooding. This office can help deter- mine bottomhole pressure test. pressures and sometimes temperature in an
if a site is in the floodplain and what flowing pressure n: pressure registered at orifice meter installation.
locations may be involved in flooding. In the the wellhead of a flowing well.
event of a hazardous materials incident, flowing temperature n: recorded tempera-
these offices can help determine the route of lure of gas or liquid flowing through a pipe.
runoff from the incident. flowing well n: a well that produces oil or gas
floor crew n: those workers on a drilling or by its own reservoir pressure rather than by
workover rig who work primarily on the rig use of artificial means (such as pumps). flow
floor. See rotary Mlper. line n: the surface pipe through which oil
floorhand n: see rotary helper. floorman n: travels from a well to processing equipment
see rotary helper. or to storage.
flora n pi: the plants of a given region or flow-line manifold n: a place in the flow line
period considered as a whole. from a well, heater-treater, or other device
fIotation cell n: a large, cylindrical tank in where valves, meters, inlets, outlets, and
which water that is slightly oil-contaminated various gauges may be installed.
is circulated to be cleaned before it is flow-line sensor n: a device to monitor the
disposed of overboard or into a disposal rate of fluid flow from the annulus.
well. Since oil droplets cling to rapidly rising flow-line temperature n: the temperature of
gas, a device such as a bubble tower is the drilling mud as it flows out of the
usually installed in the cell to permit the borehole.
introduction of gas into the water. flow-line treater n: a cylindrical vessel into
flotation level n: the depth of submergence which an emulsion is piped to be broken
of a buoyant automatic gauge float in a liquid down into its components. See electrostatic
of known density or weight. treater; heater-treater.
flotation vest n: most commonly worn by flow-line treating n: the process of
sport divers to overcome the buoyancy separating, or breaking down, an emulsion
effect of water and keep them afloat in the into oil and water in a vessel or tank on a

flow recorder clock 79 flyweight

fluid (e.g., Newtonian, plastic, pseudo- at the top and bottom of the chamber. When
flow recorder clock n: a clock in a flow plastic, dilatant); properties of the fluid such lowered into a tank in the open position,
recorder that moves an orifice chart during a as viscosity and density; geometry of the liquid flushes through the chamber. The
specific time period, such as 24 hours. system; the velocity. Thus, under a given set chamber can be closed at any level in the
flow-sensing device n: a tool inserted into of conditions and fluid properties, the fluid tank, trapping a sample of liquid around the
a pipeline or other container that can sense flow can be described as plug flow, laminar base of the thermometer and allowing for
the flow of fluid within the container. (called also Newtonian, streamline, parallel, more accurate temperature reading when
flow straightener n: a length of straight pipe or viscous) flow, or turbulent flow. the thermometer is raised to the surface.
containing straightening vanes or the fluid injection n: injection of gases or flush-joint casing n: a casing in which the
equivalent and installed at the inlet of a liquids into a reservoir to force oil toward and outside diameter of the joint is the same as
flowmeter to eliminate swirl from the liquid into producing wells. the outside diameter of the casing itself.
from entering the meter and causing fluidity n: the reciprocal of viscosity. The flush-joint pipe n: pipe in which the out-
measurement errors. measure of rate with which a fluid is side diameter of the joint is the same as the
ftowstream n: the flow of fluids within a continuously deformed by a shearing stress; outside diameter of the tube. Pipe may also
pipe. ease of flowing. be internally flush-joint.
ftowstream samples n pi: small quantities fluid level n: the distance from the earth's flush production n: a high rate of flow from
of fluid taken at the wellhead or from the flow surface to the top of the liquid in the tubing a newly drilled well.
line and analyzed to determine composition or the casing in a well. The static fluid level fluted drill collar n: see spirally grooved
of the flow. is taken when the well is not producing and drill collar:
flow string n: the string of casing or tubing has stabilised. The dynamic, or pumping, fluvial deposit n: sediment deposited by
through which fluids from a well flow to the level is the point to which the static level flowing water.
surface. drops under producing conditions. flux n: the lines in a magnetic field.
flow tank n: see production tank. fluid loss n: the unwanted migration of the flux field n: the area of magnetic or electric
flow test n: a preliminary test to confirm flow liquid part of the drilling mud or cement lines of force.
rate through a tool prior to going downhole. slurry into a formation, often minimised or flux gate n: a detector that produces an
flow-through meter n: any of several types prevented by the blending of additives with electrical signal whose magnitude and
of meter in which the fluid to be measured the mud or cement. phase are proportional to the magnitude and
travels through the meter. fluid-loss additive n: a compound added to direction of the external magnetic field acting
flow treater n: a single unit that acts as an cement slurry or drilling mud to prevent or along its axis. It is used to indicate the
oil and gas separator, an oil heater, and an minimise fluid loss. direction of the earth's magnetic field.
oil- and water-treating vessel. See heater- fluid pound n: the erratic impact of a pump fly cutter n: see cutterhead.
treater. plunger against a fluid when the pump is flysch n: a type of rock consisting of thinly
flow tube n: a restriction installed in a line of operating with a partial vacuum in the bedded sandstone and shale, thought to be
flowing fluid that produces relatively high cylinder, with gas trapped in the cylinder, or the result of the action of turbidity currents; a
differential pressures with relatively low with the well pump off. succession of turbidites originating in marine
permanent pressure losses as the fluid flows fluid sampler n: an automatic device that depositional basins, usually near the base of
through the device. By measuring the periodically takes a sample of a fluid flowing the continental slope. Flysch deposites are
differential, the volume of fluid flowing in a pipe. especially common in the Alpine region of
through the tube can be inferred. fluid saturation n: the amount of the pore Europe.
FLPMA abbr; Federal Land Policy and volume of a reservoir rock that is filled by flyweight n: on a mechanical engine
Management Act of 1976. water, oil, or gas and measured in routine governor, one of usually two small metal
flue gas n: the gases that are produced core analysis. weights that spin as the engine runs. When
from the combustion of a flammable flume n: see boot. the engine speeds up, centrifugal force on
substance in a special chamber or firebox. flume pipe n: large pipe used in creek and the spinning flyweights increases, which
Also called stack gas. stream ditching in pipeline construction to causes a spring to compress and slow the
fluid n: a substance that flows and yields to allow the water to flow normally and to engine down. Conversely, when the engine
any force tending to change its shape. provide a passage for equipment over the slows down, centrifugal force on the fly-
Liquids and gases are fluids. water. weights decreases which causes the spring
fluid catalytic cracker n: a catalytic cracker fluor abbr: fluorescence; used in drilling to expand and speed the engine up.
that is used to crack gas or liquid reports.
hydrocarbons. fluorescence n: instantaneous reemission
fluid contact n: the approximate point in a of light of a greater wave length than that
reservoir where the gas-oil contact or oil- light originally absorbed.
water contact is located. fluoroelastomer n: an elastomer (a material
fluid coupling n: see hydraulic coupling. such as synthetic rubber) in which the
fluid density n: the unit weight of a fluid, hydrogen atoms in the hydrocarbons are
e.g., pounds per gallon. replaced by fluorine atoms.
fluid end n: the portion or end of a fluid flushed zone n: the area near the wellbore
pump that contains the parts involved in where invading mud filtrate forces out the
moving the fluid (such as liners and rods) as movable formation fluids. Often abbreviated
opposed to the end that produces the power Rxo
for movement. flushing case thermometer n: an assembly
fluid flow n: in fluid dynamics, the state of a including a mercury-in-glass thermometer
fluid in motion is determined by the type of affixed to a cylindrical chamber with closures

flywheel 80 formation fracturing

the result of an order from a state regulatory formation damage n: the reduction of
flywheel n: a large. circular disk, connected agency, or an order sought by one or more permeability in a reservoir rock caused by
to and revolving with an engine crankshaft. It of the parties affected. the invasion of drilling fluid and treating
stores energy and disburses it as the engine forced unitisation n: !lee statutory fluids to the section adjacent to die wellbore.
runs. unitisation. It is often called skin damage.
fm abbr: formation; used in drilling reports. force majeure clause n: in an oil and gas Formation Density LogTM n: trade name for
foam n: a two-phase system, similar to an lease, the clause that usually contains a a density log.
emulsion, in which the dispersed phase is a statement that the lease is subject to state formation dip n: the angle at which a
gas or air. and federal laws. It also excuses the lessee formation bed inclines away from the
foam drilling n: see mist drilling. from timely performance of obligations horizontal. Dip is also used to describe the
foaming agent n: a chemical used to lighten should certain events beyond the lessee's orientation of a fault.
the water column in gas wells, in oilwells power to control occur. Force majeure formation evaluation n: the analysis of
producing gas, and in drilling wells in which means a force or event that cannot be subsurface formation characteristics, such
air or gas is used as the drilling fluid so that anticipated or controlled. as lithology, porosity, permeability, and
the water can be forced out with the air or fore and aft n: the lerigthwise measurement saturation, by indirect methods such as
gas to prevent its impeding the production or of a mobile offshore drilling rig or ship. wireline well logging or by direct methods
drilling rate. See mist drilling. foreset bed n: a depositional layer on the such as mud logging and core analysis.
FOB price n: see free on board price. steep seaward face of a marine delta that formation face n: that part of a formation
fog n: a cloud of minute water droplets or ice lies beyond the topset beds and is exposed to the well bore.
crystals suspended in the air so that the composed of finer sedimentary materials formation fluid n: fluid (such as gas, oil, or
cloud bottom rests on the earth's surface, than the topset beds. water) that exists in a subsurface rock
either ground or water. See advention fog, foreshore n: that part of the seashore that formation.
ice fog, steam fog. lies between low- and high-tide levels. formation fracture gradient n: a plot of
fog bank n: a well-defined mass of fog. Forest Service n: a service under the pressure versus depth that reveals the
FOGRMA abbr: Federal Oil and Gas Royalty Department of Agriculture that has three pressure at which a formation will fracture at
Management Act of 1982. major program areas: national forest a given depth.
fold n: a flexure of rock strata (e.g., an arch administration. state and private forestry, formation fracture pressure n: the point at
or a trough) produced by horizontal and research. The Forest Service manages which a formation will crack from pressure in
compression of the earth's crust. See 154 national forests and 19 national the wellbore.
anticline, syncline. grasslands, comprising 188 million acres formation fracturing n: a method of
foliated metamorphic rock n: metamorphic (75.2 million hectares) in 41 states and stimulating production by opening new flow
rock that has a layered look not necessarily Puerto Rico. Address: 201 14th Street SW; channels in the rock surrounding a
associated with the original layering in Washington. DC 20250; (202) 205-1760. production well. Often called a frac job.
sedimentary rock. formate fluid n: a special drilling fluid that Under extremely high hydraulic pressure, a
follower n: see cam follower: contains a salt or an ester of formic acid fluid (such as distillate, diesel fuel, crude oil,
FONSI abbr: finding of no significant impact. (formate), which is chemically combined with dilute hydrochloric acid. water, or kerosene)
fool's gold n: see pyrite. another element such as potassium or is pumped downward through production
footage rates n pi: a fee basis in drilling cesium. Formate fluids are very stable at tubing or drill pipe and forced out below a
contracts stipulating that payment to the high temperatures and can be made very packer or between two packers. The
drilling contractor is made according to the dense (heavy) without adding weighting pressure causes cracks to open in the
number of feet or metres of hole drilled. materials such as barite. Formate fluids are formation, and die fluid penetrates the
foot-pound n: a unit of measure of twisting used as completion fluids because they formation through the cracks. Sand grains,
force, or torque. The amount of energy minimise formation damage. See completion aluminum pellets, walnut shells. or similar
required to move 1 pound 1 foot vertically. fluid, formation damage. materials (propping agents) are carried in
The metric equivalent is the centimetre- formation n: a bed or deposit composed suspension by die fluid into the cracks.
kilogram. or, in SI units, the joule. throughout of substantially the same kind of When die pressure is released at the
foot valve n: a check valve at the inlet end rock; often a lithologic unit. Each formation is surface, the fracturing fluid returns to the
of the suction pipe of a pump that enables given a name, frequently as a result of the well. The cracks partially close on the
the pump to remain full of liquid when it is study of the formation outcrop at the surface pellets. leaving channels for oil to flow
not in operation. and sometimes based on fossils found in the around them to the well. See explosive
footwall n: the rock surface forming the formation. fracturing, hydraulic fracturing.
underside of a fault when the fault plane is formation boundary n: the horizontal limits
not vertical-that is, if the dip is less than of a formation.
90.Compare hanging wall. formation breakdown n: die fracturing of a
foraminifera n pi: single-celled, mostly formation from excessive borehole pressure.
microscopic animals with calcareous formation breakdown pressure n: the
exoskeletons; mostly marine. pressure at which a formation will fracture.
force n: that which causes, changes, or formation competency n: the ability of the
stops the motion of a body. formation to withstand applied pressure.
forced draft n: air blown into a furnace or Also called formation integrity.
other equipment by a fan or blower. formation competency test n: a test used
forced pooling n: pooling of leased tracts to determine the amount of pressure
undertaken without the willing cooperation of required to cause a formation to fracture.
all the parties. Forced pooling may occur as

