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A (lIIMlilw VUI'II 1MII lor.u (lI' L ok III the I i ctures uud sny whut is hnppening. Use thcsc sub] .cts: lhe ~tlr, dinucr, 1/ JIt.II1' some "011 cs, lhe
b I 11 pnsslv parti iplc. seals. Use these verbs: bl.lild,feed, raise, repair, serve.
C'I:!' is b rked, wus worn.
Some participles are
irregular (see page 383).

B Summary ofverb tenses

. The cal' is being repaired.
2 4
Present simple: We bake the bread here. The bread is baked here.
Present continuous: We are baking the bread. The bread is brrg baked.
Presen t perfect: We have baked the bread. The bread has vien baked. 2 Passive verb tenses (B)
Past simple: We baked the bread yesterday. The bread was baked yesterday. Complete the information about Ba~d Ha~. Put in the correct form of these verbs.
Past continuous: We werl( baking the bread. The bread was being baked.
. build (past simple) 2 use (past continuous) 4 not look (past perfeet) 6 use (present simple)
Past perfeet: We had baked the bread. The bread h~dbe~n baked. .
1. o~n (present simple) 3 buy (past simple) 5 do (present perfeet)
We form negatives and questions in the same way as in active sentenees.
The bread isn't baked in a factory. The jacket hasn't been worn for years. The building at the end of the High Street is Barford Hal!, whieh ( . ) IVas built in 1827. Today the Hal!
Where is the bread bakedi Has the jacket ever been worn by anyone else? (L) . . by Bardale Council. It (2) . . as a warehouse when it
(3). . bythe Couneilin 1952, and it (4) after very well.
c The future and modal verbs in the passive Sinee then a lot of work (5) on it, and these days the Hall
(6) as an arts centre.
We use be + a passive participle after will, be going to, can, must, have to, should, ete.
The gates wi/l be c/osed this evening. This rubbisn should be thrown away.
The machine has to be repaired. The news might be announced soon. 3 The future and modal verbs in the passive (C)
Seats may not be reserved. How can the problem be solved? A press conference is being held. Put in the correct form of the verbs.
. Reprter: Can this new drug prolong hurnan life?
Professor: Yes, we believe that human life catl be prolonged by the drug.
Future: We wil/ bake the bread next. The bread will be baked next. Reporter: Are you going to do any more tests on the drug?
We are going to bake the bread. The bread is going to be baked. Professor: Yes, further tests . .. soon.
Modal verb: We should bake the bread soon. The bread should be baked soon. 2 Reporter: What the drug .
We ought to bake the bread. The bread ought to be baked. Professor: It wil! be ealled Bio-Meg.
3 Reporter: Can people buy the drug now?
D The passive with get Professor: No, it . by the public yet.
We sometimes use get in the passive instead of be. 4 Reporter: Do you think the eompany should sel! this drug?
Lots of postmen get bitten by dogs. I'm always getting chosen for the worst jobs. Professor: Yes, I think Bio-Meg to anyone who wants it.
Last week: Laura got moved to another department.
Get is informal. We often use it for something happening by aecident or unexpeetedly. 4 The passive with get (D)
In negatives and questions in the present simple and past simple, we use a form of do. Put in gel or gOI and the passive participle of these verbs: break, change, divorce, hurt, lose
The windows don't get cleaned very often. How did the painting get damaged? ~ If we're going out to the theatre, I'd better gcr WlIgcd.
1 Oaniel when he tried to break up a fight.
We also use get in these expressions: get dressed/changed, get washed (= wash oneself ), 2 [ know the \Vay.We won't
get engaged/married/divorced, get started (= start), get lost (= lose one's way). 3 You'd better IVrap up the glasses, 50 they don't
Emma atld Matthew migh: get ttJarried. vvuhout a map we soon got 1051. 4 They were only rnarr ied a year before they


WIIIII.IIII 111111"11111111111111 1
1 11111j11111 1I11 ~I IWIII'IIII'h. 1111111'11 yllll" 'dlll, Ch ose the orrcct vcrb forrns in this news rcport about a storrn.

