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ECONOMICS OF PROCESSING CASSAVA INTO GARRI AND PELLETS

IN KOGI STATE, NIGERIA

By

INYADA, ALADI EVELYN


PG/M.Sc/08/48699

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA

DECEMBER, 2014
i
TITLE PAGE

ECONOMICS OF PROCESSING CASSAVA INTO GARRI AND PELLETS


IN KOGI STATE, NIGERIA

A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL


ECONOMICS, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF MASTERS OF SCIENCE (M.Sc)
DEGREE IN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS.

By

INYADA, ALADI EVELYN


PG/M.Sc/08/48699

DECEMBER, 2014
ii

CERTIFICATION

INYADA, Aladi Evelyn, a postgraduate student in the Department of Agricultural

Economics, with registration number PG/M.Sc/08/48699 has satisfactorily completed the

requirements for the award of Degree of Masters of Science (M.Sc) in Agricultural

Economics. The work embodied in this dissertation, except where duly acknowledged, is an

original work and has not been previously published in part or full for any other diploma or

degree of this or any other University.

------------------------ --------------- ------------------------------ ---------------


Prof. E. C. Okorji Date Prof. S.A.N.D. Chidebelu Date
(Supervisor) (Head of Department)

----------------------------------
External Examiner
iii
DEDICATION

This research work is dedicated to my father Elder Mark Amek-Ochani Inyada (of blessed
memory) whose value for education has made me to come this far.
iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

My profound gratitude goes to Professor E. C Okorji who I am extremely fortunate

to have as a supervisor and an academic father. I am not sure you know how much you

have blessed my life. Thank you for encouraging me to think and spurring me to work.

I wish to sincerely appreciate the Head of Department Prof. S.A.N.D. Chidebelu,

Prof. C. J. Arene, Prof. N. J. Nweze, Prof. (Mrs) A. I. Achike, Prof. E. C. Eboh; Dr. A. A.

Enete, Dr. F. U. Agbo, Dr. Ben Okpupara, Dr. E. Amaechina and other academic staff of

the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka for their

constructive suggestions at proposal and seminar stage which had further helped a great

deal to sharpen the focus of the study. I am indeed indebted to Ms Blessing, Mrs.

Romaine, Sister Ifeanyi and other non-teaching staff of the Department of Agricultural

Economics for their unalloyed cooperation and support at all times of need. The

immeasurable contributions of my friends Francisca Okoye, Amusa Taofeeq Ade and my

M.Sc classmates too numerous to mention are sincerely appreciated.

To Pharm. Ken Oche Ameh and Mr. Sonnie Eleojo C. Ameh my husbands, I love

you. To my beloved neighbour in whom I am well pleased and friends who went beyond

the call of friendship, I am very grateful for being there all the time. To God Almighty

who in his infinite mercy qualified me to be among the qualified, I am forever indebted.

Inyada Aladi Evelyn


University of Nigeria, Nsukka
December, 2014
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Table of Contents v

List of Tables vii

List of Figures viii

Abstract ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Background Information 1

1.2 Problem Statement 4

1.3 Objectives of the Study 6

1.4 Hypotheses 6

1.5 Justification of the Study 6

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 8

2.1 Importance of Processing 8

2.2 Cassava products 10

2.3 Cassava utilization 12

2.4 Cassava processing techniques 13

2.5 Gender roles in cassava processing 18

2.6 Constraints in cassava processing 20

2.7 Theoretical framework 22

2.8 Review of empirical studies 24

2.9 Analytical framework 28


vi
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 32

3.1 Study Area 32

3.2 Sampling Procedure 33

3.3 Data Collection 33

3.4 Data Analysis 34

3.4.1 Likert Rating Scale Technique 34

3.4.2 Gross Margin Analysis 34

3.4.3 Multiple Regression Model 36

3.4.4 Student t-test 37

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 38

4.1 Socio-Economic Characteristics of the Processors 38

4.2 Technologies in Cassava Processing 42

4.3 Gender Roles/Involvement in Cassava Processing 47

4.4 Socioeconomic Characteristics Influencing Income of the Processors 51

4.5 Profitability of Cassava Processing into Gari and Pellet 54

4.6 Major Constraints Militating against Cassava Processors 57

4.7 Testing of Hypotheses 60

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 62

5.1 Summary 62

5.2 Conclusion 64

5.3 Recommendations 65

REFERENCES 67

APPENDIX A: Questionnaire for Data Collection 75


vii
LIST OF TABLES

Tables
2.1 Frequency Distribution of Men, Women and others in
Cassava Processing (COSCA Study, 1992) 19

4.1 Frequency Distribution of Socioeconomic Characteristics of


the Cassava Processors 41

4.2 Mean Ratings of Various Traditional Technologies Used by


Cassava Processors in Kogi State, Nigeria 44

4.3 Mean Ratings of Various Improved Technologies Used by


Cassava Processors in Kogi State, Nigeria 47

4.4 Mean Comparison of Men and Women Involvement in Cassava


Processing into Garri in Kogi State, Nigeria 49

4.5 Mean Comparison of Men and Women Involvement in


Cassava Processing into Pellets in Kogi State, Nigeria 50

4.6 The Result of Multiple Regression Analysis on the Influence of Socio-


economic Characteristics of the Cassava Processors on Income 53

4.7 Profitability of a Tonne of Cassava Tubers Processed into Garri 55

4.8 Profitability of a Tonne of Cassava Tubers Processed into Pellets 57

4.9 Mean ratings of the Major Constraints Militating against Cassava


Processors in Kogi State, Nigeria 59

4.10 t-test statistics of the involvement of men and women in cassava


processing into garri and pellets 61
viii
LIST OF FIGURES

Figures

2.1 Infinite Elastic Demand Curve of the Cassava Processing Industry 23

4.1 Cassava Peeling by Women Using Kitchen Knife 43

4.2 Dewatering Using Heavy Stones 43

4.3a Cast Iron for Frying Garri 43

4.3b Cast Iron for Frying Garri 43

4.4 Sun-drying Products on Platform 43

4.5 Motorized Grater 45

4.6 Fermentation in Plastic Tank 45

4.7 Screw Jack for Dewatering Grated Cassava 45


ix
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the economics of cassava processing into garri and
pellets in Kogi State. Data were collected from 100 cassava processors (22 males and 78
females) and analysed to describe socio-economic characteristics, identify and describe
various technologies used in cassava processing, ascertain gender roles, estimate the
influence of socio-economic characteristics on income of processors, determine profitability
and identify constraints militating against the processors of cassava in the study area. Multi-
stage random sampling techniques were employed in the selection of local government areas,
communities and processors on who structured questionnaires were administered. Descriptive
statistics, gross margin, rate of return on investment and multiple regressions were used for
analysis. Results shows that majority of the processing fell within the middle age group (31
50 years) with an average years of processing experience of 22 years; mostly women with an
average of 8 persons per household and 7 years of schooling. Traditional technologies were
employed by the cassava processors with low level of mens involvement relative to high
involvement of women in cassava processing activities. Six out of nine explanatory variables
were significantly related to income. These include; age, gender, education, experience,
access to credit and number of labourers in the cassava processing enterprise. Processing
cassava into garri and pellets were profitable, although processing cassava into garri was
more profitable with gross margin of 22,700 and profitable index (PI) of 0.04 than pellets
with gross margin of 13,100 with profitable index (PI) of 0.33. The major constraints facing
the cassava processors in the study area include: poor storage facilities, high cost of
processing inputs, poor road network for the transportation, bulkiness of fresh tubers,
unstable weather and shortage of labour. The study therefore recommended that improved
cassava processing technologies should be made available to the processors to enhance
productivity and acceptability of their products, capacity building of the cassava processors
for their improved profitability in the cassava processing enterprise, regular visits by
agricultural extension agents for quick adoption of improved cassava processing
technologies, stabilization of prices of agricultural commodities through the provision of a
functional marketing channel and provision of storage facilities with good road network for
improved production.
CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Information

The food problems in Nigeria and other developing countries can be reduced or

even eliminated by intensifying agricultural production (Asiedu, 1989). It is based on

this that emphasis of agricultural research for many years has been mainly on

increased food production. One of the crops where considerable increased production

level has been noticed is cassava. Nigeria is the world's largest producer with the total

production of 38 Million tonnes in 2005 (Food and Agricultural Organization, 2006).

The major area where the crop is grown extends from the south coast to the middle

belt (Ogbe, Dixon and Alabi, 2003). By zone, the North Central produces about 7

million tonnes of cassava a year thus ranking first on the per capita basis of 0.72

tonnes/person in 2002 (PCU, 2003). Within the zone Benue and Kogi are the largest

producers of cassava in the country (IITA, 2004).

Cassava was introduced m the republic of Congo from South - America about

400 years back (Nweke, 2004) and it forms the staple part of the diet in many of the

African countries. Since its introduction, it has spread through Sub-Saharan African to

become the dominant staples in the diet of the people. Brazil, Indonesia, Nigeria,

Thailand and Zaire are the biggest producers, each producing over 10 million tones

and together accounting for over 63 percent of World's production (CBN, 2004).

Among the root tuber crops, it ranks first accounting for about 55 percent in the Sub-

Saharan African (Hahn and Keyser, 1995). Cassava became popular with the

introduction of SAP (Structural Adjustment Programme) in 1986. This programme

made imported cereals to be more costly, making cassava a relatively cheap source of
energy. Increasing trends in output has made Nigeria the World leading producer of

cassava since the beginning of the 1990s with an estimated output of 40 million metric

tones per annum and an average yield of 10.2 tonnes per hectare (Nigerian National

Report, 2006). Cassava is uniquely important as a reserve against famine (IITA, 1999;

Philip, 2005) it has gained advantage over yam to some extent due to its ease of

cultivation, high resistance to drought, ability to grow in exhausted soils and its

adaptation to wide range of ecologies (NRCRI, 1986). According to Enete (1995),

cassava may in fact hold the key to land use intensification in Africa. Another of its

comparative advantage over other crops is its efficient production of cheap food

energy, its availability all year round as well as its high degree of tolerance to extreme

conditions. According to Nweke, Dixion, Asiedu and Folayan (1994), these qualities

contribute enormously to alleviating food crises in Africa.

After harvest, cassava roots are processed to stop physiological and microbial

spoilage, reduce the cynogenic glucoside content and convert the roots to other

products that are more acceptable (Asiedu, 1989). Major products derived from

cassava are garri, akpu, starch, flour and abacha and other cassava based products.

Garri is one of the products of cassava consisting of gelatinized and dried

cassava particles. It is creamy white or yellow depending on the type of cassava used

or addition of palm oil. It is a convenient product because it has a long sheif life and it

is in a form which is ready to eat. Garri may be soaked in hot or cold water depending

on the type of meal desired and this makes it attractive to urban consumers.
Cassava pellets is obtained in two different methods. First the cassava roots are

peeled, cut into small pieces and left to dry under the sun after spreading them on

rafters or on gathered straws. The dried pieces are later stored in bags; these bags are

often kept on rafters built over a fire place to prevent insect and fungal attack. When

flour is required, the dried cassava pieces are pounded in mortars and taken to the

mills for grinding. The flour so obtained is sieved and ready for use. Second, the fresh

pieces are soaked to ferment and soften. The softened roots are collected and water

pressed out. The fermented pieces are then sundried, collected and stored. When

necessary dried pieces (pellets) are grounded into cassava flour.

There are as many as seventeen forms into which cassava may be processed in

Africa (Hahn, 1989; Gebremeskel, 1989) and the forms into which cassava is

processed and consumed is said to be dependent on cultural food habits, tastes and

preferences of the people.

It is believed that some crops are produced by men and some by women (Ajayi

1995). Over the years women have become a strong productive force in subsistence

agriculture. They are involved in almost all phases of food production and they

execute certain farm operations that are thought to belong to men (Okorji, 1985).

Adegeye, et al (1999) asserted that women are active in the cassava industry and that

they are more predominant in the processing and marketing than the men folk.