formation gas 81 fracture pressure

fouling factor n: a factor used in heat- crude oil, dilute hydrochloric acid, water, or
formation gas n: gas initially produced from transfer calculations to represent the kerosene) are pumped downward through
an underground reservoir. resistance to the flow of heat caused by dirt, production tubing or drill pipe and forced out
formation integrity n: see formation scale. or other contaminants in the flowing below a packer or between two packers. The
competency. fluids. pressure causes cracks to open in the
formation pressure n: the force exerted by foundation pile n: the first casing or formation, and the fluid penetrates the
fluids in a formation, recorded in the hole at conductor string (generally with a diameter formation through the cracks. Sand grains,
the level of the formation with the well shut of 30 to 36 inches-76 to 91 centimetres) set aluminum pellets, walnut shells, or similar
in. Also called reservoir pressure or shut-in when drilling a well from a floating offshore materials (propping agents) are carried in
bottomhole pressure. drilling rig. It prevents sloughing of the suspension by the fluid into the cracks.
formation resistivity n: a measure of the ocean-floor formations and is a structural When the pressure is released at the
electrical resistance of fluids in a formation. support for the permanent guide base and surface, the fracturing fluid returns to the
formation sensitivity n: the tendency of the blowout preventers. well but leaves behind the propping agents
certain producing formations to react foorble n: a section of drill pipe. casing. or to hold open the formation cracks.
adversely to invading filtrates. tubing consisting of four joints screwed frac gradient n: see fracture gradient. frac
formation strength n: the ability of a together. Compare double. single. thribble. job n: see formation fracturing.
formation to resist fracture from pressures fourble board n: the name used for the fraction n: a part of a mixture of
created by fluids in a borehole. working platform of the derrickman. or the hydrocarbons, usually defined by boiling
formation strike n: see strike. monkeyboard. when it is located at a height range--for example, naphtha. gas oil, or
formation tester n: see wireline formation in the derrick equal to approximately four kerosene.
tester. lengths of pipe joined together. Compare fractional analysis n: a test for the
formation testing n: the gathering of double board, thribble board. composition of gas or two-phase gas-
pressure data and fluid samples from a four comer role n: a rule of interpretation condensate streams. The analysis generally
formation to determine its production holding that an instrument such as an oil and shows not only the composition in
potential before choosing a completion gas lease must be interpreted from within percentage of each hydrocarbon present
method. Formation testing tools include the four comers of the instrument. through hexanes or heptanes but also the
formation testers and drill stem test tools. Interpretation is made without any aid from gallons per thousand cubic feet of liquids by
formation volume factor n: the factor that knowledge of the circumstances under component and the heating value of the gas.
is used to convert stock tank barrels of oil to which the instrument came into being; the fractionate v: to separate single fractions
reservoir barrels. It is the ratio between the instrument is constructed as a whole. with- from a mixture of hydrocarbon fluids, usually
space occupied by a barrel of oil containing out reference to anyone part more than by distillation.
solution gas at reservoir conditions and a another. fractionating column n: the vessel or tower
barrel of dead oil at surface conditions. Also four-pin kelly bushing n: a kelly bushing in a gas plant in which fractionation occurs.
called reservoir volume factor. that has four steel dowels. or pins. that fit See fractionate.
formation water n: 1. the water originally in into corresponding holes in the master fractionating tower n: see fractionating
place in a formation. See connate water: 2. bushing. When the pins are engaged with column.
any water that resides in the pore spaces of the holes. the rotating master bushing also fracture n: a crack or crevice in a formation,
a formation. turns the kelly bushing. which then turns the either natural or induced. See explosive
formic acid n: a simple organic acid, kelly and the drill stem. See kelly, kelly fracturing, hydraulic fracturing.
HCOOH, used for acidising oilwells. It is bushing, master bushing. fracture addizing n: a procedure by which
stronger than acetic acid rot much less four-pin master bushing n: a master acid is forced into a formation under
corrosive than hydrofluoric or hydrochloric bushing that has four holes symmetrically pressure high enough to cause the formation
acid and is usually used for high- positioned on its outside perimeter and into to crack. The acid acts on certain kinds of
temperature wells. which fit four corresponding steel dowels. or rocks, usually carbonates, to increase the
formonitrile n: see hydrogen cyanide. pins. on the kelly bushing. When the pins permeability of the formation. Also called
forward adv: in the direction of the bow on a are engaged into the holes and the master acid fracturing. Compare matrix acidizing.
ship or an offshore drilling rig. bushing turns. the kelly bushing also turns. fracture gradient n: the pressure gradient
forward combustion n: a common type of See kelly bushing, master bushing. (psi/foot) at which a formation accepts whole
in situ combustion in which the combustion four-strokelcyde engine n: an engine in fluid from the wellbore. Also called frac
front moves in the same direction as the which the piston moves from top dead gradient.
injected air. Burning is started at an injection centre to bottom dead center two times to fracture pressure n: the pressure at which
well and moves toward production wells as complete a cycle of events. The crankshaft a formation will break down, or fracture.
air is continuously injected into the injection must make two complete revolutions. or
well. Compare reverse combustion. 720.
FoRxo LogTM n: trade name for focused four-way drag bit n: a drag bit with four
electric log that investigates the flushed blades. See bit. fishtail bit.
zone. FP abbr: flowing pressure; used in drilling
fossil n: the remains or impressions of a reports.
plant or animal of past geological ages that frac fluid n: a fluid used in the fracturing
have been preserved in or as rock. process (i.e., a method of stimulating
frac abbr: fractured or fracturing; used in production by opening new flow channels in
drilling reports. the rock surrounding a production well).
fossiliferous adj: containing fossils. Under extremely high hydraulic pressure,
fossilize v: to become changed into a fossil. frac fluids (such as distillate, diesel fuel,

fracture zone 82 ft3

water. 2. the measured volume of water that is created by the walls of the pipe or
fracture zone n: zone of naturally occurring is present in a container and that is not in container as the fluid flows past them.
fissures or fractures that can pose problems suspension in the contained liquid at friction bearing n: see insert bearing,
with lost circulation. observed temperature. journal bearing.
fracturing n: shortened form of formation free-water knockout (FWKO) n: a vertical friction cathead n: a spool on the side of
fracturing. See formation fracturing. or horizontal vessel into which oil or the drawworks cathead that reels in a soft
fracturing fluid n: a fluid, such as water, oil, emulsion is run to allow any water not line, called the catline; used for hoisting light
or acid, used in hydraulic fracturing. The emulsified with the oil (free water) to drop equipment on the rig floor.
fluid carries propping agents that hold open out. friction clutch n: a clutch that makes
the formation cracks after hydraulic pressure freewheeling n: the action in which the connection by sliding friction.
dissipates. See acid fracturing, hydraulic clutch used between an auxiliary friction loss n: a reduction in the pressure
fracturing, propping agents. hydrodynamic brake and the drawworks of a fluid caused by its motion against an
fractus n: a cloud that has a ragged drumshaft automatically disengages and enclosed surface (such as a pipe). As the
appearance, as if tom. Such clouds are tom runs freely while the empty block is being fluid moves through the pipe, friction
from a main cloud bank by strong winds. hoisted. between the fluid and the pipe wall and
Also called scud. freeze pipe n: a device fitted on the vertical within the fluid itself creates a pressure loss.
free air space n: any of the cavities in the support members of the Trans-Alaska Pipe- The faster the fluid moves, the greater are
human body that contain air and are line System (TAPS) to circulate a refrigerant the losses.
normally connected to the atmosphere, continuously between the subsoil and the friction shoe n: in a drum clutch, pads of
including lungs, sinuses, and middle ear. top of the pipe. The refrigerant keeps the friction material are squeezed against a
freeboard n: the vertical distance between ground beneath the pipeline frozen to drum attached to the driving shaft. Friction
the waterline and the freeboard deck on a prevent frost heaving. between the shoes and the drum allows the
ship, boat, or floating offshore drilling rig. freeze point n: the depth in the hole at clutch to engage.
Draft plus freeboard equal total height of which the tubing, casing, or drill pipe is front n: an interface between two air
vessel. stuck. See free-point indicator. masses.
freeboard deck n: the uppermost freezing point n: the temperature at which a frontal zone n: in meteorology, a three-
continuous deck on a ship or floating rig that liquid becomes a solid. dimensional layer of large, horizontal
has a permanent means of closing all frequency converter n: an electronic pressure gradients.
openings to the sea. instrument for converting frequency (pulse frost heaving n: movement of the soil
free butane n: see butanes required. train) to a proportionate analog signal. resulting from alternate thawing and
free electron n: an electron on the outer frequency modulation (FM) n: modulation freezing. Frost heaving generates stress on
shell of an atom that moves readily from one of the frequency of the carrier wave in vertical support members of pipelines in the
atom to another. accordance with speech or a signal. Arctic and, by extension, on the pipe itself.
free gas n: a hydrocarbon that exists in the frequency output n: an output in the form of frost wedging n: the phenomenon resulting
gaseous phase at reservoir pressure and frequency that varies as a function of the when water invades rock, freezes, and, by
temperature and remains a gas when applied measurand (e.g., angular speed and its expansion, wedges apart the rock.
produced under normal conditions. flow rate). Repeated freeze-thaw cycles can quickly
free on board (FOB) price n: the price frequency range n: the measured values break up any rock that has even the tiniest
actually charged at the producing country's over which a meter or other measuring cracks.
port of loading. instrument is intended to measure, specified frozen up adj: said of equipment the
free oxygen n: oxygen that exists in by their upper and lower limits. components of which do not operate freely.
molecular form (O2) without being bound in a fresh water n: 1. water that has little or no ft abbr: foot.
compound. salt dissolved in it. 2. underground water, ft-lb abbr: foot-pound.
free point n: an area or point above the generally located near the surface, that does ft/min abbr: feet per minute.
point at which a tubular, such as drill pipe, is not contain a large amount of salt and from ft/s abbr: feet per second.
stuck in the wellbore. which most underground drinking water ft2 abbr.: square foot.
free-point indicator n: a device run on supplies are drawn. 3. inland surface water, ft3 abbr: cubic foot.
wireline into the wellbore and inside the such as lakes, streams, and ponds, that is
fishing string and fish to locate the area not salty.
where a fish is stuck. When the drill string is freshwater mud n: see mud.
pulled and turned, the electromagnetic fields friction n: resistance to movement created
of free pipe and stuck pipe differ. The free- when two surfaces are in contact. When
point indicator is able to distinguish these friction is present, movement between the
differences, which are registered on a surfaces produces heat.
metering device at the surface. frictional drag n: a force that slows the
free pump n: a type of downhole hydraulic speed of an object as it moves. Drag occurs
pump that moves in and out of the well by as an object moves through a fluid because
means of circulating fluids. See hydroulic of the friction that occurs between the object
pump. Compare fixed pump. and the fluid; it also occurs as an object
Freestone rider n: see Pugh clause. moves against another object.
free water n: 1. water produced with oil. It frictional resistance n: the opposition to
usually settles out within five minutes when flow created by a fluid when it flows through
the well fluids become stationary in a settling a line or other container. Frictional
space within a vessel. Compare emulsified resistance occurs within the fluid itself and it