Millions of pounds' worth of damage (~) ~1a-5-iH'5ee/hasbeen caused by a storm which (1) swept/was
1\1 xuud r ruhom B 11 Telephone swept across the north of England last night. The River Ribble (2) burst/was burst its banks after heavy rain.
/I Ilrl! "" inv .ruor who wcnr to live in An apparatus with which people can Many people (3) reselled/were rescued from the fIoods by fire-fighters, who (4) reeeived/were received
;[11111.1,1 :111 I then the U /I. Bell talk to each other over long distances. hundreds of ealls for help. Wind speeds (5) reached/were reached ninety miles an hour in some plaees.
lnv .ntcd the telephone. The telephone was invented by Roads (6) blocked/were blocked by fallen trees, and eleetrieity lines (7) broughtlwere brought down, leaving
Alexander Graham Bell. thousands of homes without eleetrieity. 'Everything possible (8) is doing/is being done to get things baek to
normal; a spokesman (9) saidlwas said.

Look at these two sentences.

2 By the police, etc (B)
ACTIVE PASSIVE In each of these sentences underline who or what is doing the action (the agent),
Bell invented the telephone. The telephone was invented by Bell.
~ The traffie was ali heading out of town.
The two sentences have the same meaning, but they are about different things. One sentenee is about BeU, 1 The photo was taken by my brother.
and the other is about the telephone. Eaeh sentenee begins with the subjeet. The subjeet is the starting- 2 The water was pouring out of the hole.
point of the sentence, the thing we are talking about. The new information about the subjeet comes at the 3 A polieeman has been murdered by terrorists.
end of the sentence. 4 We were woken by the alarm.
5 The guide led a group of tourists around the eastle.
We say Bell invented the telephone because we are We say The telephone was invented by Bell beeause 6 The dog has bitten several people.
talking about Bell, and the new information is we are talking about the telephone, and the new
that he invented the telephone. information is that it was invented by Bell. 3 Active and passive (A-B)
When the subject is the person or thing doing the When the subjeet is not the agent (is not doing You are telling a friend some news. Use the notes and complete the seeond sentenee.
action (the agent), then we use an active verbo the action), then we use a passive verbo Sometimes you need to use lhe active and sometimes the passive.

ACTIVE PASSIVE ~ (Past simple: Claire / go / to Florida / last month)

You remember Claire? She went to Florida last n/ontl!.
~ invented the telephone. I The telephone Iwas invented bylBfU.1 ~ (Present perfeet: send / our luggage / to Australia)
Bad news about our luggage. It's been sent to Australta.
ISubject and agent i IsuJjeet I IA~ent I (Past simple: Claude Iennings / win / the quiz competition)
Did you hear about the quiz eompetition? lt . .
The subjeet (Bell) is the agent. The subjeet (the telephone) is not the agent. It is
2 (Past simple: Mrs Miles / do / a parachute jump / last week)
lhe thing that lhe action is directed ato
You know Mrs Miles? She ...
3 (Present perfeet: a bull / attack / David)
Have you heard about David? He's
B The passive and by the police, in 1876, etc
4 (Present continuous: build / the house)
ln a passive sentence, when we want to say who or what did the action, we use by. Trevor and Laura have bought a house. lt's still
On our lVay home we were stopped by the police. The new hospital \ViII be opened by the Queen. 5 (Present sim pIe: Andrew / like / Iessica)
The paper lVas ali blown away by the wind. Did 1 tell yOll about Andrew? He .
We ean give other details about the aetion. For example, we ean use a phrase saying when or where 6 (Present perfect: throw away / your stamp eollection)
something happens, Bad news about your starnp colleetion. It's
The telephone was invented il1 1876. The visitors will be driven to the airport. 7 (Present perfeet: Mar tians / kidnap / my neighbours)
The concerts are usually held at the university. Did I mention my neighbours? They've .
Sometimes there is no phrase after the verbo 8 (Past simple: five people / see / the ghost)
A rzew swimming-poo! is beillg built. All the documents have been destroyed. Did you hear about the ghost? lt
For more details see Unit 56.