Gender is a term associated with roles and responsibility of males and females

in the society. It is the socio-cultural differences between males and females as against

the biological differences (Sinkaiye, 2005). The interrelations of these roles produce a
mutual understanding of each other's capabilities and constraints. The focus of gender

analysis is on the experiences of men and women as the members of the society.

According to the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture, it is a concept used in

social science analysis to look at roles and activities of men and women (IITA,, 1996).

This study concentrated on the processing of cassava into gari and pellets

(flour) being the two most important commodities that are produced from cassava in

commercial quantity in the study area. These two commodities are widely utilized for

human consumption among the different socio-economic groups in contributing

enormously to energy intake of the population of the study area. A survey conducted

by the Kogi Agricultural Development Project (1999) on the processing and utilization

of cassava showed gari and pellets as the most common among the various ethnic

groups. They are consumed in various forms and are also known to be major source of

income for the processors. Among the urban and rural poor these products are known

to be consumed at least once a day. This is in line with Nweke (2004), that in Nigeria

cassava is consumed daily and sometimes more than once a day.

1.2 Problem Statement

The most basic form of malnutrition in the developing countries is the under

consumption of energy and protein known as the protein energy malnutrition (PEM)

and it is a manifestation of household food insecurity (Cabal, 2000). Protein is more

expensive than energy but studies over the last 30 years have showed that the

deficiency in energy is a more serious problem than protein deficiency. A study by


Food and Agriculture Organisation showed that almost all protein requirement are met

while that of energy is lagging behind (FAO, 1999).

Furthermore, the deep population growth in the Sub-Saharan Africa exacerbates

the problem. The sixth world food survey showed a very high population growth rate

with only a slight increase in dietary energy supply (FAO, 1996).

This situation is further aggravated by food losses that occur as a result of

inadequate storage facilities and poor processing technologies. According to the FAO

(1995), poor processing is the major cause of post-harvest losses in the world with

special emphasis on developing countries such as Nigeria and poor processing has

been shown to be associated with inappropriate technologies. Current research

emphasis should therefore be conducted to assess appropriate technology for

increasing food availability. Studies in which cassava processing technologies has

been captured include that of Kolawole, Agbetoye and Ogunlowo (2010) and Odebode

(2008) but economic aspects of cassava processing into various forms were not

captured. Also, Asogwa, Umeh and Ater (2006), Oluwasola (2009) and Ibrahlm

(2009) who carried out a survey on cassava processing excluded the technological

aspect involved in cassava processing. It is also imperative to state that none of the

empirical studies cited above captured gender contributions in cassava processing.

These economic issues constituted the gap that this study aims to fill to estimate

economics of cassava processing into garri and pellets while identifying the cassava

processing technologies in use in the area. Also, gender influence on cassava

processing activities have not yet been analyzed to access involvement of men and

women in the study area which is one of the major concern of this study.
1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to investigate the economics of processing

cassava into gari and pellets in Kogi State.

The specific objectives are to:

(i) describe the socio-economic characteristics of cassava processors;

(ii) identify and describe the various technologies utilized by cassava

processors;

(iii) ascertain the gender roles in cassava processing; '

(iv) estimate the influence of socio-economic characteristics of the processors

on their income.

(v) determine the profitability of processing cassava into gari and pellets;

(vi) identify constraints militating against the processors of cassava in the study

area;

1.4 Hypotheses

1. There is no significant difference between the mean contributions of men and

women in cassava processing activities.

2. There is no significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics of the

processors and their income.

3. Processing cassava into garri and pellets is not profitable.

1.5 Justification of the Study

This research work is necessary as it will guide processors and the potential

processors in the adoption of processing techniques that will make for delivery of high

quality and sustainable quantity of selected cassava products to the consumers.


Knowledge of a more viable technology will also help in the proper allocation and re-

allocation of resources which will enhance efficiency and productivity.

It is hoped that the findings would be a guide to agricultural engineers in the

choice, design and fabrication of tools and equipment suitable and gender specific

thereby reducing drudgery. This study will help processors to understand the costs and

returns accrued to them, how the returns can be improved leading to a better standard

of living thereby alleviating poverty. It will also bring into lime light health

implications and dangers associated with various traditional techniques of cassava

processing.

Finally, the empirical findings and suggestions based on the study will be of

help to policy makers and to interested research scholars as useful reference point.
CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

Processing of crops into forms convenient and acceptable for use is as old as

human history. The various methods of processing food crops came up as a result of

necessity; mainly because some food crops cannot be consumed the way they are

harvested nor be kept long. The dictionary of agriculture defined processing as one of

the marketing services which deal with the conversion of produce into a more finished

condition before sale or consumption (Somani and Tikka, 1994). For the purpose of

this study, related literatures are reviewed under the following sub-headings:

(i) Importance of Processing

(ii) Cassava products

(iii) Cassava utilization

(iv) Cassava processing techniques

(v) Gender roles in cassava processing

(vi) Constraints in cassava processing

(vii) Theoretical framework

(viii) Review of empirical studies

(ix) Analytical framework

2.1 Importance of Processing

Harvesting is the final stage in the process of crop production and marks the
beginning of the process of making the produce useful to individuals and the society.
There are benefits associated with large diversity of processing techniques developed

by the rural dwellers.

Processing permits the productive use crop residues and wastes (Bliek, Alders

and Bayer 1993). Similar findings were reported by other researchers for instance use

of millet stalks for mat making, roof thatching, fence making and even as piths for

toys by children in Niger (Lamara and Feil, 1993; Hopskin and Reardon, 1989).

Increase in the value of crop residues have been reported in Nigeria as most crop

residues are reserved for livestock. This according to Speirs and Olsen (1992) is due to

the gradual loss of grazing ground.

The use of crops that require elaborate processing but have other advantages

have been made possible. Long storage of farm products to provide a more balanced

and diversified food supply through the period of scarcity have been observed (Bliek

et al., 1993). Processing is strategic in expanding markets for perishables (Abott,

1988). For instance cassava processed into other products stores longer. According to

Williams (1979), it is a powerful engine of development as it allows for stability in the

availability of food crops. Improvement in the nutritive value of farm products have

been observed. It improves acceptability, palatability and digestibility of farm

produces (Imo, 1990). This is confirms by Onabolu's (1989) observation that

fermentation enhance riboflavin synthesis. Other benefits include increase in the

market value of crops by refining and preserving them until market prices are higher.
Post-harvest biodegradation and eventual losses have been reduced by

processing (Chinsman and Fiagan, 1987; Akomas, 1989). Losses in this instance

means any change in the availability, edibility, wholesomeness or quality of food that

prevent it from being consumed by people (Bourne, 1977). Appert (1987) reported

that losses may be quantitative: that which can be measured and evaluated; or

qualitative: that which cannot be measured but renders the crop unfit for consumption.

Qualitative losses are subject to the consumers taste and the local traders' judgement

about the appearance, taste, shape, smell, size, flavour and other impurities. The

various processing methods have resulted in the reduction of pesticides residues in

and on crops. Iu a study uuiiuucted by Amelia et al. (1990), chlorpyrifos used in

storing corn and rice was greatly reduced as a result of parboiling the rice and soaking

the corn. Reduction and removal of toxic substances in crops to a level that is no

longer lethal to the consumers have been observed. Hemagglutinin present in

soybeans was eliminated through processing (Coursey, 1973).

2.2 Cassava Products

Cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) is one of the most important staple food

crops grown in tropical Africa. It represents the primary root crop of the Nigerian

rural women farmers and accounts for over 50 percent of carbohydrate intake when

processed into various foods products (FAO, 1989). There are about seventeen forms

into which cassava may be processed in Africa(Hahn,1989; Gebremeskel,1989) and

the forms into which cassava is processed and consumed is said to be dependent on

cultural food habits, tastes and preferences the people. Some cassava products in
Africa include Chikwange (Central Africa), Ntuka (Zaire), Gari (West Africa),

Attieke, Plakali ,Konkonde, (Ivory Coast); Fufu (Nigeria,Ghana and Zaire) These

variety of products has made cassava to be either a primary or secondary staple

through the forest and transition zones of Africa (IITA, 2005).

Cassava pellets

This is obtained in two ways, fresh cassava roots are peeled, washed ,sliced and

sun-dried and stored until when needed. Secondly, the peeled fresh roots are chopped

and soaked in water for about 2-3 days to ferment and soften. The soften roots are

dewatered, sundried and stored.

Gari

This is the most popular cassava product in West Africa. It is obtained by

grating peeled and washed fresh cassava roots into a pulp which is dewatered by

pressing using a screw jack or using heavy stones. It is left for 2-3 days to ferment,

the fermented pulp is then toasted in a pan over fire.

Fufu

This is obtained by boiling peeled fresh cassava roots and pounding in Ghana.

In Nigeria, the peeled are soaked in water to soften for a day or two. The soften roots

is filtered using a colander, water is then pressed out of the filtrate which is steamed

and pounded (akpu).

Starch

Grated cassava pulp is put into a basket covered with a piece of cloth over a

pan or bucket. Water is poured over the basket and starch is washed out through the
cloth into pan.This is repeated until all the starch is removed by rinsing. It is left

overnight and water is poured off in the morning after which is sundried

(Asiedu,1987)

Another method is to put grated pulp in bags and pour enough water over it to

soak the contents. The bags are then sqeezed and a white liquid is expressed, which is

poured into buckets.This process is repeated until the liquid is clear, it is then left to

settle and the supernatant can be poured off. Starch is washed and sun-dried

(Asiedu,1987) and Kwatia (1986).

2.3 Cassava Utilization

Cassava is a very versatile crop with numerous uses. Each of its component is

valuable (Ojekunle, 2010). In the Congo, Madagascar, Sierra Leone, Tanzania and

Zambia, the cassava leaves are consumed as vegetables (Haggablade and Zulu, 2003).

Cassava has numerous uses; the roots are processed for human and industrial

consumption.

Apart from the chips and pellets for animal feed production and the native

starch and flour, other products include modified starch, ethanol. monosodium

glutamate (MSG), glucose, fructose, sorbitol, sago, citric acid, adhesives, syrups,

microbial enzymes, sweeteners etc. In Nigeria, there is high market potential for these

products (RMRDC, 2004). Garri, a roasted granule is the dominant product and is

widely accepted in both rural and urban areas. It can be consumed with or without

additives such as sugar, milk, fish, meat, stew and groundnuts.


Cassava has been criticized in many ways: that it is a women's crop, consumed

only by poor households, depletes soil nutrients, lethal and nutritionally deficient food

(White, 1990). These stigmas are half-truths. The collaborative study of cassava in

Africa in her various studies has revealed that both men and women are involved in

cassava production, processing and marketing. Soils that have been under continuous

cultivation for at least ten years were found to be as fertile as soils of other crops.

Cases of cyanide poisoning from the consumption of cassava are rare. According to

Asiedu (1989), the cynogenic glucoside content are reduced or even eliminated by

processing especially fermentation.

The level of carbohydrate in cassava is an advantage in Africa as cassava plays

a major role in efforts to alleviate the African food crises. The challenges ahead

therefore, is to improve on the processing in order to drive down the best to

consumers, especially the poor (Nweke, 2004).

2.4 Cassava Processing

Although cassava can be left in the ground for some months (six months or

more) Kwatia (1986), Etejere and Ramakrishna (1985), observed that there is need to

process cassava roots within 2-3 days because of its toxicity and perishability.

Onabolu (1988) remarked that only the sweet variety with low cyanide content can be

consumed without elaborate processing. Cassava with high cyanide content requires

3-14 days but most variety produced in Nigeria requires less number of days

(Karunwni and Ezumah, 1988). The forms into which cassava in processed has been
shown to depend on cultural food habits, preferences, taste of the people, variety as

well as age of cassava tubers at harvest (Hahn, 1989; Okorji et al., 1989).

Cassava processing activities are mostly done by women depending on the

region. According to Karunwni and Ezumah (1988), 84 percent of the processors are

women and that gari in many cases is the major product. They further stressed that

cassava processing peak period is between November and March. This view is also

supported by Ekpere et al. (1986). All the processing technologies has fermentation,

grating and boiling as basic steps that notably reduces the HCN of the cassava roots.