ft3/bbl 83 FWKO

fulcrum assembly n: a bottomhole

ft3/bbl abbr: cubic feet per barrel. assembly. usually made up of drill collars
ft3/d abbr: cubic feet per day. and a stabiliser just above the bit, that can
ft3/min abbr: cubic feet per minute. be used to increase hole angle. In holes
ft3/s abbr: cubic feet per second. inclined 3 degrees or more off vertical. the
fuel centrifuge n: a device an engine stabiliser acts as a fulcrum; the drill collars
operator uses to separate water and solid above the fulcrum sag toward the low side of
materials from fuel. Centrifugal force created the hole, forcing the bit toward the high side
by the rapidly spinning centrifuge causes dirt and increasing hole angle.
and water. which are heavier (denser) than
fuel, to move to the outside of the centrifuge
where they are removed.
fuel content n: in improved recovery, the
amount of coke available for in situ
combustion. measured in pounds per cubic
foot of burned area. Coke is formed by
thermal cracking and distillation in the
combustion zone. The amount of available
coke depends on the composition of the
reservoir cn* oil.
fuse n: a device used to protect electrical
fuel-injection nozzle n: see nozzle.
equipment from overload. It has a wire that
fuel injector n: a mechanical device that
melts at high temperature to open the circuit.
sprays fuel into a cylinder of an engine at the
fusible plugs n pi: a thermal device
end of the compression stroke.
employed on surface flow lines as part of an
fuel knock n: a hammer like noise produced
when fuel is not burned properly in a
fusion-bonded epoxy coating n: a
powdered resin coating that forms a skin
fuel modulator n: a device installed on a
over pipe when applied to its heated steel
diesel engine to reduce the amount of
surface. Usually applied at the mill.
smoke coming out of the engine's exhaust. If
futures market n: market in which prices
the engine's governor delivers more fuel
are determined by open bidding for contracts
than air to the engine, the engine smokes
on the trading floor of a commodities market
too much. A fuel modulator makes the
such as the New York Mercantile Exchange.
governor increase the fuel supply only at the
A futures contract is a commitment to deliver
same rate as the air increase. Such rate fulcrum effect n: the tendency of a fulcrum or receive a specific quantity and grade of oil
control holds down the black smoke from the assembly to increase hole angle. See or product during a designated future month
engine exhaust during acceleration or fulcrum assembly. at a preset price. Delivery of the physical
sudden loading. See governor. fuller's earth n: see attapulgite. product occurs in only a small number of
fuel oil n: 1. diesel fuel. 2. heavier liquid full-gauge bit n: a bit that has maintained its cases, with most participants liquidating their
hydrocarbons. such as bunker oil, that is original diameter. positions be- fore the end of trading.
used to fuel turbines on a ship or other full-gauge hole n: a wellbore drilled with a FWKO abbr: free-water knockout.
vessel full-gauge bit. Also called a true-to-gauge
fuel pump n: the pump that pressurises fuel hole.
to the pressure used for injection. In a diesel full-load displacement n: the displacement
engine the term is used to identify several of a mobile offshore drilling rig or ship when
different pumps: it is loosely used to floating at its deepest design draft.
describe the pump that transfers fuel from full-wave rectification n: the conversion to
the main storage tank to the day tank; it is direct current of both the negative and the
also used to describe the pump that supplies positive pulsations of alternating current.
pressure to the fuel-injection pumps, full-well stream n: the production from a
although this is actually a booster-type well as it emerges from the mouth of the well
pump. and prior to any separation of the stream's
fulcrum n: the support about which a lever components.
fungible adj: relating or pertaining to
petroleum products with characteristics so
similar that they can be mixed together, or
funnel viscosity n: viscosity as measured
by the Marsh funnel, based on the number
of seconds it takes for 61 cubic inches
(1,000 cubic centimetres) of drilling fluid to
flow through the funnel.

galvanic cell n: electrolytic cell created by of a rod pump. It is attached to the standing
the difference in electrical potential between valve and is used to pull the valve out of its
g abbr: gram. two dissimilar metals. seat when repairs are needed.
G&OCM abbr: gas- and oil-cut mud; used in galvanic corrosion n: a type of corrosion gas n: a compressible fluid that completely
drilling reports. that occurs when a small electric current fills any container in which it is confined.
gabbro n: an intrusive igneous rock with the flows from one piece of metal equipment to Technically, a gas will not condense when it
same composition as basalt. another. It is particularly prevalent when two is compressed and cooled, because a gas
gage n, v: variation of gauge. Until recently dissimilar metals are present in an can exist only above the critical temperature
the API preferred "gage" to "gauge." environment in which electricity can flow (as for its particular composition. Below the
gal abbr: gallon. two dissimilar joints of tubing in an oil or gas critical temperature, this form of matter is
gale n: a wind that is blowing at 28 to 55 well). known as a vapour, because liquid can exist
knots. Gales are classified as moderate, galvanize v: to immerse an iron or steel and condensation can occur. Sometimes the
fresh. strong, or whole. object in molten zinc to produce a coating of terms "gas" and "vapour" are used inter-
galena (PbS) n: lead sulphide. Technical zinc-iron alloy on the object. This zinc- iron changeably. The latter, however, should be
grades (specific gravity about 7) are used for coating resists corrosion. used for those streams in which
increasing the density of drilling fluids to galvanized steel n: steel that is coated with condensation can occur and that originate
points impractical or impossible with barite. zinc to protect it from rusting. from, or are in equilibrium with, a liquid
gall n: damage to steel surfaces caused by galvanometer n: a permanent magnet phase.
friction and improper lubrication. meter for detecting weak electric current. It gas anchor n: a tubular, perforated device
can be adapted with shunts or resistors to attached to the bottom of a sucker-rod pump
measure larger currents or voltage. that helps to prevent gas lock. The device
Gamma-Gamma Density LogTM n: trade works on the principle that gas, being lighter
name for a density log. gamma particle n: a than oil, rises. As well fluids enter the
short, highly penetrating X-ray emitted by anchor, gas breaks out of the fluid and exits
radioactive substances during their from the anchor through perforations near
spontaneous disintegration. The the top. Remaining fluids enter the pump
measurement of gamma particles through a mosquito bill (a tube within the
(sometimes called gamma rays) is the basis anchor), which has an opening near the
for a number of radioactivity well logging bottom. In this way, all or most of the gas
methods. escapes before the fluids enter the pump.
gamma ray n: see gamma particle.
galling adj: the result of the sticking or gamma ray curve n: a plot of gamma
adhesion of two mating surfaces of metal. radiation detected in a wellbore.
not protected by a film of lubricant. and gamma ray detector n: a device that is
tearing due to lateral displacement. capable of sensing and measuring the
galling limit n: one of the limitations on number of gamma particles emitted by
chain-and-sprocket life. This limitation on the certain radioactive substances.
strength of the metal the chains and gamma ray log n: a type of radioactivity well
sprockets are made of may cause the metal log that records natural radioactivity around
to wear even though it is lubricated because the wellbore. Shales generally pr0- duce
of a heavy load or a high speed. higher levels of gamma radiation and can be
gallon n: a unit of measure of liquid capacity detected and studied with the gamma ray
that equals 3.785 litres and has a volume of tool. In holes where salty drilling fluids are
231 cubic inches (0.00379 cubic metres). A used, electric logging tools are less effective
gallon of water weighs 8.34 pounds (3.8 than gamma ray tools. See radioactivity well
kilograms) at OO"F (16"C). The imperial logging.
gallon. formerly used in Great Britain. equals gamma ray spectroscopy log n: a special
approximately 1.2 US gallons. gamma ray log that reveals the relative
gal/min abbr: gallons per minute. amounts of radioactive uranium, thorium,
galvanic action n: the production of current and potassium in a formation. This
flow when two dissimilar metals are placed information can help identify shales and
in an electrolyte. clays.
galvanic anode n: in cathodic protection, a gang pusher n: the supervisor of a roust-
sacrificial anode that produces current flow about crew or the person in charge of a
through galvanic action. See sacrificial pipe-line crew.
anode. garbet, garbot, or garbutt rod n: a short
rod on the lower end of the travelling valve
gas balance 85 gas-lift valve