, 111 111( Iltl'j'IV 1 1111(1111(1 01' iut (A)
I" 11'1 I, '"11 ", '"111'"111 111 11111111li" '1'111 (lI" I"I~IIIIIII 11111111dlllllfllll IlIlftllll '"Juro I writiug to ,I [ricud. This i' purt of hcr leucr.
"' I. 1111111 111'111 Sorneone broke into our house at the weekend. The burglar took some jewellery. But luckily he didn't do
I/li ,,/.,/11, 11/I11/ " '11'11''/ " IIIII'I'/Ililll.~tf/
any damage. A very nice young police officer interviewed me. Detectives found some fingerprints, and the
I/li' /11I1'/"/lllll'"I"I'I'III,''/ I, N.rlNIIII MIIIII/V/I/,
police computer identified the burglar. Police have arrested a man and are questioning him. But they
11111 IVI' 1111111111111 111, IlfI 'lIlllllly il il Is inq urruu: ror th mcaning 01' lhe sentence.
haven't found the jewellery.
111111" 111(" IVI' do 111111I1'l1lion it.
Now complete the passive sentences in this conversation. Use a phrase with by only if it adds information.
W' do I1I)t mcntion lhe ngcnt if it does nor add any new information.
Laura: Our house (~) ,vas broken into ar the weckend
/11/ ollr trlOIICYand passports were stolen.
Melanie: Oh no!
/I I/WI/ was atrested last tlight. '-!.
;;.. Laura: Some jewellery (I) .
We do not need to say that the money was stolen 'by a thief' or that the man was arrested 'by the police'.
But luckily no damage (2) .
2 We do not mention the agent if it is not important.
The streets are cleaned every dar. . Melanie:
Did the police come and see you?
Yes, they did. 1 (3) .
Oil has been discoverecl at the North Pole. Melanie: I don't suppose they know who did it.
Who discovered the oil is less important than the fact that it is there. Laura: Well, amazingly they do. Some (4). .

It is sometimes difficult to say who the agent is.

; and the (5) . .
~ A man (6) . and (7) .
This kind ofjacket is considered very [ashionable these clays. ~
A mlrnber of attempts have been macle to find the Loeh Ness monster. ..6~ Melanie:
There's only one problem. The (8) .
B Empty subjects (they, people, etc) 'l'
2 Active ar passive sentence? (A)
Compare these two sentences.
Write a paragraph from the notes about the first motor car. Some sentences are active and some are passive.
ACTIVE PASSIVE Use a phrase with by only if it adds information.
~ The first motor car was made by a Belgian called
They clean the streets every day. The streets are cleanecl every dar. ~ a Belgian called Etienne Lenoir / make / the
~ first motor car Etienne Lenoir.
The new and important information is how often the streets are c1eaned. We are not interested in saying but / Lenoir / not produce / many ears / for But Lenoir .
who c1eans them. In the active sentence we ean use the 'empry subject' they. We sometimes use a sentence sale
with an empry subject instead of the passive, espeeially in eonversation. 2 a German called Karl Benz / start I Commercial
We can also use the ernpry subjects people, you, one and someone. commercial production
3 people / now / see / Benz / as the father / of Benz
ACTIVE PASSIVE the motor car .
People use this footpath ali the time. This footpath is used ali the time.
You/One should check the cletails. The details should be checkecl. 3 Ernptv subjects (B)
Someone took my purse. My purse was taken. Reply to what people say. Use the subjeet in brackets.
~ Daniel: The bus fares have been increased. (they)
c When do we use the passive? Vicky: Whatl You mean thcy'vc incrcascd the blls [ares again!
Vve use the passive in both speech and writing, but it is more common in writing. Melanie: Bicycles should be used for short journeys. (people)
We see it especially in textbooks and reports. We use it to describe activities in industry, David: Yes, I agree ..
science and technology, and also for official mies. 2 Emma: A new source of energy has been discovered. (sorneone)

Bananas are exported to Entope. The liquid is heated to boiling point. Daniel: Whati Did you say that ..
Payment can be made at allr post office. Cars left here will be towed mvay. 3 Rachei: This building is going to be knocked down. (they)
In these situations, it is often not important to say who is doing the action, or it is difficult to say. Vicky: Well, no one told me that .
4 David: Eggs shouldn't be kept in a freezer. (you)
The passive is aiso often used in news reports. Tom: Really? I didn't know .
A Ilumber af political prisoncrs liave been released. 5 Vicky: Why isn'rlitter put in the binr (people)
Talks will be held ill [ollcloll ncxt week. Emma: Exactlv. Why don't


1W rlv ti ._. (fi)