Whether it is farinha de mandioca from Brazil, gari from the West and Central Africa

or attieke from the Ivory Coast, there is a clear uniformity existing in the techniques

of preparation and almost identical nature of edible forms.

2.4.1 Development in Cassava Processing Method

Despite the fact that traditional cassava processing methods and techniques

give end products that meet the consumer's quality demands, research on modern

techniques/technologies are still on with the aim of increasing output both in small

and large scale production, minimizing post-harvest losses, labour costs, improving

sanitary conditions (Chinsman and Fiagan, 1987) as well as increasing farm income.

In order to cater for a growing population, reduce the human costs of processing and

minimize the drudgery associated with cassava processing, modern technologies for

cassava processing have been developed for the most arduous and laborious

operations such as peeling, grating, grinding the dry chips and pressing or dewatering

of the grated cassava pulp. Mechanized peeling techniques have been studied and
tested in Nigeria. A batch process abrasion peeling machine has been developed by

Odigbo (1979) and at National Food Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) Umudike.

Nwokedi (1983) reported mechanical cassava peeling efficiency of 80 percent. He

also observed that the operation of the peeling machine requires manual cutting and

trimming of the cassava roots.

Traditionally, it requires that the roots be peeled with knife and washed, with

application of other necessary operations to arrive at the desired end products. These

traditional operations have been criticized as grossly inadequate, inefficient,

laborious, time consuming and only amenable to small scale operation (Odigbo, 1979;

Okanigbe, 1979; Ekpere et al, 1986).

The gari production process has received more attention than any other

processing method (Kwatia, 1986) may be because garification is the most

sophisticated traditional process and product from cassava (Ngody, 1988) and gari is

also the most popular form in which cassava is consumed in West Africa. There are a

number of mechanized cassava graters in many Nigerian villages. The graters may be

owned by men or women but operated by men to whom women processors bring their

cassava for grating.

According to IITA's report (1988), time required to grate 140kg of cassava

tubers can be reduced from six hours (6hrs) to 20 minutes. Okanigbe reported that it

costs about 7 times more to process a ton of cassava by manual methods into gari

than by mechanical method. One processing hour on a machine saves women twenty-

one hours work each week (Ikpi et al., 1986). Dewatering machines are also available
in the market. Traditionally, the grated cassava pulp are packed into bags and heavy

stones and objects are placed on the bags for about 2-3 days during which period

fermentation occurs (Kwatia, 1986). The mechanized versions employ the srrew-tyne

or the hydraulic type press. Usually, the owner of the presses keep them side by side

with the graters in the case where the owners of the mechanical graters cannot afford

the "Jacks" (as the presses are called in the villages).

There are also continuous process gari frying machines. Despite the existence

of metal oven equipped with chimneys and mechanical stiring systems, cassava

processors are stuck with the traditional method of frying (tossing the dewatered pulp

in an open pan), mainly because the frying machine are unaffordable. Women and

children are responsible for almost all activities in cassava processing except for

milling, grating and the presses that often involve the use of machines mainly

operated by men. This is in line with COSCA's (1990) observation that mechanization

of cassava processing activities increased men's participation in cassava processing

activities.

2.4.2 Common Processing Methods

Processing of food into different food products may involve one or a

combination of the following:

i) Grating: This involves the rubbing of the crops being processed against very

rough and sharp surfaces. This produces pulp for further process as in the

processing of cassava into gari (Akomas, 1989) and in the extraction of

milk from coconut (Asiedu, 1989). Grating can also be accomplished

mechanically. According to Kwatia (1986); Chinsman and Fiagan (1987),


mechanical graters are the most significant development in the cassava -

gari process.

ii) Soaking: This is the soaking crops into water 10 soucn it. li is done mostly in

the processing of cassava into flakes (Onabolu, 1989). It is also used in the

process of soybeans into flour, paste, cake, and maize into pap/gruel.

iii) Boiling: In this method, crops are cooked in water for some time as in the

parboiling of rice for milling and yams for yam flour preparation (Kay,

1973); Ihekoronye and Ngody, 1985). Boiling is engaged in the processing

of cassava into abacha.

iv) Peeling: Traditionally, this is accomplished by hand. It involves the removal of

the outer covering of crops for further processes as in yams and cassava.

This also can be accomplished mechanically (Nwokedi, 1983).

v) Roasting: This is a very common method in the cocoa/coffee processing and oil

and butter from peanuts. It involves dry heating the crops until the desired

colour and aroma is achieved. In Nigeria, yams, potatoes, cocoayams and

cassava can be roasted and eaten with palm oil (Asiedu, 1989).

vi) Fermentation: Fermentation caught the attention of food scientists due to

subtle changes that take place in the food crops. These changes are induced by

microorganisms and they include increase in the vitamin content, improvement

of protein digestibility, development of desirable colours and flavours and

elimination of toxic substance (Dirar, 1989; Westby, 1990). This involves

soaking in water or keeping the food crops in warm, wet state for some days

averagely 1 - 3 days (Ugwu and Ay, 1990).


vii) Sundrying: This is the exposure of crops to sun to reduce the moisture

contents to a level that is no longer detrimental to its storage. The process of

drying removes and separates free water from solid matter (Appert, 1987). it is

a key post-harvest operation and almost all processing operation are dependent

on it (El-Shiaty, 1988).

Efforts have been made to circumvent sundrying by mechanical means. The

former, however, still depends on solar intensity and is affected by seasonal variations

while the later though relatively more effective in the technical sense is expensive for the

farmer (Kwatia, 1986).

2.5 Gender Relations in Cassava Processing

Gender relation refers to the social norm and practices that regulate the

relationship between men and women in a given society. Gender relations determine

household security, well being of the family, planning of agricultural activities and many

other aspects of rural life (Frishmuth, 1997). Many studies have shown a clear departure

and a distinctive place of women in all categories of farm operations. Mkpado and Arene

(2003) and Efifu (1999) stated that gender studies in agriculture should analyze the roles

and activities of male and females by focusing on their experiences and not on their

biological differences in a society. This agrees with Sinkaiye (2005) that gender is

associated with roles and responsibility.

An understanding of gender relations in agriculture is necessary as this

understanding will make for efficient allocation of scarce resources (Onyemauwa, et al,

2008). This also is supported by Uzokwe (2009) that the ability to increase production in

developing countries has great gender implication.

In Nigeria, women are involved in agriculture although the range of their activities

varies among ethnic groups. It has been noticed that gender division of labour that
concerns agricultural enterprises is becoming less distinct and women are increasingly

undertaking tasks previously done by men. Crops that are exclusively produced by men

or by women are fewer. The overall agricultural productivity of rural farmers has been

found to be represented by the agricultural productivity of women. Infact, they supply

60-80 percent of agricultural labour force (Okorji, 1993). Another area of women's

contribution to agriculture is post-harvest activities especially processing. Etejere et al.

(1986) estimated that women account for 100 percent of the labour in cassava processing

while COSCA (1992) and IITA (1995) showed that in cassava processing, women

contribute 82 percent of all the labour requirements.

Table 2.1: Frequency Distribution of Men, Women and others in Cassava Processing
(Gender Roles in Cassava Processing).

Subprocess (A) _ (B) Men (C) A/A + B+ C B/A + B+ C Total


Women Others %
Washing 273 2 24 91 1 % 299
Peeling 318 11 60 82 3 389
Soaking 88 6 6 88 6 100
Grating 48 35 16 48 35 99
Milling 44 24 6 59 32 74
Pounding 165 . 5 17 88 3 187
Sieving 187 5 23 87 2 215
Roasting 33 4 7 75 9 44
Sun-drying 179 13 21 84 6 213
Frying 52 3 5 87 5 60
Wrapping 25 0 1 96 0 26
Fermenting in 106 24 26 68 15 156
sacks

Total 1,691 141 232 82% 7% 2,064

Source: COSCA (1992), No 4.


Gender-differentiated processing tasks for all ranked processed products are

summarized in the above table. The table showed that 82 percent of the tasks are

performed by women, with only 7 percent performed mainly by women. It is also

shown from the table that women and children handled peeling, washing, pounding,

roasting, and frying. Men only tend to assume significant responsibility only for tasks

of milling, grating and fermenting in sacks - tasks which often involve the use of

machines. Level of men's participation in cassava processing, is directly proportional

to the level of mechanization (COSCA, 1990). The hypothesis that gender role in

cassava processing tends to change as processing becomes mechanized was accepted

at 0.01 level of significance.

Finally, the role of women in agricultural development has been unduly

acknowledged, implying that the focus of women in development has shifted to

agricultural productivity and efficiency. This justifies FAO (2004) recognition that

the empowerment of women is the key to raising the level of nutrition, improving the

production and distribution of food and agricultural products and enhancing the living

conditions of the rural population. This agrees with IJAERD (2008) that women are

likely to gain proportionally more if investment and development efforts are shifted

iri their favour and that their income reflect more en the quantity and quality of food

consumed by various households.

2.6 Constraints in Cassava Processing

Constraints in cassava processing in Nigeria could be economic, institutional,

socio-cultural, engineering, biological, environmental and agronomic.


2.6.1 Economic Constraints

Various economic constraints limit the processing of cassava in Nigeria.

According to Hahn (1988); Okorji et al. (1989), the constraints includes labour,

capital, price fluctuations, marketing problems and processors' decisions and

objectives.

2.6.2 Socio-cultural Constraints

Cassava is looked upon as food for the poor. On the social attachment of the

crop, Adebayo (1996) reported that not many would like to be identified with the crop

despite the statutory role it plays in the provision of energy in the households.

In a study by Nweke et al. (1992) on the demand for major food items in roots

and tuber based food system, it was found that among the high expenditure

households, elasticity of demand for cassava products combined was less than zero.

2.6.3 Engineering Constraints

The traditional processing techniques characterized by high energy demand,

time consumption and low productivity poses a great problem. According to Ekpere

et al. (1988) the traditional methods of processing consume a lot of energy and time.

2.6.4 Biological Constraints

Cassava roots are toxic and highly perishable. Cassava contains hydro cyanide

(HCN) which is toxic to man and livestock if not properly processed. It is perishable,

has poor storage potentials and deteriorate rapidly due to its high water content. The

irregularity of cassava shapes also poses a challenge in the use of a peeling machine

(Okanigbe, 1979).
2.6.5 Environmental/Agronomic Constraints

The climate differentials is a great challenge in cassava processing in the rainy

season, sunshine and ambient temperatures are very low particularly in the humid

area where cassava in mainly grown and utilized. Cassava roots are easily, harvested

this period, water which is essential for cassava processing is available but the dry

matter contents of cassava roots at this time is relatively low.

In the savannah zones, water becomes scarce, the soil becomes hard and

harvesting becomes difficult and result in loses of cassava roots in the soil.

2.6.6 Institutional Constraints

Inadequate functional extension services/institutions coupled with

poor infrastructural facilities (such as good roads network, dependable power supply

and adequate water supply source and so on) have hindered the increased processing

of cassava in Nigeria.

2.7 Theoretical Framework

The basic theory on which this work could be based is the perfect competition

theory. Processing is part of the production process and cassava processors are

producers of goods (cassava products) and operate under a competitive market

structure.

Perfect Competition Model

This model is characterized by the following:

(a) Large numbers of sellers and buyers. Cassava processing industry has large

members whose products are so small that it represents only a small fraction of the

total market supply. As such no processor can influence the market price of the

products,
(b) The Products are Homogenous

The cassava processing industry is a group of firms that process cassava into

various products. The stages of production are the technical characteristics of the

various products and its sale and delivery are identical. This assumption implies that

processors are price takers. Their demand curve is infinitely elastic, an indication that

the firm can sell any amount of output at the prevailing price. The variations in an

individual firm output does not change the market price. And so the demand curve is

the marginal revenue and average revenue curves.