characteristically fluffy texture. When en- pressure. Frequently, water is also injected
gas balance n: comparison of the sum of trained gas is not released before the fluid in alternating steps with the gas.
the volumes of gas production or receipts returns to the well, the weight or density of gas injection well n: see gas input well.
with the sum of the volumes of the the fluid column is reduced. Because a large gas input well n: a well into which gas is
dispositions of the gas. amount of gas in mud lowers its density, injected for the purpose of maintaining or
gas balancing agreement n: an agreement gas-cut mud must be treated to reduce the supplementing pressure in an oil reservoir.
between partners in a joint-interest well to chance of a kick. More commonly called a gas injection well.
determine the share due each partner if the gas cutting n: a process in which gas be- gas into the system n: gas that is
gas is sold to two or more markets. Stated comes entrained in a liquid. purchased, taken on exchange, or injected
another way, an agreement covering the gas detection analyser n: a device used to from storage.
manner in which volumes of deferred gas detect and measure any gas in the drilling gasket n: any material (such as paper, cork,
production or exchange gas will be balanced mud as it is circulated to the surface. asbestos, or rubber) used to seal two
between the parties to the agreement. gas distribution company n: the entity that essentially stationary surfaces.
gas bubble n: an excess supply of natural is responsible for moving natural gas from gas laws n pi: laws such as Charles's,
gas, as when the available supply of natural the pipeline to the consumer. Usually called Boyle's, and Avogadro's that describe the
gas exceeds the demand. the local gas company. behaviour of gas volumes under pressure
gas buster n: see mud-gas separator. gas drilling n: see air drilling. and temperature.
gas cap n: a free-gas phase overlying an oil gas drive n: the use of the energy that gas leak detector n: device used to detect
zone and occurring within the same arises from the expansion of compressed combustible hydrocarbons.
producing formation as the oil. See gas in a reservoir to move crude oil to a gas lift n: the process of raising or lifting
associated gas, reservoir. wellbore. Also called depletion drive. See fluid from a well by injecting gas down the
dissolved- gas drive. gas-cap drive. reservoir well through tubing or through the tubing-
drive mechanism. casing annulus. Injected gas aerates the
gas eliminator n: see air eliminator. fluid to make it exert less pressure than the
gas expansion n: when oil and gas are formation does; the resulting higher
found in the same reservoir under pressure, formation pressure forces the fluid out of the
the drilling of a well into the reservoir wellbore. Gas may be injected continuously
releases the pressure, causing the gas to or intermittently, depending on the producing
expand. The expanding gas drives the oil characteristics of the well and the
toward and up the well bore. The expansive arrangement of the gas-lift equipment.
energy of the gas can be harnessed whether gas-lift mandrel n: a device installed in the
gas-cap drive n: drive energy supplied the gas is in solution or forming a cap above tubing string of a gas-lift well onto which or
naturally (as a reservoir is produced) by the the oil. into which a gas-lift valve is fitted. There are
expansion of the gas cap. In such a drive, gas field n: a district or area from which two common types of mandrel. In the
the gas cap expands to force oil into the well natural gas is produced. conventional gas-lift mandrel, the gas-lift
and to the surface. See reservoir drive gas Bow recorder clock n: see flow valve is installed as the tubing is placed in
mechanism. recorder clock. the well. Thus, to replace or repair the valve,
gas-cap gas n: see associated gas. gas imbalance n: a discrepancy between a the tubing string must be pulled. In the side-
gas chromatograph n: a device used to transporter's receipts and deliveries of pocket mandrel, however, the valve is
separate and identify gas compounds by natural gas for a shipper. Most pipelines installed and removed by wireline while the
their adhesion to different layers of a filtering require that shipper's deliveries to the mandrel is still in the well, eliminating the
medium such as clay or paper, sometimes pipeline and receipts from the pipeline need to pull the tubing to repair or replace
indicated by colour changes in the medium. remain essentially in balance within certain the valve.
gas collection cells n pi: a device in which tolerances, or the pipeline may assess gas-lift valve n: a device installed on a gas-
cores are thawed and samples of water and charges or penalties until the imbalance is lift mandrel, which in turn is put on the tubing
gas in the cores are collected. Neon is rectified. string of a gas-lift well.
added to the system to ensure that a full gasing-up n: a condition in a producing
Tubing and casing
charge of 'gas is obtained. oilwell that occurs when lighter
pressures cause
gas-condensate-glycol separator n: a hydrocarbons come out of the oil and reach
the valve to open
device used in a glycol dehydration system the surface in gaseous form.
and close, thus
installed where water is being removed from gas injection n: the injection of gas into a
allowing gas to be
gas condensate; the separator removes reservoir to maintain formation pressure by
injected into the
glycol from the gas condensate. gas drive and to reduce the rate of decline of
fluid in the tubing to
gas constant n: a constant number, the original reservoir drive. One type of gas
cause the fluid to
mathematically the product of the total injection uses gas that does not mix (i.e.,
rise to the surface.
volume and the total pressure divided by the that is not miscible) with the oil. Examples of
absolute temperature for 1 mole of any ideal these gases include natural gas, nitrogen,
gas mixture of ideal gases at any and flue gas. Another type uses gas that
temperature. does mix (i.e., that is miscible) with the oil.
gas contract n: a mutually negotiated set of The gas may be naturally miscible or
rules governing conduct between the parties become miscible under high pressure.
thereto relating to all matters of common Examples of miscible gases include
interest. propane, methane enriched with other light
gas-cut mud n: a drilling mud that contains hydrocarbons, methane under high
entrained formation gas, giving the mud a pressure, and carbon dioxide under
gas-lift well 86 gauge path

Gas Processors Association (GPA) n: an gathering station n: a central point where

gas-lift well n: a well in which reservoir organisation of companies that engage in there is the accessory equipment for
fluids are artificially lifted by the injection of gas processing. Its official publication is delivering a clean and salable product to the
gas. Proceedings. Address: P.O. Box 35584; market or to another pipeline.
gas liquids n pi: see liquefied petroleum Thlsa, OK 74153; (918) 493-3872. gathering system n: the pipelines and other
gas. gas reguIator n: an automatically operated equipment needed to transport oil, gas, or
gas lock n: I. a condition sometimes en- valve that, by opening and closing in both from wells to the gathering station. An
countered in a pumping well when dissolved response to pressure, permits more or less oil gathering system includes oil and gas
gas, released from solution during the gas to flow through a pipeline and thus separators, emulsion treaters, gathering
upstroke of the plunger, appears as free gas controls the pressure. tanks, aIxI similar equipment A gas
between the valves. If the gas pressure is gas reservoir n: a geological formation gad}ering system includes regulators,
sufficient, the standing valve is locked shut, containing a single gaseous phase. When compressors, dehydrators, and associated
and no fluid enters the tubing. 2. a device produced, the surface equipment mayor may equipment.
fitted to the gauging hatch on a pressure not contain condensed liquid, depending on gauge n: 1. the diameter of a bit or the hole
tank that enables manual dipping and the temperature, pressure, and composition drilled by die bit 2. a device (such as a
sampling without loss of vapour. 3. a of the single reservoir phase. pressure gauge) used to measure some
condition that can occur when gas-cut mud gas sand n: a stratuln of sand or porous physical property. v: to measure size,
is circulated by the mud pump. The gas sand- stone from which natural gas is volume, depth, or other measurable
breaks out of the mud, expands, and works obtained. property.
against the operation of the piston and gas separator n: see separator: gauge cutters n pi: the teeth or tungsten
valves. gasser n: a well that produces natural gas. carbide inserts in the outermost row on the
gas-miscible flooding n: see gas injection. gas show n: the gas that appears in drilling cones of a bit, so called because they cut
gas oil n: a refined fraction of crude oil fluid returns, indicating the presence of a the outside edge of the hole and determine
somewhat heavier than kerosene and often gas zone. the hole's gauge or sire. Also called heel
used a.., diesel fuel. gas sniffer n: see explosimeter. teeth.
gas oil contact n: the point or plane in a gas transmission system n: the central or gauge glass n: a glass tube or metal
reservoir at which the bottom of a gas sand trunk pipeline system by means of which dry housing with a glass window that is
is in contact with the top of an oil sand. natural gas is transported from field connected to a vessel to indicate the level of
gas-oil ratio n: a measure of the volume of gathering stations or processing plants to the liquid contents.
gas produced with oil, expressed in cubic the industrial or domestic fuel market Well gauge hatch n: the lidded opening in the top
feet per barrel or cubic metres per tonne. pressure is supplemented at intervals along of an oil or oil product storage tank through
Also called solution gas-oil ratio. the transmission line by compressors to which gauging and sampling operations are
gasoline n: a volatile, flammable liquid maintain a flow strong enough to move the carried out.
hydrocarbon refined from crude oils and gas to its destination. gauge head n: the housing of an automatic
used universally as a fuel for internal gas treating n: the removal of hydrogen tank gauge. It may include the indicator aIxI
combustion, spark-ignition engines. sulphide and carbon dioxide from raw gas or the transmitter.
gasoline plant n: also called a natural gas the green gas stream. gauge height n: the distance from the
processing plant, a term that is preferred, gas turbine n: an engine in which gas, gauge, or reference, point from the bottom of
because it distinguishes the plant from a unit under pressure or formed by combustion, is a tank to a gauge, or reference, point at the
that makes gasoline within an oil refinery. directed against a series of turbine blades. top of the tank, usually on the hatch. On
See natural gas processing plant. The energy in the expanding gas is marine vessels, the measurement must be
gas pipeline n: a transmission system for converted into rotary motion. made when the vessel is on even keel.
natural gas or other gaseous material. The gas well n: a well that primarily produces gauge joint n: the heaviest-wall casing
total system comprises pipes and gas. Legal definitions vary among die states. section of the string, usually located just
compressors needed to maintain the flowing gas zone n: an area in a reservoir that is below the preventers or tree.
pressure of the system. occupied by natural gas. gauge lines n pi: small-diameter pipes
gas plant products n pi: liquids recovered gate n: in a logging tool, a shutter like device leading from an orifice fitting to a bellows in
from natural gas in a gas processing plant that opens and closes very quickly to permit a flow recorder. They allow gas pressure to
and, in some situations, from field facilities. a measurement of the time a formation is be exerted on the bellows so that the
See natural gas liquids. exposed to sound, radioactivity, or other pressure drop across the orifice plate can be
gas processing n: the separation of energy; usually timed in millionths of a recorded.
constituents from natural gas for the purpose second (microseconds). gauge path n: the vertical distance from the
of making salable products and also for gate valve n: a valve that employs a sliding reference point on the gauge hatch to the
treating the residue gas to meet required gate to open to open or close the passage in bottom of the tank or to the datum plate.
specifications. it.
gas processing agreement n: an gather v: to cause to come together, such
agreement under which gas not sold under a as oil from several wells.
percentage of proceeds contract belongs to gathering n: the process of mnging oil, gas,
the producer as it passes through the or both from a well or wells in a field to a
processing plant. Normal payment is a point for delivery to a pipeline or other
percentage of the products recovered; the transporting system.
seller retains title to the residue gas. gathering line n: a pipeline, usually of small
gas processing plant n: see natural gas diameter, used to move crude oil or gas from
processing plant. the field to a main pipeline.
gauge pipe 87 geology

gauging nipple n: a small section of pipe in generator identification number (GIN) n:

gauge pipe n: a vertical pipe that extends the top of a tank through which a tank may an identification number required for
from the gauge hatch to the bottom of the be gauged. producers of hazardous or acute hazardous
tank or to the datum plate. gauging tables n pi: tables prepared by waste that exceed EPA minimum's under
gauge point n: 1. the point at which a tape computers to show the calculated number of RCRA.
is lowered and read on a tank, usually at the barrels or cubic metres for any given depth geochemistry n: study of the relative and
rim of the hatch, manway, or expansion of liquid in a tank. Sometimes called absolute abundances of the elements of the
dome. 2. a point to which all subsequent strapping tables. earth and the physical and chemical
measurements are related. 3. the point from gauging tape n: a metal tape used to processes that have produced their
which the reference height is determined measure the depth of liquid in a tank. observed distributions.
and from which the ullages/innages are GC abbr: gas-cut; used in drilling reports. geological correlation n: the relating of
taken. GCC abbr: Gulf Cooperation Council. subsurface information obtained from one
gauge pressure n: 1. the amount of GCM abbr: gas-cut mud; used in drilling wen to that of others.
pressure exerted on the interior walls of a reports. geologic time scale n: the long periods of
vessel by the fluid contained in it (as GDC survey n: a density log in which a time dealt with and identified by geology.
indicated by a pressure gauge). It is gamma ray log, a Densilog, and a caliper log Geologic time is divided into eras (usually
expressed in pounds per square inch gauge are recorded simultaneously. Cenozoic, Mesozoic, Paleozoic, and
or in kilo- pascals. Gauge pressure plus gear n: a toothed wheel made to mesh with Precambrian), which are subdivided into
atmospheric pressure equals absolute another toothed wheel. periods and epochs. When the age of a type
pressure. 2. pressure measured relative to gear-and-pinion adj: see rack-and-pinion of rock is determined, it is assigned a place
atmospheric pressure considered as zero. gear. in the scale and thereafter referred to as, for
gauger n: a pipeline representative for the gear pump n: a rotary pump that moves example, Mesozoic rock of the Triassic
sale or transfer of crude oil from the fluid by means of two contrarotating, period.
producer to the pipeline. He or she samples meshing gear wheels. The teeth of one geologist n: a scientist who gathers and
or tests the crude oil to determine quantity wheel mesh with the spaces between the interprets data pertaining to the rocks of the
and quality and uses a calibrated, flexible- teeth of the other wheel. The fluid enters one earth's crust.
steel tape with a plumb bob at the end to side of the pump, is forced through by the
measure the oil in the tank. moving gears, and is discharged on the
gauge ring n: a cylindrical metal ring used other side.
to guide, and centralise, packers or tools gear reducer n: see gear reduction unit.
inside casing. gear reducing unit n: a gear or series of
gauge-row patterns n pi: the configuration gears that mesh with other gears in a
or shape of the teeth in the outermost row of machine and the purpose of which is to
teeth on a bit. reduce the speed of the machine's output
gauger's bob n: a graduated weight used shaft or wheel.
with a graduated tape to measure the height gear transmission n: a system consisting of
of the liquid in a storage tank. The weight of several toothed wheels (gears) that, when
the bob keeps the tape taut in order to manipulated (shifted) by an operator,
ensure a correct reading of the liquid level. reduces or increases the speed of a member
gauger's tape n: a graduated, metal, being driven by the gears.
nonsparking, noncorrosive measuring tape gel n: a semisolid, jelly like state assumed
used with a gauger's bob to measure the by some colloidal dispersions at rest. When
height of the liquid in a storage tank. agitated. the gel converts to a fluid state.
gauge surface n: the outside surfaces of Also a nickname for bentonite. v: to take the
the outermost rows of teeth on a bit. They form of a gel; to set.
determine the diameter or gauge of the hole gel cement n: cement or cement slurry that
to be drilled. has been modified by the addition of GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE
gauge trip n: running of a gauge on tubing bentonite.
or slickline to verify casing dimensions. gelled up adj: see clabbered. GeolographTM n: trade name for a patented
gauging n: determining the liquid level of a gel strength n: a measure of the ability of a device that automatically records the rate of
tank so that its volume can be calculated. colloidal dispersion to develop and retain a penetration and depth during drilling.
Usually done by lowering a weighted gel form, based on its resistance to shear. geology n: die science of the physical
graduated steel tape through the tank roof The gel. or shear, strength of a drilling mud history of the earth and its life, especially as
and noting the level at which the oil surface determines its ability to hold solids in recorded in the rocks of the crust.
cuts the tape when the weight gently suspension. Sometimes bentonite and other
touches the tank bottom. It can also be done colloidal clays are added to drilling fluid to
by measuring the distance between liquid increase its gel strength.
height and a reference point and subtracting general gas law n: any law relating to the
the distance from the gauge height to pressure, temperature, or volume of a gas.
determine liquid height. generalised viscosity cone n: a plot of
gauging hatch n: the opening in a tank or calibration coefficient versus a modified
other vessel through which measuring and expression of Reynolds number.
sampling are performed. generator n: a machine that changes
mechanical energy into electrical energy.
geomorphic unit 88 Gondwanaland

stationary or near-stationary position functioning as a part of a glycol dehydration

geomorphic unit n: one of the features that, regardless of movement of the frame. system.
taken together, make up the form of the Gimbals are often used offshore to glycol/amine process n: a process that
surface of the earth. counteract undesirable wave motion. uses a solution comprising 10 to 30 percent
geophone n: an instrument placed on the monoethanolamine, 45 to 85 percent glycol,
surface that .detects vibrations passing and 5 to 25 percent water for the
through the earth's crust. It is used in con- simultaneous removal of water vapour, H2S
junction with seismography. Geophones are and CO2 from gas streams.
often called jugs. See seismograph. glycol dehydrator n: a processing unit used
geophysical exploration n: measurement to remove all or most of the water from gas.
of the physical properties of the earth to A glycol unit usually includes an absorber, in
locate subsurface formations that may which the wet gas is put into contact with
contain commercial accumulations of oil, glycol to remove the water, and a reboiler,
gas, or other minerals; to obtain information which heats the wet glycol to remove the
for the design of surface structures; or to water from it so that it can be recycled.
make other practical applications. The glycol knockout n: a component in the
properties most often studied in the oil contactor of a glycol dehydration unit that
industry are seismic characteristics, GIN abbr: generator identification number. recovers any glycol that has gotten past the
magnetism, and gravity. gin pole n: a pole (usually single) with guy mist extractor.
geophysicist n: one who studies wires and used with block and tackle to hoist GM abbr: General Motors Corporation; a
geophysics. equipment. On a drilling rig, the gin pole is manufacturer of two-stroke-cycle diesel
geophysics n: the physics of the earth, typically secured to the mast or derrick engines used in the petroleum industry.
including meteorology, hydrology, above the monkeyboard. go-devil n: 1. a device that is inserted into a
oceanography, seismology, volcanology, gin pole truck n: a truck equipped with pipeline for the purpose of cleaning; a line
magnetism, and radioactivity. hoisting equipment and a pole or scraper. Also called a pig. 2. a device that is
geopressure n: abnormally high pressure arrangement of poles for use in lifting heavy lowered into the borehole of a well for
exerted by some subsurface formations. The machinery. various purposes such as enclosing
deeper the formation, the higher the girt n: one of the horizontal braces between surveying instruments, detonating
pressure it exerts on a wellbore drilled into it. the legs of a derrick. instruments, and the like. v: to drop or pump
geopressured shales n pi: impermeable GL abbr: ground level; used in drilling re- a device down the borehole, usually through
shales, highly compressed by overburden ports. drill pipe or tubing.
pressure, that are characterized by large gland n: a device used to form a seal go in the hole v: to lower the drill stem, the
amounts of formation fluids and abnormally around a reciprocating or rotating rod (as in tubing, the casing, or the sucker rods into
high pore pressure. a pump) to prevent fluid leakage. the wellbore.
geoscience n: a science dealing with the Specifically, the movable part of a stuffing Gondwanaland n: the southern part of the
earth-geology, physical geography, geo- box by which the packing is compressed. supercontinent Pangaea, comprising the
physics, geomorphology, geochemistry. See stuffing box. future land masses of South America, Africa,
geostatic pressure n: the pressure to which gland packing n: material placed around a Antarctica, Australia, and India.
a formation is subjected by its overburden. gland to effect a seal around a reciprocating
Also called ground pressure, lithostatic or rotating rod.
pressure, rock pressure. gland-packing nut n: a threaded device the
geostatic pressure gradient n: the change sides of which are arranged so that a
in geostatic pressure per unit of depth in the wrench can be fitted onto them and used to
earth. retain the gland packing in place around a
geothermal adj: pertaining to heat within the rod. See gland packing.
earth. glass disk n: a sub with a glass blockage in
geothermal gradient n: the increase in the the bore, used to isolate a surge chamber in
temperature of the earth with increasing gravel packing or perforation cleaning
depth. It averages about 1F per 60 feet operations.
(1C per 18.3 metres), but may be globe valve n: see valve.
considerably higher or lower. glow plug n: a small electric heating
geothermal reservoir n: 1. a subsurface element placed inside a diesel engine
layer of rock containing steam or hot water cylinder to heat the air and to make starting
that is trapped in the layer by overlying easier. GLR abbr: gas-liquid-ratio.
impermeable rock. 2. a subsurface layer of glycol n: a group of compounds used to
rock that is hot but contains little or no water. dehydrate gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons or
Geothermal reservoirs are a potential source to inhibit the formation of hydrates. Glycol is
of energy. also used in engine radiators as an
geronimo n: see safety slide. antifreeze. Commonly used glycols are
get a bite v: to set tools in casing. ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and
GilsoniteTM n: trade name for asphaltum triethylene glycol.
mined, manufactured, or marketed by or for glycol absorber n: a cylinder consisting of
American Gilsonite Company. several perforated trays with bubble caps
gimbal n: a mechanical frame that permits mounted over the perforations and
an object mounted in it to remain in a
gone to water 89 gravity check