/",tI "I" 111'11' Zcdco m,lIwgcl'S urc wriiing a report saying how well lhe company looks after its employees.
1','1'1 "i, "'111' /1'"1'" /"1/,,,",, 1/"111)' ,~""" (./01", 11I1111'!/i/IVI'I , Write scntences trorn the notes. Put the irnportant underlined inforrnation at the end of the sentence.
11,111/, ~'"lillll \\II1II'IV"IIIiII'I'KVI I "'i IIIIV' I\VII dllk"~1l1 :iI'lIclu,"s (: .c Unit J), ~ useful work skills / they are taught to our staff
Our slllJTare tauglu 1I,('fiz! work ,kills.
11\\1,\ 11 , 1I 1"1 ~lvI\ 1'111 '111 I', "llh', ~n'" i llnw ,,'S O" '1,10', -,'11 be lhe subjcct.
~ people with initiative / they are given opportunities
SI/IIIV j/uIVef 'VI'II' givl'lI tu Clnirc. Cla ire was given some [iowers. Opportunities are given lo people lVith initiative.
'I'h I IIhOUI 111 owcrs, ,111 I it iclls us ",110 This is about Claire, and it telIs us what she special training / it is given to new employees
,. 'Iv'u 110.m. received.
2 staff who perform well / they are given extra payments
Il is quite normal in English for a person to be the subject in a passive sentence like the one about Claire,
Mike >vassent tickets for lhe concert. My wi]e ts paid more than Iam. 3 company shares / they are offered to most employees
Andrew has beerl awarded a prize for his essay
4 six weeks' holidav / this is allowed to ali Zedco staff
w~can use the following verbs in this structure: allow, award, fed, give, grant, hand, leave (in a wilI), lend,
offer, owe, pay, promise, sell, send, show, teach 5 women who leave to have children / they are paid a full salary

B It is said that ...

2 It is said that ... (8)
Report these rumours. Instead ofthe active (e.g, People say ... ) use the passive (e.g. It is said that ... ).
~ People say this.
It is said that Henry is in lave witn Claire. The quiz champion It is said that the quiz champion Ciaue lennings has
(= People say that Henry is in love with Claire.) C/aude lennitiqs has /ost
his memory.
105thts menzory.
"Ve can use the structure it + passive verb + clause
with verbs of reporting. We use this structure when
we cannot say or do not need to say who the Everyone expects this.
speaker is, for example in news reports. The soap opera It is
'Round tbeCorner' wili
It is thought that lhe company ts plannirzg a new advertising campaign.
end nexl year.
It was reported that lhe Presidem had sllffered a heart attack.
11 has been agreed that changes to lhe scheme are necessary.
2 Journalists suppose soo
Here are some verbs we can use in this structure: agree, allege, announce, assure, believe, consider, decide,
The footballer Wayne
expect, explain, hope, know, report, say, suggest, suppose, think, understand Johnsan is earning ElO
million a year.

C He is said to ...
We can also use subject + passive verb + to-infinitive, 3 Lots of people believe thi_s. ~_
Henry is said to be in lave with Claire. The Prime Minister
This structure is also used in news reports. and his wife have
United were expected to win. (= People expected that they would win.)
The company is thought to be planning a new advertising campaign.
(= Someone thinks that it is planning a new advertising campaign.)
The Presuient was reported to Izave sllffered a heart attack. 3 He is said to ... (C)
(= Someone reported that he had suffered a heart attack.) Now report the rumours in Exercise 2 like this.
We can use the following verbs in this structure: be!ieve, expect, find, know, report, say, think, understand ~ Thc qlliz c/u"'''f'i,,,/ Claudc [cnning) is 5aid 10 IIII\'C /051 his II/CII/Il/)'.

l The soap opera 'Round the Comer'

\Ve often use be supposed to for things that people say. 2
J miglu watch this programllle. lt's supposed to be .-ery [unuy. 3
111111111111 111111 t Itl\v' om thln don (1\-8)
1 1I111j1111l 1111_' 111111111111' Lo k at thc pictures und say what people are doing or what they did.
Use these phrases: her photo, his windows, his car, her eyes, his hair
Use these verbs: clean, eut, repair. take, test ---

Claire decorated the roam. C/aire had the roam decorated. ~ At the moment Trevor is having his hair cut.
(She did the work herself.) (A decorator did the work.) I Last week Mike ..
2 At the moment Melissa . .
We can use have in a passive structure. Claire had the roam decorated means
3 Yesterday David .
that she arranged for a decorator to do it for her as a professional service.
4 At the moment Rachei .