Price (N)
Demand
Curve

D = MR = AR

Prevailing
Prices P
O Output Y
Fig. 2.1 Infinitely Elastic Demand Curve of the Cassava Processing Industry

(c) Free entry and exit of firms: there is freedom of movement in and out of the

industry. This assumption is supplementary to the assumption of large numbers of

buyers and sellers.

(d) The goal of all the firms in the industry is profit maximization

(e) There are no government regulations in the market (like tariffs and subsidies etc)

(f) There is perfect mobility of factors of production


(g) Perfect knowledge of the conditions of the market.

2.8 Review of Empirical Studies

Kaine (1985) in his study on economic analysis of alternative cassava

processing technology in Delta State, used descriptive statistics which is one of the

standardized analytical tools. He found that 40 percent of the respondents process

cassava for food for the household while 30 percent depended on cassava nrnressina

as means of livelihood. He also found that 60 percent of the respondents used family

and hired labour during process. The result further showed that 40 percent of the

processors were within the bracket of 41 - 50 years and 85 percent were married.

Literacy level was relatively high as 41 percent of the respondent had between 0 and

6 years of formal education. The mean household size was 7 persons and this

constitute the main source of unpaid labour for processing.

Similarly, Ifediora (1993) in her study on an analysis of the role of women in

cassava processing in Owerri Agriculture zone of Imo State also used descriptive

statistics. The results showed that only 18 percent of the women processors depended

on cassava processing as a means of livelihood, mean age of the respondents was 42

years and 95 percent of them were married. Literacy level was relatively low as 67

percent of the respondents had between 0 and 6 years of formal education. Average

household size was 11 persons and this constituted the main source of unpaid labour

for Cassava processing, only 20 percent used hired labour. Eighty five percent of

respondents financed their processing enterprise through personal savings. The


average capital owned per respondent is small, usually less than N1.600. Women

contributed upwards of 80 percent in each processing operation.

Furthermore Ayaru, et al. (1993) in their study used descriptive statistics to

found out that 100 percent of the processors were males whereas 73 percent of the

marketers were females, only 20 percent of the cassava processed were supplied from

the processors owned farms. For manual processing techniques, 70 percent of the

respondents were hired labour. In terms of age, sex, education, occupation, marital

status and experience, the results showed that adult people of mean age of 43 years

were involved in gari processing, female do not invest in gari processing and 92

percent adult females patronized gari processors as customers. Literacy level showed

that 40 percent of the respondents had a minimum of primary education. Only 30

percent processed gari as their primary occupations. 90 percent were married with a

mean number of 6.7 household members and 68 percent had done this processing

business for less than 10 years. Generally, males constituted only 33.6 percent out of

the all respondents who engaged in gari processing, distribution and marketing.

With respect to profit in cassava processing, various economics analysis

carried out by researchers have indicated that cassava processing can be profitable.

For example, Kaine (1995), used net profit margin in his data analysis, by using

5,000kg of cassava tubers as computing quantity for estimating the costs and returns

for one year's production of each product. The results of the net profit margin analysis

showed a decreasing order of net revenue of 3,200.70, 1031.70 and 748 for

abacha, akpu and gari/starch production, respectively. Generally the results showed
that the return was encouragingly reasonable. He also used benefit - cost ratio to find

out that for everyone naira invested in gari/starch, akpu and abacha production result

to the sum of 3 kobo, 4 kobo and 9 kobo profit, respectively. He also estimated the

economics of the different processing technology with partial budgeting technique.

Through the estimation, Kaine (1995) found out that labour cost of 200 naira was

incurred by using the traditional processing technology while a total amount of 300

naira would be lost by using modern technology.

Ifediora (1993) used cost - return analysis for calculating the profit from the

various products discussed using 200kg of cassava tubers processed into each

product. The net revenue for the cassava products was 3,466.14 naira for tapioca,

883.13 naira for akara-akpu, 421.44 naira for akpu while gari/starch gave 240.07

naira. From the net revenue to total cost ratios seems that tapioca production was

more profitable, followed by akara-akpu, gari/starch in that order. She used benefit

cost ratio for sensitivity analysis and the implication of benefit-cost ratio (BCR) is

that for every one naira invested in gari/starch production, akpu, akara-akpu and

tapioca result to 6 kobo, 20 kobo, 3 kobo and 85 kobo profits, respectively. Tapioca

had the largest margin of safety while gari/starch had the least when their net

revenues and costs were subjected to sensitivity analysis. The cassava products were

more sensitive to decrease in prices of their outputs than increase in their cost when

their net revenue and costs were subjected to sensitivity analysis. The relatively low

profit obtained from gan/starch production as well as akpu was probably a reflection

of small capacity of processing cassava tubers.


Similarly, Ayaru, et al. (1993) used cost-return analysis the profitability of gari

processing and marketing in terms of large and small scale industry. The result

showed that net revenue for large scale industry was higher than that of the small

scale firms. Also cost per kilogram (kg) of cassava tubers was higher in small scale

than large scale firms. Though revenue per kg was higher in large scale firms, this

only demonstrate that grater quantity of cassava tubers were processed in the large

scale firms. They discovered that as more quantities of cassava tubers were processed

in the small scale firms, the total cost decreased, thereby increasing the net revenue.

The gross revenue and total cost was also higher in the large scale firms than in the

small scale firms. This implies that as more money was invested into the processing

business in order to produce higher quantity of gari, more profit was made. Further,

profit per hour of labour was also higher in the large scale firms than the small scale

firms. This explains why it is more profitable to work in large scale than in small

scale firms.

However, the profit margin per naira invested in processing business was

higher in small scale than in large scale firms. This was due to the fact that large scale

firms enjoyed economics of scale where by their profit increased with increase in the

quantity of gari production at the least production cost.

Ibrahim (2009), in his study of the economic analysis of cassava in Kogi State

found out that the cassava processing enterprise can be profitable. The mean output of

flour and gari enterprises were 756.6kg and 737.9kg per month. On the average, both

enterprises had an annual net income of 235,245 and 244,599 respectively. Even

though there was a significant difference at 10 percent level of probability between


the mean profits flour and gari, both enterprises were operating within the rational

area of the profit function.

2.9 Analytical Framework

For exploratory studies, means, percentages, charts and frequency distributions


may be adequate, but for case studies and sample surveys involving quantitative a
more detailed analysis is required. Review of relevant literature for this study is
limited to the gross margin, regression, likert rating scale and the chi-square test.
2.9.1 The Likert Rating Scale
The likert rating scale even though it is not an analytical tool per se, Osuala
(1992) observed that it is more likely that a researcher would report the mean score on
a scale. Based on this, the contribution of men and women in cassava processing
(gender roles) was ranked using a weighted mean (X).
All the rating scales can be classified into one of the following four
classifications: the nominal, interval, ordinal and ration levels (Andrich, 1978).
Sometimes a four-point scale is used; this is a forced choice method (Wuensch,
2005). In the case of this study where one of the major Interests is to estimate the
levels of contribution of male and female cassava processors, an ordinal level of 4-
point rating scale is adopted. At the ordinal level, numbers indicate the relative
position of items rather than the magnitude of difference as in the case of nominal,
interval and ratio levels. The 4-point rating scale indicating level of contribution of
men and women in cassava processing in this study is used and named as follows:
Very High Contribution (VHC) = 4
High Contribution (VC) = 3
Low Contribution (LC) = 2
Very Low Contribution (VLC) =
2.9.2 Gross Margin Analysis
The Gross Margin of an enterprise is the difference between gross income
(total revenue) and the total variable cost incurred (Olukosi and Erhabor, 1998). It is
expressed thus:
GM = TR-TVC....................................................................... (1)
Where GM = Gross Margin
TR = Total Revenue
TVC = Total Variable Cost
Variable cost included cost of fresh tubers of cassava, firewood, labour and
condiments while those associated with fixed costs include: frying pans, sieves,
screw-jack, knife etc.
NR 100
RRI = X .. (2)
TC 1

Where: RRI = Rate of Return on Investment


NR = Net Return
TC = Total Costs
Profitability index (PI)
NR
PI= .(3)
TR

Where: PI= Profitability Index


NR =Net Return
TR Total Revenue
Operating Expense Ratio (OR)
TVC
OR= ..(4)
TR

Where: OR= Operating Expense Ration


TVC= Total Variable Cost
TC= Total Revenue
Rate of Return on Variable Cost (RRVC)
TR = TFC 100
x .. (5)
TVC 1

TR= Total Revenue


TFC= Total Fixed Cost
TVC= Total Variable Cost
2.9.4: Regression Analysis
According to Koutsoyiannis, (2001), the primary objective of regression
analysis is to determine the various factors which cause variations of the dependent
variable. It is concerned with the study of relationship between one variable called the
explained or dependent variable and one or more other variables call ed independent
or explanatory variables. Several studies have used regression technique to evaluate
the impact of socio-economic variables on profitability level of fresh clarias fish
production in Egba division of Ogun State, Nigeria. Abang and Agom (2004), used
regression technique to evaluate resource use efficiency of smallholder (cassava)farms
in Crossriver States. Nigeria.
Multiple regression model was fitted to test how a dependent variable Y (income)
of the cassava processors can be explained by some independent variables Xjs
Y =f(X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, +e) . (implicit form)
The explicit form of the model is,
Y=b0 + b1X1 + b2X2 + b3X3 + b4X4 + b5X5 + e ..(explicit form)
Where Y = estimated income of the cassava processors in (N)
X1-Xn = Independent variable
e = Stochastic error term
2.9.5 The Students Test
In studies where two sets of variable effects are to be compared and tested

difference between their means, the students- test is often applied. The formula is

given as follows:

X
t=
S12 S 22
n1 n2

Where:
st
X 1 = Mean of 1 population

nd
X 2 = Mean of 2 population

S12 and S 22 = Variance of the 1st and 2nd population respectively.

n1 and n2 = Sample size of the 1st and 2nd population respectively.


CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.1 Study Area

The study area is Kogi State, North-central Nigeria. It has a population of

3,278,487 comprising 1,691,737 males and 1,586,750 females (National Population

Commission, 2006) with a total land mass of 13,937sq.km. The study was specifically

carried out in the Eastern Senatorial Zone of Kogi State. This is because, the

inhabitants are small holder farmers who major in cassava processing than any other

group in the state. In addition, the bulk of cassava processing into garri and pellets in

the State is carried out in the zone at economic scale. The East Senatorial Zone with a

total population of 1,449,091 (National Population Commission, 2006) lies on

latitudes 702N and 800'N and longitudes 645E and 742'E (KSADP, 1995). It is

bounded by River Benue on the North; River Niger on the West; Anambra and Enugu

States on the South and Benue State on the East.

The eastern senatorial zone consists of two Agricultural Zones. Zone D which

is made up of Idah, Ofu, Ibaji, Igalamela/Odolu Local Government and Zone B which

is made up of Ankpa, Omala, Dekina, Bassa and Olamaboro Local Government areas.

The people are mostly Igalas and Bassas with farming, trading and fishing as their

major occupations. Mixed farming is a very common practice among the farmers. The

major arable crops grown in the area are cassava, yams, maize, sorghum, millet,

pigeon peas, bambara nuts, groundnuts and beans. The common perennial crops are oil

palm, cashew, citrus and kola.


3.2 Sampling Procedure

Multi-stage and random sampling techniques were employed in the selection of

respondents. First, five (5) Local Government Areas were randomly selected out of the

nine (9) Local Government Areas within the two agricultural zones ( zones C and D;

which made Eastern senatorial zone) Secondly, five (5) communities were randomly

selected from each of the five LGAs.

Thirdly, two (2) processing units were randomly selected from each of the

communities giving a total of fifty (50)-processing units. From each of the processing

units, two (2) cassava processors (male and female) were selected for the study. Thus a

total of one hundred (100) processors were interviewed. In a unit where there are no male

processors, two female processors were randomly sampled since majority of cassava

processors in the study area are women.