95, with a minimum yield strength of 95,000 pressures. Used in pencils and crucibles, as
gone to water adj: pertaining to a well in psi (655,025 kPa), a maximum yield strength a lubricant. and in atomic-energy plants to
which production of oil has decreased and of 125,000 psi (861,875 kPa), and a control the release of radiation from uranium
production of water has increased (e.g., minimum tensile strength of 105,000 psi fuel.
"The well has gone to water"). (723,975 kPa); (3) G-105, with a minimum grapple n: a mechanism that is fitted into an
good title n: see lnerr:hantable title. yield strength of 105,000 psi (723,975 kPa), overshot to grasp and retrieve fish from the
gooseneck n: the curved connection a maximum yield strength of 135,000 psi borehole. The interior of a grapple is
between the rotary hose and the swivel. See (930,825 kPa), and a minimum tensile wickered to engage the fish. See basket
swivel. GOR abbr: gas-oil ratio. strength of 115,000 psi (792,925 kPa); and grapple. spiral grapple.
gouge n: finely abraded material occurring S-135, with a minimum yield strength of grasshopper n: see water outlet.
between the walls of a fault as the result of 135,000 psi (930,825 kPa), a maximum yield grass-roots refinery n: a refinery roilt from
grinding movement. strength of 165,000 psi (1,137,675 kPa), and the ground up. as opposed to one to which
governor n: any device that limits or a minimum tensile strength of 145,000 psi an addition or a modification has been
controls the speed of an engine. (999,775 kPa). V-150 is a non- API, but made.
GPA abbr: Gas Processors Association. higher strength, grade. It has a minimum gravel n: sand or glass beads of uniform
GPG abbr: grains per gallon; parts per yield strength and a tensile strength of size and roundness used in gravel packing.
million equals grains per gallon Y 17.1. 150,000 psi (1,034,250 kPa). gravel pack n: a mass of very fine gravel
gpm abbr: 1. gallons per minute when grading n: the process of providing a placed around a slotted liner in a wen. See
referring to rate of flow. 2. gallons per smooth and even work area to facilitate the gravel packing.
thousand cubic feet when referring to natural movement of equipment onto and along a gravel-pack v: to place a slotted or
gas in terms of chromatograph analysis or right-of-way. Grading entails leveling, cut- perforated liner in a wen and surround it with
theoretical gallons. ting, and filling. gravel. See gravel packing.
gr abbr: gray; used in drilling reports. gradualism n: see unifonnitarianism. gravel packing n: a method of well
grab n: in sampling petroleum and graduated neck n: the section of reduced completion in which a slotted or perforated
petroleum products, a small sample, usually cross-sectional area at the top and/or rottom liner, often wire-wrapped, is placed in the
1.5 millilitres (0.05 ounce), obtained by the of an open tank prover. It has visible well and surrounded by gravel. If open hole,
probe and sampler in an automatic sampling graduations to enable measuring small the well is sometimes enlarged by
system. Several grabs constitute a sample. volumes. underreaming at the point where the gravel
graben n: a block of the earth's crust that graduated neck prover n: an open tank: is packed. The mass of gravel excludes
has slid downward between two faults. prover with one or two graduated necks. See sand from the wellbore rot allows continued
Compare horst. graduated neck. production.
Graham's Law or Diffusion n: law that gravel-pack packer n: a packer used for the
states that the rate of diffusion of a gas is well completion method of gravel packing.
inversely proportional to the square root of graveyard tour (pronounced "tower") n: the
its density. shift of duty on a drilling rig that starts at
grains per gallon (GPG) n: a unit of midnight. Sometimes caned the morning
measure for the strength, or concentration. tour.
of a solution. It is based on a unit of weight gravimeter n: an instrument used to detect
called the grain, which equals 0.002285 and measure minute differences in the
ounce, or 0.0648 gram. One grain per gallon earth's gravitational pull at different locations
equals 0.058479 part per million. to obtain data about subsurface formations.
gram n: a unit of metric measure of mass gravimetric survey n: the survey made with
and weight equal to 1/1,000 kilogram and a gravimeter.
grab sample n: sample obtained by
nearly equal to 1 cubic centimetre of water gravitometer n: a device for measuring and
collecting loose solids in equal quantities
at its maximum density. recording the density or specific gravity of a
from each part or package of a shipment
gram molecular weight n: see molecular gas or liquid passing a point of
and in sufficient quantity to be characteristic
weight. measurement. Also called a densimeter.
of all sizes and components.
granite n: an igneous rock composed gravity n: 1. the attraction exerted by the
graded stream n: a flowing stream that is
primarily of feldspar, quartz. and mica. It is earth's mass on objects at its surface. 2. the
stable, or in balance with its average load. It
the most common intrusive rock - that is, it weight of a body. See API gravity. relative
is just steep enough to carry out of its basin
originally solidified below the surface of the density, specific gravity.
the amount of sediment brought in during an
earth. Its rock crystals are easily seen by the gravity check n: in marketing, the checking
average-flow year.
eye. of the gravity of the fuel at the terminal.
graded string n: a casing string made up of
grantee n: a person to whom property is
several weights or grades of casing and
conveyed. Compare grantor:
designed to take into account well depth,
granting clause n: clause in an oil aIxl gas
expected pressures, and weight of the fluid
lease that specifies die rights and interests
in the well. Also called mixed string.
granted by the lessor to die lessee. Such
grades or drill pipe n: most present-day
rights usually involve searching and drilling
seamless drill pipe falls into one of four
for, then producing, oil and gas.
American Petroleum Institute (API) grades.
grantor n: a person who conveys property.
(1) E-75, with a minimum yield strength of
COfnpaIe grantee.
75,000 psi (517,125 kilopascals-kPa), a
graphite n: a soft. black, shiny mineral of
maximum yield strength of 105,000 psi
pure carbon produced when hydrocarbons
(723,975 kPa), and a minimum tensile
are subjected to high temperahires and
strength of 100,000 psi (689,500 kPa); (2) X-
gravity compensator 90 ground block

radiation. The atmosphere works in much factor (Ctl)for the observed temperature and
gravity compensator n: a double index the same way as the glass panes of a API gravity, relative density, or density to a
scale against which a fixed reference pointer greenhouse. standard temperature such as 60F or 15C,
may be moved to correct for variations in greensand n: a sand that contains and also corrected by the applicable
gravity from a base point computed for water considerable quantities of glauconite, a pressure correction factor (Cpl) and meter
at 60F. The compensator is marked in both greenish mineral composed of potassium, factor.
specific gravity and API gravity units. iron. and silicate, which gives the sand its gross standard weight (GSW) n: the total
gravity differentiaI n: the difference in colour and name. weight of all petroleum liquids and sediment
density between the water and the oil in an Grem vane wheel (GVW) n: a free-running and water (if any), excluding free water. It is
oilfield emulsion. The greater the gravity propeller mounted on or near the shaft- determined by applying the appropriate
differential. the easier it is to break the driven main propeller of a ship or tanker weight conversion factors to the gross
emulsion. ship. The Grem vane wheel turns like a standard volume.
gravity drainage n: the movement of fluids windmill because of the high-speed flow of gross tonnage n: the interior capacity of a
in a reservoir resulting from the force of water created by the main propeller. A GVW ship or a mobile offshore drilling unit. The
gravity. In the absence of an effective water improves efficiency and thus can increase a capacity is expressed in tons, although the
or gas drive. gravity drainage is an important ship's speed without additional power. actual measurement is in volume, 1 ton
source of energy to produce oil. and it may grief stem n: (obsolete) kelly; kelly joint. being equivalent to 100 cubic feet of volume.
also supplement other types of natural drive. grinding and buffing n: in pipeline This rule holds for measuring ship capacity
Also called segregation drive. construction, the process of cleaning pipe for US maritime purposes. All principal
gravity segregation n: the tendency of ends of dirt. rust, mill scale, or solvent to maritime governments have their own rules
reservoir fluids to separate into distinct prepare them for welding. Grinding and describing how tonnage is to be measured.
layers according to their respective buffing tasks are accomplished with power gross volume n: the total amount of liquid in
densities. For example. water is heavier than hand tools such as wire brushes and buffers. a storage tank excluding any adjustments for
oil; therefore. water injected during water grind out v: to test for the presence of water S&W, temperature, or density. Compare net
flooding will tend to move along the bottom in oil by use of a centrifuge. volume.
portion of a reservoir. grind-out machine n: see centrifuge. gross wet gas withdrawal n: full well
gravity survey n: an exploration method in grip n: see wire rope grip. stream volume, including all natural gas
which an instrument that measures the grn abbr: green; used in drilling reports. plant liquid and nonhydrocarbon gases, but
intensity of the earth's gravity is passed over GRN abbr: gamma-ray-neutron (a well log). excluding lease condensate. Also includes
the surface or through the water. In places groove n: 1. the depression in a sheave amounts delivered as royalty payments or
where the instrument detects stronger-or (pulley) into which wire rope seats as the consumed in field operations.
weaker-than-normal gravity forces. a wire rope moves over the sheave. 2. on a gross working interest n: a working-
geologic structure containing hydrocarbons draw- works drum, one of several interest owner's total ownership in
may exist. depressions on the surface of the drum production, before deduction of related
Gray valve n: see inside blowout preventer: around which the wire rope drilling line is royalty, overriding royalty, or production
graywacke n: a sandstone that contains wrapped. The grooves keep the wire rope payment interests.
more than 15 percent silt and clay. and from wrapping unevenly across the drum. ground anchor n: see deadman.
whose grains tend to be angular and poorly groove radius n: in measuring grooves of a ground bed n: in cathodic protection, an
sorted. sheave, the radius of a circle that fits inside interconnected group of impressed-current
grease fitting n: a device on a machine that a groove. Used to determine wear on wire anodes that absorbs the damage caused by
is designed to accept the hose of a grease rope. generated electric current.
gun so that grease can be added to the part gross energy Consumption n: total energy ground block n: a wireline sheave, or
in need of lubrication. use, including electrical system energy pulley, that is fastened to the ground anchor
grease injector n: a surface device used in losses. and that changes a horizontal pull on a wire-
pressure control for slickline. See also gross beating value n: the number of kilo- line to a vertical pull (as in swabbing with a
lubricator. joules (Btu 's) evolved by the complete derrick over a well). See block.
grease sample n: sample obtained by combustion, at constant pressure, of 1
scooping or dipping a quantity of soft or standard cubic metre of gas, with all of the
semi-liquid material, such as grease. from a water formed by the comoostion reaction
package so that the material on the scoop or being condensed to the liquid state.
dipper is representative of the material in the gross meter throughput n: the indicated
package. throughput corrected only for meter
greasing out n: when essentially water- performance (i.e., by multiplying by the
insoluble greasy materials (e.g., emulsifiers. meter factor).
lubricants) separate out of drilling fluids. gross observed volume (GOV) n: the total
great circle n: the path on the surface of a volume of all petroleum liquids and sediment
sphere-type tank defined by the intersection and water, excluding free water. at observed
of a plane surface and including the centre temperature and pressure.
of the sphere. Compare equatorial gross production n: the total production of
circumference. oil from a well or lease during a specified
green gas n: raw. untreated gas; gas as it period of time.
leaves the well and before it enters any field gross standard volume (GSV) n: the total
or other treating facilities. volume of all petroleum liquids and sediment
greenhouse effect n: a process whereby and water, excluding free water, corrected
the earth's atmosphere retains long-wave by the appropriate temperature correction
ground pressure 91 gunk squeeze