B Form
2 Have something done (A-B)
Look at these exarnples.
Read about each situation and write sentences with have something dane.
HAVE SOMETHING DONE ~ Melanie is paying the man who has repaired her bicycle.
You should have your ear serviced regularly. Melanie has had lier bieye/e repaired.
lvlark usually has his suits e/eaned at Superclean. David went to the hospital. A nurse bandaged his armo
We had the television repaired on/y last year.
You've had your hair eut. 2 Daniel is going to lhe dentist. She's going to fill his tooth.
Our neighbours are having a new garage built.
ls Meianie having a neiv cooker instal/ed? 3 Laura is waIking around town while her photos are being developed.

Note that we can use the perfect or the continuous (have had, are having).

In negatives and questions in simple tenses, we use a form of do. 3 Get something done (C)
Mark: doesn't have his suits e/eaned at Fastciean.
Look again at Exercise 2. The jobs are ali done now. Complete the questions using get.
We didn't have new windows pu: in because it was too expensive. ~ Mike: Where did yO/l get yOtlr bicycle repaired, Melanie i
Do you have yOtlr car serviced regularly? Where did you have your hair cuti I Harriet: Why .
2 Emma: Where
C Get something done 3 Sarah: Where
We can also use get something done.
We must have another key made. OR We must get another key made. 4 Have meaning 'experience' (D)
The sentences have the same meaning, but get is more informal than have. Say what happened to these people.
Here are some more examples with gelo ~ Claire (whose luggage was searched in custorns)
Laura got her shoes repaired. We're getting the carpet cleaned. Claire had lia //lggilge searclied in customs.
Where did )'011 get yOllr ha ir cuti Do yOtl get yOtlr heating ehecked el-ay year? Tom (whose ear was stolen from outside his house)

o Have meaning 'experience' 2 Rira (whose rent was increased by ten pf cent)

We can use have in this structure with the meaning 'experience sornething, often sornething unpleasant. 3 David (whose electricity has been eut otf)
We had a/l Ollr rrtoney stolen. The ear had its mirrar pulled of!


Report what the man says. Use the passive

to-infinitive or ing-forrn.
~ He': asking to be allowed imo Britain.
~ He's worried abollt being rejused entry.
Compare t?e active and passive.
to-infinitive: I ought to meet Sarah at the airport. I hope to be met at the airport. 3
ing-forrn: I insist on meeting you at the airport. I lave being mel at the airport. 4
(I meet people.) (People meet me.) 5
Here are some more examples.
I want to play volleyball. I hope to be chosen for the team.
The minister agreed to answer questions. He agreed to be interviewed on television. 2 Active and passive forms (A)
Why did Tom keep making jokes about me? I don't enjoy being laughed ato TV reporter Kitty Beamish is interviewing some workers who are protesting about not being paid enough.
You say you remember te/ling me the news. But I certainly can't remember being toldo Complete the workers' staternents. Put in an active or passive to-infinitive or ing-forrn.
~ We want to be paid (pay) better wages.
An ing-forrn some times comes after a preposition.
1 We don't enjoy.. . (use) as cheap labour.
The postman complained about being attacked by Nick's dog.
2 We're tired of.. . (work) for low wages.
Famous people get tired of being recognized everywhere they go.
3 We expect . (treat) like human beings.
4 We don't want.. . (give) up ali our rights,
B Active forms with a passive meaning 5 We hope .. . (invite) to a meeting with the management.
The active ing-form after need has a passive meaning. 6 We insist on (take) seriously,
The bicycle needs oiling. (= The bicycie needs to be oiled.)
I The windows need cleaning. (= The windows need to be cleaned.)
3 Active and passive forms (A-B)
We cannot use the passive ing-forrn here.
Put in an active or passive to-infinitive or ing-forrn.
I NOT Tlze bic)'cle /leeds beillg eiled.
[essica: Are you going to be busy today!
II Well, l've got a few things (~)to do (do).
We sometimes use an active to-infinitive when we talk about a job to be done. Andrew:
1I I've gol some letters to write today. We've got this bill to pay. I've got an essay (1) . ...... (write). And this room ought
Here we use the active (to write) because the subject of the sentence (I) is the person who has to do the job. (2) . . (tidy) up a bit.
But if the subject is not a person, then we use the passive infinitive. This carpet needs (3) (hoover).
The letters are to be written today. The bill is to be paid wtthout de/ay. Iessica: I've got some jobs (4). . (do), too.
Ali this mess lias to be cleared away. The goods have to be shipped. Most of my clothes need (5) . . (iron).
And l've got my project (6). . . (finish) off.
We can use the structure be + to-infinitive to give an order.
I'm worried about (7) (miss) the deadline.
The niatter is to be given top priority. YOl/'renot to drive too rasto
It has (8) . . (hand) in tomorrow.
After the subject there, we can use either an active or a passive to-infinitive, I don't want (9) (be) late with ir.
There are some letters to write/to be written today. There's li bil/ to pay/to be paid. Andrew: I don't rernernber (la) (tell) when the project was due in,
Iessica: Why? Haven't you done it yet?
!> 62 Verb + active to-infinitive ar ing-forrn !> 73 Prepasitian + active ing-forrn Andrew: Oh, yes. I handed it in ages ago.