3.3 Data Collection

Primary data were employed in this study. The primary data were generated by a

team of two well trained enumerators consisting of two village extension agents of the

KADP who joined the researcher making three enumerators using structured

questionnaire for obtaining data from the respondents.

The questions sought information regarding the socio-economic variables of

the respondents, various technologies employed in processing cassava into garri and

pellets, gender issues and problems encountered in the course of processing cassava.

Personal observation was also used as well to complement information generated

through the use of questionnaire.


3.4 Data Analysis

Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, means and percentages were used in

realizing the objectives. Objective i was achieved using frequency, percentage and

mean, Objectives ii, iii and iv were achieved using mean and standard deviation with

4-point rating scale technique. Objective iv was realized using multiple regression

analysis while Objective 5 was analyzed using Gross Margin analysis and Return Per

Naira invested. The student t-test was used to test hypothesis i, chi-square was used to

test hypothesis ii while hypothesis iii was tested using profitability index.

Model Specification

3.4.1 Likert Rating Scale Technique

To ascertain the gender roles in cassava processing, four point likert rating

scale was adopted. The 4-point scale was graded as High Contribution = 4, Moderate

Contribution = 3, Low Contribution = 2 and No Contribution = 1. The level of

contribution was ranked using weighted mean (X).

The mean score is 4+3+2+1 = 10/4 = 2.5 (cut-off point). Therefore, using

the cutoff point value of 2.50, any item with mean value of 2.50 and above was

regarded as "High" while items with mean value of less than 2.50 was regarded as

Low.

3.4.2 Gross Margin Analysis


The profitability of processing cassava into gari and pellets was determined by the

use of Gross Margin Analysis and Return on Variable cost invested. The model is

expressed as:

GM = TR-TVC .......................................................................(1)
Where GM = Gross Margin

TR = Total Revenue

TVC = Total Variable Cost

Variable cost included cost of fresh tubers of cassava, firewood, labour and

condiments while those associated with fixed costs include: frying pans, sieves,

screw-jack, knife etc.

NR 100
x
RRI = TC 1 ......................................................................(2)

Where: RRI = Rate of Return on Investment

NR = Net Return

TC = Total Costs

Profitability Index (PI)

NR
PI TR ........................................................................(3)

Where: PI = Profitability Index

NR = Net Return

TR = Total Revenue

Operating Expense Ratio (OR)

TVC
OR = TR ...........................................................................(4)

Where: OR = Operating Expense Ratio

TVC - Total Variable Cost


TC = Total Revenue
Rate of Return on Variable Cost (RRVC)
TR TFC 100
X ...................................................................................(5)
TVC 1
TR = Total Revenue
TFC = Total Fixed Cost
TVC = Total Variable Cost

3.4.3: Multiple Regression Model

Multiple Regression analysis was adopted to analyze the relationship between

the socio-economic variables of the respondents and output of processed cassava

products in Naira (N). The functional form of the model can be stated implicitly as:

Y= f (X1 X2,X3,X4,X5.........................+ e)..... (Implicit form)

Where Y = Estimated value of output in (N).

X1 = Age of respondents (in years).

X2 = Gender of household head (dummy, male = 1; female = 0.0001).

X3 = Formal education (in years).

X4 = Years of experience in cassava processing (in years).

X5 = Household size (number).

X6 = Ownership of grating machines (1, if owned; 0.0001, if otherwise)

X7 = Access to credits/loans (1, if yes; 0.0001, if otherwise)

X8 = Distance to market ...................................in kilometres

X9 = Number of labour employed ..................... in number

e = Stochastic error term


Three functional forms of the model (linear, semi-log and double) was tried and

the best fit was the double log which represented the lead equation based on the R-

square value and F-ratio. The forms are stated in equations 1 and 2 respectively:

Y = b0 + b1X1 + b2X2+b3X3 + b4X4 + b5X5 + b6X6 + b7X7 +e 1

Y= b0 + b1log X1 + b2log X2 + b3log X3 + b4log X4 +b5log X5 + b6log X6 + b7log X + e.2

3.4.4: Student t-test

The test of significance between two means (t-test) was employed for testing

hypothesis 1, (There is no significant difference between the mean contribution men

and women in cassava processing activities).

The t-test is given by:

X m Xw
t=
S m2 S w2
+
nm nw

Xm -

Mean contribution of men

X w - Mean contribution of women

S m2 - Variance of men's contribution

S w2 - Variance of women's contribution

n m - Number of men respondents

n w -Number of women respondents

S X m X w -Sample standard error of the means

0.05 - Level of significance


CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter deals with the analysis, presentation of data and discussion of

results.

4.1: SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROCESSORS

The socio-economic characteristics of the processors discussed in this section

include gender, age, marital status, level of education, years of processing experience

and household size which are all presented in Table 4.1.

4.1.1: Gender

The result on gender of the processors in Table 4.1 showed that majority (78%)

of the processors are women while only 22% are men who are mainly involved at

grinding and milling stages of cassava processing in the study area. This agreed with

the findings of Ibekwe, Chikezie, Obasi, Eze and Henri-Ukoha (2012) who found that

about 73% and 27% of cassava processors in Owerri north local government area are

women and men respectively.

4.1.2: Age of the Processors

As presented in Table 4.1, it is shown that majority (49%) of the cassava

processors fell within 41-50 years age bracket while 24% of them fell between 31-

40years of age. Only 5% of the processors are within the age bracket of 21 - 30 years

of age and 22% were above 50 years of age. The average age of the processors in the

study area is 40 which still fall within the economically active age. This agreed with

the results of the study of Odebode (2008) on appropriate technology for cassava
processing in Nigeria where the author found out that a large proportion of the

participating cassava processors fall within the age range of 31 to 50 years. The age-

range can be regarded as the youthful age when farmers can make vital on impact in

agricultural production and development in general.

4.1.3: Marital Status of Household Head

Table 4.1 shows that majority (61%) of the sampled cassava processors were

married, six percent single, nine percent and 24% of them were divorced and

widowed respectively. This trend conformed with the findings of the study conducted

by Ibekwe, et al (2012) which showed that 80% of cassava processors in Owerri

North local government area of Imo state were married while only 20% were single.

4.1.4: Level of Education of the Processors.

As presented in Table 4.1, 22% of the cassava processors never attended

school, that is, they had no formal education. Majority (46%) had primary education,

while 24% and 8% of the processors had secondary and tertiary education

respectively. The average years of schooling by the cassava processors as estimated in

this study is about seven years. This implies that majority of the processors had

primary school or its equivalents. The finding of this study on educational

qualification of the processors corroborated that of Oluwasola (2010) who found that

about 19.3% of the cassava processors in Oyo state Nigeria did not go to school at all,

64% had only primary education, 14.7% completed secondary education while two

percent attended tertiary institutions.


4.1.5: Years of Cassava Processing Experience.

The result on years of cassava processing experience as presented in Table 4.1

showed that majority (44%) of the processors had within 21-30 years of experience,

36% of them had within 11-20 years of experience. 13% had within 1-10 years of

processing experience while seven percent of them had above 40 years of processing

experience. Average years of processing experience is about 22 years showing that

majority of the farmers have acquired high number of years of experience in cassava

processing enterprise. The finding of this study on years of processing experience

agreed with that of Oluwasola (2010).

4.1.6: Household Size

On household size of the processors, the result in Table 4.1 showed that

majority (52%) of the processors had within 6-10 persons in their households while

25% of them had between 11-15 persons. 16% of the processors had between 1-5

persons while only 7% had 16 persons and above in their households. The average

household size of the processors in the study area is 8 persons. The trend in the

household size as found out in this study seems to agree with the result of the study ot

Abah (2011 j on household size of tomato farmers in Abuja. Also, the average

household size of 8 persons seems close to the findings of Oyekale (2008) who found

out that the average number of persons per farm household in Nigeria is

approximately 7 persons.
Table 4.1: Frequency Distribution of Socioeconomic Characteristics of the Cassava
Processors. (N=100)
Gender Frequency Percentage (%) mean
Male 22 22
Female 78 78
Total 100 100
Age (years)

21-30 5 5.0
31-40 24 24.0
41-50 49 49.0 40.4
>50 22 22.0
Total 100 100

Marital Status of the Farmers

Single 6 6.0
Married 61 61.0
Divorced 9 9.0
Widowed 24 24.0
Total 100 100
Level of Education

Never attended school 22 22.0

Attended primary school 46 46.0


Attended secondary school 24 24.U 7.2
Attended any higher institution 8 8.0
Total 100 100
Years of Processing Experience

0-10 13 13.0
11-20 36 36.0
21-30 44 44.0 22.0
Above 30 7 7.0
Total 100 100
Farm Household Size

1-5 16 16.0
6-10 52 52.0
11-15 25 25.0 7.8
16 and above 7 7.0
Total 100 100
Source: Field Survey, 2012/2013.

4.2: Technologies in Cassava Processing

4.2.1: Traditional Technologies Utilized in Cassava Processing.

Table 4.2 presents some of the traditional technologies utilized in processing

cassava by the processors in the study area. As presented in the table, nine out of the

eleven identified traditional technologies had mean values that range between 2.58

and 3.89 which are all greater than the cut-off point value of 2.50 on a 4-point rating

scale. This indicated that the identified nine (9) traditional technologies are utilized by

the processors for processing cassava in the study area. The nine identified traditional

technologies utilized with their corresponding mean values include: kitchen knife for

peeling cassava (3.73), local calabash bowl for washing (3.63), covering of grated

cassava cloth or nylon bag for fermentation (3.73), using kitchen knife or cutlass for

chopping cassava (3.84), uses of heavy stones for dewatering (2.58), cast Iron pan

over wood fire for frying (3.92), weaving basket for sieving (2.93), sun drying

products on platform or road sides (3.89) and use of local jute bag for bagging product

(3.84). This finding is in agreement with the report of a study conducted by FAO

(1999) which identified some of the major traditional materials utilized in cassava

processing in Nigeria to include: kitchen knife for peeling cassava, cutlass for

chopping, heavy stones for dewatering and sun drying among others.
Figure 4.1: Cassava pelling by women with kitchen knife Figure 4.2: Dewatering using Heavy Stones

Figure 4.3a: Cast iron for frying garri Figure 4.3b: Cast iron for frying garri

Figure 4.4: Sun-drying products on platform


The results in table 4.2 further showed that the remaining two traditional
technologies with their respective mean values were hand grater for grating peeled

cassava (2.33) and rough stone for grating peeled cassava (1.98) which were in

each case less than the cut-off point value of 2.50 on a 4-point rating scale. This
implied that the two traditional technologies were not utilized by the processors for

processing cassava to consumable commodities in the study area.

Table 4.2: Mean Ratings of Various Traditional Technologies Used by Cassava


Processors in Kogi State, Nigeria._______________(N=100)
SN Traditional Technologies X SD Rmks
1 Kitchen knife for peeling cassava 3.73 0.650 Utilized
2 Local calabash bowl for washing 3.63 0.812 Utilized
3 Hand grater for grating peeled cassava 7. 33 0.955 Not Utilized
4 Rough stone for grating peeled cassava 1.98 1.164 Not Utilized
5 Covering of grated cassava cloth or nylon bag for 3.73 0.653 Utilized
fermentation
6 Using kitchen knife or cutlass for chopping 3.84 0.644 Utilized
Cassava
7 Uses of heavy stones for dewatering 2.58 0.951 Utilized
8 Woven baskets for sieving 2.93 1.160 Utilized

9 Cast Iron pan over wood fire for frying 3.92 0.746 Utilized
10 Sun drying products on platform or road sides 3.89 0.609 Utilized

11 Use of local jute bag for bagging products 3.84 0.845 Utilized
Source: Field Survey, 2012/2013.
4.2.2 Improved Technologies Utilized in Cassava Processing.
Table 4.3 presents improved technologies utilized by processors in cassava

processing in Kogi state. As presented in the table, only five out of the fourteen

identified improved technologies had mean values that are greater than the cut-off

point value of 2.50. These technologies with their respective mean values include:

aluminum or plastic tank for washing peeled cassava (2.76), motorized grater for

grating peeled cassava into paste (3.93), batch fermentation in aluminum or plastic

tank (3.60), screw-jack for pressing or dewatering (3.89) and parallel board for

pressing or dewatering (3.00). This indicated that the identified five improved

technologies are utilized by the cassava processors in the study area.