gyroprobes, which are sensitive to drift and Gulf Stream n: warm ocean current that
ground pressure n: see geostatic pressure. bearing; and sonar. Lasers are also used to flows north from the Gulf of Mexico along the
groundwater n: water that seeps through soil guide crossing. eastern US coast to an area off the south-
and fills pores of underground rock guide base n: see permanent guide base, eastern coast of Newfoundland.
formations; the source of water in springs temporary guide base.
and wells. guide fossil n: the petrified remains of
grout n: a motar-like material used to seal plants or animals, useful for correlation and
between objects. v: to force sealing material age determination of the rock in which they
into a soil, sand. or rock formation to were found.
stabilise it. guideline n: on a spinning chain, a piece of
growth fault n: an active fault that continues fiber rope (soft line) that is attached to the
to slip while sediments are being de- end of the chain that is wrapped around the
posited. causing the strata on the tool joint. When the makeup cathead pulls
downthrust side to be thicker than those on the chain off the drill pipe, a rotary helper
the other side. Also called rollover fault. uses the guideline to control the chain's
guidelines n pl: lines, usually four, attached gum n: any hydrophilic plant
to the temporary guide base and permanent polysaccharides or their derivatives that.
guide base to help position equipment (such when dispersed in water. swell to produce a
as blowout preventers) accurately on the viscous dispersion or solution. Unlike resins,
seafloor when a well is drilled offshore from they are soluble in water and insoluble in
a floating vessel. alcohol.
guide pole n: a device, usually in the form gumbo n: any relatively sticky formation
guaranteed royalty n: the minimum amount
of a cylindrical vertical tube, used in floating (such as clay) encountered in drilling.
of royalty income a royalty owner is to
roof tanks to prevent rotation of the roof. gun barrel n: a settling tank used to
receive under the terms of the lease
guide rails n pl: on some top drives, the separate oil and water in the field. After
agreement, regardless of the royalty owner's
steel tracks on which the top-drive unit emulsified oil is heated and treated with
share of actual proceeds from the sale of
travels up and down when the driller raises chemicals, it is pumped into the gun barrel,
production. guard n: a metal shield placed
or lowers the traveling block. The rails also where the water settles out and is drawn off,
around moving parts of machinery to lessen
keep the unit from turning when its motor and the clean oil flows out to storage. Gun
or avoid the chance of injury to personnel. In
rotates the drill stem. Compare torque track, barrels have largely been replaced by
the oilfield, guards are used on equipment
torque tube. See also top drive. unified heater-treater equipment, rot are still
such as belts, power transmission chains,
guide ring n: a cylindrical metal ring used to found, especially in older or marginal fields.
drums, flywheels, and drive shafts.
guide packers past casing obstructions. Also called a wash tank.
guard-electrode log n: a focused system
guide shoe n: 1. a short, heavy, cylindrical GuniteTM n: trade name for a cement-sand
designed to measure the true formation
section of steel filled with concrete and
resistivity in well bores filled with salty mud. mixture used to seal pipe against air,
rounded at the bottom, which is placed at moisture, and corrosion damage.
Current is forced by guard electrodes to flow
the end of the casing string. It prevents the gunk n: the collection of dirt, paraffin, oil,
into the formation. Also called Laterolog N.
casing from snagging on irregularities in the mill scale, rust, and other debris that is
guardian n: person appointed by a court of
borehole as it is lowered. A passage cleaned out of a pipeline when a scraper or
competent jurisdiction for the purpose of
through the centre of the shoe allows drilling a pig is put through the line.
managing property and rights for another
fluid to pass up into the casing while it is gunk plug n: a slurry in crude or diesel oil
person who is considered incapable of
being lowered and allows cement to pass containing any of the following materials or
managing for himself or herself-for example,
out during cementing operations. Also combinations: bentonite, cement. attapulgite,
a minor child, a mentally ill person, or
called casing shoe. 2. a device, similar to a and guar gum (never with cement). Used
someone judged mentally incompetent.
casing shoe, placed at the end of other primarily in combating lost circulation.
guardrail n: a railing for guarding against
tubular goods. gunk slurry n: a mixture of diesel oil and
danger or trespass. On a drilling or workover
rig, for example, guardrails are used on the bentonite that is sometimes used to seal a
rig floor to prevent persons from falling; lost circulation zone.
guardrails are also installed on the mud pits gunk squeeze n: a bentonite and diesel oil
and other high areas where there is any mixture that is pumped down the drill pipe
danger of falling. and into the armulus to mix with drilling moo.
guar gum n: a naturally occurring The stiff. puttylike material is squeezed into
hydrophilic polysaccharide derived from the lost circulation zones to seal them.
seed of the guar plant. The gum is
chemically classified as a galactomannan.
Guar gum slurries made up in clear fresh or
brine water possess pseudoplastic flow
guidance system n: in pipeline
construction, the means by which a river Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) n:
crossing stays on course. Frequently association of Persian Gulf nations-Bahrain,
computerised, guidance systems may be Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, Saudi Arabia, United
based on information gathered by Arab Emirates-formed to defend themselves
pendulums, which determine inclination; collectively against aggression.
gun-perforate 92 gyroscopic surveying instrument

guyed-tower platform rig n: a compliant

gun-perforate v: to create holes in casing offshore drilling platform used to drill
and cement set through a productive development wells. The foundation of the
formation. A common method of completing platform is a relatively lightweight jacket on
a well is to set casing through the oil-bearing which all equipment is placed. A system of
formation and cement it. A perforating gun is guy wires anchored by clump weights helps
then lowered into the hole and fired to secure the jacket to the seafloor and allows
detonate high-powered jets or shoot steel it to move with wind and wave forces. See
projectiles (bullets) through the casing and platform rig.
cement and into the pay zone. The formation guying system n: the system of guy lines
fluids flow out of the reservoir through the and anchors used to brace a rig.
perforations and into the wellbore. See jet- guy line n: a wireline attached to a mast,
perforate, perforating gun. derrick, or offshore platform to stabilise it.
See load guy line. wind guy line.
guy line anchor n: a buried weight or
anchor to which a guy line is attached. See
guy wire n: a rope or cable used to steady a
mast or pole.
GVW abbr: Grem vane wheel. gyp n: (slang)
gypsum n: a naturally occurring crystalline
fom1 of calcium sulphate in which each
molecule of calcium sulphate is combined
with two molecules of water. See anhydrite.
calcium sulphate.
gyroscope n: a wheel or disk mounted to
spin rapidly about one axis but free to rotate
gun the pits v: to agitate the drilling fluid in about one or both of two axes perpendicular
a pit by means of a mud gun, electric mixer, to each other. The inertia of the spinning
or agitator. wheel tends to keep its axis pointed in one
gunwale n: the intersection of the deck direction regardless of how the other axes
plating with the side shell plating on a ship. are rotated.
gusher n: an oilwell that has come in with gyroscopic surveying instrument n: a
such great pressure that the oil jets out of device used to detem1ine direction and
the well like a geyser. In reality, a gusher is angle at which a wellbore is drifting off the
a blowout and is extremely wasteful of vertical. Unlike magnetic surveying
reservoir fluids and drive energy. In the instruments, a gyroscopic instrument reads
early days of the oil industry, gushers were true direction and is not affected by
common and many times were the only magnetic irregularities that may be caused
indication that a large reservoir of oil and by casing or other ferrous metals. See
gas had been struck. See blowout. directional drilling, directional survey.
handling costs n pi: see marketing costs. hard banding n: a special wear-resistant
handrail n: a railing or pipe along a passage- material often applied to tool joints to
H sym: henry. way or stair that serves as a support or a prevent abrasive wear to the area when the
h abbr: hour. guard. pipe is being rotated downhole.
HCN form: hydrogen cyanide. hand-tight coupling n: a coupling screwed hardfacing n: an extremely hard material,
H2S form: hydrogen sulphide. onto casing tight enough so that a wrench usually crushed tungsten carbide, that is
H2S trim n: see trim. must be used to remove it. applied to the outside surfaces of tool joints,
H2SO3 form: sulphurous acid. handy n: a connection that can be drill collars, stabilisers, and other rotary
H2SO4 form: sulphuric acid. unscrewed by hand. drilling tools to minimise wear when they are
habendum clause n: the clause in an oil hanger n: see casing hanget; tubing hanger. in contact with the wall of the hole.
and gas lease that fixes the duration of the hanger-packer n: a device that fits around hard hat n: a hard plastic helmet worn by
lessee's interest in both a primary and a the top of a string of casing or a string of oilfield workers to minimise the danger of
secondary term. Also called tenrm clause. tubing and supports part of the weight of the being injured by falling objects.
half-cell n: a single electrode immersed in casing or tubing while providing a pressure- hard shut in n: in a well-control operation,
an electrolyte for the purpose of measuring tight seal. See hanger, packer. closing the BOP without first opening an
metal-to-electrolyte potentials and. therefore. alternate flow path up the choke line. When
the corrosion tendency of a particular the BOP is closed, pressure in the annulus
system. cannot be read on the casing pressure
half-life n: the amount of time needed for gauge.
half of a quantity of radioactive substance to hard water n: water that contains dissolved
decay or transmute into a nonradioactive compounds of calcium, magnesium, or both.
substance. Half-lives range from fractions of Compare soft water.
seconds to millions of years. harmful quantity n: any quantity that
half mule shoe n: a cutoff pup joint below a produces a sheen, sludge, film, or
packer that is used as a fluid entry device discoloration of the surface water in
and a seal assemblies guide. navigable US waters.
half siding n: the flat. horizontal section of harmonic motion n: a periodic motion with
the bottom shell plating measured from the a single frequency or amplitude or one that
centerline of the vessel to the edge of the is composed of two or more such motions.
flat keel plate. hatch n: I. an opening in the roof of a tank
halite n: rock salt (NaCI). through which a gauging line may be
hammer n: tool used to drive the conductor hanger plug n: a device placed or hung in lowered to measure its contents. 2. the
pipe into the ground. The single-acting the casing below the blowout preventer opening from the dock into the cargo space
diesel is the most popular. as it has the most stack to form a pressure-tight seal. of ships.
foot -pounds of energy for the weight of the hawser n: a rope, usually of large diameter,
Pressure is then applied to the blowout
hammer. Other types of hammer include preventer stack to test it for leaks. used to moor or tow marine vessels.
impact and vibrating. hay n: excelsior, used in emulsion treating to
hanging wall n: the rock surface forming the
hammer drill n: a drilling tool that, when encourage coalescence.
upper side of a fault when the fault plane is
placed in the drill stem just above a roller hay pulley n: a pulley that is normally
not vertical-that is, if the dip is less than 90".
cone bit, delivers high-frequency percussion attached to the wellhead at a convenient
Compare footwall.
blows to the rotating bit. Hammer drilling place for the wireline to pass through as it
hangline n: a single length of wire rope
combines the basic features of rotary and comes from the stuffing box sheave before
attached to the crown block by which the
cable-tool drilling (i.e.. bit rotation and being spooled onto the wireline reel. The
travelling block is suspended when not in
percussion). hay pulley prevents any lateral force from
use. Also called a hang-off line.
hammer-drill v: see hammer drill. being exerted on the lubricator and the
hang off v: to close a ram blowout preventer
hammering-up n: connection of treating line wellhead.
around the drill pipe when the annular
during well servicing. from pump trucks to hayrack n: (obsolete) a rack used to hold
preventer has previously been closed to off-
the tree or wellhead. pipe on a derrick; a fingerboard.
set the effect of heave on floating offshore
hammer test n: a method of locating hayrake n: see hayrack.
rigs during well-control procedures.
corroded sections of pipe by striking the pipe
hang-offline n: see hangline.
with a hammer. When struck, a corroded
hang rods v: to suspend sucker rods in a
section resounds differently from a
derrick or mast on rod hangers rather than to
noncorroded section.
place them horizontally on a rack.
hand n: a worker in the oil industry,
HAP abbr: hazardous airborne pollutant.
especially one in the field.