, ,
111 7 'I essa lost hcr way. (got)
II 1111 1111 I 111111111_1111111111111111 wllll II1I1 uuderllu III WIlIdll.
11111 ~1_llIlillltlll IVUlIllLJI. 8 Everyone agreed that the plan should go ahead. (it)
'1'lIl'Y IIlIIy 11I11l lh' Um. 9 When did they decorate your kitchen? (get)

2 Thcy offcrcd ~ a pay increase, 10 They say exercise is good for you, (be)

Wc neecl to correct the mistakes.

Test 11D
4 Sorneone reportecl that the situation was uncler contro!.
Which of the two sentences follows on best?
~ There's going to be a big art exhibition.
5 They are testing the new drug.
a) O A lot of visitors will be attracted to it. b) IZI It will attract a lot of visitors.
Our neighbours have got a cat and a dog.
6 We haven't used the machine for ages.
a) O A lot of mice are caught by the cat. b) O The cat catches a lot of mice.
...... ]
2 Last night Martin dreamt he saw his dead grandmother.
a) O A white dress was being worn by the ghost. b) O The ghost was wearing a white dress.
Test 11B We've bought a new computer.
Read the story and write the missing words. Use one word only in each space. a) O It can do the job much more quickly. b) O The job can be done much more quickly.
4 My grandfather is very il!.
Ouring periods of terrorist activity by the IRA, people in Britain are always (~) being warned to look out a) O He's being looked after in the local hospital. b) O The local hospital is looking after him.
for bombs. Any bag or parcel without an owner (1) .... seen as a risk to thepublic, Some time ago 5 We've completed the experiment.
a cardboard box was found at the entrance to Bristol Zoo one day. It was noticed (2) a visitor a) O The newspapers will publish the results. b) O The results will be published in the newspapers.
and reported to the director. Clearly, if it was a bomb and it went off, people might (3) killed.
50 army bomb experts (4) . . called in, and the box was safely blown up in a controlled
explosion. 500n afterwards (5) was reported that the box had (6) left there by a
Test 11E

boy wanting to find a new home for his pet rat. He was tired of the rat, he explained, but he was unwil!ing Each of these sentences is incorrecto Write the correct sentence.
to (7) . it put to sleep by a vet, so he left it in a box outside the zoo. The director of the zoo is ~ Those nice glasses get-Meak.
thought (8) . ... be unenthusiastic about looking after people's unwanted pets. No one knows what Those nice glasses got broken.
the rat thought about (9) blown up. The story 'das ",ri(ten Agatha Christie.

Test 11C
2 Btt:;ewU do piar at this stadium.

Write a second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first. Use the word in brackets. This shirt needs iron.
~ We have to test these products. (be)
These producrs 11(II'e to be tested.
Pavarotti sang the song. (by)

2 Nigel's passport was stoien. (had)

6 My-f>arents-4iv<'>fe-themseJ.ves-last-year.
3 They pay doctors a lot of money. (are)

4 I hope they'll interview me for the job. (to)

8 Th-the-winneF-Was-giveFra-p~.
5 Someone was cleaning the 110ar. (being)
6 A mechanic is repairing Iudy's caro (having)