Figure 4.5: Motorized grater Figure 4.6: Fermentation in plastic tank

Figure 4.7: Screw jack for dewatering grated cassava


The results in table 4.3 further show that the remaining nine improved

technologies had mean values that are less than the cut-off point value of 2.50 on 4-point

rating scale. These technologies with their respective mean values include: abrasive

peeler (1.29), mechanical peeler (1.20), mechanical pulverizer (1.25), hydraulic jack

(1.70), vibrating sieve (1.22), drum drier (1.37), solar dryer (1.37), kiln or oven type

dryer (1.21) and scaled polythene bags for packaging (1.43). This showed that the nine

improved cassava processing technologies were not utilized by the processors in the

study area. In agreement with this finding, Davies, Olatunji and Burubai (2008) found

that improved cassava technologies such as machines, peeler and fryer were abandoned

for high operation cost. That some machines were equally abandoned based on old age,

lack of good technicians (repairers), poor construction materials and non- availability of

spare parts (mainly adulterated). The authors further found that, women were

considerably engaged in manual operations instead cf improved system in cassava

processing such as peeling, washing, sifting, drying and frying. Hahn (2008) stated that

improved practices in cassava processing would help improves palatability, adds value

and extends market especially to medium income urban consumers.


Table 4.3: Mean Ratings of Various Improved Technologies Used by Cassava
Processors in Kogi State, Nigeria. (N = 100)
SN Improved Technologies X SD Remarks
1 Abrasive peeler for peeling cassava 1.29 0.486 Not Utilized

2 Mechanical peeler for peeling cassava 1.20 0.471 Not Utilized

3 Aluminum tank for washing peeled cassava 2.76 0.995 Utilized

4 Motorized grater for grating peeled cassava 3.93 0.627 Utilized

5 Mechanical pulverizer for chopping cassava 1.25 0.575 Not Utilized

6 Batch fermentation in aluminum tank 3.60 0.696 Utilized

7 Screw-jack for pressing or dewatering 3.89 0.394 Utilized

8 Hydraulic jack for pressing or de watering 1.70 0.835 Not Utilized

9 Parallel board for pressing or dewatering 3.00 0.841 Utilized

10 Vibrating sieve for sieving garri and other 1.22 0.416 Not Utilized
products
11 Drum drier for drying cassava products 1.37 0.485 Not Utilized

12 Solar dryer for drying garri and other products 1.37 0.630 Not Utilized

13 Kiln or oven type dryer for drying garri and other 1.21 0.409 Not Utilized
products
14 Scaled polythene bags for packaging 1.43 0.624 Not Utilized

Source: Field Survey, 2012/2013

4.3 Gender Roles/Involvement in Cassava Processing

Table 4.4 presents the indices of variations in roles played by gender in processing

cassava into garri in the study area. From the table, the result showed that the level of

involvement of men in garri processing were low in 8 out of the 10 identified stages of

cassava processing to garri as shown by their means which are less than the cut-off point
value of 2.50 on 4-point rating scale. The identified stages with their corresponding mean

values include: peeling (1.35), washing (1.58), fermentation (2.47), sieving/sifting (1.16),

frying/roasting (1.07), drying (2.28), packaging/bagging (2.43) and storing (2.06). This

indicates that the roles played by men in garri processing activities are low. However, the

involvement of men was high in grating (3.88) and dewatering/pressing (2.53).

The involvement of women in processing cassava into garri was high in all the

identified stages of garri processing. These indicated that, the bulk of food processing

activities in Nigeria are in the hands of the women. The trend in the above findings is in

consonant with that of Arene and Omoregie (1990) that Nigerian women are frequently

in charge of processing, preservation and distributive trade of farm produce. In addition,

Sabo (2006) stated that women contribute between 46 and 65% of all hours spent on

traditional agricultural production and processing and also undertake about 60 to 90% of

the rural agricultural product marketing.


Table 4.4 Mean Comparison of Men and Women Involvement in Cassava
Processing into Garri in Kogi State, Nigeria. (N=100)
Men Women
SN Cassava processing into Garri X SD Rmks X SD Rmks
1 Peeling 1.35 0.609 Low 3.50 0.643 High
2 Washing 1.58 0.741 Low 3.05 0.543 High
3 Grating 3.88 0.654 High 3.62 0.637 High
4 Fermentation 2.47 0.948 Low 3.59 0.494 High
5 Dewatering/Pressing 3.53 0.462 High 3.27 0.377 High
6 Sieving/Sifting 1.16 0.959 Low 3.85 0.435 High
7 Frying/ Roasting 1.07 0.856 Low 3.93 0.473 High
8 Drying 2.28 0.587 Low 3.83 0.378 High
9 Packaging/bagging 2.43 0.790 Low 3.66 0.597 High
10 Storing 2.06 0.708 Low 3.74 0.605 High

Source: Field Survey, 2012/2013.

From the result presented in Table 4.5, it was revealed that the level of

involvement by men was low in 10 out of the 11 cassava pellet processing stages. These

were revealed with the mean values of the 10 pellet processing activities which ranged

from 1.14 to 2.37 which are less than the cut-off point value of 2.50 on 4-point rating

scale indicating that men involvement in the 10 activities are low. The involvement of

men in milling dried cassava pellet was high as indicated by the mean value of 3.87.

On the other hand, the level of involvement of women in cassava pellet processing

were high in all the 11 identified cassava pellet is massing aciiviucs. This was shown by

the mean values that ranged between 2.58 and 3.94 which are all greater than the cut-off

point value of 2.50 on 4-point rating scale. This also clearly indicated that the processing

of cassava into pellets is dominated by women. This findings agreed with the findings of
Fresco (1998) also noted that women farmers play vital roles in food production and

processing, accounting for about 80% of food producers in Africa. Anyanwu and Agu

(1996) reported further that women are responsible for at least 70% of the staple food

production in Africa and are grossly responsible for household food processing,

utilization and marketing.

Table 4.5 Mean Comparison of Men and Women Involvement in


Cassava Processing into Pellets in Kogi State, Nigeria. (N=100)
Men Women
N=22 N=78
SN Cassava processing into Pellets X SD Rmks X SD Rmks

1 Peeling 1.35 0.609 Low 3.92 0.472 High


2 Washing 1.68 0.741 Low 3.85 0.592 High
3 Chipping/cutting into pieces 2.07 0.700 Low 3.74 0.441 High
4 Soaking/Fermenting 2.35 0.077 Low 3.89 0.473 High
5 Dewatering/Pressing 2.37 0.747 Low 3.69 0.875 High
6 Drying 1.28 0.273 Low 3.85 0.870 High
7 Pounding 1.21 0.409 Low 3.94 0.683 High
8 Milling 3.87 0.498 High 3.58 0.638 High
9 Sieving/Sifting 1.14 0.349 Low 3.85 0.809 High
10 Packaging/bagging 2.37 0.747 Low 3.64 0.623 High
11 Storing 2.17 0.256 Low 3.88 0.557 High

Source: Field Survey, 2012/2013.


4.4: Socioeconomic Characteristics of the Cassava Processors Influencing Income
in the Study Area.

Table 4.6 presents the results of the regression analysis which shows that the

double log functional form had the best fit, based on the values of R (0.93), the levels

and number of significant explanatory variables and their signs. The F-value of

(128.431) indicated that the overall equation was highly significant at (p<0.01) while

Durbin-Watson (DW) of 2.664, showed the absence of autocorrelation. Out of the

nine explanatory variables specified in the model, six were statistically significant;

these were age, gender, education, experience, access to credit and number of

labourers in the cassava processing enterprise.

Age of the cassava processors was positive and significantly related to income

at p<0.05 level of significance. All things being equal, the increase in age of the

processors may also coincide with increased year of experience in cassava processing

enterprise which is expected to positively influence income. This findings agreed with

the findings of Ibekwe, et al (2012) where the authors found that age of cassava

processors significantly influence profit, although negatively related. Gender (male 1,

female 0) of the processors significantly and negatively affected income at (p<0.05).

The negative significant relationship suggests that female processors perhaps have

more income from cassava processing than the men. This conform with the findings

of Okwor (2010) who found that gender in favour of women significantly affected

processing of groundnut into groundnut oil in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

The coefficient of the educational qualification of the processors was

significant at p<0.01 and positively related with income. This conformed with a priori

expectation that educated farmers stand a better chance of increased productivity than
the illiterate ones. The finding of this study on influence of education on income of

the cassava processors is in consonance with that of Ibekwe, et al (2012) whose

findings showed that level of education was significant at 1% and positively

correlated to profit. Educated persons by implication have greater ability to

understand and adopt new technologies and this helps them to enhance their

proficiency in business. Years of cassava processing experience was positively

correlated and significant at p<0.01 level. This is consistent with a priori expectation,

as a person stays longer in a business, the more experienced and efficient he becomes

in handling the operations (Chikezie, et al, 2010).

Access to credit was significant (p<0.01) and positively related with income of

the processors. This was also expected because, improved access to credit will

increase capital for the cassava processing enterprise. This finding is in line with the

findings of Oluwasola (2010) who carried out a study on stimulating rural

employment and income for cassava processing farming households in Oyo S'tate,

Nigeria and found out among others that capital outlay were significant determinants

of the size of enterprise. The size of a processing enterprise could also relate to the

profit or income from the enterprise, all things being equal. Availability of labour in

the cassava processing enterprise was positively and significantly related to income at

p<0.01 level. This suggests that processors with more and readily available labourers

in the cassava processing farm enterprise are more likely to make more profit than

processors who suffer inadequacy of labourers. Agricultural processing is labour

intensive and therefore require more labour supply to be effective. In addition, this

findings too agreed with that of Babatunde, Omotesho and Sholotan (2007) on
socioeconomic characteristics and food security status of farming households in

Kwara State, North- Central Nigeria where household labour availability improved

farm productivity.

Table 4.6 The Result of Multiple Regression Analysis on the Influence of Socio-
economic Characteristics of the Cassava Processors on Income.
Variables Linear Semi-Log {a}Double-Log
(CONSTANT) 5.615 12.598 9.708
(6.967)** (0.240)*** (0.186)***
AGE 11.448 0.013 2.364
(3.763) (0.015) (0.130)**
GENDER -2.712 -0.471 -0.096
(5.260)*** (0.220)** (0.004)***
EDUCATION -2.985 -0.101 0.094
(0.858)*** (0.016)*** (0.003)***
PROEXPRIENCE 3.024 0.051 1.964
(0.068)** (0.024** (0.142)***
HHHOLD SIZE 0.014 1.187 0.238
(0.237) (0.020) (0.032)
OWNERSHPOFMACHINE 5.901 0.524 0.177
(1.549) (0.154) (0.015)
ACCESSTOCREDIT 4.094 2.551 0.191
(0.649)** (0.507)*** (0.055)***
DISTANCE -6.912 -1.242 -0.064
(0.060) (0.113) (0.017)
NOOFLABOURERS 1.527 1.051 0.139
(0.742)*** (0.020)** (0.017)***
R2 0.891 0.852 0.930
Adjusted R2 0.880 0837 0.916
F - Value 81.850 57.506 128.431
Durbin-Watson (DW) 2.571 2.583 2.664
Observation 100 100 100
Note: Figures in parentheses are standard errors.
*** denotes p<0.01; ** denote 0.05; while * denotes 0.05 <p<0.10
{a} is the lead equation based on fitness.
Source: Field Survey, 2012/2013
4.5 Profitability of Cassava Processing into Gari and Pellet.