hay section 94 heading

government authorities in regard to site appearing on a label or other appropriate

hay section n: a section of a heater or a activities. form of warning that convey the hazard(s) of
heater-treater that is filled with fibrous hazardous materials technician level n: a the chemical(s) in the container(s).
material through which oil and water training level achieved by any employee who HAZCOM abbr: Hazard Communication
emulsions are filtered. has been HAZWOPER trained to take an Standard.
Hazard Communication Standard (HAZ- offensive role in emergency response. HAZMAT abbr: hazardous material.
COM, "CS, or the "Employee Right to Technicians are trained to take certain HAZMAT team n: the designated and
Know") n: an OSHA standard that actions that deal directly with stopping a trained personnel who respond to hazardous
guarantees employees the right to know release, such as approaching the point of material incidents.
about chemical hazards on the job and how release to plug, patch, or otherwise stop the HAZWOPER abbr: Hazardous Waste
to protect themselves from those hazards. release. 0perations and Emergency Response
Under HAZCOM, all manufacturers and hazardous substance n: 1. any substance Standard.
employers must prepare a written hazard designated under CWA or CERCLA as HBP abbr: held by production; commonly
communication program; prepare a list of all posing a threat to waterways and the used in land departments.
hazardous materials in the workplace; label environment when released. 2. (CERCLA) HCN form: hydrogen cyanide. H-crossover
all containers of hazardous materials in the any substance designated in 40 CFR 302. n: circulating member with integrallanding
workplace; collect and maintain a material hazardous waste n: 1. any solid waste nipples.
safety data sheet (MSDS) for each ("solid" includes any solid, liquid, semi-solid, HCS abbr: Hazard Communication
hazardous material present in the work- or contained gaseous material) resulting Standard.
place; and provide employee training on from industrial, commercial, mining, or head n: 1. the height of a column of liquid
specific topics related to hazardous agricultural operations, or from community required to produce a specific pressure. See
substances. activities, that meets certain characteristics hydraulic head. 2. for centrifugal pumps, the
hazardous adj: involving or exposing one to of hazard (i.e., ignitable, corrosive, reactive, velocity of flowing fluid converted into
risk. The lists of material or waste that are toxic) or that is listed as a waste from pressure expressed in feet or metres of
considered hazardous vary from agency to specific or nonspecific sources or that is a flowing fluid. Also called velocity head. 3.
agency and from regulation to regulation: listed commercial chemical product or that part of a machine (such as a pump or
hazardous materials in transport are manufacturing intermediate that is an engine) that is on the end of the cylinder
regulated by DOT; hazardous substances in sometimes discarded. 2. (RCRA) discarded opposite the crankshaft. Also called cylinder
the workplace are regulated by OSHA; materials regulator by the EPA because of head.
hazardous waste is regulated under EPA's public health and safety concerns. 3. headache n: (slang) the position in which
RCRA; toxic substances are regulated under (HAZWOPER) a waste or combination of the mast on a mobile rig is resting
EPA's TSCA; hazardous air pollutants are wastes as defined in 40 CFR 261.3, or those horizontally over the driver's cab.
regulated under EPA's CAA; and so on. The substances defined as hazardous wastes in headache post n: the post on cable-tool rigs
hazardous list for that regulation is tailored 49 CFR 171.8.3. (CERCLA) those wastes that supports the end of the walking beam
to that purpose. listed in 40 CFR 261.3. when the rig is not operating.
hazardous airborne pollutant (HAP) n: hazardous waste generator n: an operator header n: a chamber from which fluid is
(CAA) air emissions that are immediately that produces hazardous or acute hazardous distributed to smaller pipes or conduits, e.g.,
hazardous to human health or that cause waste. If the quantity of waste exceeds EPA a manifold.
cancer, gene mutation, or reproductive minimum's under RCRA, the operator must head gasket n: a thin piece of material
harm. Due to its harmful nature, the obtain a generator identification number and made of cork or other similar material placed
allowable emission of a hazardous airborne must meet other RCRA requirements. The between an engine's cylinder head and
pollutant is much lower than that for a hazardous waste generator must place engine block. It seals between the head and
conventional, or criteria, pollutant. hazardous wastes in proper containers; label block, and flexes to maintain the seal as the
hazardous chemical n: 1. (OSHA) (HAZ- the containers; ensure safe handling of the head and block expand at different rates
COM) any chemical that is a physical hazard material; manifest shipments to licensed with changes in engine temperature.
or a health hazard. 2. (SARA) any disposal sites; and report discrepancies in headgate n: the gate valve nearest the
hazardous chemical as defined under 29 waste shipments to the EPA. pump or compressor on oil or gas lines.
CFR 1910.1200(c), except those that are hazardous waste manifest n: a document heading n: intermittent flow of fluid from a
regulated by other agencies or laws. that identifies the waste and all parties well.
hazardous materials (HAZMAT) n pi: responsible for it while it is being shipped.
(DOT) substances or materials in quantities Hazardous Waste Operations and
or forms that may pose an unreasonable risk Emergency Response Standard
to health, safety, or property when stored, (HAZWOPER) n: an OSHA standard that is
transported, or used in commerce. concerned primarily with worker safety in
hazardous materials specialist level n: a emergency response situations.
training level achieved by any employee who HAZWOPER requires employers to protect
has been HAZWOPER trained to assist and the safety and health of three specific
support a hazardous materials technician in groups of workers: those involved in
making certain emergency action decisions. emergency response or cleanup at
The duties of hazardous materials hazardous waste sites; those involved in
specialists parallel those of the technician, emergency response at treatment, storage,
but require a more directed or specific and disposal (TSD) sites; and those involved
knowledge of the various substances they in emergency response to incidents
may be called on to contain. The hazardous involving hazardous substances.
materials specialist also acts as the site hazard warning n: (OSHA) any words,
liaison with federal, state, local, and other pictures, symbols, or combination thereof
headlog 95 heavyweight drill pipe

around or strapped to a pipeline or valves for copper, and cadmium, especially one that is
headlog n: in river craft of rectangular heating. toxic to organisms.
shape, the structural member at the extreme heating coils n pi: (marine) a system of heavy oil n: oil composed mainly of heavy
end between the rake shell plating and the piping in tank bottoms in which steam is ends.
deck. carried as required to heat high pour-point heavy-walled drill pipe n: drill pipe that is
head meter n: 1. a constriction placed in a liquid cargoes to pumpable viscosity level. manufactured with walls that are thicker than
closed conduit of flowing fluid. 2. a flow- heating medium n: a material, whether those in standard drill pipe. Special
meter that depends on pressure head flowing or static, used to transport heat from extnilength tool joints are attached to the
change to operate. a primary source such as combustion of fuel heavier-walled tube. lYPically, 5-inch heavy
head room n: in crane operations, the to another material. Heating oil and steam wall ,.drill pipe weighs50 pounds per foot (75
vertical distance the crane can hoist a load are examples of heating mediums. Also kilograms per metre); 5-inch conventional
before it strikes an obstruction. called heat medium. drill pipe weighs 19.5 pounds per foot (29
head well puller n: crew chief. heating value n: the amount of heat kilograms per metre). Also attached to the
health hazard n: (OSHA) the potential developed by the complete combustion of a tube is a centre wear pad that protects the
human health hazard associated with unit quantity of a material. Also called heat outside diameter of the pipe from abrasion.
contact with materials or substances. A of combustion. Heavy wall pipe is often used in the drill
chemical that is listed as a health hazard is a heat medium n: see heating medium. stem just above the drill coilars, in the
chemical for which there is statistically heat of combustion n: see heating value. transition zone between the stiffer collars
significant evidence based on at least one heat of hydration n: heat generated when and the more limber drill string, and in place
study conducted in accordance with cement is mixed with water to form a slurry. of some drill collars to apply weight on the
established scientific principles that acute or Also called heat of reaction or heat of drill bit in smalliameter and horizontal holes.
chronic health effects may occur in exposed solution. Sometimes erroneously called heavyweight
employees. heat of reaction n: see heat of hydration. drill pipe. Compare heavy- weight drill pipe.
health, safety, and environment n: a heat of solution n: see heat of hydration.
phrase covering a company's concern for heat of vaporisation n: the quantity of
the health and safety of its employees, as energy required to evaporate 1 mole of a
well as the environment in which they work. liquid at constant pressure and temperature.
heat a connection v: to loosen a collar or heat pump n: an electric heater that is
other threaded connection by striking it with similar to an air conditioner. It heats and
a hammer. Also called warm a connection or cools from a single system by reversing the
whip a connection. flow of gas from the compressor to coils.
heat checking n: a condition that occurs heave n: the vertical motion of a ship or a
when the cutters of a bit drag on a formation floating offshore drilling rig.
and become very hot because of friction and heave compensator n: a device that moves
then are cooled by the drilling fluid; the rapid with the heave of a floating offshore drilling
cooling causes small cracks (heat checks) to rig to prevent the bit from being lifted off the
develop. bottom of the hole and then dropped back
heater n: container or vessel enclosing an down (i.e., to maintain constant weight on
heavyweight additive n: a substance or
arrangement of tubes and a firebox in which the bit). It is used with devices such as
material added to cement to make it dense
an emulsion is heated before further bumper subs. See motion compensator.
enough for use in high-pressure zones.
treating, or in which natural gas is heated in
Sand. barite. and hematite are some of the
the field to prevent the formation of hydrates.
substances used as heavyweight additives.
heater-treater n: a vessel that heats an
heavyweight drill pipe n: drill pipe that is
emulsion and removes water and gas from
like conventional drill pipe except that it is
the oil to raise it to a quality acceptable for a
manufactured with a thicker wall, which in-
pipe- line or other means of transport. A
creases its weight and tensile strength. For
heater- treater is a combination of a heater,
example. five-inch lEU grade E75 standard-
free- water knockout, and oil and gas
weight drill pipe weighs 19.5 pounds per foot
(29 kilograms per metre). while five- inch
lEU grade E75 heavyweight drill pipe weighs pounds per foot (38.4 kilograms per
heaving n: the partial or complete collapse metre). Heavyweight drill pipe is placed in
of the walls of a hole resulting from internal the top of the string to support a very long
pressures due primarily to swelling from string of pipe. Heavyweight drill pipe may be
hydration or formation gas pressures. See used in the drill stem when high-tensile
strength drill pipe is required hit high-grade
heavy ends n pi: 1. the parts of a steel cannot be used because of the high-
hydrocarbon mixture that have the highest grade steel's susceptibility to hydrogen
embrittlernent, which is a form of corrosion