4.5.1 Profitability of Processing Cassava into Garri

The cost estimated in the processing of a ton of cassava tuber into garri in the

study includes cost of fresh cassava tubers, labour cost, depreciation on store, cost of

grinding, cost of processing materials and other costs. The total estimated cost was

30,360. Labour cost accounted for 21% of the total cost while the cost of tubers

accounted 59% of the total production cost and 65% of the variable cost. The study

shows an estimated Gross revenue (GR) of 50,400 and gross margin (GM) of

22,700. The average net return (NR) as computed from the study has 20,040. The

Profitability Index (PI) of processing a tonnes of fresh cassava tubers into garri was

0.40, suggesting that 40% of the total revenue generated constitute the net income.

This reveals an appreciable level of profit from processing cassava into garri and

shows that garri processing is a very profitable venture.

The Rate of Return on Investment (RRI) of 66% indicated that processors of

cassava to garri earn 66% profit on every naira invested. This also indicated the

profitability of garri processing in the study area. The Operating Expense Ratio (OR)

of 0.55 shows that the variable cost consumed 55% of sales. Also the Rate of Return

on Variable Cost (RRVC) was 172 indicating that for every naira incurred as variable

cost in garri processing N172 was generated. The findings of this study agreed with

that of Afolabi (2009) who found a profitability index of 0.35 for garri. In addition,

the finding of this study is in line with the findings of Ibekwe, et al (2010) whose

findings showed that cassava processing into garri generated profitability index (PI) of
0.42, Rate of Return on Investment (RRI) of 73% and Rate of Return on Investment

(RRIC) of 178.

Table 4.7: Profitability of a Tonne of Cassava Tubers Processed into Garri.

Items Value in (N)


Variable Cost (VC)
Cost of a ton of fresh cassava tubers 18,000
Labour cost 6,500
Cost of grinding 1,000
Cost of Firewood 1,200
Miscellaneous cost 1,000
Total Variable Cost (TVC) 27,700

Fixed Cost (FC)


Depreciation on store (4 years)
600
Depreciation on frying pan (3 years)
300
Depreciation on washing basin (2
300
years) Depreciation on knife (2 years)
50
Depreciation of Screw jack (3 years)
1,250
Depreciation of measuring bowl (2
120
years) Depreciation of sieve
40
Total Fixed Cost (TFC)
2,660
Total Cost (TC)
30.360
Total Revenue (TR) 50,400
Gross Margin (GM) 22,700
Net Return (NR) 20,040
Profitability Index (PI) 0.40
Rate of Return on Investment (RRI) 66%
Operating Expenses Ratio (OR) 0.55
Rate of Return on variable Cost (RRVC) 172

Source: Field Survey, 2012/2013


4.5.2 Profitability of Processing Cassava into Pellets

As presented in Table 4.8, the cost estimated in the processing of a tonne of

cassava tubers into pellets include cost of fresh cassava tubers, labour cost,

depreciation on store, cost of milling, cost of processing materials and other cost. The

total estimated cost was N24,170. Labour costs accounted for about seven percent of

the total cost while the cost of tubers accounted for about 74% of the total production

cost. The estimated Gross revenue (GR) was N36,000 and gross margin (GM) of

N13,100. The Net return (NR) was Nil,830. The Profitable Index (PI) of processing a

ton of fresh cassava tuber into pellets was 0.33, suggesting that 33% of the total

revenue generated from pellets constitute the net income. This reveals an appreciable

level of profit from processing cassava into pellet which shows that pellet processing

is a profitable venture in the study area.

The Rate of Return on Investment (RRI) of 49% which implied that the

processors of cassava to pellets earn 49% profit on every naira invested. The

Operating expense Ratio (OR) of 0.64 shows that the variable cost consumed 64% of

sales. Also the Rate of Return on Variable Cost (RRVC) was 151 gave an indication

that for every naira incurred as variable cost in pellet processing Nl51 was generated.

The findings of this study agreed with that of Mohammed, Apata, Peter and Fidelis

(2010) on factors declining cassava production in Ogori-Magongo L.G.A. of Kogi

State where the authors found an estimated profitability index of (PI) of 0.37. the

findings of this study as corroborated the result of the study of Emekaro, lluobe and

Alufohai (2008) whose findings show an RRI value of 0.86.


Table 4.8: Profitability of a Tonne of Cassava Tubers Processed into Pellets
Items Value in ()
Variable Cost (VC)
Cost of a ton of fresh cassava tubers 18,000
Labour cost 1,600
Cost of grinding 2,300
Miscellaneous cost 1,000
Total Variable Cost (TVC) 22,900
Fixed Cost (FC)
Depreciation on store (4 years) 600
Depreciation on fermentation bowls (2 years) 500
Depreciation on knife (2 years) 50
Depreciation of measuring bowl (2 years) 120
Total Fixed Cost (TFC) 1,270
Total Cost (TC) 24.170
Total Revenue (TR) 36,000
Gross Margin (GM) 13,100
Net Return (MR) 11,830
Profitability Index (PI) 0.33
Rate of Return on Investment (RRI) 49%
Operating Expenses Ratio (OR) 0.64
Rate of Return on variable Cost (RRVC) 151
Source: Field Survey, 2012/2013

4.6 Major Constraints Militating against Cassava Processors in the Study Area.

Table 4.9 presents the major constraints facing cassava processors in the study

area. As presented in Table, 4.8 out of the 28 identified constraints facing cassava

processors had mean values that ranged between 2.53 and 3.57 which arc all greater

than the cut-off point value of 2.50 on a 4-point rating scale. This indicated that the
identified 18 items in Table 4.9 are challenges facing the processors in their cassava

processing enterprises in the study area. The mean values of the other 10 items in the

table had mean values that ranged from 2.00 to 2.48 which are less than the cut-off

point value of 2.50 on 4-point rating scale. This indicated that the other ten items in

the tables are not challenges or constraints facing processors in their cassava

processing activities in the study area.

Hence, the findings of this study on the major constraints militating against

cassava processors is in line with the findings of Odebode (2008) who found that the

problems encountered by cassava processors in Oyo State of Nigeria include high cost

of processing equipment, transportation difficulties, poor infrastructural facilities,

shortage of labour, poor access to market, lack of fund and poor storage facilities. The

report of FAO (2012) on a similar study in Ghana and Nigeria revealed that some of

the major constraints of cassava processors in West African countries include

financial resource constraints, the difficulties and cost of procuring large amounts of

fresh cassava, the lack of mechanised processing technologies, and the impossibility

of storing products for reasonable periods of time due to product perishability. In

addition, the findings of this study on constraints militating against cassava processors

also conformed with that of Oyebode (2002) who in another study found that the

major problems encountered by v/omen processors in order of severity include

shortage of labour, high cost of processing, poor access to market, lack of fund and

poor storage facilities.


Table 4.9 Mean ratings of the Major Constraints Militating against Cassava
Processors in Kogi State, Nigeria. (N=100)

S/N Constraints militating against cassava processors X SD Rmks


1 High cost of processing inputs 3.30 0.461 Serious
2 High cost of transportation 3.57 0.506 Serious
3 Increased taxes on processed cassava products 2.35 0.219 Not Serious
4 High household pressure for consumption of the 2.95 0.219 Serious
processed cassava products

5 Poor storage facilities and techniques 3.51 0.522 Serious


6 High interest rate on borrowed money for the 2.48 0.219 Not Serious
7 Fluctuation in price of processed cassava products 3.04 0.281 Serious
8 Poor road network for transporting fresh and processed 3.55 0.520 Serious
Products
9 Bulkiness of the cassava tubers 3.33 0.473 Serious
10 Low acceptability of the processed cassava products in 2.12 0.651 Not Serious
11 Unstable market for the products in the area 2.37 0.170 Not Serious
12 Lack of technical-know-how to adopt cassava 2.90 0.261 Serious
Technologies
13 Unstable weather condition threaten cassava processing 3.18 0.487 Serious
14 Problem of labour shortage in cassava processing 3.32 0.394 Serious
15 Poor quality of processed products in the market 2.33 0.493 Not Serious
16 Pressure from close substitutes such as wheat, semovita 2.54 0.499 Serious
17 Lack of capital for business expansion 3.15 0.557 Serious
18 Lack of space to sun-dry cassava products during 3.36 0.482 Serious
19 Tedious nature of cassava processing 3.09 0.287 Serious
20 Old age of most of the cassava processors 2.00 0.288 Not Serious
21 Lack of access to supporting facilities such as 2,44 0.463 Not Serious
extension services etc
22 Lack of access to market information by the processors. 2.46 0.551 Not Serious
23 Insufficient knowledge on sources of credit to support 3.31 0.320 Serious
business.
24 Lack of collateral security required to secure loan for 2.53 0.559 Serious
cassava processing
25 High perishability of fresh cassava tubers 3.08 0.411 Serious
26 Insufficient extension agents to teach new innovations 2.62 0.301 Serious
Processing
27 Heavy weight of cassava processing equipment 2.34 0.651 Not Serious
28 Shortage of water for cassava processing 2.47 0.171 Not Serious

Source: Field Survey, 2012/2013.


4.7: Testing of Hypotheses
HO1: There is no significant difference between the mean contributions of men and
women in cassava processing activities.
The result presented in Table 4.10 showed that nineteen (19) out of twenty one

(21) major activities in cassava processing had t-calculated (t-cal) values ranging from

5.08 to 11.53 which were all greater than the t-table (t-tab) value of 1.96 at p< 0.05

level of significance. This indicated therefore that there are significant differences in
the levels of involvement by men and women in the 19 identified cassava processing
activities. The involvement of women in cassava processing is significantly higher
than that of the men. Therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference was

rejected on the 19 processing activities. On the remaining two processing activities,


specifically, items 3 (grating) and 18 (milling) the t-calculated (t-cal) values were 1.63

and 1.48 respectively which are in each case less than the t-table (t-tab) value of 1.96
at p< 0.05 level of significance. This implied that there are no significant differences

in the levels of involvement by men and women in the two identified cassava
processing activities. Therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference was

accepted on the remaining 2 processing activities. The result of the test of significance

in presented in table 4.10


Table 4.10: t-test statistics of the involvement of men and women in cassava
processing into garri and pellets.

S/N Cassava Processing into Garri X1 S12 X2 S22 t-cal t-tab Remarks
1 Peeling 1.35 0.371 3.50 0.413 9.23 1.96 Sig.
2 Washing 1.58 0.549 3.05 0.294 8.56 Sig.
3 Grating 3.88 0.428 3.62 0.405 1.63 Not Sig.
4 Fermentation 2.47 0.898 3.59 0.142 5.52 Sig.
5 Dewatering/Pressing 2.53 0.213 3.27 0.189 5.08 Sig.
6 Sieving/Sifting 1.16 0.919 3.85 0.223 10.16 Sig.
7 Frying/ Roasting 1.07 0.732 3.93 0.142 11.53 Sig.
8 Drying 2.28 0.344 3.83 0.356 7.87 Sig.
9 Packaging/bagging 2.43 0.624 3.66 0.345 6.89 Sig.
10 Storing 2.06 0.501 3.74 0.366 8.55 1.96 Sig.
Cassava Processing into Pellets
11 Peeling 1.35 0.370 3.92 0.222 9.49 1.96 Sig.
12 Washing 1.68 0.549 3.85 0.350 8.53 Sig.
13 Chipping/cutting into pieces 2.07 0.490 3.74 0.194 6.62 Sig.
14 Soaking/Fermenting 2.35 1.159 3.89 0.223 6.83 Sig.
15 Dewatering/Pressing 2.37 0.558 3.69 0.765 5.95 Sig.
16 Drying 1.28 0.374 3.85 0.756 9.38 Sig.
17 Pounding 1.21 0.167 3.94 0.405 8.70 Sig.
18 Milling 3.78 0.248 3.58 0.407 1.48 Not Sig.
19 Sieving/Sifting 1.14 0.121 3.85 0.654 8.89 Sig.
20 Packaging/bagging 2.37 0.558 3.64 0.388 9.37 Sig.
21 Storing 2.17 0.465 3.88 0.310 10.52 1.96 Sig.
Note: X1 = Mean of men, X2 = Mean of women, S12 2
= variance of men, S2 = variance of women,
level of significance = 0.05 and Table value i.e t-tab = 1.96.
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1: Summary
The study investigated the economics of cassava processing into garri and pellets

in the Eastern senatorial zone of Kogi State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study described the

socio-economic attributes of cassava processors in the study area, identified various

technologies utilized by cassava processors, ascertained the gender roles in cassava

processing, estimated the influence of socio-economic characteristics of the processors on

their income, determined the profitability of processing cassava into gari and pellets and

identified constraints militating against the processors of cassava in the study area. Data

for the study were collected by the researcher with the help of two well trained research

assistants. Multi-stage random sampling procedure was employed in selecting one

hundred (100) cassava processors that constituted the respondents for the study

Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency

tables, means and percentages for realizing objective 1. Objective2, 3 and 6 were

achieved with means and standard deviation using 4-point rating scale technique.

Objective 4 was realized using multiple regression analysis while, Objective 5 was

achieved using Gross Margin analysis and Rate of Return on Investment. From the

data analyzed, 78% of the processors were women while the remaining 22% were

men, the study found that majority (49%) of the cassava processors fall within 41-50

years age bracket with an average age of 40 years which still fall within the

economically active age. Majority (61%) of the sample cassava processors were married

while 46% had primary education. The average years of schooling by the cassava
processors as estimated in this study is about 7 years while the average years of processing

experience is about 22 years showing that majority of the farmers have acquired high

number of years of experience in cassava processing enterprise. The average household size

of the processors in the study area is 8 persons.

Out of the eleven identified traditional technologies in cassava processing, nine

were utilized by the processors in processing cassava into garri and pellets. Some of the

traditional technologies utilized include: the use of kitchen knife, local calabash, covering of

grated cassava with cloth or nylon bag for fermentation, cutlass for chopping cassava and

uses of heavy stones for dewatering among others. On the improved technologies used by

the processors, only five out of the fourteen identified improved technologies were

utilized. These include aluminum or plastic tank for washing peeled cassava, motorized

grater for grating peeled cassava into paste, batch fermentation in aluminum or plastic

tank and screw-jack for pressing or dewatering. The findings of the study on gender roles in

cassava processing showed that the level of involvement of men in cassava processing into

garri and pellet were low in 18 out of the 21 identified stages of processing the two

products while on the other hand the level of involvement of women were high in 19 out of

the 21 identified stages. This confirmed that the bulk of cassava processing activities in the

study area are carried out by women.

On the profitability of cassava processing in the study area, the result of the gross

margin analysis showed that processing a ton of fresh cassava tuber to garri attracted a

gross margin of N22,700 and profitability index (PI) of 0.40 while processing of the same

quantity of fresh cassava tuber into pellet had a gross margin of N13,100 and profitability
index (PI) of 0.33. This indicated that, processing cassava into garri is more profitable in the

study area than processing into pellet. The results of the regression analysis which shows

that the double log functional form had the best fit, based on the values of R2 (0.93), the

levels and number of significant explanatory variables and their signs. The F-value of

(128.431) indicated that the overall equation was highly significant at (p<0.01) while

Durbin-Watson (DW) of 2.664, showed the absence of autocorrelation. Out of the nine

explanatory variables specified in the model, six were statistically significant; these were

age, gender, education, experience, access to credit and number of labourers in the cassava

processing enterprise. The study shows that, 18 out of the 28 identified constraints were

the challenges facing cassava processors in the area. Some of the major challenges

(constraints) facing the cassava processors as found out by the study include: high cost of

processing inputs, high cost of transportation, poor storage facilities and techniques,

fluctuation in price of processed cassava products, poor road network for transporting

fresh and processed cassava products, bulkiness of the cassava tubers, lack of technical-

know-how to adopt cassava processing technologies, unstable weather condition

threaten cassava processing and problem of labour shortage in cassava processing.

5.2: Conclusion

From this study, it was found that most of the respondents were women in their

active working age, majority of who are married and experienced in the processing

enterprise. The level of utilization of improved technologies by the cassava processors

was very low. Processing of cassava into garri and pellets are still being carried out using

traditional technologies. The processing of cassava in the study area is dominated by


women while men play little roles. The profitability analysis showed that processing

cassava into garri is more profitable with a profitability index (PI) of 0.40 as against that of

pellet which has a profitability index (PI) of 0.33. Socio-economic attributes of the

farmers such as age, gender, education, experience, access to credit and number of

labourers in the cassava processing enterprise significantly influenced their income. The

major challenges of the cassava processors include: high cost of processing inputs, high

cost of transportation, poor storage facilities and techniques, fluctuation in price of

processed cassava products and poor road network for transporting fresh and processed

cassava products among others.

Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusions drawn from this study, the following

recommendations are made:

1. The government should make the processors aware of appropriate technologies that

can reduce labour bottlenecks and enhance processing and home activities in the state.

Existing technologies must be relevant to the needs of the processors.

2. Efforts should be made by technology developers in making new processing

technologies and devices as close as possible to the existing traditional ones. This will

facilitate acceptability.

3. The income of the processors was significantly and statistically affected by their

socio-economic characteristics, therefore there should be capacity building for the

processors to improve their social and wellbeing for profitable cassava processing in the

area.

4. The government through formulation of appropriate policies should help stabilize the
prices of agricultural commodities to encourage fanners and processors in their

respective enterprises.

5. There should be regular visits and contacts by agricultural extension agents to

teach and guide the processors on the adoption of improved technologies in their

cassava processing enterprises.

6. The government should as a matter of urgency provide adequate infrastructure such

as storage facilities and good road network to solve the present problems of processors

in the study area.


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APPENDIX A

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR DATA COLLECTION

Department of Agric
Economics, University of
Nigeria, Nsukka
Date

Dear Respondent,

Request for Response to Questionnaire

I am a postgraduate student of the above named Department and University


currently undertaking a research work titled: "Economics of Cassava Processing
into Garri and Pellets in Kogi State
Your processing unit has been selected as one of the units to supply the
required information towards addressing the specific objectives of the study. I
therefore solicit for your cooperation to respond as objective as possible to the
questions/items in the questionnaire. It is purely academic work and all information
supplied by you will be strictly treated in confidence and for the purpose of the
research work.
Thank you for your patience and cooperation.

Yours faithfully,

Inyada, Ladi. E
(Researcher)
QUESTIONNAIRE/INTERVIEW SCHEDULE

1. Agric Zone...........................................................................................

2. Local Government Area

3. Village/Town........................................................................

Section A: Socio-economic Characteristics of the Farmers


1. Gender of Household Head: ...................................................
2. Age in years:......................................................................
3. Marital Status: Single Married Widow Divorced

4. What is your household size:...................................................................

5. How many of your children are below 10 years of age ...

6. Level of Education:

i. Never attended school

ii. Attended primary school

iii. Attended secondary school

iv. Attended any higher institution

7. Number of people in your farming household..............................

8. Years of processing experience .........................................................

9. Do you have any other occupation outside farming: Yes No

10. What is your estimated income per production period?

(N..........,.....................)

11. Do you have free access to farm credits or loans? Yes No

12. Membership of farmers' cooperatives Yes No

13. Number of labour employed in the processing business..........................


14. Location of the household: Rural Urban

15. Ownership of grating/machine pressing machine: Yes No

16. Distance to market ...................................kilometres

17. Your main processed products: i. Garri

ii. Pellets

iii. Both

Section B: Description of Various Technologies adopted by the Cassava


Processors
S/N (A) Traditional Technologies Highly Moderately Less Not
Utilized Utilized Utilized Utilized
4 3 2 1
1 Kitchen knife for peeling cassava
2 Local calabash bowl for washing
3 Hand grater for grating peeled cassava
4 Rough stone for grating peeled cassava
5 Covering of grated cassava cloth or nylon bag

6 Using kitchen knife or cutlass for chopping

7 Uses of heavy stones for dewatering


8 Woven baskets for sieving
9 Cast Iron pan over wood fire for frying
10 Sun drying products on platform or road sides
11 Use of local jute bag for bagging products
(B) Improved Technologies Highly Moderately Less Not
Utilized Utilized Utilized Utilized
4 3 2 1
1 Abrasive peeler for peeling cassava
2 Mechanical peeler for peeling cassava
3 Aluminum tank for washing peeled cassava
4 Motorized grater for grating peeled cassava
5 Mechanical pulverizer for chopping cassava

6 Batch fermentation in aluminum tank


7 Screw-jack for pressing or dewatering
8 Hydraulic jack for pressing or de watering
9 Parallel board for pressing or dewatering
10 Vibrating sieve for sieving garri & other
products
11 Drum drier for drying cassava products
12 Solar dryer for drying garri & other products
13 Kiln or oven type dryer for drying garri &

14 Scaled polythene bags for packaging

Section C: Gender Roles in Cassava Processing into Garri and Pellets


The response options and the values are: Highly Involved (HI) = 4
Moderately Involved (MI) = 3
Less Involved (LI) = 2
Not Involved (NI) = 1
Men Women
S/N A. Cassava processing into Garri HI MI LI NI HI MI LI NI
1 Peeling
2 Washing
3 Grating
4 Fermentation
5 Dewatering/Pressing
6 Sieving/Sifting
7 Frying/ Roasting
8 Drying
9 Packaging/bagging
10 Storing
S/N B. Cassava processing into Pellets HI MI LI NI HI MI LI NI
1 Peeling
2 Washing
3 Chipping/cutting into pieces
4 Soaking/Fermenting
5 Dewatering/Pressing
6 Drying
7 Pounding
8 Milling
9 Sieving/Sifting
10 Packaging/bagging
11 Storing

Section D: Profitability of processing cassava into garri and pellets Average


returns per ton of cassava processed into garri
1 . What is the average labour cost for processing one ton of cassava

into garri (N......... .......)

2. The estimated cost of one ton of cassava tuber (N...................)

3. Cost of grinding one ton of cassava tuber (N...................)

4. Depreciated cost of processing equipment (N...................)

5. Transportation cost (N...................)

6. Cost of firewood for frying garri (N...................)

7. Cost of storage of garri before sales (N...................)

8. The estimated revenue on one ton of cassava processed (N. ..................)

Average returns per ton of cassava processed into pellets

1. What is the average labour cost for processing one ton of cassava into pellets

(N. ..................)
2. Cost of milling one ton of cassava tuber (N.................)

3. Depreciated cost of processing equipment (N. ..................)

4. Transportation cost (N. ..................)

5. Cost of storage of pellets before sales (N. ..................)

6. The estimate revenue on one ton of cassava processed (N. ..................)

Section E: Constraints militating against cassava processors

S/N Constraints militating against cassava Very Less Not


processors Serious Serious Serious Serious
1 High cost of processing inputs
2 High cost of transportation
3 Increased taxes on processed cassava products
4 High household pressure for consumption of the
processed cassava products
5 Poor storage facilities and techniques
6 High interest rate on borrowed money for the
processing business
7 Fluctuation in price of processed cassava
products
8 Poor road network for transporting fresh and
processed cassava products
9 Bulkiness of the cassava tubers
10 Low acceptability of the processed
cassava products in the market
11 Unstable market for the products in the area
12 Lack of technical-know-how to adopt cassava
processing technologies
13 Unstable weather condition threaten
cassava processing
14 Problem of labour shortage in cassava
15 processing
Poor quality of processed products in the market
16 Pressure from close substitutes such as wheat,
semovita, semolina etc
17 Lack of capital for business expansion
18 Lack of space to sun-dry cassava products
during processing
19 Tedious nature of cassava processing
20 Old age of most of the cassava processors
limiting their production capacity
21 Lack of access to supporting facilities such as
cooperatives, extension services etc
22 Lack of access to market information by the
processors.
23 Insufficient knowledge on sources of credit to
support processing business.
24 Lack of collateral security required to secure
loan for large scale cassava processing
25 High perishability of fresh cassava tubers
26 Insufficient extension agents to teach new
innovations in cassava processing
27 Heavy weight of cassava processing equipment
28 Shortage of water for cassava processing